The implementation of Jigsaw to improve students` participation in English class for seventh grade students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta - USD Repository

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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF JIGSAW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ PARTICIPATION IN ENGLISH CLASS FOR SEVENTH GRADE

  First, the interaction between students to teacher involved asking question related to the materials to the teacher. Second, the interaction between student to studentinvolved three activities, such as asking questions about the text to friends, sharing and retelling the content of the text to friends.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2013

  First, the interaction between students to teacher involved asking question related to the materials to the teacher. Second, the interaction between student to studentinvolved three activities, such as asking questions about the text to friends, sharing and retelling the content of the text to friends.

14. Sample of Students’ Worksheet Results……………………… 15

  Sample of Questionnaire Results…………………….............. 16.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter includes six major points. They are the research background

A. Research Background

  the research problems, the research objectives, the problem limitation, the research benefits, and the definition of terms related to the research. Research Objectives This research was intended to examine the process of how the implementation of the jigsaw technique in class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakartaand how the jigsaw technique improves students’ participation in the classroom.

1. The English Teacher of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  The result of this research was expected to give information about the use of the jigsaw technique to improve students’ participation in English class. The Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta The researcher expected that this research would be useful for the students of the seventh grade of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta to improve their participation in thelearning process of English class.

F. Definition of Key Terms

  To make clear the definition of some terms, the researcher clarifies the following: According to Vandrick (2000) students’ participation is defined as speaking in class, asking and answering questions, making comments andparticipating in discussion (as cited in Klose and Sariefe, 2008, p. They were (1) reading the text loudly (2) asking ques tions related to the text to friends (3) sharing the content of the text to friends (4) retelling the content ofthe text to friends (5) answering questions in the worksheet (6) asking questions related to the material to the teacher.

3. Class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  SMP N 8 Yogyakarta is one of favorite schools in Yogyakartaespecially for the science. In this study, the researcher conducted the research for the seventh grade students of class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter, the researcher describes some theories which are related to

A. Theoretical Description

  In the theoretical framework, the researcher summarizes allmajor relevant theories to solve the research questions. In this theoretical description, the researcher discusses the theories related to the research.

1. Englis h Learning and Teaching Process

  Furthermore, Brown (1987) definesthat teaching as “showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing withknowledge, and causing to know or understand.” (p.4). In teaching English, the teacher can be a facilitator of the students to practice the language.

2. Teaching Adolescent

  In 2001, Patrick, Anderman, Ryan, Edelin, andMidgleyelaboratethat students participation is a number of students ways participate in the class “including offering their ideas and thoughts spontaneously,volunteering to answer questions, answering questions when called on, demonstrating at the chalkboard, talking to peers or the teacher about tasks, andcompleting written work. According to Hawley andHawley (1979), “When students have a high sense of participation and contribution in discussions of academic content, theywill usually find the work meaningful and involving, and they will be stimulated towards the effort necessary for achievement and mastery” (p.

4. Coope rative Learning

  Slavin (1995) describes about the definition of cooperative learning:Cooperative learning refers to a variety of teaching methods in which students work in small group to help one another learn academic content. In addition, Aronson and Patnnoe (1997) elaborate the difference of traditional classroom and cooperative classroom below:The students in a traditional classroom are often rewarded when they succeed in attracting the teacher‟s attention by outshining theircompetitors.

b. Basic Ele ments

  Therefore, the students have to rely on their teammates in order to complete the information of the material. Hakkarainen (1992) elaborates the name of jigsaw technique“students are organized like pieces in a jigsaw to form different kind of groups, where eachstudent (piece) must be part of the solution to the jigsaw puzzle” (p.

b. Rules and Activities

  Then, the students move to a new group which is called expert group to gather with the other friends who have the same parts. Furthermore, Aronson andPatnoe (1978) state that if the speaker in a group senses that she is not being listened to with interestor appreciation, she is likely to feel rejected and to lose the motivation and 205).

c. Benefits

  Slavin(1995) describes “another way to insure participation is to make students expert on some part of the topic, as in group investigation, co-op, and jigsaw, by havingthem do research on their area of expertise” (p. Jigsaw classroom is deal with group discussion that involves the students to participate and work togetherin the classroom.

B. Theoretical Frame work

  Both the students and the teacher should try to use and deliver the language appropriately in Englishlearning and teaching process. (2) The interaction between student to student involved three activities, such as asking questions about the text to friends,sharing the content of the text to friends, and retelling the content of t he text to friends.

CHAPTER II I RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the methodology that was used to conduct the

A. Research Method

  They are the research method, the research setting, the research participants, the research instruments and thedata gathering technique, the data analysis technique, and the research procedure. It was because the researcher wanted to solve a problem that occurred in a particular class andhelped the teacher to increase the quality of learning process.

1. Planning

  In this research, CAR was employed to solve a problem found in class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta about the lack of students’ participation in the learning process. The researcher considered the jigsaw technique to solve it.

2. Acting

  It consisted of six aspects: (1) reading the text loudly (2) asking questions about thetext to friends (3) sharing the content of the text to friends (4) retelling the content of the text to friends (5) answering questions in the worksheet (6) askingquestions related to the material to the teacher. In addition, the researcher invited two observers to fill the students’ participationchecklist and the English teacher of class VII.10 to give feedback about the learning process by filling the observation sheets and taking field notes.

1. Preliminary Study Instrume nts

  They were (1) reading the text loudly (2) asking question about text to friends (3) sharing about text tofriends (4) answering questions in the worksheet (5) asking questions related to the materials to the teacher. Kvale (1983, p.174) defines, the qualitative research interview as "an interview, whose purpose is to gather descriptions of the life-world of theinterviewee with respect to interpretation of the meaning of the described phenomena" (as cited in Opdenakker, 2006).

2. The Implementation of the Jigsaw Technique Instruments

  The students’ participation checklist consisted of 30 students’name and six aspects of the students’ participation in the teaching and learningprocess. They were (1) reading the text loudly (2) asking question related to the text to friends (3) sharing the content of the text to friends (4) retelling the contentof the text to friends (5) answering questions in the worksheet (6) asking question related to the materials to the teacher.

c. Observation Sheets

  The teacher gives the students some questions related to the material in the beginning of the lesson 2. The teacher gives the opportunity to the students to ask about the material to the teacher 4.

2. The students pay attention to the teacher’s explanation

  The students gather in a group of six in the home group 5. The students ask to their friend about the text in the expert group 9.

d. Field Notes

e. Questionnaire

  According to Bogdan and Biklen (1982), “Field notes are the written account of what the researcher hears, sees, experience, and thinks in the The researcher distributed a questionnaire after implementing the jigsaw technique in the last cycle. It was usedto know the students’ participation in the learning process and thestudents’ opinion about the use of the jigsaw technique.

f. Semi-structured Interview

  The researcher interviewed six students after implementing the jigsaw technique in the last cycle in order to get students’ opinion about theimplementation of the jigsaw technique. Within each topic, theinterviewer is free to conduct the conversation as he thinks fit, to ask the questions he deems appropriate in the words he considers best, to giveexplanation and ask for clarification if the answer is not clear, to prompt the respondent to elucidate further if necessary, and to establish his ownstyle of conversation.

E. Data Analysis Technique

  The researcher analyzed the data in order to answer the questions which were formulated in the research problems. According to Cohen & Manion(1997), “Data Triangulation involves the collection of data from multiple sources with the intent to obtain diverse views of the studied phenomenon with thepurpose of enhancing the val idity” (as cited in Ziyani, I., King, U., & Ehlers, V.2004, p.

1 Preliminary Study Result

a. Field Notes In the first observation, the researcher used the field notes to get the dat

  Students ’ Participation Checklist The researcher analyzed the data from the students’ participation checklist by counting the students who participated in the teaching and learning processbased on the five aspects in the observation. The result was analyzedby concluding the statements from the English teacher and the students.

2. The Implementation of the Jigsaw Technique

  The data was analyzed in four aspects; students’ situation in the class, the difficulty and the good things occurred in teachingdescriptive texts using the jigsaw technique, and the suggestion for improving the teaching technique. Theformula to calculate the questionnaire was presented below: × 100%P= P = percentageFo = frequency observedN = number of sample If the result of each number showed more than 50%, it meant that the students had good responses to the statements in the questionnaire.

F. Research Procedure

  The researcher conducted the preliminary study to observe the situation in the classroom when the teacher delivered thematerials and the teacher’s way to teach the students. In the post activity, the researcher concluded and gave feedback to the students about the lesson.

7. Reflecting

  After analyzing the data, the researcher made a reflection in order to get better result in the next cycle. In the last cycle, the researcher used a questionnaire andinterviews to make the reflection.

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION This chapter consists of three sections. The first section reveals the result

  The second reveals the description of the implementation of the jigsaw technique. In this research, the researcher conducted three meetings for three cycles.

A. Preliminary Study

  The researcher conducted preliminary study twice in class VII.10. The researcher discussed thepreliminary study result in three parts.

1. First Observation Result

  The teacher often asked the students to answer the question by pointing them directly than let thestudents offered themselves to answer the question. After that, the teacher asked the students to do the exercise from the textbook, Let’s Talk for Seventh Grade.

2. Second Observation Result

  In the beginning of the lesson, the teacher directly asked the students to read the text loudly from thetextbook, Let’s Talk for Seventh Grade, about describing animal titled “My Timmy”. Five boys in the left side played witha plaster to tie their friends’ shoes, whereas, two girls and three boys came to the front of the class to ask about some vocabularies to the teacher.

3. Preliminary Study Discussion

  More than a half of the total of the students did not participate and follow the learning process in the classroom. The result of the interviewshowed that the problem of the s tudents’ participation occurred in the class.

B. The Description of the Imple mentation of the Jigsaw Technique

1. Cycle 1

  The first cycle was conducted on Wednesday, March 13, 2013 at 10.10 up to 11.30. It was conducted in one meeting.

a. Planning for Cycle 1

  In the second group, the researcher asked the students to gather with their friends who had the same title of the descriptive text. They were retelling the content of the text and answering questions in the worksheet in the group.

b. Acting for Cycle 1

  b) Expert GroupThe next step, the researcher gave an instruction to the students who had the text titled “My President” to stand up, move and gather in one group. In this section, the observers assessed the students’participation for asking their friends about the text and sharing the content of their text.

c. Observing for Cycle 1 In this stage, the researcher had roles as an observer and teacher

  The teacher gives the students some questions related to the material in the beginning of the lesson  2. The teacher gives the opportunity to the students to ask about the material to the teacher  4.

4.4 Students’ Participation of Cycle 1

  It was showed by the number of the students who wasonly a half of the total students in that class asked questions related to the text to their friends. It was quiet digressed from the indicator of the lesson that the students are able to comprehend the text byretelling the content of the text to their friends.

d. Reflecting for Cycle 1

  However, they wanted to read their texts in the In this meeting, the researcher found the problems related to the time management, moving group, and texts materials. Besides, the researcher provided difficult vocabularies in each text in order to make thestudents check the meaning of the words in the dictionaries.

2. Cycle 2

  The researcher implemented the jigsaw technique for class VII.10. There were 30 students in the class: 16 girls and14 boys.

a. Planning of Cycle 2

  The researcher also provided the difficult vocabularies in each text.2) Lesson Plan of Cycle 2 The activity in this second cycle was almost similar to the activity in the cycle one. Then, the students moved to the expert group which had the same paragraph of the text.

b. Acting for Cycle 2

  The researcher asked the students to find the meaning of the difficult words in eachtext in order to make them understand the text. In this section, the o bservers filled the students’participation checklist for two criteria: the students retold the content of the text to friends in the group and the students answered questions in the worksheet.

c. Observing for Cycle 2 In this stage, the researcher had role as an observer and a teacher

  Besides, the researcher let the students ask the material to her and involve in each group by moving around in the groups. While the students were explaining the content of the text based on what they had learnt in the expert group, each student in the home groupanswered five questions in the worksheet about “Bunaken National Marine Park”.

d) Students’ participation table

  It rose in the part of reading the text loudly, asking questions to their friends in the group, and answering questions in the worksheet. However, it decreased in the criteria of sharing and retelling the The result revealed that the students’ participation were not in low levels anymore.

d. Reflecting for Cycle 2

  In the case of copying the other students’ work, the researcher had to consider the way to make the students work individually. While for the problem of decreasingthe students’ participation in sharing the text and retelling the content of the text, the researcher made a treatment for the students.

3. Cycle 3

  The researcher implemented the jigsaw technique for class VII.10. There were 30 students in the class; 16 girls and14 boys.

a. Planning for Cycle 3

  The researcher alsowanted to solve the previous problem about cheating, talking other things outside the materials, decreasing the students’ participation in sharing the text in theexpert group, and retelling the content of the text in home group from cycle 1 to cycle 2. In order to avoid the students cheatedtheir friends’ work to answer the comprehension questions, the students had to answer the worksheet when theybacked to the normal sit.

b. Acting for Cycle 3

  The researcher asked the students to find the meaning of the difficult words in each text in order to make them understood the text. Based on the result of cycle two in which they copied their friends’ work in answering the worksheet in the home group, the researcher gave the worksheet to them in thenormal sit.

c. Observing for Cycle 3 In this stage, the researcher had roles as an observer and a teacher

  The teacher gives the opportunity to the students to ask about the material to the teacher  2. The teacher asks the students to share their text in the expert group Table 4.8 showed that the researcher could deliver the material orderly.

d. Reflecting for Cycle 3

  They were (1)managing the time to explain the material, (2) accompanying the students in the group, (3) the classroom was small, and (4) the improvement of students’ participation was already maximal. If the students’ participation in the cycle 3 was compared with the students’ participation in the preliminary study, the students’ participation in cycle 3 wasbetter.

3) Intervie w Result

  Besides, I can learn English fluently and it is interesting)The second question was about the benefits of using the jigsaw technique to the students in learning English. Besides, it helps the students understand the meaning of each word.) “Ya kalo ada kata kata kalimat yang susah bisa sharing sama temen temennya di master group jadi tau deh.” (Nd#2) (I can share the difficult words with my friends in the master group.)The third question was about the difficulty of using the jigsaw technique to learn English.

4) Questionnaire Result

  The researcher distributed the questionnaire to 30 students to know their participation in the class and their opinion about the use of the jigsaw technique. There were more than 50% of the students Q uestion number seven was about the students’ participation to retell thecontent of the text in the home group.

b) Students’ Opinion about the Jigsaw Technique

  Question numbers nine up to fifteen were the questions which showed students’ opinion about the use of the jigsaw technique in English class. 80%of the students revealed that the use of the jigsaw technique could make them speak actively in the group discussion.

5) Summary of the Students’ Participation Improvement

  The researcher analyzed the comparison of the students’ participation improvement results from thepreliminary study, cycle 1, cycle 2, and cycle 3 below: Table 4.11 Students’ Participation Improvement in Percentage No. Asking questions related to 4 14 14 18 the material to the teacherTables 4.11 and 4.12 showed that the students’ participation improvedfrom the preliminary observation to the implementation of the jigsaw technique.

1. Reading the Text Loudly

  Sharing the Content of the Text In the preliminary observation, the students had low participation in sharing the content of the text to their friends. Asking Question Related to the Material to the Teacher In the preliminary study, the students’ participation in asking questions about the materials to the teacher was very low.

C. The Way of the Jigsaw Technique in Improving the Students’ Participations of VII.10 Students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  The research process was described in the previous section. The researcher divided the discussions of how jigsaw technique improvesstudents’ participation into two sections.

1. Three Kinds of Interaction

Based on the Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007), the students’ participation in the class can be defined in terms of three kinds of interaction:

a. Student to Teacher

  The interaction among the students and the teacher occurred in the implementation of the jigsaw technique. In this research, the interaction amongthe students and the teacher was the students asked questions related to the material to the teacher.

b. Student to Student

  In this research, the interaction between student and student was the students asked questions related to the text, shared and retell the content of thetext to friends in the group. Besides, the students tried to ask the content of the text to their friends in order to achieve the group goal .

c. Student to Material

  In this research, the interaction among the students and the material occurred when the students read the text loudly in front of their friends and thestudents answered questions in the worksheet. They made reactions to respond to the material by asking questions related to the handout.

2. Jigsaw Technique for Group Learning Activities

According to Hakkarainen (2012) jigsaw technique is a group work method for learning and participating in the following group learning activities:

a. Listening

  In the implementation of the jigsaw technique, the students of class VII.10 had tried to speak and be agood resource by retelling and presenting the content of the text. Reflective Thinking The students tried to reflect the results of the expert group discussion by retelling the content of the text to their friends in the home group.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter consists of the research conclusions and the suggestions for

A. Conclusions

  This research was conducted to find out how the implementation of the jigsaw technique in the classroom and how the jigsaw technique improved thestudents’ participation class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. From the students’participation checklists, the researcher concluded that the students’ participation improved significantly in the six aspects of students’ participation from thepreliminary study to the last cycle.

B. Suggestions

The researcher addressed the suggestions for the English teachers of seventh grade students of Junior High School and other researchers.

1. For Englis h Teache rs of Seventh Grade Students of Junior High School

2. For Other Researcher

  Besides, it is better if the researcher can providea large place for implementing the jigsaw technique in order to make the students feel comfortable in the discussion activity. In addition, the next researcher s shouldprepare the variation of interesting texts to avoid the boredom of the students.

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