H T S E N I L D A E H T N E M E S I T R E V D A H S I L G N E N I S E N I Z A G A M L R I G E G A N E T N I D N U O F

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ASARJANAPENDIDIKANTHESIS

s t n e m e ri u q e R e h t f o t n e m ll if l u F l a it r a P s a d e t n e s e r P

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t SarjanaPendidikanDegree n o it a c u d E e g a u g n a L h s il g n E n i

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S 081214062

M A R G O R P Y D U T S N O I T A C U D E E G A U G N A L H S I L G N E

N O I T A C U D E S T R A D N A E G A U G N A L F O T N E M T R A P E D

N O I T A C U D E D N A G N I N I A R T S R E H C A E T F O Y T L U C A F

Y T I S R E V I N U A M R A H D A T A N A S

A T R A K A Y G O Y

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ASARJANAPENDIDIKANTHESIS

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M A R G O R P Y D U T S N O I T A C U D E E G A U G N A L H S I L G N E

S T R A D N A E G A U G N A L F O T N E M T R A P E

D EDUCATION

N O I T A C U D E D N A G N I N I A R T S R E H C A E T F O Y T L U C A F

Y T I S R E V I N U A M R A H D A T A N A S

A T R A K A Y G O Y

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S T N E M E G D E L W O N K C A

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S T N E T N O C F O E L B A T

E G A P E L T I

T ... E

G A P L A V O R P P

A S ... E

G A P N O I T A C I D E

D ... Y

T I L A N I G I R O S ’ K R O W F O T N E M E T A T

S ...

I S A K I L B U P N A U J U T E S R E P N A A T A Y N R E

P ... T

C A R T S B

A ...

K A R T S B

A ... T

N E M E G D E L W O N K C

A S ... S

T N E T N O C F O E L B A

T ... S

E L B A T F O T S I

L ... S

E R U G I F F O T S I

L ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . S E C I D N E P P A F O T S I L

.I R E T P A H

C INTRODUCTION... .... .

A ResearchBackground... .. .

B ResearchProblems ... ... .. .

C ProblemLimtiaiton ... .. .

D ResearchObjecitve s... .

E ResearchBeneftis ... .

F Deifniitono fTerms... R

E T P A H

C II . REVIEWOFRELATEDLITERATURE ... . .. .

A Theoreitca lDescirpiton ... ... .

1 TheDe ifniitono fAdveritsement ...

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a Magazinea sAdveritsemen tMedia ... .. .

b Format sfo rP irn tAdveritsemen t... .

2 Rheto irca lDevices... .

a Schemes. ... .

b Trope s... .

3 Rheto irca lDevicesi nAdveritsement... .

4 Reason sf ortheUseo fRheto irca lDevicesi n t

n e m e s it r e v d

A s ... .

a GivingPersuasiveQualtiy ... .

b GainingAtteniton. ... .

c Easet heMessageProcessing ... .

d Leadingt oGreate rMemorablitiyandRecall. .. .

B Theoreitca lFramework... E

T P A H

C R II . I RESEARCHANDMETHODOLOGY....…...………..

.

A ResearchMethod ... .. .

B ResearchSetitng... .

C ResearchSubject s... .

D Insrtuments andDataGathe irngTechnique ... .

E DataAnalysi sTechnique ... .

F ReasearchProcedure ... R

E T P A H

C VI . RESEARCHRESULTSANDDISCUSSION ... .. .

A Type so fRheto irca lDevice sin Engilsh Adveritsemen t s

e n il d a e

H ... .

B Possible Reason sf or the Use o fRheto irca lDevice sin s

e n il d a e H t n e m e s it r e v d A h s il g n

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ii i x D N A S N O I S U L C N O C . V R E T P A H

C RECOMMENDATIONS. . ....

.

A Conclusion s... .

B Recommendaitons... S

E C N E R E F E

R ...

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1 I R E T P A H C

N O I T C U D O R T N I

s t n e s e r p r e t p a h c s i h

T thebackground oft hestudy .Thebackground oft he o t r e d r o n I . y d u t s e h t f o t n e t n o c e h t d n a e r u t a n e h t t u o b a n o it a m r o f n i s r e v o c y d u t s

t , c it a m e t s y s e

b he informaiton i s presented in six patrs , namely research m

e l b o r p h c r a e s e r , d n u o r g k c a

b s ,problem ilmtiaiton ,research objecitves ,research .s

m r e t f o n o it i n if e d d n a , s ti f e n e b

.

A ResearchBackground

r o f r a il i m a f e m o c e b s a h t n e m e s it r e v d

A modern peoplenowadays .People e

r

a being exposed to hundreds, even thousand so fadveritsement severy day . s

t n e m e s it r e v d a e s e h

T can be found easliy ni TV , magazines , newspapers , s

d r a o b ll i

b ori nterne.tGlisonandBerkman( 1980) ,even ,statet ha t“adveritsemen t il

a i c o s n i s r o t c a f t n a tr o p m i e r a y r r a c y e h t n o it a m r o f n i e h t d n

a zaiton”( p .4 .)

n o it a m r o f n i e v i s a u s r e p t u o b a s i t n e m e s it r e v d a , ) 6 0 0 2 ( s n e r A o t g n ir r e f e R

h c i h w ) s a e d i d n a , s e c i v r e s , s d o o g ( s t c u d o r p f

o i susually paid by a company ,

. n o it u ti t s n i r o , n o it a z i n a g r

o Conside irng ti starge t audience which i sa large u

n mbe ro fpeople ,no tan individual ,adveritsement si sa n -on persona lo rmas s .

n o it a c i n u m m o

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e h t s i t n e m e s it r e v d a n a n i e

b intenit on to bepersuasive – even provocaitve .The e n o m o r f t n e r e f fi d o s l a s i s t n e m e s it r e v d a n i d e s u s e c i v e d l a c ir o t e h r f o e c i o h c

. r e h t o n a o t t n e m e s it r e v d a

lr i g e g a n e e

T magazine st hat focu son teenage gi lr and fashion may use n o i h s a f n o s u c o f s tI . s t n e m e s it r e v d a r i e h t n i s e c i v e d l a c ir o t e h r f o d n i k t n e r e f fi d

s r e d a e r t e g r a t d n

a may affectt hechoiceo fstyleint headveritsements .Therefore , e

h t t u o d n if o t s t n a w r e ti r w e h t , y d u t s s i h t h g u o r h

t types fo rheto irca ldevices used n

i Engilsh adveritsement headilnes found in teenage gi lr magazine sissued in h

c r a

M -M ay 2012 , which cove r CosmoGirl ! Indonesia , Gogir!l , CHIC, ,r

e t s i S , N E E T d n E h g i

H dan rG li friend Indonesia .Fu trher ,the wrtie rwant sto n

o s a e r e l b i s s o p e h t e z y l a n

a s fo the use of rheto irca l devices in Engilsh s

e n il d a e h t n e m e s it r e v d

a found in teenage g ri lmagazine sissued in March-May 2

1 0 2 .

.

B ResearchProblems

r e ti r w e h t , d n u o r g k c a b h c r a e s e r n i d e t n e s e r p d n u o r g k c a b e h t g n ir e d i s n o C

n i s m e l b o r p e h t s e t a l u m r o

f theformo fquesitona silstedbelow . .

1 Wha t are the type s o f rheto irca l device s used in Engilsh adveritsemen t n

i d n u o f s e n il d a e

h teenagegi lrmagazines? .

2 Wha tare the possible reason sfo rthe use of rheto irca ldevice sin Engilsh s

e n il d a e h t n e m e s it r e v d

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.

C ProblemLimtia iton

e s u e h t n o y lr a l u c it r a p , e l y t s s ti f o s m r e t n i e u q i n u s i e g a u g n a l g n i s it r e v d A

n o s u c o f l li w h c r a e s e r s i h T . s e c i v e d l a c ir o t e h r f

o two problem sa sformulated i n t

s ri F . s m e l b o r p h c r a e s e

r , ti is t o ifnd out t he types fo rheto irca ldevices used i n h

s il g n

E adveritsement headilnes found in s xi teenage gi lr magazines issued in h

c r a

M -M ay 2012. Since the study i sabou t ifnding ou tthe type so frheto irca l n

i d e s u s e c i v e

d teenagegilrmagazinesi ssuedi n March-M ay2012,t hewrtierwli l l a c ir o t e h r y n a e r o n g i d n a s e n il d a e h t n e m e s it r e v d a h s il g n E e h t n o s u c o f y l n o

t n e m e s it r e v d a r e h t o n i s e c i v e

d patr s(subheads ,body copy ,slogans ,seal ,s l ogos , .

) e r u t a n g i s d n

a Second, t hi sresearch intend sto ifnd the possible reason so ft he f

o e s

u rheto irca ldevice sin adveritsemen theadilnes ,paritculalry in teenage lrgi s

e n i z a g a

m issuedi nMarch-M ay2012.

.

D ResearchObjecitves

e h

T rearet woobjecitve stha twli lbeobtainedt hroughthisr esearcha s w

o l e b d e t s

il .

.

1 Identfiying the type so f rheto irca ldevice s used in Engilsh adveritsement e

n il d a e

h s foundi nteenagegilrmagazinesissuedi nMarch-M ay2012. .

2 Identfiying the possible reason sf or the use of rheto irca ldevices in Engilsh h c r a M n i d e u s s i s e n i z a g a m l ri g e g a n e e t n i d n u o f s e n il d a e h t n e m e s it r e v d

a -May

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.

E ResearchBeneftis

e h

T ifndingoft hestudyi sexpected t ogivebeneftist ot hestudent so fthe i

n U a m r a h D a t a n a S f o m a r g o r P y d u t S n o it a c u d E e g a u g n a L h s il g n

E verstiy .Frist ,

s e v i g h c r a e s e r s i h

t a cleare r concep t on the use o f rheto irca l device s in t

n e m e s it r e v d

a headil sne ,especially which are found in teenage gilr magazine s n

i d e u s s

i March-Ap ir l2012 .By knowing the concep tand ti ssigni ifcan tuse in t

n e m e s it r e v d

a headilnes ,hopefully the student so fthe ELESP can i ncrease t hei r ll

i k s g n it ir

w ,paritcularl iy nt heuseo frheto irca ldevices.

.

F Deifni itono fTerms

t r e d r o n

I o avoidmisconcepiton o rmisunderstandingaboutt het ermsused s

i h t n

i research ,thewrtie rgive sab ire fexplanaitonaboutt het ermsasf ollow .s .

1 Rheto irca lDevices

) 6 2 4 . p , 0 9 9 1 ( tt e b r o

C statesthatr heto irca ldevices, o rhecalleda s ifgure s g n i k a e p s f o e d o m y r a n i d r o e h t m o r f s n o it a i v e d l u ft r a y n a “ o t d e t a l e r s i h c e e p s f o

g n it ir w r

o ”. Whereas, Leech( 1969 )callsi tasr heto irca l ifgure swhichi sdescirbed .

n o it a i v e d c it s i u g n il s

a Rheto irca ldevice sare divided into schemes and rtopes . o t r a il i m a f e h t m o r f d e g n a r y l e d i w e r a s e p o rt d n a s e m e h c s e s e h t f o s r e b m e m e h T

M d n a e ir r a u Q c M ( e n o e r u c s b o e h

t ick ,1996) .Thi sresearch focused on the s

e c i v e d l a c ir o t e h

r whichappearedi nt heEngilshadveritsemen theadilnesfoundi n e

g a n e e

t gri lmagazines, CosmoGirl !Indonesia ,Gogir!l ,CHIC ,HighEndTEEN , ,r

e t s i

S dan rG li friend Indonesia, issued in March-May 2012, which are used a s e

l p m a s h c r a e s e r e h

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.

2 AdveritsementHeadilne

6 0 0 2 ( s n e r A o t g n i d r o c c

A ) ,the roles fo adveritsemen thead ilne sare to ,

e c n e i d u a e h t e g a g n

e toexplaint hevisual ,andtolead t heaudiencei ntot hebody ,

e r o f e r e h T . t n e m e s it r e v d a e h t f

o thep irmary funciton o fadveritsemen theadilne s g

n it c a rt t a y b t n i o p g n il l e s y e k e v e i h c a o t s

i the consumers ’atteniton (Wells , M

d n a t t e n r u

B o iratry ,1992 ;Leigh ,1994 .) In thi sresearch, the adveritsemen t e

n il d a e

h sreferto phrase so rsentence splaced i n t he t op o fan adveritsemen tand e

g g i b n i d e p y t y ll a u s

u r size. Fu trher ,since adveritsemen theadilnes ea r the ones e

b gi n analysed i nt hisr esearch ,adveritsemen theadilnesi nt hisr esearchalso play e

l o r e h

t ast heresearchs ample tisel.f

.

3 TeenageGri lMagazines

e n o s i e n i z a g a

M o ef t h p irn tmedia which are issued a tregula rinterva,l , r e v e w o H . d e ir a v e b n a c e n i z a g a m e h t f o t n e t n o c e h T . y l h t n o m r o y l k e e w

t n e t n o c e h t t a h t s e t a t s ) 0 0 0 2 ( n il h g u o L c

M s o famagazinecove raritcles , ifciton o h w e l p o e p f o p u o r g n i a tr e c n o s e s u c o f e n i z a g a m , y ll a r e n e G . s h p a r g o t o h p d n a

e v a

h thesamespeciali nterestort hesamegender ,such asspor tmagazine,f emale e

n i z a g a

m ,o rbusines smagazine .Therefore, t eenage gri lmagazinei samagazine s

ti h c i h

w targeted reader saret eenagegilrs .Theconten to fthemagazine wli lbe o

t d e t a l e

r the teenage gi lrs’ lfie ,such as lfie style ,school ,and fashion. In thi s lr

i g e g a n e e t , h c r a e s e

r magazines ,which cove rsix dfiferen tmagazine sissued in h

c r a

M -M ay 2012, are used as t he sample of t he research .They are CosmoGir!l C

I H C , !l r i g o G , a i s e n o d n

(25)

8 I I R E T P A H C

E R U T A R E T I L D E T A L E R F O W E I V E R

s i h

T chapteri sdividedi nto t womain patrs ,namelyt heoreitca ldescirpiton

n I . k r o w e m a r f l a c it e r o e h t d n

a the theoreitca ldesc irpiton, the wrtie rreview sthe

h c i h w s e ir o e h t n i a

m aredriecltyr elatedandusedast her eferencest ot heresearch.

t n

I he las t par t o f thi s chapter , theoreitca l framework , the wrtier draw s a

e h t n o d e s a b k r o w e m a r

f theo ire sprovided i n t heoreitca ldescirpitont oanswert he

.s n o it s e u q h c r a e s e

r

.

A Theoreitca lDescrip iton

n

I thetheoreitca ldesc irpiton,t hewrtierdescirbe ssomet heo ire swhichare

e r a y e h T . h c r a e s e r e h t o t d e t a l e

r adveritsemen t deifniiton , magazine s a s

, t n e m e s it r e v d a t n ir p r o f t a m r o f , a i d e m t n e m e s it r e v d

a rheto irca ldevices , and

g n i s u f o s n o s a e

r rheto irca ldevicesi nadveritsements.

.

1 TheDeifniitono fAdveritsement

s it r e v d a , ) 6 0 0 2 ( s n e r A o t g n i d r o c c

A ement i s a form o f non-persona l

h c i h w n o it a c i n u m m o

c i susually persuasive in nature .Since adveritsement i sa

n o

n -persona l communicaiton , i t i s targeted to a numbe r o f people . The

m r o f n

i aitoncariredi nt headveritsementi sabou tproducts( good ,ss ervice ,si deas.)

y lr a li m i

(26)

e n if e d ) 0 8 9 1

( adveritsemen ta s“any paid form o fn -on personal presentaiton o f

r e s r o , s d o o g , s a e d

i vice sby an idenitifed sponsor” (p .11) . I tmean stha tthe

k r e B d n a n o s li G n i d e n o it n e m ” r o s n o p s d e if it n e d i

“ man deifniiton should pay an

r e s r o , s d o o g , s a e d i s ti t n e s e r p o t y e n o m f o t n u o m

a vicest ot hes ociety .

,r e h tr u

F Glison and Berkman (1980 ) add two more point s o f

. n o it i n if e d s ’t n e m e s it r e v d

a Frist ,anadveritsemen tha spersuasivequaltiy .Having

s t n e m e s it r e v d a t a h t s n a e m y ti l a u q e v i s a u s r e

p are able to persuade the readers .

r e h t , d n o c e

S oleo fanadveritsementi sa samarkeitngt oo.lTherefore ,Glisonand

e d ) 0 8 9 1 ( n a m k r e

B if ne adveritsemen t a s “persuasive media communicaiton

, o t d n o p s e r o t d e n g i s e

d andhelpachieve ,markeitngobjecitves”( p .11 .)

s e d i s e

B ,Goddard( 1998 )descirbe sadveritsement sa sat ex twhoseaim i st o

s r e d a e r e h t m o r f n o it n e tt a n i a

g .However ,shenotest ha tno tal ltexts, whichmake

o t n o it n e tt a r i e h t y a p s r e d a e r e h

t , areadveritsement .Thereareothe rcharacteirsitc s

t a h

t shouldbepossessedbyat extt obeclassi ifeda sadveritsement .Givingbeneif t

s i t n e m e s it r e v d a e h t d n i h e b y n a p m o c e h t o

t oneoft hecharacteirsitc stha tshould

e

b possessed by an adveritsement .Thi sbenefti ,according t o Goddard (1998 ,) i s

n i y l n o t o

n the form o fmoney o rothe rmateirals ,bu talso in a les stangible

. ) 7 . p ( ” e g a m i r o s u t a t s f o t n e m e c n a h n e “ s a h c u s t n e m n i a tt a

, r e h tr u

F Goddard (1998) also descirbes adveritsement a s a form o f

. e s r u o c s i

d She see sadveritsement a sa system o flanguage where reader shave

y r a t n e m o

m “conversaiton” wtih t headveritser s(p .5 .) Thi smeans t ha tGoddard

a s a t n e m e s it r e v d a s e e

s form o fcommunicaiton .Besides ,she also add stha t

t n e m e s it r e v d

(27)

o t e v a h s r e d a e

r work hard t o decode message .s Hence ,adveritsement, according

) 8 9 9 1 ( d r a d d o G o

t , can besimply descirbed a saform o fcommunicaiton which

y n a m o t d e s s e r d d a s i d n a , d n i h e b y n a p m o c e h t o t ti f e n e b e v i g , e d a u s r e p o t s m i a

. e l p o e p

.

a Magazinea sAdveritsementMedia

. t c u d o r p a e s it r e v d a o t d e s u e b n a c t a h t a i d e m y n a m e r a e r e h

T Aren s

s n o it n e m ) 6 0 0 2

( tha tthere are ifve adveritsemen tmedia .These adveritsement

e r a a i d e

m p irnt ,elecrtonic ,digtialinteracitve ,driec tmali ,andout- fo -homemedia.

. s c it s ir e t c a r a h c t n e r e f fi d s a h m e h t f o h c a

E Since t he focu sof t hi sresearch is i n

s i h t , a i d e m t n ir

p research wli l discus s more on the p irn t media , especially

e h t s a e n i z a g a

m adveritsementmedia.Accordingt oArens( 2006 ,p .127), thet erm

a i d e m t n ir

p refer sto any commercially pubilshed , p irnted medium , us ch a s

,s e n i z a g a m d n a s r e p a p s w e

n tha t sell s adveritsement space to a vairety o f

.s r e s it r e v d

a Compared to newspaper ,according to Bovee and Aren s(1986) ,

e n i z a g a

m s offe r more advantage s and effecitveness to both reader s and

s r e s it r e v d

a .They men iton seven thing swhich can make magazine become an

r o f a i d e m e v it c e f f

e adveritsement(BoveeandArens ,1986 ,pp .418- 941 ) .

)

1 Selecitvtiy

s r e d a e r e v it c e l e s y r e v h c a e r y ll a r e n e g s e n i z a g a

M . BoveeandArens( 1986 ,

.

p 418)statetha t“magazine soffe rselecitvtiyby t argeitng vairou sspeci ifcgroup s

l a i c e p s y l p m i s r o , c i n h t e , s u o i g il e r g n i d u l c n

(28)

t s e r e t n i n i a tr e c r o f d e h s il b u p s e n i z a g a

m ,such asBusines sWeekfo rbusinessmen d

n

a Seventeen rf o teenagegilr .s

)

2 Flexiblitiy

e n i z a g a M . s r e d a e r d n a s r e s it r e v d a h t o b r o f y ti li b i x e lf s r e f f o e n i z a g a M

, e z i s , e p y t , s a h c u s t i n i d e r e f f o s e r u t a e f l a r e v e s e s u o t s r e s it r e v d a s w o ll a

. t u o y a l d n a , t n e m e c a l

p Forr eaders ,magazineoffersawider angeo fchoice .They

e r

a regiona la swel la snaitona lediitons ,or ,maleorf emalemagazines .Magazine s

r e f f o o s l

a many kind soft ype so rvairety . Theset ype so rvairety i ncludelengths ,

.s e n o t l a ir o ti d e d n a , s e h c a o r p p a

)

3 Visua lpleasure

d e r a p m o

C to newspaper ,magazine win sthi sfeature .Magazine present s

s t n e m e s it r e v d a r o l o c l l u

f .These ful lcolo radveritsements ,according Boveeand

,) 6 8 9 1 ( s n e r

A atrtac tthe readers ’atteniton .Fu trher ,Bovee and Aren s(1986 ,p .

a m i s e c n a h n e r o l o c “ t a h t e t a t s ) 8 1

4 geandi denitife spackages”.

)

4 Authortiyandbeilevablitiy

) 9 8 9 1 ( s n e r A d n a e e v o B o t g n i d r o c c

A , peoplebeilevewha tmagazines ays .

. s e ri s e d d n a , s n o i n i p o , s a e d i s ’ e l p o e p e c n e u lf n i n a c s e n i z a g a m , e r o f e r e h

T Fu trher ,

s i h t ,) 6 8 9 1 ( s n e r A d n a e e v o B o t g n i d r o c c

a ab litiy t o i n lfuenceallow smagazine s

(29)
(30)
(31)

e n il d a e

h s should on tbet oocuteo rcleve.rI nstead,t hehead ilneshouldusesimple

u d o r p e h t r e v o c h c i h w s t n e m e t a t

s c’t smosti mpo tran tbeneif.t

e l p m a x

E [1 :] Speakaf oreignl anguagei n30day so ryou rmoneyback .

)

2 Newsi/nformaitonheadilne

n

A ewsi/nformaiton headilne i sformed by statements .These statements

e s o p r u p a e v a

h togivei nformaiton tot her eaders .Therefore, thestatement sused

e n il d a e h f o e p y t s i h t n

i mus tbebeilevable.

e l p m a x

E [2 :] I’t sagir.l

)

3 Provocaitveheadilne

f o n o it a t n e s e r p e r l a u t c a e h t g n i v a h s a d e r e d i s n o c e b n a c e n il d a e h s i h T

f o e s o p r u p e h T . e d a u s r e p o t s i h c i h w , t n e m e s it r e v d

a a provocaitveheadilne si to

. y ti s o ir u c ’ s r e d a e r e h t e k o v o r

p By doing so, t heheadilnecan l ead t hereaders t o

. y p o c y d o b s a h c u s ,t n e m e s it r e v d a e h t f o t s e r e h t d a e r

e l p m a x

E [3 :] Betchacan’ teatj us tone

)

4 Quesitonheadilne

n o it s e u

Q headilnei si ntheformo fquesiton .Thepurposeoft hi sheadilne

e h t f o y d o b e h t n i r e w s n a e h t t u o g n i d n if n i s r e d a e r e h t e g a r u o c n e o t s i

.t n e m e s it r e v d

a Inothe rword ,st hi sheadilneaimst oi nvolvet her eaders’r esponse.

e l p m a x

(32)

)

5 Commandheadilne

e n il d a e h d n a m m o

C i so tfen seeme d negaitve .Thisi sbecauseacommand

e n il d a e

h ma s i toordert her eaderst odos omething( Arens ,2006 ,p .420) .Yet,t hi s

e v it c e f f e s i e n il d a e h f o d n i

k ingainingt heattenitonoft her eaders.

e l p m a x

E [5]: Pleasedon t’s queezet heCharmin

.

2 Rhetorica lDevices

. s tr e p x e y b d e r e f f o s e c i v e d l a c ir o t e h r t u o b a s n o it i n if e d y n a m e r a e r e h T

ir r a u Q c M n i s e h tr a

B eand Mick (1996 ,p .424 )statestha tsincetheanitqutiy t he

c ir o t e h r f o e n il p i c s i

d i s about t he Western t hinking o fpersuasion .According t o

) 6 2 4 . p , 0 9 9 1 ( t t e b r o

C , rheto irca ldevices ,o rhe calls a s ifgure so fspeech, i sa

r o g n i k a e p s f o e d o m y r a n i d r o e h t m o r f s n o it a i v e d l u ft r a y n a f o m r e t c ir e n e g “

g n it ir

w ”. Meanwhlie, Leech ( 1969 )u sesdfiferentt ermf orr heto irca ldevices .He

m r e t e h t s e s

u rheto irca l ifgure i nstead o frheto irca ldevices .Leech (1986), then,

s e b ir c s e

d rheto irca ldevicesa silnguisitcdeviaiton.

According to Belryne (1971 )in McQuarire and Mick (1996 ,p .426),

ir o t e h

r ca ldevices“provide smeanst o makefamiila rsrtange” .Seen from G irce’ s

g n i h t e m o s , s e l u r e h t o t n o it a l o i v s a n e e s e b n a c n o it a i v e d , n o it a s r e v n o c f o s e l u r

. y r a n i d r o e h t d n o y e

b Fu trher ,Genette in McQuarire and Mick (1996 ,p .426 )

s n o it n e

m tha t“any ifgurecarryatl eas toneaddiitona lmeaning”.

9 1 ( h c e e L d n a ) 0 9 9 1 ( tt e b r o C h t o

B 6 )9 dividetheserheto irca ldevicesinto

e m e h c

s s and rtopes .Corbet t(1990 ,p .427 )states tha tscheme sdea lwtih the

h ti w l a e d , d n a h r e h t o e h t n o , s e p o rt d n a t n e m e g n a r r a s d r o w e h t f o n o it a i v e

(33)

. s d r o w f o g n i n a e m e h t f o n o it a i v e

d Meanwhlie ,Leech (1969 ,p .74 )deifne s

r g e r o f “ s a s e p o rt d n a ” n o i s s e r p x e f o n o it it e p e r d e d n u o r g e r o f “ s a s e m e h c

s ounded

t n e t n o c f o y ti r a l u g e r

ri ” .Scheme sand rtopes,l ate,r aredivided again i nto smalle r

s e ir o g e t a

c .According to Corbet t(1990 )and Leech (1969), the classiifcaiton o f

e h

r to irca ldevicesi sasf ollow .s

.

a Schemes

d e b ir c s e d s

A in earile rpatr ,scheme sdea lwtih the deviaiton o fword s

r r

a angement (Corbett , 1990) . Fu trher , Leech (1969 ) descirbe s scheme s a s

. n o it it e p e r l a c i g o l o n o h

p According t o Corbett( 1990 )and Leech ( 1969) ,scheme s

o t n i d e d i v i d e r

a 3 0type sasf ollow .s

)

1 Prosthesis

s d d a h c i h w s e c i v e d l a c ir o t e h r f o e p y t a s i s i s e h t s o r

P a syllable in the

g n i n n i g e

b o fwords .Even though thi srheto irca ldevice i sformed by adding a

m o r f t n e r e f fi d s i e c i v e d l a c ir o t e h r s i h t , d r o w e h t f o t n o r f n i e l b a ll y

s adding a

h c i h w , x if e r

p wli lchange the meaning .The addiiton o fa syllable in prosthesi s

t o n s e o

d changethemeaningo rthepar tofs peechoft heword.

e l p m a x

E [6 :] Belovedfo rloved

)

2 Epenthesis

y b d e m r o f s i e c i v e d l a c ir o t e h r s i h

T adding a syllable in the middle o fa

d r o

w . sA in prosthesis ,the addiiton o fa syllable in the middle o fa word in

s i s e h t n e p

(34)
(35)

e l p m a x

E [ 01 ]: prosprou sfo rprosperous

)

6 Apocope

y b d e m r o f s i e c i v e d s i h T . s i s e r e a h p a f o e ti s o p p o e h t s i e p o c o p A

d r o w f o d n e e h t m o r f e l b a ll y s a g n it c a rt b u

s . Thi sdevice i salso used a sapoeitc

e c i v e

d ; tof aclitiatet her hymeort her hythmo fa ilneo fverse.

e l p m a x

E [ 11 ]: evenfo revening

)

7 Metathesis

h t y b d e m r o f s i e c i v e d s i h

T e rtansposiiton o f letter s in a word .

n o it i s o p s n a r

T meanst hatt hedevice change so rswtiche stheplaceo rposiiton o f

s e g n a h c e s e h T . d r o w a n i s r e tt e

l do no tchanget he meaning oft heword though .

h c e e p s s ’ n e r d li h c n i n o m m o c s i e c i v e d s i s e h t a t e m s i h

T , which i s done

t i o d y a m , s t e o p y ll a i c e p s e , e l p o e p , r e v e w o H . y l s u o i c s n o c n

u on purpose .Poets ,

. e c i v e d c it e o p a s a s i s e h t a t e m e s u , e l p m a x e r o f

e l p m a x

E [ 21 ]: clapsefo rclasp

)

8 Anitsthecon

l a c ir o t e h r s i h

T devicei sf ormed bychanging t hesound oft heword .Thi s

f o g n i g n a h c s i h T . d r o w e h t f o g n i n a e m e h t e g n a h c t o n s e o d d n u o s f o e g n a h c

n o d n u o

s lyf unciton sa sapoeitcdevice .“A sapoeitcdevice”heremeanst hatt hi s

s n a e m s e d i v o r p e c i v e

d to create the rhyme o rthe rhythm o fa ilne o fverse ,

y ll a i c e p s

e inpoerty.

e l p m a x

(36)
(37)

) 2

1 Parenthesis

) 1 3 4 . p , 0 9 9 1 ( t t e b r o C n o d e s a

B , parenthesi si sthe “inseriton o fsome

e h t f o w o lf l a c it c a t n y s l a m r o n e h t s t p u r r e t n i t a h t n o it i s o p a n i t i n u l a b r e v

e c n e t n e

s ” .Event hought hei nseritono fparenthesisi sno tnecessaryi ngramma,ri t

. s t c e f f e l a c ir o t e h r t c e lf e r s e o

d Fu trher ,Corbet t(1990 )descirbes i ta sgiving

.s r o h t u a e h t m o r f e s n e s l a n o it o m e r o t n e m m o c l a n o s r e p

e l p m a x

E [17]: Bu twhereinanymani sbold– Iamspeakingf ooilshly Ialsoam .

d l o b

) 3

1 Apposiiton

o c o w t n e h w s r u c c o n o it i s o p p

A -ordinate element sare placed in side by

o c d n o c e s e h t f o e l o r e h T . n o it i s o p e d i

s -ordinate elemen ti sto give addiitona l

n o it a m r o f n

i .Beside ,st her oleoft hesecondco-ordinatei salsot omodfiythef ris t

.t n e m e l e

e l p m a x

E [18]: John Morgan, t hepresiden toft heSon soft heRepub ilc ,could no t .

e n o h p y b d e h c a e r e

b

) 4

1 Elilpsis

s e b ir c s e d ) 2 3 4 . p , 0 9 9 1 ( tt e b r o

C elilpsi sa s“deilberateomissiono fwordo r

t x e t n o c e h t y b d e il p m i y li d a e r e r a h c i h w s d r o w f

o ” .Fu trher ,Corbet t(1990 )

n o it n e

m s tha tthe use o felilpsi scan be ef ifcient, o rborrowing Corbet’t sterm

p x e y m o n o c e g n ir u c e s f o s n a e m g n it s e r r a “ ) 2 3 4 . p , 0 9 9 1

( ression” .Howeve,r t he

. e l b it a p m o c y ll a c it a m m a r g e b d l u o h s d e s u s d r o w

e l p m a x

(38)
(39)

.

c Specia lemphasis:

l g n E g n i k a t m a I r e t s e m e s s i h

T ishandhistoryand biologyandmathemaitc s .

n o it a c u d e l a c is y h p d n a y g o l o i c o s d n a ) 7

1 Alltieraiton

s i n o it a r e ti ll

A therepeititonofi niita lo rmedia lconsonants(Corbett ,1990 ;

) 9 6 9 1 , h c e e

L .However ,Leech ( 1969 ,p .90 )addst hatt herei sapossib litiyoft he

i m e s f o e c n e r r u c c

o -alltieraiton . Semi-alltieraiton i s the repeititon o f parita l

d r o w e h t n e e w t e b n o it a l e r e h t f o e l p m a x e n a s e v i g e H . r e t s u l c t n a n o s n o

c s good

d n

a glad .They can be considered a semploying semi-alltieraiton since both o f h

ti w n i g e b m e h

t / , g/ atlhough the iniita lconsonan tcluster s/g /and /gl /are no t

. l a c it n e d i

0 9 9 1 ( tt e b r o C o t g n i d r o c c

A ,p .434 ,) t heuseo falltieraiton i n poerty i st o

s r e v d n i b

“ est ogether”. Fu trher ,hestatestha talltieraiton i nmodern erai sused t o

c e f f e l a i c e p s e v i

g ts i n adveritsement and also t o give humorou seffect. Besides ,

t a h t s e t a t s ) 9 6 9 1 ( h c e e

L alltieraiton i sone o fmany ilnguisitc tool swhich can

. d e z i n a g r o e r o m t x e t e h t e k a m

e l p m a x

E [ 22 ]: TheChampagneo fBottleBe - e r Brewedonlyi nMilwaukee

) 8

1 Assonance

e c n a n o s s

A , ilke alltieraiton, deal swtih repeititon .The d fiference among

t a h t t c a f e h t n i s e il m e h

t assonance repeat ssimlia rvowe lsound swhich are

d r o w a n i s l e w o v l l a t o n , r e v e w o H . s t n a n o s n o c t n e r e f fi d y b d e w o ll o f d n a d e d e c e r p

s l e w o v y l n O . d e t a e p e r e r

(40)

e l b a ll y s d e s s e rt s n i l e w o v r a li m i s e h t f o n o it it e p e r e h t s i ti e c n i

S s,t herei sa

i m e s f o e c n e rr u c c o e h t f o y ti li b i s s o

p -assonance (Leech , 1969 ,p .93) .Semi

s a r a li m i s t u b l a c it n e d i t o n e r a d e t a e p e r g n i e b s l e w o v e h t n e h w s r u c c o e c n a n o s s a

s d r o w e h t n

i can and car .The word can i spronounced wtih the vowe l/æ ./ w

e h t ,s a e r e h

W ordcari spronouncedwtiht hevowel/ ฀ /:. e

l p m a x

E [ 32 :] Anold ,mad ,blind ,despised ,anddyingking. )

9

1 Anaphora

s e t a t s ) 0 9 9 1 ( tt e b r o

C tha tanaphorai stherepeititonoft hesameword o ra

n e t n e s f o g n i n n i g e b e h t t a s d r o w f o p u o r

g ces ,clauses ,o rphrases .Fu trher ,hesays

e s u o h w s r o h t u a t a h

t anaphora surely use i tfo rsome purposes .Corbet t(1990 )

s n o it n e m o s l

a tha tthe use o fanaphora help sto bu lid a specia lrhythm o fa

. n o s i s a h p m e o t s t n a w r o h t u a e h t e r e h w e s u a l c f o e c n e u q e s

e l p m a x

E [ 42 :] Thisi stheessence– thisi sthehear t– thisi stheday- ot -daystuf f , s n o i s n a m r e it h g i m d li u b o t :t i e e s e w s a y l b m e s s A s i h t n i y t u d r u o f o

.s n o it a N d e ti n U e h t g n i n e h t g n e r t s p e e k o t

) 0

2 Episrtophe

p

E isrtophei st heoppostieo fanaphora . tIi sa“repeititonoft hesameword

r

o group o fword sa tthe end o fsuccessive clauses” (Corbett ,1990 ,p .435) .

) 0 9 9 1 ( tt e b r o

C alsomenitons thatt hef uncitonoft hi sschemei sno tonlyt ocreate

s i s a h p m e l a i c e p s a p u t e s o t o s l a t u b m h t y h

r tot hes entence( p .436 .)

e l p m a x

E [25]: When Iwa sa chlid , Ispoke ilkea chlid ,It hough t ilkea chlid , I a

e k il d e n o s a e

(41)

) 1

2 Epanalepsis

s i s p e l a n a p e n

I , awordplacedint hebeginningo faclausei sbeingr epeated

. e s u a l c e h t f o d n e e h t t

a Corbet t(1990 )states tha tthi sscheme relfect sintense

e h , e r o f e r e h T . n o it o m

e suggests tha tthe use o fthi sscheme should be in an

w e c n e t n e s r o e s u a l c e h t s s e l n u , t x e t n o c d n a e m it e t a ir p o r p p

a o uld seem to be

. d r a w k w a t a h w e m o s d n a e g n a rt s

e l p m a x

E [26]: Bloodhathbough tblood ,andblowshaveanswer’dblows )

2

2 Anadiplosis

e h t f o d r o w t s a l e h t n e h w s r u c c o s i s o l p i d a n

A iniital clausei srepeated a t

. e s u a l c g n i w o ll o f e h t f o g n i n n i g e b e h

t According t o Leech (1969) t he pattern o f

s a d e t a l u m r o f e b n a c s i s o l p i d a n

a (…a ()a…) .Corbet t(1990 )also meniton stha t s

i s i s o l p i d a n

a used to show a conneciton between one clause and the following

e s u a l

c .

e l p m a x

E [27 :] Labo rand care are rewarded wtih success ,success produce s e

c n e d if n o

c , con ifdence relaxe s indu tsry , and negilgence ruin s .

d e si a r d a h e c n e g il i d h c i h w n o it a t u p e r )

3

2 Cilmax

r e d r o e h t n o d e s a b s e s u a l c r o , s e s a r h p , s d r o w f o t n e m e g n a r r a e h t s i x a m il C

. e c n a tr o p m i g n i s a e r c n i f

o Therearet wo t ype so fcilmax .Frist , tii ssimplyat ex t

r a s i h c i h

w ranged i n an orde ro fgradually irsing i mpo tranceasi n Example[ 28] .

.s i s o l p i d a n a f o n o it a n i b m o c e h t s i ti , d n o c e

S Therefore, thepattern oft het ex tcan

s a d e t a l u m r o f e

b (…a ()a…) and i ti sarranged in an orde ro f gradually irsing e

c n a tr o p m

(42)

e l p m a x

E [28]: Le ta manacknowledgeobilgaitonst o hisf amliy ,hi scounrty ,and .

d o G s i h )

4

2 Anitmetabole

e s r e v e r n i , e s u a l c e v i s s e c c u s n i ,s d r o w f o n o it it e p e r “ e h t s i e l o b a t e m it n A

f o n o i s s e r p x e e h t s t c e lf e r e m e h c s s i h T . ) 7 3 4 . p , 0 9 9 1 , tt e b r o C ( ” r e d r o l a c it a m m a r g

t h g u o h

t . Fu trher , Corbet t (1990 ) adds tha t clause s o r sentence s which use

f o e s u a c e b e l b a r o m e m e b l li w e l o b a t e m it n

a wha tCorbet t(1990 ,p .437 )says sa

f o r i a e h t g n i v a h

nealtyt urnedphrase”. e

l p m a x

E [29]: Youmay ilkei ,ti tilke syou . )

5

2 Polyptoton

s d r o w f o n o it it e p e r e h t s i n o t o t p y l o p , ) 0 9 9 1 ( t t e b r o C o t g n i d r o c c

A which

d e v ir e d e r

a from t he same root .Leech (1969, p .82 )adds tha tpolyptoton i s t he

o h p r o

m logica l counterpar t o f anaphora . Thi s mean s tha t polyptoton i s the

o it it e p e

r nwtihint hes rtuctureo fwords.

e l p m a x

E [ 03 ]: Thei rbloodbleedsthenaitono ftiss anguineassurance. )

6

2 Symploce

l a c ir o t e h r s i h T . e h p o rt s i p e d n a a r o h p a n a f o n o it a n i b m o c e h t s i e c o l p m y S

d r o w l a n if d n a l a it i n i e h t s t a e p e r e c i v e

d s o faclause. According t o Leech ( 1969) ,

s a d e t a l u m r o f e b n a c e c o l p m y s f o e r u t c u rt s e h

t (a…b ()a…b).

e l p m a x

E [ 13 :] Iwillrecrutif o rmyseflandyoua s Igo;

(43)
(44)

) 9

2 Rhyme

s i e m y h

R theoppostieo fchiming .Thisr heto irca ldevicei sf ormedbyt he

s e l b a ll y s f o n o it it e p e

r sound att heend o fwordsi n aphrase, clause, o rsentence.

o t g n i d r o c c

A Leech (1969) , rhyme i s based on spelilng rathe r than on n

I . n o it a i c n u n o r

p os fa ra sthe spelilng system i sphonemic ,the phonologica l

s e c n e d n o p s e r r o

c arei ndeed r elfected i n w iritng.However ,headdst hat t herei sa

e h t t a h t y ti li b i s s o

p spelilng and the pronunciaiton are dfiferent .Therefore, the

d r o

w greatrhyme swtihmate, no twtihmeat(Leech ,1969 ,p.92 .) e

l p m a x

E [ 43 :] Whatt houwoulds thighly,

il o h u o h t t s d l u o w t a h

T ly

) 0

3 Freeverbalr epeititon

s e b ir c s e d ) 9 6 9 1 ( h c e e

L freeverbalr epeititon a sther epeititonofword sby

s d r o w t c a x e e h t g n i y p o

c ,phrases ,o reven sentences from the previou spatr .

s i h t f o c it s ir e t c a r a h c n i a m e h t s i s s e n il r e d r o s i d , s e c i v e d n o it it e p e r r e h t o e h t e k il n U

s i , r e v e w o h , n o it c n u f e h T . e c i v e

d ailke wtih the othe rrepeititon device swhich

e v i

g specia lemphasi so rsuppressed intenstiy o ffeeilng .Besides ,Leech also

e g a u g n a l f o y c a u q e d a n i e h t e t a c i d n i o s l a n a c n o it a ir a v l a b r e v e e r f t a h t s n o it n e m

) 9 7 . p , 9 6 9 1

( .

e l p m a x

E [ 53 :] Fo rLycidasi sdead ,deaderehi sp irme, g

n u o

Y Lycidas ,andhathnotl ef thi spee.r t

o n d l u o w o h

(45)

.

b Tropes

h ti w l a e d s e p o rt , ) 0 9 9 1 ( tt e b r o C o t g n i d r o c c

A thedeviaitonoft hemeaning

. s d r o w f

o Trope sarealso known ast he rtansferenceo fmeaning .Thisi sbecause ,

o t g n i d r o c c

a Leech (1969), rtope s create deviaiton on the semanitc level .

g n i d r o c c

A on Corbet t(1990) and Leech (1969) , rtope sare divided i nto fou treen

e ir o g e t a

c sasf ollow .s

)

1 MetaphorandSimlie

s i r o h p a t e

M understood a s“an i mpiled compairson betweent wo t hing so f

e v a h t e y t a h t e r u t a n e k il n

u something in common” (Corbett ,1990 ,p .438).

s , e li h w n a e

M imliei sunderstooda s“anexpilci tcompairsonbetweent wot hing so f

t e y t a h t e r u t a n e k il n

u have something in common” (Corbett ,1990 ,p .438).

n i d r o c c

A g t o Corbett ( 1990 ,) t heset wo rtope sshould be rteated i n thesameway

c u m o s e r a y e h t e c n i

s h ailke . Fu trher ,Corbet t (1990 ) states tha t the only

o w t e s o h t n e e w t e b e c n e r e f fi

d rtope si s iled in thei rmanne ro fexpressing the

. n o s ir a p m o c

e l p m a x

E 36:

.

a Metaphor :Ont he ifna lexaminaiton,s everals tudent swen tdowni n lfames. .

b Simlie:Likeanarrow,t heprosecuto rwen tdirecltyt ot hepoin.t

)

2 Synecdoche

s a n w o n k s i e h c o d c e n y

S a rheto irca ldevice where a par tstand sfo rthe

e l o h

w (Corbett ,1990). Meanwhlie , Leech (1969 )descirbe s synecdoche “the

(46)

e h t n i s e il e c n e r e f fi d e h T . e h c o d c e n y s f o n o it a t e r p r e t n i e m a s e h t e v a h y ll a u t c a

. e h c o d c e n y s e b ir c s e d o t d e s u y e h t m r e t

e l p m a x

E [37]: genus substtiuted fo rthe species: vessel fo rship ,weapon fo r d

r o w

s ,creature rfo man ,arms rfo rilfes ,vehicle rfo bicycle. )

3 Metonymy

e h t s a d e b ir c s e d s i y m y n o t e m , y ll a n o it i d a r

T substtiuiton o f some

s i t a h w r o f d r o w e v it s e g g u s r o e v it u b ir tt

a actually mean.t According to Corbet t

) 0 9 9 1

( , metonymyand synecdochearesomuchailket hat i tneed sgrea teffo trt o

. m e h t h s i u g n it s i

d Simlialry ,Leech (1969 ,p .152 )men itons t hat t hedeifniiton o f

e h T . e h c o d c e n y s e d u l c n i o t h g u o n e d a o r b n e tf o s i y m y n o t e

m i rdfiference iles i n

y m y n o t e m , e c it c a r p n i t a h t t c a f e h

t i “ s rteateda sar esidua lcategory i ncluding al l

f o s e it e ir a

v rtansference fo meaning apar t from those separately classed a s

e h c o d c e n y

s ”( Leech ,1969 ,p .152 .)

e l p m a x

E [38]: Crown fo rroyatly ,mtirefo rbishop ,weatlh fo rrich people ,botlte r

o f wine )

4 Puns

s e b ir c s e d ) 1 4 4 . p , 0 9 9 1 ( tt e b r o

C pun sa sar heto irca ldevicewhich makea

s d r o w n o y a l

p .He, then, classi ifes pun sinto antanaclasis ,paronomasia, and s

i s p e ll y

s . Meanwhlie ,Leech(1969 )classiifespunsi ntomorecatego ires .Theyare l

a c i g o l o m y t e , c it c a t n y s a , s m y n o t n a , n o it it e p e

r npu ,syllepsis ,and simliartiy o f n

o it a i c n u n o r

(47)

1 .

4 Antanaclasis

s ’t t e b r o

C antanaclasi sand Leech’ srepeititonaret hesame .Both oft hem n

u p e b ir c s e

d s ast her epeititon o fword i n t wo dfiferen tsenses(Corbett ,1990 ,p .

) 0 1 2 . p , 9 6 9 1 , h c e e L ; 1 4

4 .Dfiferen tsense sheremeanst ha tonewordmay b irng

. e c n e u q e s a n i g n i n a e m r o s e s n e s o w

t

e l p m a x

E [39 :] learnacra tfsot ha twhenyougrowolde ryouwli lno thavet oearn

y b g n i v il r u o

y cra tf.

2 .

4 Paronomasia

r o n o it a i c n u n o r p f o y ti r a li m i

S paronomasia ist heuseo fword swhich are .

g n i n a e m n i t n e r e f fi d t u b d n u o s n i r a li m i

s However ,Leech (1869 )descirbest hi s

a l p “ s a e c i v e

d yon simliartiy o fpronunciaiton” .Hearguest hatt hi sdevicecanno t

e t u l o s b a n a h t r e h t a r e t a m i x o r p p a n o e r o m s d n e p e d t i e c n i s n u p s a d e if i s s a l c e b

e m a s e h t s a h e c i v e d s i h t n a h t s n i a l p x e r e h tr u f h c e e L , s s e l e h t e n o N . y ti m y n o m o h

.s n u p s a t c e f f e

e l p m a x

E [40 :] I twa safoulactt os tea lmyfowl.

3 .

4 Syllepsis

e r a y e h t n e h w y lt n e r e f fi d d o o t s r e d n u e r a h c i h w s d r o w h ti w s l a e d s i s p e ll y S

. s d r o w t n e r e f fi d r e h t o h ti w r e h t e g o t t u

p Both Corbet t(1990 ,p .441 )and Leech

e b ir c s e d ) 9 6 9 1

( syllepsi sast he useo f“aword understood dfiferen lty i n r elaiton

s n r e v o g f o s e if i d o m t i h c i h w , s d r o w r e h t o e r o m r o o w t o

t ”.

e l p m a x

(48)

)

5 Anthimeira

, ) 2 4 4 . p , 0 9 9 1 ( tt e b r o C o t g n i d r o c c

A anthimeirai s “thesubsttiuitono fone

r e h t o n a r o f h c e e p s f o t r a

p ” .Thi sschemei sused when t here i sno tan avaliable

d r o

w whichcanr epresen twha tthewrtie rwantst oexpres .sTherefore,t heycreate

.t h g u o h t ri e h t s s e r p x e n a c h c i h w d r o w w e n a

e l p m a x

E [ 24 :] Il’ lunhai rthyhead.

)

6 Peirphrasis

“ e h t s i s i s a r h p ir e

P substtiuitono fadescirpitvewordo rphrasef o raprope r

e m a n e h t h ti w d e t a i c o s s a y ti l a u q r o f e m a n r e p o r p a f o r o e m a

n ”(Corbett ,1990 ,

) 3 4

4 . These prope rname sare rteated o rconsidered a scommon noun s(Leech ,

. ) 9 6 9

1 Corbet talso menitons tha tthe use o fthi sscheme in modern prose i sa

.s y a w n o m m o c n u n i s a e d i r a il i m a f s s e r p x e o t n a m u h n i e g r u e h t f o f o o r p

e l p m a x

E [ 34 :] Shemayno thavebeenaPenelope ,buts hewa sno ta sunfa tihfu la s s

p i s s o g e h

t madehe routt obe.

)

7 Personiifcaiton

s e v i g n o it a c if i n o s r e

P absrtaciton sori nanimateobject sthesenseo fhuman

s e it il i b a r o s e it il a u

q (Corbett ,1990 ;Leech ,1969). Accordingt o Leech( 1969)t he

f o s m r e t n i m e h t g n i y fi t n e d i y b l a e r s n o it c a rt s b a e k a m o t s i e p o rt s i h t f o n o it c n u f

n a c s r e d a e r e h t , n o it a c if i n o s r e p g n i s u y b t a h t s d d a o s l a e H . d lr o w e t e r c n o c e h t

.) 8 5 1 . p ( y l d i v i v e r o m s g n i h t e t a m i n a n i f o e r u t a n e h t p s a r g

(49)
(50)

) 1

1 Irony

e s u e h t s i ) 0 9 9 1 ( tt e b r o C y b d e b ir c s e d s a y n o r

I o fwordi nordert o presen t

) 9 6 9 1 ( h c e e L . g n i n a e m l a r e ti l s ti f o g n i n a e m e ti s o p p o n

a calls riony a samask i n

h c i h

w what i sbeing hid i swhati sactuallymeant .A sthe useo fltiotes edo sno t

n a e

m todeceive,t heuseo frionya lsodoes tno meantodeceiveanyone.

e l p m a x

E [48 :] Hi sdesign swere honourable ,as t he saying i s; that i ,s t o rob a .

e g a i r r a m f o y a w y b e n u t r o f r e h f o y d a l

) 2

1 Onomatopoeia

h c e e L . e s n e s e h t s t c e lf e r d n u o s h c i h w s d r o w f o e s u e h t s i a i e o p o t a m o n O

) 9 6 9 1

( desc irbes onomatopoeia a s“the purely mimeitc powe ro flanguage, sti

n o n y lt s o m ( r e h t o e t a ti m i o t y ti li b

a -ilnguisitc )sounds” (1969 ,p .97 .) Besides ,

l a n o it o m e t e s o t d e s u e b n a c a i e o p o t a m o n o t a h t s n o it n e m ) 7 4 4 . p , 0 9 9 1 ( t t e b r o C

.t x e t a f o e n o t l a c i h t e r o

e l p m a x

E [49 :] Thespraywa shissing hot ,and ahugej e to fwate rburs tup f rom .t

s d i m s ti

) 3

1 Oxymoron

s e t a t s ) 7 4 4 . p , 0 9 9 1 ( t t e b r o

C tha toxymoron i sthe combinaiton o ftwo

. y r o t c i d a rt n o c e r a h c i h w s m r e

t Fu trher , Corbet t menitons tha t the use o f

x

o ymoron can createwha thecallsa s“a sta trilng effect”(p .447 .) I tmeanst ha t

g n it s a rt n o c o w t t a h t n o it a t c e p x e e h t s e t a l o i v n o r o m y x o s y o l p m e h c i h w t x e t e h t

.r e h t e g o t t u p e b t o n n a c s m r e t

e l p m a x

(51)

) 4

1 HomonymandPolysemy

Homonymoccurswhenoneword ,wtiht hesamef ormand pronunciaiton s

a

h moret han onei nterpretaiton o rmeaning .Meanwhlie ,polysemyoccur swhen

. g n i n a e m e n o n a h t e r o m e v a h o t s n e p p a h d r o w e n

o According t o Leech( 1969), ti

s

i someitme s dfi ifcul t to dfiferenitate polysemy and homonym . Considered

e l p m a x

e 51.a below ,people may quesiton why should “mole” i staken to be

. s g n i n a e m o w t h ti w d r o w e n o n a h t r e h t a r s d r o w e t a r a p e

s Leech( 1969 )arguest ha t

e h t m o r f s e v ir e d y ll a c ir o t s i h d r o w a t o n r o r e h t e h w y g o l o m y t e e h t n o d e s a b s i s i h t

e t a it n e r e f fi d y l p m i s n a c e l p o e p t a h t s d d a o s l a e H . e c n e r e f e r r o e c r u o s e m a s

c it n a m e s f o n o ir e ti r c h g u o r a n o y l e r y l p m i s y b y m e s y l o p d n a m y n o m o h

m i

s liartiy .In et h case o fexample 51.a, the word s“mole” and “mole” can be

e t a r a p e s o w t s a d e d r a g e

r word ssincet herei sno obviou sconneciton o fmeaning

. ) 7 0 2 . p , 9 6 9 1 , h c e e L ( m e h t n e e w t e b

e l p m a x

E 51:

.

a Homonym

e l o

m (noun )= a's mal lanima'l e

l o

m (noun )= a' spo tont hes kin' .

b Polysemy

r e f e r

P =1.' promot 'e =2.' ilkebette 'r

, l a r e n e g n

I Corbet tandLeechhavet hes amei nterpretaitonabou trheto irca l

Gambar

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