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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF JIGSAW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’

PARTICIPATION IN ENGLISH CLASS FOR SEVENTH GRADE

STUDENTS OF SMP N 8 YOGYAKARTA

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Require ments to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

  By Pipiet Dhanayu Pratiwindya

  Student Number: 091214134

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2013

  

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF JIGSAW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’

PARTICIPATION IN ENGLISH CLASS FOR SEVENTH GRADE

STUDENTS OF SMP N 8 YOGYAKARTA

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

  

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Require ments

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

  By Pipiet Dhanayu Pratiwindya

  Student Number: 091214134

  

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

2013

  

“Twenty years from now you will be

more disappointed by the things that

you didn't do than by the ones you did

do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail

away from the safe harbor. Catch the

trade winds in your sails. Explore.

  Dream.Discover.” H. Jackson Brown Jr.

  This thesis is dedicated to: My beloved father, mother, and brothers

  

ABSTRACT

  Pratiwindya, Pipiet Dhanayu 2013. The Implementation of Jigsaw to Improve

  Student s’ Participation in English Class for Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

  Students’ participation is the important factor in teaching and learning process to achieve learning goals . The students’ participation is influenced by some factors, such as teacher’s way of teaching and students’ condition. The students should be given enough time to practice English in the classroom. From the preliminary study result, the problem of low participation in English learning occurred in class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. This class was different from the other classes because the students were passive in following English learning. From thirty students, there were more than fifteen students had low participation. Besides, the teacher used traditional method in every teaching and did not involve the students to practice English. It caused the students feel bored and do not participate in the class. Therefore, the researcher implemented jigsaw technique to improve the student s’ participation. This research was conducted to answer two research questions: (1) How is the implementation of jigsaw technique in the class

  VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta? (2) Does the implementation of jigsaw technique improve the students’ participation? The researcher employed classroom action research based on Kemmis and

  McTaggart model for three cycles during three meetings. It consisted of four stages in every cycle: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The

  th th

  implementation was conducted on March 13 , 18th, and April 3 , 2013. The data was obtained from observation sheets, students’ participation checklist, field notes, questionnaire, and interviews. The researcher analyzed the students’ participation through three kinds of interactions proposed by Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007). They are the interaction between students to teacher, student to students, and student to material.

  In this research, the students’ participation which occurred during the implementation of jigsaw technique was divided into three kinds of interaction. First, the interaction between students to teacher involved asking question related to the materials to the teacher. Second, the interaction between student to student involved three activities, such as asking questions about the text to friends, sharing and retelling the content of the text to friends. Third, the interaction between students and material was categorized into two activities, such as reading the text loudly and answering questions in the worksheet. Therefore, there were six students’ participation activities which were analyzed in this research. The result showed that the implementation of jigsaw technique could improve the students’ participation. The students improved their participation in each cycle from the preliminary study result. It was proved by the students’ participation checklists which revealed the improvement of t he students’ participation.

  

ABSTRAK

  Pratiwindya, Pipiet Dhanayu 2013. The Implementation of Jigsaw to Improve

  

Students’ Participation in English Classfor Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 8

Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

  Partisipasi siswa adalah faktor penting di dalam proses belajar mengajar untuk mencapaitujuan pembelajaran. Partisipasi siswa dapat dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, diantaranya adalah cara guru mengajar dan kondisi siswa.Para siswa seharusnya diberikan cukup waktu untuk berlatih berbahasa Inggris di kelas. Berdasarkan pra-observasi, masalah mengenai rendahnya partisipasi siswa dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris terjadi di kelas VII.10 SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. Kelas tersebut berbeda dengan kelas lainnya karena siswa pasif dalam mengikuti pelajaran bahasa Inggris di dalam kelas. Dari 30 siswa, lebih dari 15 siswa mempunyai partisipasi rendah. Disamping hal itu, guru menggunakan metode tradisioanl setiap mengajar dan tidak melibatkan para siswa untuk berlatih berbahasa Inggris. Hal ini menyebabkan siswa merasa bosan dan tidak berpartisipasi di dalam kelas. Oleh karena itu, peneliti menerapkan tehnik

  

jigsaw untuk meningkatkan partisipasi siswa kelas VII.10. Penelitian ini dilakukan

  untuk menjawab dua pertanyaan penelitian: (1) Bagaimanakah penerapan tehnik

  

jigsaw di kelas VII.10 SMP N 8 Yogyakarta? (2) Apakah penerapan tehnik jigsaw

  di kelas dapat meningkatkan partisipasi siswa? Peneliti menggunakan sebuah penelitian tindakan kelas berdasarkan model

  Kemmis dan McTaggart untuk tiga siklus selama tiga kali pertemuan. Penelitian ini terdiri dari empat tahap di setiap siklus: rencana, tindakan, observasi, dan refleksi. Penerapan dilakukan pada tanggal 13, 18 Ma ret 2013 dan 3 April 2013. Data diperoleh dari lembar observasi pengamatan aktivitas di kelas, daftar ceking partisipasi siswa, catatan lapangan, kuesioner, dan wawancara.Peneliti menganalisa partisipasi siswa melalui tiga macam interaksi yang dijelaskan oleh Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007), yaitu interaksi antara siswa dan guru, interaksi antara siswa dan siswa, dan interaksi antara siswa dan materi.

  Pada penelitian ini, partisipasi siswa yang terjadi selama penerapan teknik

  

jigsaw dibedakan ke dalam tiga macam interaksi. Pertama, interaksi antara siswa

  dan guru berarti siswa bertanya tentang materi kepada guru. Kedua, interaksi antara siswa dan siswa berarti siswabertanya tentang isi teks kepada teman, siswaberbagi isi teks dan menceritakan ulang isi teks kepada teman. Ketiga, interaksi antara siswa dan materi berarti siswa membaca teks dengan keras dan menjawab soal di lembar soal. Jadi, terdapat enam aktifitas partisipasi siswa yang disertakan ke dalam tiga macam interaksi di dalam kelas. Hasil dari penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa penerapan tehnik jigsaw dapat meningkatkan partisipasi siswa. Para siswa mengalami peningkatan partisipasi di setiap siklus dari hasil pra-observasi. Hal ini dibuktikan dari daftar ceking partisipasi siswa yang menyatakan tentang peningkatan partisipasi siswa.

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  It is a blessing so that I can finish my thesis. My deepest gratitude is for

  

Allah SWT, who always accompanies me wherever I am and listens to my

happiness and sorrows about my thesis whenever I want.

  This thesis could finish because of assistance from my major sponsor

  

Caecilia Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd. I thank her because she supported and guided

me to complete my thesis patiently.

  Then I would like to thank H. Suharno, S.Pd., S.Pd. T., M.Pd., the Headmaster of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta, who allowed and supported me to conduct my research. I would also like address my thanks to Drs. H. Sucipta, MM.,

  

Sutarto, S.Pd., Dra. Septiana Listianingrum and Sugiharti, S.Pd., the teacher

  of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta, who guided, supported, and gave me suggestions in conducting my research. I would like to thank all students of class VII 10 of SMP

  N 8 Yogyakarta for the cooperativeness during the research.

  I really thank Drs. Barli Bram, M.Ed., Ph.D., Drs. Y.B. Gunawan,

  

M.A., Christina Lhaksmita Anandari, S.Pd., Ed.M., and C. Sih Prabandari,

S.Pd., M.Hum., the lecturers of the English Language Education Study Program

  of Sanata Dharma University for the suggestions. I would thank Bu Danikand Bu

  

Tari, PBI secretariat staff, whohelpedme to manage all of the things related to

  administration. I would also thank the staffs of Perpustakaan Sanata Dharma for all the services to provide many books so I can finish my thesis.

  I also deliver my deepest gratitude to my beloved parents, Drs. Maryoto and Ustiyah for their never ending love, supporting all my activities, and teaching me everything about life. They are my inspiration. I am also so grateful for having brothers, my older brother Vidi Andika Wisnu Adi Candra and my younger brother Vicky Mahendra Bagaskara. I thank them for protecting and supporting me. I would also thank my grandparents and my big family, Harso Mulyono and

  

Rr. Putri Pranitaningrum, S.Pd., for being my proof reader. She is a very kind

person who gave me constructive comments on my thesis.

  I also thank my best friends ever in this campus Sekar, Helen, Niken, Ita,

  

Friska, Berta, Deni, Bruder Markus, Leo, Dimas, Wanda, and my High

  School best friends, Wawa, Arum, Tenten, Nyit-nyit, Criwil and Melon for the ‘crazy time’ together. I have shoulders to cry on every time I could not stand by myself. I hope our friendship will be lasting forever. I also thank Vita, Wilda,

  

Mbak Sisi, Mbak Hana, Tia, Budi, Tari, Dian, Ajeng, and Bu RW for

supporting my thesis.

  Finally, I would like to thank everybody whom cannot be mentioned on this page for supporting me and painting my days. I realize that the research is still not perfect. Therefore, I need suggestions to make this research better. I hope this research can be useful for others.

  The writer, Pipiet Dhanayu Pratiwindya

  TABLE OF CONTENTS

  Page i TITILE PAGE ……………………………………………………………... ii

  APPROVAL PAGES ……………………………………………………… iv STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ……………………………. v DEDICATION PAGE …………………………………………………….. vi

  PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ………………………….….

  vii ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………..…

  ABSTRAK

  viii ……………………………………………………………..…… ix

  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………...... xi

  TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………..… LIST OF TABLES xiv ……………………………………………………….... xv LIST OF FIGURE………………………………………………………...... xvi LIST OF APPENDICES …………………………………………………...

  CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION.............................................................

  1 A.

  1 Research Background...................................................

  B.

  5 Problem Limitation.......................................................

  C.

  5 Research Problems.......................................................

  D.

  5 Research Objectives.....................................................

  E.

  5 Research Benefits.........................................................

  F.

  6 Definition of Key Terms..............................................

  CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  9 …….....……..

  A.

  9 Theoretical Description................................................

  1.

  9 English Learning and Teaching Process..................

  2.

  11 Teaching Adolescent………………………….......

  3.

  12 Students’ Participation….........................................

  4.

  15 Cooperative Learning Method.................................

  5.

  18 Jigsaw……………..................................................

  B.

  21 Theoretical Framework................................................

  CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  24 …………………….......

  A.

  24 Research Method............................................................

  B.

  28 Research Setting……………………………………....

  C.

  28 Research Participants.....................................................

  D.

  Research Instruments and Data Gathering Technique.......................................................................

  28 E.

  37 Data Analysis Technique..............................................

  F.

  41 Research Procedure.......................................................

  CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

  45 ………....

  A.

  45 Preliminary study..........................................................

  1. First Ob 45 servation Result…………….………..........

  2. Second

  47 Observation Result…………………..........

  3. Prelimi 48 nary Study Discussion………………..........

  B.

  The Description of the Implementation of the Jigsaw Technique.........................................................

  49

  49 1. Cycle 1……………………………………….........

  a. Planning for

  50 Cycle 1……………….……….......

  53 b. Acting for Cycle 1…………………………......

  c. Observing for Cycle

  55 1…………………….…....

  d. Reflecting for

  60 Cycle 1……………………….....

  64 2. Cycle 2……………………………………............

  a. Planning for

  64 Cycle 2…………….………….......

  66 b. Acting for Cycle 2…………………..…….…...

  68 c. Observing for Cycle 2……………….………....

  72 d. Reflecting for Cycle 2……………………….....

  74 3. Cycle 3…………………………………..…............

  a. Planning for Cycle 3

  74 ……………...……….….....

  b. Acting for Cycle 3

  76 ……………………….….......

  c. Observing for Cyc

  79 le 3………………….….........

  82 d. Reflecting for Cycle 3………………….…….....

  C.

  The Way of the Jigsaw Technique in Improving the Students’ Participations of VII.10 Students of SMP N 8

  92 Yogyakarta……………………………………...........

  1. Three Kinds of Interaction........................................

  93 2. Jigsaw Technique for Group Learning activities.....

  95 CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

  99 ………….........

  A.

  99 Conclusions...........................................................

  B.

  101 Suggestions...........................................................

  REFERENCES................................................................................................ 103

  

LIST OF TABLES

  59 Table 4.5 Observation Shee t of Researcher’s Activity……………..….

  89

  Students’ Participation Improvement in Quantity…………..

Table 4.12 Students’ Participation Improvement in Percentage………...

  82 Table 4.11

  80 Table 4.10 Students’ Participation of Cycle 3………………………......

  79 Table 4.9 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity.…….………...........

  71 Table 4.8 Observation Sheet of Researcher’s Activity………………...

  69 Table 4.7 Students’ Participation of Cycle 2..........................................

  68 Table 4.6 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity.................................

  57 Table 4.4 Students’ Participation of Cycle 1..………………………....

  Table Page

  56 Table 4.3 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity ...………………….

  48 Table 4.2 Observation Sheet of Researcher’s Activity….......................

  39 Table 4.1 Students’ Participation of SecondObservation……..………

  35 Table 3.6 Qualification of Checklist Score…………………..…...........

  34 Table 3.5 Sample of Questionnaire…………………………...………..

  33 Table 3.4 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity…………………….

  33 Table 3.3 Observation Sheet of Researcher’s Activity………………...

  30 Table 3.2 Sample of Students’ Participation Checklist……..……….....

Table 3.1 Sample of Students’ Participation Checklist…………...........

  90

  

LIST OF FIGURE

  Figure Page

  Figure 3.1

  25 Kemmis and McTaggart’s Cycle Model…………….......

  

LIST OF APPENDICES

  Appendix Page

  A. Covering Letter for the Head of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta ……………. 106

  B. Research Official Statement from SMP N 8 Yogyakarta ….……..... 108

  C. Research Instruments ………………………………….…............... 110 1.

  111 Observation Sheets……………………………….…...............

  2.

  113 Students’ Participation Checklist……………………..............

  3.

  117 Field Notes Guide…………………………………….............

  4.

  118 Questionnaire……………………………………………….....

  5.

  121 Interviews Guide……………………………………...............

  D. Learning Materials 124 ……………………….…………………….......

  1.

  125 Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle One……..….....

  2.

  139 Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle Two…..............

  3.

  148 Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle Three………....

  E. Raw Data 158 ………………………………………………….…...…..

  1. Students’ Participation Checklist Result of Preliminary Study

  159 ……………………………………………………...…..

  2.

  161 Students’ Participation Checklist Resultsof Cycle One…......

  3.

  165 Students’ Participation Checklist Results of Cycle Two…..… 4.

  169 Students’ Participation Checklist Results of Cycle Three…....

  5.

  173 Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle One….….....................

  6.

  174 Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Two……….…............

  7.

  175 Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Three………...……....

  8.

  176 Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle One………............

  9.

  178 Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Two………...........

  10.

  179 Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Three……..............

  11.

  180 Observation Sheet Results of Cycle One……………..............

  12.

  182 Observation Sheet Results of Cycle Two……………..………

14. Sample of Students’ Worksheet Results……………………… 15.

  Sample of Questionnaire Results……………………..............

  16. Interviews Transcript………………………...…..…………… 186 192 197

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter includes six major points. They are the research background,

  the research problems, the research objectives, the problem limitation, the research benefits, and the definition of terms related to the research.

A. Research Background

  A teaching learning process is the interaction among a teacher and students in the classroom. There is a crucial factor which influences the teaching and learning process. Students’ participation is the important factor because it gives an impact of the success of teaching and learning process. Cohen (1991) states “participation is a way to bring students actively into the educational process and to assist in enhancing our teaching and bringing life to the classroom

  ” (p. 699). Students should contribute their participation in the teaching and learning process in order to achieve learning goals.

  Ramsden (1992) describes “students who are actively involved in class are more likely to understand material presented” (as cited in Sariefe and Klose, 2008, p. 2).

  The students’ participation refers to the students’ involvement in following the le arning process. There are numerous kinds of students’ participation in the classroom, such as paying attention to the teacher’s explanation, asking and answering questions, giving comments about the material, doing assignments, contributing ideas in a group discussion, and performing their works. According to Vandrick (2000), “Participation is defined as speaking in class, asking and answering questions, making comments and participating in discussion” (as cited in Sariefe and Klose, 2008, p. 2).

  In the English teaching and learning process, the students should participate in order to know their achievement in learning so mething. Tatar (2005) sta tes “active classroom participation played an important role in the success of education and students’ personal development in the future” (p. 145). The teacher has to encourage the students to participate in the class in order to achieve the teaching and learning goal. The teacher should create a learning activity which makes the students are motivated to follow the lesson. In addition, the implementation of a teaching method influences the students’ participation in the classroom. Felder (2001) states that if the teacher uses monotonous teaching style, the students may become bored and inattentive in class, do poorly on tests, and get discouraged about the courses (p. 2). Therefore, the students are reluctant to contribute their participation in the classroom. To overcome this problem, the teacher should find an appropriate method in the teaching and learning proces s.

  In this research, the researcher employed classroom action research to improve the students’ participation in English class. The research was conducted in the class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. This class was different from the other classes of seventh grades in SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. It was because the students had less participation in English class. The researcher had conducted preliminary study twice in that class. In the preliminary study, the researcher noted a major problem found in the class VII.10. The students did not participate in the teaching and learning process From thirty students, there were more than fifteen students who had low participation, especially the girls. Six students were noisy and busy with themselves in the back. The girls tended to be silent when the teacher asked some questions. While in the discussion activity, three girls played with their cell phones and talked about other things outside the topic of the lesson. On the other hand, four boys in the back drew unimportant things in their books and played with their gadgets.

  The researcher found that the teacher did not give all students enough opportunity to participate in the learning process. The teacher liked to point the same student to answer questions related to the materials. It was because the student was active in the classroom. The researcher noted that the teacher used a traditional method. The teacher explained the material briefly, then asking the students to do the assignment by discussing with their friends. The researcher also found that the teacher did not give feedback about the result of the students’ homework.

  The researcher conducted an interview with three students and gave a questionnaire to the thirty students. The students stated that they felt bored in the class because the teacher often used the same teaching technique. They also noted some factors, such as laziness, feeling sleepy and hungry, having problems, and teaching styles influenced their moods to participate in the learning process.

  A teacher and students have important roles in the teaching and learning process. Both of the teacher and students should involve in the learning process in order to make the learning process work well. The teacher should provide an activity which makes all students participate in the learning process. The teaching method and classroom activities have an important role in this case. The teacher should apply a method where all students can participate in the teaching and learning process.

  Therefore, the researcher tried to find out the solution to the problem. There are various teaching methods which are offered in the education world recently. A teacher should choose an effective method which is suitable for the classroom condition. The researcher considered one of the techniques in cooperative learning method. This method covers a technique which invites the students to cooperate with others. It is jigsaw technique. Slavin (1995) states “another way to insure participation is to make students expert on some part of the topic by having them do research on their area of expertise” (p. 130). In addition,

  Aronson (2002) describes “jigsaw classroom is like in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece- each student's part- is essential for the completion and full understa nding of the final product” (p. 114). By using the jigsaw technique, all students have an opportunity to participate in the class. It is because each student has responsibility to master their parts in the group in order to complete their information.

  Therefore, this research is conducted to implement the jigsaw technique to improve the students’ participation in the English class.

  B. Problem Limitation

  The focus of this research was to investigate the use of the jigsaw technique to improve students’ participation in the classroom. The researcher employed classroom action research for the VII.10 students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. There were 30 students in the class. They consisted of 16 girls and 14 boys.

  C. Research Problems

  This research was conducted to answer two questions. The questions were: (1) How is the implementation of jigsaw technique in the class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta? (2) Does the implementation of jigsaw technique improve the students’ participation?

  D. Research Objectives

  This research was intended to examine the process of how the implementation of the jigsaw technique in class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta and how the jigsaw technique improves students’ participation in the classroom.

  E. Research Benefits

  This research was expected to give benefits to:

1. The English Teacher of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  The result of this research was expected to give information about the use Because this technique was new for the teacher of seventh grade in SMP N 8 Yogyakarta, it could be a reference to improve students’ participation through the implementation of the jigsaw technique in the class.

  2. The Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  The researcher expected that this research would be useful for the students of the seventh grade of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta to improve their participation in the learning process of English class. Therefore, the students could achieve the goal of the lesson.

  3. Other Researchers

  It was expected to give information to other researchers who want to conduct further research about similar topic.

F. Definition of Key Terms

  To make clear the definition of some terms, the researcher clarifies the following:

1. Students’ Participation

  According to Vandrick (2000) students’ participation is defined as speaking in class, asking and answering questions, making comments and participating in discussion (as cited in Klose and Sariefe, 2008, p. 2). Furthermore, Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007: 1) proposes that student participation can be defined in terms of three kinds of interaction: student to teacher, student to student, and student to material.

  In this research, students’ participation was the contribution of the students to participate in the group work and classroom. It was divided in six criteria.

  They were (1) reading the text loudly (2) asking ques tions related to the text to friends (3) sharing the content of the text to friends (4) retelling the content of the text to friends (5) answering questions in the worksheet (6) asking questions related to the material to the teacher. Then, the researcher analyzed those six criteria of students’ participation by using the three kinds of interaction in the classroom.

2. Jigsaw

  Aronson (2002) explains jigsaw: The jigsaw structure encourages listening, engagement, and empathy by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in academic activity. Group members must work together as a team to accomplish a common goal; each person depends on all the others (as cited in Berger and Hanze, 2007, p. 30). In this research, jigsaw technique was implemented in the group work activity. There were three groups sections in the jigsaw activity. They were home group part 1, expert group, and home group part 2. The first group section was called home group part 1. In this section, there were six groups and each group consisted of five members. Each student had different paragraph of a descriptive text. Then, they moved to the second group which was called expert group. In this section, the student gathered with their friends who had the same paragraph to comprehend and understand the paragraph.

  After that, they returned to their home group to retell what they had learnt in the expert group. This section was called home group part 2. In the end of the lesson, the students were assessed by answering questions in the worksheet. Therefore, in this study, the jigsaw technique had a goal to make the students participate in the teamwork and classroom.

3. Class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  The seventh grade students are students whose age is around eleven to thirteen. SMP N 8 Yogyakarta is one of favorite schools in Yogyakarta especially for the science. In this study, the researcher conducted the research for the seventh grade students of class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. They were 30 students in the class. This class was different from the other classes. Some students have good abilities in English. However, almost all girls and some boys were passive in English teaching and learning process es. They needed improvement to participate in the class. Therefore, the researcher conducted research in this class.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter, the researcher describes some theories which are related to

  the research. This chapter is divided into two parts, namely the theoretical description and the theoretical framework. The theoretical description covers the theories which are related to the implementation of the jigsaw technique. It includes theories of English learning and teaching process, theories of adolescent, theories of students‟ participation, theories of cooperative learning method, andtheories of jigsaw. In the theoretical framework, the researcher summarizes all major relevant theories to solve the research questions.

A. Theoretical Description

  In this theoretical description, the researcher discusses the theories related to the research.

1. Englis h Learning and Teaching Process

  In this globalization era, English is important to be learnt. However, learning English as a foreign language is not easy without any practices. Brown (1987) states “how to learn a foreign language without really trying” (p. 1). It means that if learners want to master English, they must do a lot of practice. They must practice listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

  In Indonesia, the students are obligated to learn English by the and the teacher should try to use and deliver the language appropriately. In addition, the students need motivation to learn English, especially for Junior High School students. According to B rown (1987), “Motivation is commonly thought of as an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves one to a particular action” (p. 114). It means that motivation is one of factors which influence people to do something. When the students are motivated to learn English, they will participate to follow the English learning process in the classroom.

  Brown (1987) explains that teaching cannot be defined apart from learning. Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, and setting the conditions for learning (p. 7). Furthermore, Brown (1987) defines that teaching as “showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, and causing to know or understand.” (p.4). Brown (1987) also describes that learning is acquiring o r getting knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction (p. 6).

  In teaching English, the teacher can be a facilitator of the students to practice the language.

  Finocchiaro (1958) states “the teacher is the most important single el ement in any teaching situation” (p. 10). There are no good or bad methods; there are only good or bad teachers. It means that teacher‟s skill is important in the teaching process.

  Teaching and learning English also deals with communicative aspect. Savign on (1983) notes “communicative competence is relative, not absolute, and depends on the cooperation of all the participants involved” (p. 9). It means that the cooperativeness of each participant in classroom is needed. Both of a teacher and students should contribute their participation to succeed in the teaching and learning English. In short, participation in the teaching and learning English process gives advantages to the teacher and the students. The teacher can handle the class and makes the students are active to follow the English learning process.

  Therefore, the purpose of learning English can be achieved.

2. Teaching Adolescent

  According to Landis (1952), “The adolescent-youth group is made up of persons twelve to twenty- four years of age; psychologically, of those who are trying to bridge the gap between dependent childhood and self-sufficient adulthood” (p. 21). In this stage, junior high school students are included as adolescent”. Furthermore, Hamachek (1990) elaborates adolescent:

  Adolescent is an intensely social period in the development continuum. A great many adolescent activities are done in groups, and in subgroups or cliques with the groups, and in same-sex or opposite-sex pairs. The participants‟ primary motivation is not necessarily to know others (although that is part of it), but to know themselves through feedback from others (p. 176).

  It means that adolescent period likes to make a group in their social environment. In teaching and learning process, adolescent enjoys working with their friends in the group discussion. Therefore, the teacher can use a group work activity to teach the adolescent.

  Besides, many factors can influence adolescent in following the teaching and learning process. Hawley andHawley (1979 ) state “if students are hungry or thirsty or need to go to the bathroom, these temporary physical distresses will divert their attention and reduce their ability to concentrate and thus affect their potential for learning” (p. 5).Hawley andHawley (1979) add that negative factors may arise “when a student is upset or frustrated by a crisis at home or when a student is angry at or scared by others in the classroom, his/her learning performance will surely be affected” (p. 6).

3. Students’ Participation

  The fundamental factor to succeed in the teaching and learning process is participation.

  In the classroom, the students‟ participation is exceedingly required to make the learning work well. The teacher needs the students‟ participation in order to succeed in the goal of the learning. The students‟ participation means that the students make interactions in the classroom. Schreyer Institute for Teaching

  Excellence (2007: 1) describes that the students‟ participation in the class can be defined in terms of three kinds of interaction:

  a. Student to Teacher It means that the students interact with the teacher in the classroom. They involve in what is happening at the time the class meets by asking questions about the lesson, sharing a personal experience in relationship to the topic, or volunteering to demonstrate an activity. b. Student to Student It means that the students can interact with others by discussing their ideas in small groups and helping one another. In this interaction, the students often contribute their participation in the group work activity.

  c. Student to Material Students successfullyinteract with their material by completing the assigned readings, reaction papers, case studies, and class activities. When working in small groups, it is helpful for students to keep their written compilation of the discussions.

  There are numerous kinds of students‟ participation which can be included in those three kinds of interaction in the classroom. According to Vandrick (2000), “Participation is defined as speaking in class, asking and answering questions, making comments and participating in discussion” (as cited in Sariefe and Klose, 2008, p. 2). It concludes that students‟ participation covers individual participation in the classroom and individual participation in the group work.

  Numerous definitions of students‟ participation in the classroom are proposed by some experts. In 2001, Patrick, Anderman, Ryan, Edelin, and Midgleyelaboratethat students participation is a number of students ways participate in the class “including offering their ideas and thoughts spontaneously, volunteering to answer questions, answering questions when called on, demonstrating at the chalkboard, talking to peers or the teacher about tasks, and completing written work.

  ”(p. 2). In addition, Davis (1990) states that participation “as mental and emotional involvement of persons of person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share responsibility in them” (p.

  24) . It refers to students‟ participation in the group discussion. The students can improve their participation through an activity which let them discuss something.

  While, Wade (1994 ) considers the „„ideal class discussion‟‟ as one in which almost all students participate and are interested, learning, and listening to ot hers‟ comments and suggestions (p. 237)

  . Those explanations mean that students‟ participation is important in the classroom to enliven the learning. It also gives a benefit to the students. It is because they can learn English better through group discussion activity.

  According to Hawley and Hawley (1979), “When students have a high sense of participation and contribution in discussions of academic content, they will usually find the work meaningful and involving, and they will be stimulated towards the effort necessary for achieve ment and mastery” (p. 84). In addition,

  Hawley and Hawley (1979) elaborate supportive environment: When students feel that their efforts will be supported by others, this confidence will help them to relax and concentrate on the work at hand. Furthermore, a supportive environment can help students to cooperate successfully with each other, combining to solve problems, sharing ideas and information where appropriate, and learning from each other in the process (p. 46).

4. Coope rative Learning

  The researcher divided the explanation of thecooperativelearning in five parts. They are definition, basic elements, principal characteristics, types, and benefits.

a. Definition

  Numerous teaching methods to teach students are offered in the education world nowadays. Cooperative learning is one of teaching methods that involves the students to work together in a group. Oxford (1997) reveals that cooperative l earning “is more structured more perspective to teachers about classroom techniques, more direct ives to students about how to work together in groups” (as cited in Brown, 1987, p. 53).

  Cooperative learning is a method that involves students to participa te in the small group works. Johnson and Johnson (1980 ) state “small group are conducive to active participation-which may be one reason why children tend to find cooperative learning groups more enjoyable than working independently” (p.

  92). Slavin (1995) describes about the definition of cooperative learning: Cooperative learning refers to a variety of teaching methods in which students work in small group to help one another learn academic content. In cooperative classroom, students are expected to help each other, to discuss and argue with each other, to assess each other‟s current knowledge and fil l in gaps in each other‟s understanding (p. 2). It means that the students work together in the group to share their ideas. They can actively participate in the learning process through this method. By working in a group, they are motivated to involve themselves in giving the information to friends.

  Slavin (1995) states “cooperative learning is hypothesized to increase time on- task by engaging students‟ attention and by increasing their motivation to master academic materials” (p. 64).

  Furthermore, Slavin (1995) notes that teammatesare resources “if students want to succeed as a team, they will encourage their teammates to excel and will help them to do so” (p. 12). The students can comprehend the materials by the other students‟ explanation in the group discussion. Therefore, each student has an important role to succeed the teamwork in learning the materials deeply.

  In addition, Aronson and Patnnoe (1997) elaborate the difference of traditional classroom and cooperative classroom below: The students in a traditional classroom are often rewarded when they succeed in attracting the teacher‟s attention by outshining their competitors. In the cooperative classroom, the students achieve success as a consequence of paying attention to their peers, asking good questions, helping each other, teaching each other, and helping each other teach (p. 8).

b. Basic Ele ments

  Cooperative learning are developed and researched by David and Roger Johnson and their colleagues at University of Minnesota. As they cited in Slavin (1995: 129), emphases four elements in the cooperative learning: 1) Face-to-face interaction: Students work in four-to- five- member groups.

  2) Positive interdependence: Students work together to achieve a group goal. 3) Individual accountability: Students must show that they have individually mastered the material. 4) Interpersonal and small- group skills: Students must be taught effective means of working together and of discussing how well their groups are working to achieve their goals.

  c. Principal Characteristics

  Slavin (1995: 12) mentions that cooperative learning method isdivided into six principal characteristics. They are (1) Group Goals, (2) Individual Accountability, (3) Equal Opportunities for Success (4), Team Competition, (5) Task Specialization, (6) Adaptation to Individual Needs.

  d. Types

  There are six techniques in cooperative learning method (1) Student Team Learning, (2) Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD), (3) Teams-Games- Tournaments (TGT,) (4) Jigsaw, (5) Team Accelerated Instruction (TAI), (6) Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC). Slavin (1995) states “these six methods are now being used extensively in every conceivable subject, at grade levels from kindergarten through college, and in all kinds of schools throughout the world” (p. 4).

  e. Benefit

  Cooperative learning has several benefits to the learners. According to Slavin (1995), “The use of cooperative learning is to increase students‟ achievement, as well as such other outcomes as improved intergroup relations, acceptance of academically handicapped classmates, and increased self- esteem” (p. 2). The students communicate with others to deliver their information. When the students shared their ideas, their self- esteem will increase. It is because they feel appreciatedby others. Besides, the students will work with heterogeneous students in the group. They might come from different level knowledge or background. Therefore, it will improve the students‟ communicationwith others and the students can complete the information one another.

5. Jigsaw

  The researcher divided the explanation of the jigsaw technique in three parts. They are definition, rules and activities, and benefits.

a. Definition

  The original jigsaw teaching was first developed and implemented by Aronson and his colleagues (1978). Jigsaw is one of technique in the cooperative learning method. Aronson (2002) describes jigsaw below:

  The jigsaw structure encourages listening, engagement, and empathy by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in academic activity. Group members must work together as a team to accomplish a common goal; each person depends on asll the others (as cited in Berger&Hanze, 2007, p. 30). It concludes that each student has responsibility to expert the material. The students are given a different part of the material in the group. Each partof the material is related to the others. Therefore, the students have to rely on their teammates in order to complete the information of the material.

  Hakkarainen (1992) elaborates the name of jigsaw technique “students are organized like pieces in a jigsaw to form different kind of groups, where each student (piece) must be part of the solution to the jigsaw puzzle” (p. 3). It signifies that the jigsaw technique makes all the students involve in the group discussion. Silberman (1996) adds

  “jigsaw learning is a widely practiced technique that is similar to group-to-group exchange with one important difference: Every single student teaches something” (p. 111).

b. Rules and Activities

  In the jigsaw classroom, the teacher provides one unit that is divided into several parts as many as the group members. Then, the students are divided into several groups of five or six. The first group formed is called home group. Every member of the group has different parts. They have responsibility to learn their parts. Then, the students move to a new group which is called expert group to gather with the other friends who have the same parts.

  In the expert group, the students help each other to learn the material and prepare presentations for their home group friends. After each student has mastered their material in the expert group, they returned to their home group to teach their parts. Aronson andPatnoe (1997) state “this process made it imperative that the children treat each other as resources” (p. 8). All group members are responsible for learning all the materials. In addition, Aronson and Patnoe (1978) state “students who grasp the material quickly are vital resources in helping slower students learn the material” (p. 42).

  Aronson andPatnoe (1978) add that if the students are not listening attentively to each other, they are not going to be able to learn what the other students are contributing (p.32). Furthermore, Aronson andPatnoe (1978) state that if the speaker in a group senses that she is not being listened to with interest or appreciation, she is likely to feel rejected and to lose the motivation and commitment to do well at teaching (p. 32). Therefore, each student is the important aspect.In this activity, Stipek (1993) state s “teacher move among the groups, offering assistance, encouragement, or direction where it is needed” (p.

  205).

  After every student learning the material one another in home group, the teacher gives a quiz which covers some questions about the materials. The quiz is used to kno w the students‟ understanding about the material which was discussed in the groups.

  In addition, Hakkarainen (1992: 4) reveals that the jigsaw technique is a group work method for learning and participating in the follo wing group learning activities:

  1) Listening - Students must listen actively in order to learn the required material and be able to teach it to others in their original groups. 2) Speaking - Students will be responsible for taking the knowledge gained from one group and repeating it to new listeners in their original groups. 3) Cooperation - All members of a group are responsible for the success of others in the group. 4) Reflective thinking - To successfully complete the activity in the original group, there must be reflective thinking at several levels about what was learned in the expert group. 5) Creative thinking - Groups must devise new ways of approaching, teaching and presenting material.

c. Benefits

  The jigsaw technique is categorized as task specialization method in the cooperative learning method. Slavin (1995) states “task specialization solves the problem of individual accountability by having each student be uniquely accountable for his or her own contribution to the group” (p. 111). Furthermore, Johnson and Johnson (1989 ) state “individual accountability, suggesting that positive interdependence can be achieved by dividing up roles, materials, resources, or information among group members in a way that requires all students to contribute” (p. 203)

  The jigsaw technique gives some benefits tothe students. First, it can inc rease students‟ self-esteem. Slavin (1995) states “students are made to feel important because they have information that is indispensable to the group” (p.

  20). Second, it engages the students to participate in the learning process. Slavin (1995) describes “another way to insure participation is to make students expert on some part of the topic, as in group investigation, co-op, and jigsaw, by having them do research on their area of expertise” (p. 130). Jigsaw classroom is deal with group discussion that involves the students to participate and work together in the classroom.

B. Theoretical Frame work

  English is a compulsory subject in Junior High School in Indonesia. To learn English as a foreign language is not easy without any practices. Therefore, students must do a lot of practices in the classroom. Both the students and the teacher should try to use and deliver the language appropriately in English learning and teaching process. The students of class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta lacked practice English since they had low participation in following the English teaching and learning process.

  On the other hand, the students of class VII.10 were categorized as adolescent. The theory of adolescent explains that adolescent likes to work in a group discussion. It supported by Hamachek (1990) who states that a great many adolescent activities are done in groups, and in subgroups or cliques with t he groups, and in same-sex or opposite-sex pairs.

  In this research, the researcher used a theory of students‟ participation proposed by Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007). It reveals that the students‟ participation in the class can be defined in terms of three kinds of interaction: student to teacher, student to student, and student to materials.

  In this research, the researcher categorized the three kinds of interaction as follows. (1) The interaction between students to teacher involved asking question related to the materials to the teacher. (2) The interaction between student to student involved three activities, such as asking questions about the text to friends, sharing the content of the text to friends, and retelling the content of t he text to friends. (3) The interaction between students and material was categorized into two activities, such as reading the text loudly and answering questions in the worksheet.

  Therefore, there are six students‟ participation activities which are analyzed in this research.

  Since the students‟ participation of class VII.10 was low, the researcher employed classroom action research to solve the problem. The researcher used one of the techniques of the cooperative learning method. It was the jigsaw techni que to improve the students‟ participation. The researcher made an indicator of success to conduct this classroom action research. The success was the students‟ participation improved through the implementation of the jigsaw technique.

  In the jigsaw activities, the students are invited to be responsible for their own parts. The researcher also used a theory of the jigsaw learning activities proposed by Hakkarainen (1992). It describes that the jigsaw technique is a group work technique for learning and participating in the five group learning activities: (1) Listening, (2) Speaking, (3) Cooperation, (4) Reflective thinking, (5) Creative thinking. Those activities cover the jigsaw learning activities to improve the students‟ participation during English teaching and learning process.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the methodology that was used to conduct the

  research. This chapter is divided into six sections. They are the research method, the research setting, the research participants, the research instruments and the data gathering technique, the data analysis technique, and the research procedure.

A. Research Method

  The researcher employed classroom action research (CAR). It was because the researcher wanted to solve a problem that occurred in a particular class and helped the teacher to increase the quality of learning process. Schmuck (1997) states “action research as an attempt to study a real school situation with a view to improve the quality of actions and results within it”. The problems which are found in the classroom can be solved by a solution in the form of teaching strategy through classroom action research.

  The researcher decided to use CAR based on Kemmis and McTaggart’s model . Kemmis and McTaggart (1988) describe

  “the action research process shows a self- reflective spiral of planning, acting, observing, reflecting, and re- planning as the basis for understanding how to take action to improve an educational situation”. Kemmis and McTaggart diagrammatic model was presented in Figure 3.1 as follows:

Figure 3.1 Kemmis and McTaggart’s Action Research Model

  The classroom action research included four stages: plan, action, observation, and reflection. The explanation of the stages was presented below:

1. Planning

  In this research, CAR was employed to solve a problem found in class

  VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta about the lack of students’ participation in the learning process. Diagnosing the problem was conducted in order to find an appropriate solution. The researcher considered the jigsaw technique to solve it. The jigsaw technique has a principle about self-responsibility in the teamwork. The researcher planned to conduct three cycles for three meetings. The research was conducted to know the improveme nt of students’ participation by using the jigsaw technique. In this stage, the researcher planned to use descriptive texts as the material because the short functiona l text was included in Standar Isi of the seventh grade students of Junior High School for even semester.

2. Acting

  This stage was the implementation of the jigsaw technique. The teaching and learning process was divided into three parts: pre-activity, whilst activity, and post-activity. The jigsaw technique was implemented in whilst activity which was divided in three sections; home group part 1 section, expert group section, and home group part 2 section.

  In the first section, namely home group part 1, the students were divided into a group of six. Each group consisted of five members, the group was called home group. Then, the researcher gave the different paragraph of a descriptive text to each student. Each student in a group had responsibility to understand the paragraph. In the second section, namely expert group, the students who received the same paragraph of a descriptive text gathered in one group. In this section, the students had to comprehend and share the content of the text. In the third se ction, namely home group part 2, the students returned to their home group to retell the content of their paragraphs. Then, the researcher provided a quiz about the descriptive text for checking the students’ understanding about the text that they had already discussed.

  3. Observing

  In this stage, the researcher collected all data by observing the action. The observing activity was conducted in the same time with acting stage. The activity in the class was recorded with two video recorders. They were us ed to help the researcher to analyze the data about what happened in the class during the action was implemented. The researcher observed the implementation of the jigsaw technique by using field notes. The researcher gave field notes and observation sheet s about the researcher and students’ activity in the class to the teacher as the observer.

  The researcher also invited two observers to observe each student’s participation by giving a checkmark in the students’ participation checklist. It consisted of six aspects: (1) reading the text loudly (2) asking questions about the text to friends (3) sharing the content of the text to friends (4) retelling the content of the text to friends (5) answering questions in the worksheet (6) asking questions related to the material to the teacher.

  4. Reflecting

  In this stage, the researcher made a reflection after analyzing the data through an observation. In the first and second cycle, the researcher made a reflection by using teacher’s and researcher’s field notes. While in the third cycle, last cycle, the rese archer made a reflection by using teacher’s and researcher’s field notes, a questionnaire, and interviews with the students. In this stage, the researcher considered some solutions to solve the problems in the cycle in order to

  B. Research Setting

  The research was conducted in SMP Negeri 8 Yogyakarta. It is located at Jl. Prof. Dr. KaharMuzakir 2, Yogyakarta. In this research, the researcher conducted three cycles for three meetings. Each cycle consisted of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The first cycle was conducted on Wednesday, March 13, 2013. The second cycle was conducted on Monday, March 18, 2013.

  The third cycle was conducted on Wednesday, April 3, 2013.

  C. Research Participants

  The participants were the students of class VII.10 in 2012/2013 academic year. There were 30 students who consisted of 16 girls and 14 boys. The researcher found that the students lacked participation in the learning process. In addition, the researcher invited two observers to fill the students’ participation checklist and the English teacher of class VII.10 to give feedback about the learning process by filling the observation sheets and taking field notes.

  D. Research Instrume nts and Data Gathering Technique

  In this research, the researcher divided the research instruments into two parts. They were the preliminary study instruments and the implementation of the jigsaw technique instruments.

1. Preliminary Study Instrume nts

  The researcher used four instruments to gather the data from the questionnaire, and interviews. The researcher conducted the preliminary study twice to know the classroom situation. In the first ob servation, the researcher used the field note to describe the classroom’s situation. In the second observation, the researcher used the students’ participation checklist. Then, the researcher distributed a questionnaire and conducted interviews with the teacher and three students. The researcher randomly chose the three students after conducting the observation. The following explanation gave the detail of each instrument.

  a. Field Notes

  The researcher used a field note to describe the situation in the teaching and learning process. The researcher noted the important things occurred in the class. Besides, the researcher explained the problems which ware found in class VII.10.

  b. Students’ Participation Checklist

  Based on the observation results, the researcher concluded five aspects of st udents’ participation which occurred in the class VII.10. They were (1) reading the text loudly (2) asking question about text to friends (3) sharing about text to friends (4) answering questions in the worksheet (5) asking questions related to the materials to the teacher.

  The students’ participation checklist was presented as follows:

Table 3.1 Sample of Students’ Participation Checklist

  Students Participation Aspects Number A B C D E 1.

  2.

  3.

  4.

  5.

  30. Total

  c. Questionnaire

  The researcher distributed a questionnaire to 30 students to know the class background. It consisted of two open questions: (1) What factors make the students participate or not participate in the classroom during English teaching and learning process? (2)

  What is the students’ opinion about the class situation during English teaching and learning process?

  d. Inte rvie ws

  The researcher interviewed the students and the teacher to ensure the problem about students’ participation occurred in the English teaching and learning process. The researcher randomly chose three students of class VII.10 after conducting the second observation.

  The question covered ten open-ended questions. They were (1) What is the students’ feeling about English subject? (2) What did the students learn in the beginning of even semester? (3) How does the teacher deliver the material? (4) Do the students like to ask the teacher in the teaching and learning process? (5) Do the students like to answer questions from the teacher? (6) Do the students pay attention to the teacher? (7) Do the students do the task from the teacher in the class? (8) Do the students like a discussion activity? (9) How is the students’ participation in the class? (10) How is the classroom situation?

  The researcher also interviewed the English teacher of class VII.10 to know the class background. There were seven open-ended questions: (1) What is the teacher’s opinion about class VII.10? (2) How is the classroom situation in the teaching and learning process? (3) Is there any active student? (4) Do the students like to ask questions to the teacher? (5) Do the students like a discussion activity? (6) Is there any difficulty in teaching the students of class VII.10? (7) Are all students active in the class?

  Kvale (1983, p.174) defines, the qualitative research interview as "an interview, whose purpose is to gather descriptions of the life-world of the interviewee with respect to interpretation of the meaning of the described phenomena" (as cited in Opdenakker, 2006).

2. The Implementation of the Jigsaw Technique Instruments

  The researcher employed several instruments to gather the data during the implementation of the jigsaw technique. They were two video tape recordings, a students’ participation checklist, observation sheets, field notes, a questionnaire, and interviews.

  a. Video Tape Recording

  According to Best (1970), “Recording observation minimizes the errors of the result from faulty memory” (p. 183). The researcher used the video tape recordings to review the implementation of the jigsaw technique. It helped the researcher to analyze the data.

  Best (1970) explains “the nature of an act may be more accurately analyzed when the action is slowed down, lapse photography, or the audio and video tape recorder has fac ilitated the analysis of complex activities” (p. 182).

  b. Students’ Participation Checklist

  The researcher used a students’ participation checklist to know individual students’ participation in the classroom. The researcher invited two observers to fill th e students’ participation checklist when the researcher implemented the j igsaw technique. The students’ participation checklist consisted of 30 students’ name and six aspects of the students’ participation in the teaching and learning process. They were (1) reading the text loudly (2) asking question related to the text to friends (3) sharing the content of the text to friends (4) retelling the content of the text to friends (5) answering questions in the worksheet (6) asking question related to the materials to the teacher. The researcher gave each student a call card which consisted of student’s number and name in order to make easy in observing each student’s participation. The sample of students’ participation checklist was presented as follows:

Table 3.2 Sample of Students’ Participation Checklist

  Students Number

  Participation Aspects A B C D E F 1.

  2.

  3.

  4.

  5.

  30. Total

c. Observation Sheets

Table 3.3 Observation Sheet of Researcher’s Activity

  The researcher used observation sheets to observe the researcher’s activity and the students’ activity in the teaching and learning process. It was used to know that the teaching and learning activity was suitable for the lesson plan. The researcher divided the observation sheets into two parts. The observation sheets were presented below:

  Yes No

  1. The teacher gives the students some questions related to the material in the beginning of the lesson

  2. The teacher explains the material from the handout

  3. The teacher gives the opportunity to the students to ask about the material to the teacher

  4. The teacher divides the students in a group of six in the home group

  5. The teacher asks the students to read the text loudly in the home group

  6. The teacher asks the students to move in the same text group

  7. The teacher asks the students to share their paragraph in the expert group

  8. The teacher asks the students to ask their friend about the text

  No. Aspects Teacher’s Response

  No. Aspects Teacher’s Response

  Yes No

  9. The teacher asks the students to return to their home group

  10. The teacher asks the students to tell the content of their paragraph to their home group

  11. The teacher interacts and involves with the students in the group

  12. The teacher moves around in each group

  13. The teacher asks the students to answer the worksheet

  14. The teacher warns the students who make any noise

  15. The teacher gives feedback to the students

Table 3.4 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity

  No. Aspects Students’ Response

  Yes No

  1. The students answer some questions related to the material in the beginning of the lesson

2. The students pay attention to the teacher’s explanation

  3. The students ask questions about the material to the teacher

  4. The students gather in a group of six in the home group

  5. The students read the text loudly in the home group

  6. The students move to the same text group

  7. The students share their paragraph in the expert group

  8. The students ask to their friend about the text in the expert group

  9. The students return to their home group

  10. The students tell the content of their paragraph to their home group

  11. The students answer questions in the worksheet

d. Field Notes

  The researcher used field notes to make a reflection of the implementation of the jigsaw technique. The field notes were written by the English teacher and the researcher. According to Bogdan and Biklen (1982), “Field notes are the written account of what the researcher hears, sees, experience, and thinks in the The field notes consisted of four questions (1) How is students’ situation in the class? (2) What kind of difficulty found in teaching descriptive texts using the jigsaw technique? (3) What works well in teaching descriptive texts using the jigsaw technique? (4) What part should be improved?.

e. Questionnaire

  The researcher distributed a questionnaire after implementing the jigsaw technique in the last cycle. It was used to know the students’ participation in the learning process and the students’ opinion about the use of the jigsaw technique.

  The data were acquired from 30 students who answered the questionnaire. The researcher provided 15 close-ended questions. It was 8 statements about the students’ participation and 7 statements about the use of the jigsaw technique.

  According to Milne (1999: 4), there are three advantages to collect data by questionnaire method: The responses are gathered in a standardization way, so questionnaires are more objective, certainly more so than inte rviews, it is relatively quick to collect information using a questionnaire, and potentially information can be collected from a large portion of a group. Therefore, the questionnaire made the researcher gathered the data easily. The sample of the questionnaire was presented below:

Table 3.5 Sample of Questionnaire

  No. Statements Yes No 1.

  The students listen to the teacher’s explanation

  2. The students ask the material to the teacher

  3. The students read their text in the home group No. Statements Yes No

  4. The students like to use the jigsaw technique in the classroom

  5. Jigsaw technique makes the students speak actively in the group discussion

  6. Jigsaw technique attracts the students’ interest to participate actively in the group

  7. Jigsaw technique gives the students an opportunity to ask about the material

f. Semi-structured Interview

  The researcher interviewed six students after implementing the jigsaw technique in the last cycle in order to get students’ opinion about the implementation of the jigsaw technique. The researcher provided five questions to the students. The question was open-ended question. They were (1) What is the stud ents’ opinion about the use of the jigsaw technique in the classroom? (2) What are the benefits of using the jigsaw technique in the classroom? (3) What are the obstacles of learning descriptive texts using the jigsaw technique? (4) Does the use of the j igsaw technique improve the students’ participation? (5) What is the students’ suggestion to improve the use of the jigsaw technique?

  Corbetta (2003), explains semi-structured interviews below: The order in which the various topics are dealt with and the wording of the questions are left to the interviewer’s discretion. Within each topic, the interviewer is free to conduct the conversation as he thinks fit, to ask the questions he deems appropriate in the words he considers best, to give explanation and ask for clarification if the answer is not clear, to prompt the respondent to elucidate further if necessary, and to establish his own style of conversation. (p. 270)

  From that explanation, the researcher concluded that semi-structured interviews could help the researcher to acquire data with flowed-questions in informal situation. The researcher could get the data deeply through interviews.

E. Data Analysis Technique

  The researcher analyzed the data in order to answer the questions which were formulated in the research problems. The researcher used a triangulation technique to analyze the data in this research. According to Cohen & Manion (1997), “Data Triangulation involves the collection of data from multiple sources with the intent to obtain diverse views of the studied phenomenon with the purpose of enhancing the val idity” (as cited in Ziyani, I., King, U., & Ehlers, V. 2004, p. 12). It helps the researcher to obtain the data from different perspective in order to get the validity. Then, the researcher divided the data analysis from the instruments into two categories below:

1 Preliminary Study Result

a. Field Notes In the first observation, the researcher used the field notes to get the data.

  The data was taken during the teaching and learning process. The researcher noted some important things that occurred in the class. The field notes were analyzed by concluding the problems found in the class.

  b. Students ’ Participation Checklist

  The researcher analyzed the data from the students’ participation checklist by counting the students who participated in the teaching and learning process based on the five aspects in the observation. The data were analyzed in the percentage form for each aspect of students’ participation. If the students who participated were less than 15 students, it could be concluded that the students’ participation was low.

  c. Questionnaire

  The questionnaire was analyzed by categorizing the students’ answers into two parts. The first was about the factor which made the students participate and not participate. The second was about the class situation in the teaching and learning process. The researcher analyzed each student’s answer to gather the data.

  d. Inte rvie w

  The researcher conducted interviews with the English teacher and the students. Some questions were offered in the interviews. The result was analyzed by concluding the statements from the English teacher and the students.

2. The Implementation of the Jigsaw Technique

  a. Video Tape Recordings

  This instrument is only for supporting the researcher in implementing the jigsaw technique. It helped the researcher review the process of the implementation.

  The students’ situation presented through this instrument.

  b. Students’ Participation Checklist

  T he researcher analyzed the students’ participation by counting the students who participated in the implementation of the jigsaw technique. The researcher analyzed it based on six aspects of students’ participation. Each aspect was presented in the form of percentage. In the last cycle, the researcher compared the improvement of students’ participation in the preliminary study, cycle 1, cycle 2, and cycle 3. According to Rakhmawati (2010 :11), the formula to count the students’ participation checklist was presented below:

  P = percentage P= × 100%

  Fo = frequency observed N = number of sample

  The indications of each percentage were presented below:

Table 3.6 Qualification of Participation Checklist Score

  No. Percentage (%) Qualification 1. 75% High

  ≤ p ≤ 100% 2. 50% Medium

  ≤ p ≤ 75% 3. 25% Low

  ≤ p ≤ 50% 4. 0% Very Low

  ≤ p ≤ 25 % (Sugiyono, 2010, p. 144) If the students’ participation was in the range of 0% to 25%, it meant that the students had very low participation. On the other hand, if the students’ participation was in the range of 25% to 50%, it meant that the students had low participation. When the students’ participation was in the range of 50% to 75%, it meant that the students had medium participation. When the students’ participation was in the range of 75% to 100%, it meant that the students had high participation.

  c. Observation Sheets

  The observation sheets were made in two forms. Those were the researcher’s activity and the students’ activity. The researcher analyzed the data per number in each observation sheet. Then, the researcher concluded the result of the observation sheets. If all numbers of students’ activity were marked, it meant that the indicator of the lesson was achieved. Besides, the learning activity was suitable for the lesson plan. When the observer did not mark all lists in the observation sheets, it meant that the researcher needed to improve the action in the next cycle.

  d. Field Notes

  The researcher had made the criteria of the field notes in order to make easy in anal yzing the data. The data was analyzed in four aspects; students’ situation in the class, the difficulty and the good things occurred in teaching descriptive texts using the jigsaw technique, and the suggestion for improving the teaching technique. If each aspect indicated the positive result, it meant that the On the other hand, if each aspect indicated lack of something, the researcher could make the reflection based on the field notes.

  e. Questionnaire

  The researcher discussed and analyzed the questionnaire per number. The researcher presented each number of the questions in the form of percentage. The formula to calculate the questionnaire was presented below:

  × 100% P=

  P = percentage Fo = frequency observed N = number of sample

  If the result of each number showed more than 50%, it meant that the students had good responses to the statements in the questionnaire. On the other hand, if the percenta ge showed fewer than 50%, it meant that the students’ disagree with the statements in the questionnaire.

  f. Semi-structured Interviews

  The researcher wrote the transcription of the interviews. After that, the researcher analyzed it by concluding the responses from the students whether they agreed or disagreed with the questions in the interviews.

F. Research Procedure

  There were seven steps in conducting this classroom action research. They were (1) asking permission from the school principal (2) conducting the preliminary study (3) finding the problems and planning for the action (4) planning (5) acting (6) observing (7) reflecting. The explanation was presented below:

  1. Asking Permission from the School Principal

  The researcher asked for permission from the school principal to conduct a research in SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. In this step, the school principal did not ask the researcher to find a permission letter from Dinas Pendidikan Yogyakarta. Therefore, the researcher could conduct the research directly.

  2. Conducting the Preliminary Study

  The researcher started to conduct a preliminary study in SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. The researcher was suggested conducting the preliminary study to the seventh grade students. The English teacher allowed the researcher to conduct a preliminary study in the class VII.10. The researcher conducted the preliminary study to observe the situation in the classroom when the teacher delivered the materials and the teacher’s way to teach the students.

  3. Finding the Problems and Planning for the Action

  In this step, the researcher listed some important things that occurred in the class. The researcher noted a major problem that occurred in the class VII.10. The students did not participate in the learning process. Then, the researcher distributed a questionnaire and conducted interviews to ensure that the problems really occurred in that class. The researcher considered the most appropriate method to solve it. Then, the researcher decided to use the jigsaw technique to improve the students’ participation in the classroom.

   4. Planning

  The researcher planned a learning activity by making teaching materials and lesson plans. The activity was based on the jigsaw technique. The researcher also consulted with the teacher and the researcher’s advisor.

  5. Acting

  In this step, the researcher implemented the jigsaw technique to improve the students’ participation. The teaching material was descriptive texts. There were three parts activities in the teaching and learning process. They were pre activity, whilst activity, and post activity. In the pre activity, the researcher invited the students to brainstorm by asking questions related to the materials. In this activity, the students could also watch a video related to the materials. While in the whilst activity, the researcher explained a handout about the materials. Then, the researcher divided the students in three group sections: home group part 1, expert group, and home group part 2. In the post activity, the researcher concluded and gave feedback to the students about the lesson.

  6. Observing

  It was conducted in the same time with the acting step. The researcher obtained the data from three instruments such as, video tape recordings, a students’ participation checklist, and observation sheets. In this step, the researcher analyzed the data through those instruments.

7. Reflecting

  After analyzing the data, the researcher made a reflection in order to get better result in the next cycle. In this step, the researcher made the reflection based on the field notes result. Furthermore, the researcher made the problem solutions for the next cycle. In the last cycle, the researcher used a questionnaire and interviews to make the reflection.

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION This chapter consists of three sections. The first section reveals the result

  of the preliminary study. The second reveals the description of the implementation of the jigsaw technique. The third reveals how the jigsaw technique improved the students’ participation. The findings were obtained from a students’ participation checklist, field notes, an observation sheet, a questionnaire and interviews.

  In this research, the researcher conducted three meetings for three cycles. Each cycle consisted of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The first cycle was conducted on Wednesday, March 13, 2013. The second cycle conducted on Monday, March 18, 2013. The third cycle was on Wednesday, April 3, 2013.

A. Preliminary Study

  The researcher conducted preliminary study twice in class VII.10. The first observation was on Friday, February 15, 2013 at 10.10 up to 10.50. The second observation was on Wednesday, February 20, 2013 at 10.10 up to 11.30. There were 30 students: 16 girls and 14 boys in this class. The researcher discussed the preliminary study result in three parts. They were first observation result, second observation result, and preliminary study discussion.

1. First Observation Result

  First observation resul t includes two parts. They are teacher’s observation a. Teacher’s Observation The teacher taught letters to the students. She used question answer method in this class. The students were asked to read their letters one by one and then the teacher asked some students to make questions related to the letters, such as, who the sender is, who the receiver is, where the writer is, etc.

  The students lacked opportunities to ask about letters. The teacher often asked the students to answer the question by pointing them directly than let the students offered themselves to answer the question. The researcher found the teacher never gave feedback about the right answer. The teacher often pointed the same students. The teacher also never gave a comment about the students’ letters. After that, the teacher asked the students to do the exercise from the textbook,

  

Let’s Talk for Seventh Grade. This condition made the students tend to be silent in

the class.

  b. Students’ Observation Some students participated in the class; however, almost all girls were passive. There was only one student who actively followed the learning process.

  Three students raised their hands to ask questions about vocabulary. One student refused to read her letter. In the beginning of the lesson, the students’ situation was quite noisy with the boys’ jokes. While in the middle of the lesson, the students began to be silent.

2. Second Observation Result

  Second observation result includes two parts. They are teacher’s observation and students’ observation.

  a. Teacher’s Observation The teacher taught describing animals to the students. In the beginning of the lesson, the teacher directly asked the students to read the text loudly from the textbook,

  Let’s Talk for Seventh Grade, about describing animal titled “My

  Timmy”. Then, the teacher asked the students to answer some questions related to the text without explanation about the descriptive text. Then, the teacher asked the students to discuss with their friends about the text. After that, the teacher discussed the questions by asking the students to answer it. In this second observation, she gave a chance to the students to answer the question by themselves. However, the teacher still often pointed the same students to answer the question directly. It was the same method with the previous observation.

  b. Students’ Observation Some students in the back were busy with themselves. Five boys in the left side played with a plaster to tie their friends’ shoes, whereas, two girls and three boys came to the front of the class to ask about some vocabularies to the teacher.

  On the other hand, one boy in the back did his homework in the class and one boy in his side played with his cell phone. The class situation was quite noisy though some girls were silent. When the teacher offered some questions to the students,

3. Preliminary Study Discussion

  In this preliminary study, the researcher found a problem about the students’ participation. The percentage of the students who participated in the teaching and learning process during the preliminary study was presented below:

Table 4.1 Students’ Participation of Second Observation

  No. Criteria Quantity Percentage Qualification

  1. Reading the text loudly 12 40 % Low

  2. Asking questions related to the text to their friends 7 23.3 % Very low

  3. Sharing the content of the text to their friends 10 33.3 % Low

  4. Answering questions related to the text in the worksheet 14 46.7 % Low

  5. Asking questions related to the material to the teacher 4 13.3 % Very Low

Table 4.1 showed that the students’ participation was low in the classroom. More than a half of the total of the students did not participate and

  follow the learning process in the classroom. Unequa l participation occurred in the class. The researcher concluded that there was no variation teaching method in the class. Therefore, the students tended to be passive.

  In the preliminary study, the researcher made an interview with the English teacher and three students of VII.10. The interview was used to help the researcher for identifying the class background. The result of the interview showed that the problem of the s tudents’ participation occurred in the class. The teacher said that the class of VII.10 was different with the other classes. It was because there were only some boys who participated in the class. On the contrary, all girls were passive.

  From the interview with three students, the researcher found a fact that they felt bored in the class. Therefore, they tended to be silent. They stated that the teacher used the same method in every teaching. She explained the material briefly and then she asked the students to answer the question from the textbook.

  The students added that the teacher liked to ask the same students to answer some questions. Furthermore, two girls added that there was no activity variation in the teaching learning process.

  The researcher also distributed a questionnaire to 30 students. It contained two open questions: (1) What factors make you participate or not participate in the classroom during the teaching and learning English process? (2) What is your opinion about the class situation during the teaching and learning English process?. The students stated that they did not participate because they felt sleepy, lazy, hungry, dizzy, bored and thought about their homework. They also explained that the teacher’s way of teaching influenced their mood.

B. The Description of the Imple mentation of the Jigsaw Technique

1. Cycle 1

  The first cycle was conducted on Wednesday, March 13, 2013 at 10.10 up to 11.30. This cycle consisted of four stages: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. It was conducted in one meeting. The researcher implemented the jigsaw technique for class VII.10. There were 30 students in the class; 16 girls and 14 boys.

a. Planning for Cycle 1

  The researcher decided to use the jigsaw technique. Then, the researcher conducted a consultation with the English teacher of class VII 10. The teacher stated that the materials were descriptive texts and letters. The teacher gave the researcher freedom to teach a descriptive text. The teacher said that she taught describing people and describing pet once based on the textbook

  Let’s Talk for

Seventh Grade . According to Standar Isi, it states that the materials for second

  semester of seventh grade are descriptive texts, letters, and procedure texts. The time allocation for teaching English subject was 80 minutes.

  The researcher divided the planning of the first cycle in two parts. They are teaching material and lesson plan.

  1) Teaching Material of Cycle 1 The researcher prepared a material about describing people. The researcher provided five short descriptive texts about describing people. They were “My President”, “Justin Bieber”, “Agnes Monica”, “Obama”, and “Raffi Ahmad’. The researcher browsed the texts in the internet and then edited them.

  The researcher chose the texts because these were about famous and important people inside and outside Indonesia. The researcher divided each text in six paragraphs.

  The researcher also prepared a handout about describing people. It consisted of some adjectives to describe people, example of describing someone, and the generic structure of descriptive text. The researcher made a worksheet about describing people. It consisted of two questions for each text. The questions were about the personality and the appearance of the people described in the text. Each student got a call card’s number. It was used to help the researcher and the observers to assess the students’ participation in the students’ participation checklist.

  2) Lesson Plan of Cycle 1 The researcher divided the students in the group twice: home group and expert group. In the first group, the students were divided into six groups (A-B-C-

  D-E-F). Each group consisted of six members. This group was called home group. The researcher also drew a map of the students’ sit based on their call card’s number for the observers. In this group, the researcher had classified the number of each group. Group A consisted of call card numbers 1-7-13-19-25. Group B consisted of call card numbers 2-8-14-20-26. Group C consisted of call card numbers 3-9-15-21-27. Group D consisted of call card numbers 4-10-16-22-28.

  Group E consisted of call card numbers 5-11-17-23-29. Group F consisted of call card numbers 6-12-18-24-30.

  Call card numbers 1-2-3-4-5- 6 received a text titled “My President”, while call card numbers 7-8-9-10-11-12 received a text titled “Justin Bieber”, call card numbers 13-14-15-16-17- 18 received a text titled “Agnes Monika”, call card

  25-26-27-28-29- 30 received a text titled “Raffi Ahmad”. In other words, the members of group A received paragraph one of each descriptive text. While the members of group B received pargraph two of each descriptive text. The members of group C received paragraph three of each descriptive text. The members of group D received paragraph four of each descriptive text. The members of group E received paragraph five of each descriptive text. Whereas the members of group F received paragraph six of each descriptive text.

  Each group was given five descriptive texts. In this group, each student received one paragraph of a descriptive text. For example in group A which was consisted of call card numbers 1-7-13-19-25, call card number 1 received paragraph one about “My President”, call card number 7 received paragraph one about “Justin Bieber”, etc. In this home group, they had to read their paragraph one by one by standing in front of their friends. In this section, the students were assessed their participation for o ne criterion, reading the text loudly in the group.

  The observers gave a checkmark in the students’ participation checklist by looking their activity in the group.

  In the second group, the researcher asked the students to gather with their friends who had the same title of the descriptive text. It was called expert group.

  Therefore, call card numbers 1 up to 6 gathered to share and understand the text titled “My President”, call card numbers 7 up to 12 gathered to share and understand the text titled “Justin Bieber”, etc. In this section, the students were assessed their participation by observers for two criteria of the students’ participation. They were asking questions about the text to their friends and sharing the content of the text to their friends in the group.

  After that, the researcher asked them to return to their home group. In this group, they had to retell what they had learnt in the expert group. While the students were retelling about their text, the other students in the group should answer questions in the worksheet. The students were assessed their participation by the observers for two criteria of students’ participation. They were retelling the content of the text and answering questions in the worksheet in the group.

b. Acting for Cycle 1

  In this stage, the researcher divided the actions in three parts; pre-activity, whilst-activity, and post-activity.

  1) Pre-Activity In the beginning of the lesson, the researcher introduced herself and called the students’ name one by one. The researcher explained her intention in that class was to complete her thesis. Then, the researcher gave motivation and apperception questions about describing people. The researcher gave a handout about describing people to the students. The researcher and the students discussed the handout together. This pre-activity took ten minutes.

  2) Whilst-Activity In this activity, the researcher implemented the jigsaw technique. The researcher divided the activity in three group sections; Home Group Part 1, Expert a) Home Group Part 1 The researcher explained about the jigsaw technique briefly. The students never heard about the jigsaw technique before. In this main activity, the researcher divided the students in a group of six. One group consisted of five people. This first group was called home group. In this section, each group was given five texts; “My President”, “Justin Bieber”, “Agnes Monica”, “Obama”, and “Raffi Ahmad”. The researcher gave an instruction to the students to read their text loudly one by one by standing in front of their home group friends. In this section, the observers assessed their participation to read the text loudly.

  b) Expert Group The next step, the researcher gave an instruction to the students who had the text tit led “My President” to stand up, move and gather in one group. The students with the text titled “Justin Bieber” moved and gathered in one group and so on. In this section, they met their friends who received the same title of a descriptive text. This second group was called expert group. In this group, they comprehended their text. They asked and shared their texts based on their comprehension. Each group tried to master the six texts of a descriptive text that they had got. Every student had responsibility to master the text. Then, the researcher gave the complete text to each student. The activity in expert group spent twenty- five minutes. In this section, the observers assessed the students’ participation for asking their friends about the text and sharing the content of their text. c) Home Group Part 2 The next step, they returned to their home group. In this group, they told about what they had learnt in the expert group. While the students were retelling what they had learnt in the expert group, each student in the home group answered questions in the worksheet about their friends’ description. It was about the personality and physical appearance of someone described in each text. It spent thirty-five minutes. In this section, the observers assessed the students’ participation for retelling the content of the text and answering questions related to the text in the worksheet. 3) Post-Activity

  In the post activity, the researcher concluded the lesson by asking the students to describe someone orally. Besides, the researcher also asked the students about some adjectives to describe people.

c. Observing for Cycle 1 In this stage, the researcher had roles as an observer and teacher.

  Observing the teaching- learning activity was done in the same time with the implementation of the technique. The data was obtained from observation sheet results and students’ participation checklist results.

1) Observation Sheet Results

Table 4.2 Observation Sheet of Researcher’s Activity

  No. Aspects Teacher’s Response

  Yes No

   1. The teacher gives the students some questions related to the material in the beginning of the lesson

   2. The teacher explains the material from the handout

   3. The teacher gives the opportunity to the students to ask about the material to the teacher

   4. The teacher divides the students in a group of six in the home group

   5. The teacher asks the students to read the text loudly in the home group

   6. The teacher asks the students to move in the same text group

   7. The teacher asks the students to share their text in the expert group

   8. The teacher asks the students to ask their friend about the text in the expert group

   9. The teacher asks the students to return to their home group

   10. The teacher asks the students to tell the content of their text to their home group

   11. The teacher interacts and involves with the students in the group

   12. The teacher moves around in each group

   13. The teacher asks the students to answer the worksheet

   14. The teacher warns the students who make any noise

   15. The teacher gives feedback to the students

Table 4.2 showed that the researcher could organize the instruction step by step. The researcher could manage the implementation of the jigsaw technique.

  Besides, the researcher let the students ask the material to her and interact with them by moving around the groups. However, the researcher could not manage the time wisely yet. In this first cycle, the researcher did not give feedback to the students about the correct answer of the worksheet and discuss all texts. In the

Table 4.3 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity

  No. Aspects Students’ Response

  Yes No

   1. The students answer some question related to the material in the beginning of the lesson 2. The students pay attention to the teacher’s explanation

   

  3. The students ask questions about the material to the teacher

   4. The students gather in a group of six in the home group

   5. The students read the text loudly in the home group

   6. The students move to the same text group

   7. The students share their text in the expert group

   8. The students ask their friend about the text in the expert group

   9. The students return to their home group

   10. The students tell the content of their text to their home group

   11. The students answer the worksheet Table 4.3 showed that the students obeyed the researcher’s instruction.

  The students could be managed to involve in the learning process. They paid attention to the researcher while she was explaining the material. The students used the opportunity to ask about vocabulary and the material. However, in the home group, not all students retold the content of the text. Many of them only read the text without explaining the meaning of the text.

2) Students’ Participation Checklist Result

  In this observation, the researcher divided the results into the home group

  part 1 result, expert group result, home group part 2 result, and students’ participation table.

  a) Home Group Part 1 Result In the home group, the students understood the instruction and they read

  This activity took 10 minutes. The researcher saw two students who went to the bathroom. If students are hungry or thirsty or need to go to the bathroom, these temporary physical distresses will divert their attention and reduce their ability to concentrate and thus affect their po tential for learning (Hawley & Hawley 1979: 5).

  b) Expert Group Result In this section, 14 students asked their friends about the text in the expert group. 16 students did not ask about the text. They preferred listening to their friends’ explanation. Besides asking questions, there were 27 students who shared the content of their text. The students shared their text by using a picture. The picture was the visualization of each text. However, some students did not understand the meaning of the text. Therefore, it made them share their text only by reading their texts without retelling the meaning of the text.

  In the group which discussed the text titled “My President”, there was one boy shared his text enthusiastically. He gave many comments about the text in his group. Hawley and Hawley (1979) state when students have a high sense of participation and contribution in discussions of academic content, they will usually find the work meaningful and involving, and they will be stimulated towards the effort necessary for achievement and mastery (p. 84).

  While the group which discussed the text titled “Justin Bieber” was the faster in understanding the text. The group said that they had already done to comprehend the text when the other group s still tried to understand the text. It made the class situation so noisy. Then, the researcher gave the complete text of their each descriptive text to the students. The activity in the expert group took twenty-five minutes.

  c) Home Group Part 2 Result When the students returned to their home group, 29 students retold about the content of their text. They explained it in Indonesian and English. However, many students only read it from the text. It was because they forgot the meaning and felt lazy to retell the content of the text. While the students were retelling what they had learnt in the expert group, each student in the home group answered questions in the worksheet. It was about their friends’ description texts. It was about the personality and physical appearance of someone described in each text.

  In this section, the students felt difficult to understand the whole descriptive texts. They told the researcher that the texts were too many. It was complicated. They had to understand and listen to their friends’ description text to fill the worksheet. It made dishonesty occur. The students showed their text to their friends and copied their friends’ work. It took thirty five minutes. The result showed that 26 students answered questions in the worksheet in the class.

  d) Students’ Participation Table

  Table

4.4 Students’ Participation of Cycle 1

  No Criteria Quantity Percentage Qualification

  1. Reading the text loudly 28 93.3 % High

  2. Asking questions related to 14 46.7 % Low the text to their friends

  3. Sharing the content of the 27 90 % High text

  4. Retelling the content of the 29 96.7 % High No Criteria Quantity Percentage Qualification

  5. Answering questions 26 86.7 % High related to the text in worksheet

  6. Asking questions related to 14 46.7 % Low the material to the teacher

Table 4.4 showed that the students’ participation of class VII.10 improved

  from the preliminary observation’s result. There was one criterion of the students’ participation raised beside the criteria on the preliminary observation. They retold the content of the text using their own words to their friends. The table 4.4 revealed that all students read the text loudly in the group. It showed that they liked reading activity. They still had low participation in asking questions related to the text to their friend. It was showed by the number of the students who was only a half of the total students in that class asked questions related to the text to their friends.

  Although they had high participation in retelling the content of the text, the researcher did not feel satisfy. It was because they gave their contribution to read the text instead of retell the content of the text. It was quiet digressed from the indicator of the lesson that the students are able to comprehend the text by retelling the content of the text to their friends. They preferred reading the text to explaining the content of the text.

d. Reflecting for Cycle 1

  In this stage, the researcher obtained the data through teacher’s field notes and researcher’s field notes. The researcher noted the important things occurred in the class in the field notes. The English teacher of class VII.10 as the observer also made the field notes for the researcher.

  1) Teacher’s Field Notes Result

  The observer, the English teacher, said that the jigsaw technique improved the students’ participation especially for each individual. She said that all students contributed their participation. However, the obstacle was some students did not pay attention to their friends when their friends explained their texts. In addition, the students also could not understand the all texts. She suggested considering the time management. The researcher had to accompany the students in the group to avoid them talking about another thing outside the lesson.

  2) Researcher’s Field Notes Result

  The situation was quiet in the beginning of the lesson. They tended to be silent when the researcher gave an explanation about describing people. However, there was one student who was active. He gave his contribution and idea in the expert group. He tried to be active by asking about the material to the teacher. The English teacher said that the boy was different from the others because he was active in the classroom.

  On the contrary, the girls were passive in the class. It was similar to the situation in the preliminary observation. However, there were no students who were busy with themselves when the researcher explained the material for the first time. They began to make a noise when they were in the group. They talked about other things outside the material. However, they wanted to read their texts in the home group. In the expert group, only some students wanted to ask about the text to their friends.

  In this meeting, the researcher found the problems related to the time management, moving group, and texts materials. It took a lot of time in grouping section. In the first time, the researcher made a mistake in grouping the students. The researcher asked the students to count from one to five, therefore there was six groups for the home group, while it should be five groups in the class. Each group had five members. It wasted the time and made a noise. Then, the researcher asked them to return to their sit and counted from one to six.

  Moving group from the home group to the expert group took a lot of time. It was because the class was small. They crowded in gathering to the expert group. The material was too many and difficult to be comprehended. It was because there were five descriptive texts that must be understood by the students. The result showed that the students could not comprehend all texts.

  Then, the researcher summarized nine important things that occurred in the implementation of the jigsaw technique for the first cycle. They are (1) the erroneousness of group division, (2) time consuming in the group moving, (3) small class, (4) too many descriptive texts, (5) the students did not have enough time to comprehend the all text, (6) the students talked about other things when they gathered in the group, (7) the students copied their friends’ work in doing the assignment, (8) the result of comprehending text was not maximal, (9) the researcher could not manage the time to give the feedback.

3) The Planning to Solve the Problems

  In order to solve those problems, the researcher considered some corrections to improve the result of cycle 1. To avoid the erroneousness of dividing group, the researcher made the call card work multifunction. In this first cycle, the students filled their call card numbers in the worksheet. Therefore, the call cards were given the students’ name and their text number for the next cycle. The researcher classified the call cards in six groups. Therefore, the researcher could call their names directly in one group. For the next cycle, the researcher decided to use the same group to avoid the other factor rising when they gave their contribution.

  The researcher considered to count the time of group moving from the home group to the expert group. It was expected to make the students move quickly because of the pressure of counting. Time consuming in group moving was also caused by the class condition. The class was small and full of table s and chairs. It disturbed their movement. Besides, some students felt dizzy where they should sit.

  The descriptive texts were too many. It caused the students do not understand all the texts. Besides, there was a problem in time management. The students felt that they did not have enough time to comprehend one text. On the other hand, the researcher found that the students liked to talk about other things outside the materials. In the home group, when they retold about their texts, they only read the complete text without explaining the meaning. Therefore, they copied their friends’ work when they answered questions in the worksheet. The researcher found that some students left the worksheet without any answers.

  In the next cycle, the researcher made the text simpler. One class only comprehended one descriptive text. They had to comprehend each text by translating the text. It would make them understand the text. Besides, the researcher provided difficult vocabularies in each text in order to make the students check the meaning of the words in the dictionaries.

2. Cycle 2

  The second cycle was conducted on Monday, March 18, 2013. It was the second meeting. This cycle consisted of four stages: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. It was conducted in one meeting. The researcher implemented the jigsaw technique for class VII.10. There were 30 students in the class: 16 girls and 14 boys.

a. Planning of Cycle 2

  The researcher decided to make a new cycle. It was because some problems occurred in cycle 1 and it was for maximizing the improvement of students’ participation. The researcher wanted to solve the previous problems about the material, time management, and classroom condition.

  The researcher divided the planning of the second cycle in two parts. They are teaching material and lesson plan.

  1) Teaching Material of Cycle 2 The teacher wanted the researcher to teach describing places. She gave the researcher freedom to make the material. Therefore, the researcher did not take the material from the text book. She browsed the material in the internet. It was a descriptive text titled “The National Park Bunaken”. It was chosen because the researcher wanted the students recognize the beauty of Indonesia. The researcher wanted the students know a good place outside Java. The teacher had already agreed to use it. Then, the researcher made a handout about a describing place text. The text was divided into five paragraphs. The researcher also made a worksheet as the students’ comprehension. The comprehension question consisted of five questions. It was about the text titled “Bunaken National Marine Park”.

  The researcher also provided the difficult vocabularies in each text. 2) Lesson Plan of Cycle 2

  The activity in this second cycle was almost similar to the activity in the cycle one. The material which only consisted of one descriptive text made the difference to the cycle one. The researcher grouped the students twice. In the first group, the students were divided into six groups (A-B-C-D-E-F). Each group consisted of six members. This group was called home group. The students were given a text titled “Bunaken National Marine Park” which had already divided into five paragraphs. They had to read their text loudly. Then, the students moved to the expert group which had the same paragraph of the text. They had a responsibility to comprehend one paragraph in each group by translating the text. using their own words. In the end of the lesson, the students answered some question about “Bunaken National Marine Park” in the home group.

b. Acting for Cycle 2

  In this stage, the researcher divided the actions in three parts; pre-activity, whilst-activity, and post-activity.

  1) Pre-Activity In the beginning of the lesson, the researcher asked the students about the tourism places which they ever visited on outside Java. Then, the researcher gave a handout about describing places to the students. There were some vocabularies to describe a place and the generic structure of describing place. The researcher provided an example of a describing place text, “Malioboro”. This pre-activity took ten minutes.

  2) Whilst-Activity In this activity, the researcher impleme nted the jigsaw technique. The researcher divided the activities into three group sections; Home Group Part 1,

  Expert Group, and Home Group Part 2.

  a) Home Group Part 1 The researcher divided the students in the home groups. The group was the same with the previous group in the cycle one. The researcher had divided the call cards in the group A, B, C, D, E, and F. The researcher asked them to sit on the same chair where they sat in the previous cycle. The researcher drew the sit map

  “Bunaken National Marine Park”. Each student in the group received different paragraphs of a text. The students could see their call cards that had already given the number of the paragraphs. Then, the researcher asked the students to read the text loudly. In this section, the two observers filled the participation checklist for the first criterion, reading the text loudly in the group.

  b) Expert Group The researcher asked the students to move to their expert groups by grouping the paragraphs. Paragraph one met with paragraph one and so on. This second group was still the same with the previous group. In this section, the researcher asked the students to share and ask questions about their paragraphs in the expert group. They comprehended their paragraph by translating the text. The observers filled the participation checklist for two criteria: asking questions related to the text to their friends and sharing the content of the text. The researcher asked the students to find the meaning of the difficult words in each text in order to make them understand the text. She also provided six pictures which represented each paragraph for helping them to understand the text.

  c) Home Group Part 2 The researcher asked the students to return to their home group. In this group, the students explained the content of their text that they had already learnt in the expert group orderly. In this section, the o bservers filled the students’ participation checklist for two criteria: the students retold the content of the text to friends in the group and the students answered questions in the worksheet. This

  3) Post-Activity In the post activity, the researcher discussed the correct answers of the worksheet. The students answered the questions orally. The researcher also asked the students about some adjectives to describe a place. The students could mention the adjectives to describe a place well.

c. Observing for Cycle 2 In this stage, the researcher had role as an observer and a teacher.

  Observing the teaching- learning activity was done in the same time with the implementation of the jigsaw technique. The data was obtained from observation sheet results and students’ participation checklist results.

1) Observation Sheet Results

  Yes No

  1. The teacher gives the students some questions related to the material in the beginning of the lesson

   2. The teacher explains the material from the handout 

  3. The teacher gives the opportunity to the students to ask about the material to the teacher

  No. Aspects T eacher’s Response

   5. The teacher asks the students to read the text loudly in the home group

   6. The teacher asks the students to move in the same text group 

  7. The teacher asks the students to share their text in the expert group

   8. The teacher asks the students to ask their friend about the text in the expert group

   9. The teacher asks the students to come back in their home group

   10. The teacher asks the students to tell the content of their text to 

Table 4.5 Observation Sheet of Researcher’s Activity

   4. The teacher divides the students into a group of six in the home group No. Aspects Teacher’s Response

  Yes No

   11. The teacher interacts and involves with the students in the group

   12. The teacher moves around in each group

   13. The teacher asks the students to answer the worksheet

   14. The teacher warns the students who make any noise

   15. The teacher gives feedback to the students

Table 4.5 showed that the researcher still could organize the instructions step by step. The researcher could manage the implementation of the jigsaw

  technique. Besides, the researcher let the students ask the material to her and involve in each group by moving around in the groups. In this second cycle, the researcher could manage the time wisely. She gave feedback and discussed the correct answers of the worksheet in the post activity. However, she still ignored the students who made noises in the group.

Table 4.6 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity

  No. Aspects Students’ Response

  Yes No

   1. The students answer some questions related to the material in the beginning of the lesson 2. The students pay attention to the teacher’s explanation

   

  3. The students ask questions about material to the teacher

   4. The students gather in a group of six in the home group

   5. The students read the text loudly in the home group

   6. The students move to the same text group

   7. The students share their text in the expert group

   8. The students ask their friends about the text in the expert group

   9. The students return to their home group

   10. The students tell the content of their text to their home group

   11. The students answer the worksheet

Table 4.6 showed that the students obeyed the researcher’s instruction.

  They paid attention to the researcher’s explanation. They used the opportunity to ask the difficult vocabularies and material to the researcher. They actively participated in the groups.

2) Students’ Participation Checklist Result

  In this observation, the researcher divided the results into the home group

  part 1 result, expert group result, home group part 2, and the table of students’ participation table.

  a) Home Group Part 1 Result In the home group, the students read the text one by one. 30 students read the text loudly. They seemed more relax in this section because they had already known the plot of the activities. All students read the text loudly by standing in front of their friends in the home group. This home group part 1 activity took 10 minutes.

  b) Expert Group Result There were 20 students who asked their friends about the text. In this section, they made improvement for asking their friends about the text. It was because there were some difficult words in the text. Besides, 25 students shared their ideas about the text in this expert group. They comprehended the text by checking the difficult words in the dictionaries. They also used the pictures to represent the content of the text. The researcher found that there was a group which divided the jobs. Each member translated one sentences. Therefore, it made them comprehend the text faster. After they finished it, they talked about another thing in the group. This expert group activity took twenty five minutes.

  c) Home Group Part 2 Result There were 25 students who retold the content of the text. They retold it in

  Indonesian and English. While the students were explaining the content of the text based on what they had learnt in the expert group, each student in the home group answered five questions in the worksheet about “Bunaken National Marine Park”. There were 29 students who finished answering the worksheet. In this section, the students felt easier to understand the whole descriptive text. However some students still copied their friends’ work. This activity took thirty five minutes.

d) Students’ participation table

Table 4.7 Students’ Participation of Cycle 2

  No. Criteria Quantity Percentage Qualification

  1. Reading the text loudly 30 100 % High

  2. Asking questions related to the 20 66.7 % Medium text to their friends

  3. Sharing the content of the text 25 83.3 % High

  4. Retelling the content of the 25 83.3 % High text to their friends

  5. Answering questions related to 29 96.7 % High the text in worksheet

  6. Asking questions related to the 14 46.7 % Medium material to the teacher

Table 4.7 showed that the students’ participation was unstable. It raised and decreased from cycle 1 to cycle 2. It rose in the part of reading the text loudly,

  asking questions to their friends in the group, and answering questions in the worksheet. However, it decreased in the criteria of sharing and retelling the content of the text.

  The result revealed that the students’ participation were not in low levels anymore. Their participation increased by the implementation of the jigsaw technique.

d. Reflecting for Cycle 2

  In this stage, the researcher obtained the data thro ugh teacher’s field notes and researcher’s field notes. The researcher noted the important things occurred in the class in the field notes. The English teacher of class VII.10 as the observer also made field notes for the researcher.

  1) Teacher’s Field Notes Result

  The English teacher stated that when the researcher left the students who were discussing, they talked about other things. She added that some students did not pay attention to the students who retold about the text in the home group. Therefore, it made them copied their friends ’ work to fill the worksheet.

  2) Researcher’s Field Notes Result The researcher found that the students could comprehend the text clearly.

  It was because each group only had responsibility to comprehend one text. They really tried to understand their texts in the expert group by translating the text.

  They checked the meaning of the difficult vocabularies in the dictionaries. However, the researcher felt that the students’ participation in sharing the content of the text reduced rather than in the previous cycle. The students’ situation was very noisy. In this expert group, the students still liked to talk about another thing outside the material when they had already comprehended the text. Besides, she found that the students showed their texts to the other friends when they retold their text in the home group.

  Then, the researcher summarized six important things that occ urred in the implementation of the jigsaw technique for the second cycle. They were (1) grouping movement was faster than cycle one, (2) the students comprehended the text by translating the text, (3) the students talked another thing in the expert group, (4) the students still copied their friends’ work in answering questions in the worksheet, (5) they have already been accustomed to standing up when they read the text in home group, (6) s tudents’ participation for sharing and retelling the text in the group decreased from cycle one to cycle two.

3) The Planning to Solve the Problems

  In order to solve the problem occurred in cycle 2, the researcher tried to make the best solution. In the case of c opying the other students’ work, the researcher had to consider the way to make the students work individually. The researcher planned to ask the students to do the worksheet in the normal sit, not in the group. Therefore, they could answer the questions in the worksheet individually. The researcher wanted to know their individual understanding of the text through the use of the jigsaw technique. While for the problem of decreasing the students’ participation in sharing the text and retelling the content of the text, the researcher made a treatment for the students. The students must stand up when they shared and retold the content of the text.

  The researcher planned to make a new activity to decrease the students talk about other things. The teacher made a list of difficult vocabularies for each text in the white board. The students had responsibility to find and write the meaning of the vocabulary in the white board. It would make them busy with their works.

3. Cycle 3

  The third cycle was conducted on Wednesday, April 3, 2013. It was the third meeting. This cycle consisted of four stages: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. It was conducted in one meeting. The researcher implemented the jigsaw technique for class VII.10. There were 30 students in the class; 16 girls and 14 boys.

a. Planning for Cycle 3

  The researcher decided to maximize the improveme nt result of students’ participation and solve the problem occurred in cycle 2 by implementing cycle 3. Besides, the English teacher suggested teaching once more about describing animals in order to complete all kind of descriptive texts. The researcher also wanted to solve the previous problem about cheating, talking other things outside the materials, decreasing the students’ participation in sharing the text in the expert group, and retelling the content of the text in home group from cycle 1 to cycle 2.

  The researcher divided the planning of the second cycle in two parts. They

  1) Teaching Material of Cycle 3 The researcher decided to teach describing an animal, Komodo. The researcher considered that the students had to know the rare animal in the world.

  Indonesia has some Komodo in Komodo Island which is included in Seven Wonders in the world. Therefore, it was important for the students to know about Komodo.

  The researcher made a handout about describing animals. It contained of some adjectives to describe animals and an example of descr ibing animals. The researcher also looked for a video about Komodo. It was used to make the students did not feel bored with the same activity. The researcher found a descriptive text about Komodo and then edited it into five texts. The researcher intended to give the students some difficult vocabularies from the text.

  2) Lesson Plan of Cycle 3 The activities were still the same with the previous cycle. However, the researcher planned to write the difficult vocabularies in the white board. The students had to work with their friends in the expert group to find the meaning of the vocabularies. They had to answer it in the white board to avoid they talked about other things when they had already finished comprehending the text in the expert group. In order to avoid the students cheated their friends’ work to answer the comprehension questions, the students had to answer the worksheet when they backed to the normal sit. Therefore, they could work individually.

b. Acting for Cycle 3

  In this stage, the researcher divided the actions into three parts; pre- activity, whilst-activity, and post-activity.

  1) Pre-Activity The implementation of the jigsaw technique for the third meeting was conducted in two weeks after finishing cycle two. It was because the students had

  

Ujian Sekolah holiday and a camping event. In the beginning of the lesson, the

  researcher asked the studebts’ pets. Then, the researcher gave a handout about describing animals. It consisted of some vocabularies and adjectives to describe an animal. The researcher discussed the handout. After that, the researcher played a video about Komodo Dragon. It was about the description of Komodo Dragon in Komodo Island, Indonesia. This pre-activity took fifteen minutes.

  2) Whilst-Activity In this activity, the researcher implemented the jigsaw technique. The researcher divided the activities in three group sections; home group part 1, expert group, and home group part 2.

  a) Home Group Part 1 The researcher divided the students into home groups. The group was the same with previous group in cycle 1 and cycle 2. The researcher also asked them to gather in the same sit place like in the previous cycle. The researcher drew the sit map in the white board. After that, the researcher gave each group a descriptive text titled “Komodo Dragon”. Each student in the group received different paragraphs. Basically, it was the same way like in the cycle 2. Then, the researcher asked the students to read the text loudly by standing in front of their friends in the home group. This home group part 1 took ten minutes. In this section, the two observers filled the students’ participation checklist for a criterion of reading text loudly in the group.

  b) Expert Group The researcher asked the students to move in the expert group by grouping the text. The students who received the same paragraph gather in one group. This second group was still the same with the previous group. The researcher counted their movement in order to make the students move quickly. In this section, the researcher asked the students to share and ask questions about the text to their friends in the expert group. The researcher asked the students to stand for sharing the content of their paragraphs. The students comprehended their paragraphs by translating them

  . The observers filled the student’ participation checklist for two criteria; asking questions related to the text to their friends and sharing the content of the text. This expert group activity took 25 minutes.

  The researcher asked the students to find the meaning of the difficult words in each text in order to make them understood the text. She also provided five pictures which represented each text to help them understanding the text. The difficult vocabularies for each text were written in the white board. Then, one member of each group came to the front of the class to answer the difficult vocabularies in the white board. The researcher saw that the students felt very interview results in the preliminary observation, two interviewees said that they seldom got a writing activity in the white board. Their enthusiasm was seen by many students who wanted to answer it in front of the class. This activity aimed to avoid the students talking about other things when they had already finished comprehending their text in the expert group.

  c) Home Group Part 2 The researcher asked the students to return to their home group. The researcher discussed the difficult words in the white board. After that, each student retold the content of their text that they had already learnt in the expert group by their own words

  . In this section, the observers filled the students’ participation checklist for retelling the content of the text to the other students in the group. Then, the researcher distributed the complete text to each student. This home group part 2 activity took twenty five minutes.

  3) Post-Activity The researcher asked the students to return to their normal sit. Based on the result of cycle two in which they c opied their friends’ work in answering the worksheet in the home group, the researcher gave the worksheet to them in the normal sit. Therefore, they worked individually. This past-activity took ten minutes. Then, the researcher concluded the material and gave feedback to the students by discussing some adjectives to describe an animal and the correct answer of the worksheet.

c. Observing for Cycle 3 In this stage, the researcher had roles as an observer and a teacher.

  Observing the teaching- learning activity was done in the same time with implementation activity. The data was obtained from observation sheet results and students’ participation checklist results.

1) Observation Sheet Results

  Yes No

   10. The teacher asks the students to tell the content of their text to their home group

  No. Aspects Teacher’s Response

  15. The teacher gives feedback to the students 

  14. The teacher warns the students who make noises 

   13. The teacher asks the students to answer the worksheet 

   12. The teacher moves around in each group

   11. The teacher interacts and involves with the students in the group

   9. The teacher asks the students to come back in their home group

  1. The teacher gives the students some question related to the material in the beginning of the lesson

   8. The teacher asks the students to ask their friend about the text in the expert group

Table 4.8 Observation Sheet of Researcher’s Activity

   6. The teacher asks the students to move to the same text group 

   5. The teacher asks the students to read the text loudly in the home group

   4. The teacher divided the students in a group of six in the home group

  3. The teacher gives the opportunity to the students to ask about the material to the teacher

   2. The teacher explains the material from the handout 

  7. The teacher asks the students to share their text in the expert group

Table 4.8 showed that the researcher could deliver the material orderly.

  The researcher could also manage the time wisely. There was time to give feedback and discuss the material in the end of the lesson. The researcher motivated the students to be active by letting the students ask questions about the material. Besides, the researcher interacted with the students by moving around in the groups. The researcher encouraged them to comprehend the text in the group.

Table 4.9 Observation Sheet of Students’ Activity

  No. Aspects Students’ Response

  Yes No

   1. The students answer questions related to the material in the beginning of the lesson

   2. The students pay attention to the teacher in explaining the material

   3. The students ask questions about material to the teacher

   4. The students gather in a group of six in the home group

   5. The students read the text loudly in the home group

   6. The students move to the same text group

   7. The students share their text in the expert group

   8. The students ask their friend about the text in the expert group

   9. The students return to their home group

   10. The students tell the content of their text to their home group

   11. The students answer the worksheet

Table 4.9 revealed that the students obeyed the instruction. They paid attention to the researcher

  ’s explanation about. The students used the opportunity to ask about difficult vocabularies and the material. The students actively participated in the groups by sharing their ideas. The students helped each other to understand the meaning of the text. They considered their friends as the resource to comprehend the text. In this cycle, the researcher could see the students’ participation increased maximally. All students answered the worksheet.

2) Students’ Participation Checklist Result

  In this observation, the researcher divided the results into home group part 1 result, expert group result, home group part 2 result, and the students’ participation table.

  a) Home Group Part 1 Result In the home group, the students read the text one by one. In this cycle, 30 students read the text loudly. The students were accustomed to do ing the activities. All students read the text loudly by standing in front of their friends in the group. This home group part 1 activity took ten minutes.

  b) Expert Group Result There were 22 students who asked their friends about the text. In this section, the students made improvement in asking their friends about the text. It was because there were some difficult vocabularies which offered in each text. Besides, 27 students shared the content of the text in this expert group. They comprehended the content of the text by checking the difficult words in the dictionaries. In this cycle, the students contributed their participation maximally. This expert group activity took twenty five minutes.

  c) Home Group Part 2 Result There were 29 students who retold the content of the text. They retold the content of the text by using Indonesian and English. The students told the content of the text with their own words. In this cycle, the researcher felt satisfy to see their performance in the home group. The students returned to their normal sit place to fill the worksheet. 30 students answered the questions in the worksheet. They could work individually. This home group part 2 activity took thirty five minutes.

  d) Students’ Participation Table

Table 4.10 Students’ Participation of Cycle 3

  No. Criteria Quantity Percentage Qualification

  1. Reading the text loudly 30 100 % High

  2. Asking questions related to the text to their friends 22 73.3 % Medium

  3. Sharing the content of the text to friends 27 90 % High

  4. Retelling the content of the text to their friends 29 96.7 % High

  5. Answering questions related to the text in worksheet 30 100 % High

  6. Asking question related the material to the teacher 18 60 % Medium

Table 4.10 showed that the students’ participation increased in almost all aspects. The students gave their contribution each activity. The qualification of the

  students’ participation showed that the students revealed the high and medium levels. The result indicated to finish the cycle because the students’ participation had already in high achievement. The students could follow the use of the jigsaw technique in learning various descriptive texts.

d. Reflecting for Cycle 3

  In this stage, the researcher obtained the data through the teacher’s field notes, the researcher’s field notes, interviews, and questionnaires. The researcher noted the important things occurred in the class in the field notes. The English teacher of class VII.10 as the observer also made field notes for the researcher. The researcher also summarized the result of the students’ participation checklist.

  1) Teacher’s Field Notes Result

  The teacher noted that the implementation of the jigsaw technique could increase the students’ participation. She stated that the students’ situation in the class was conducive. She felt that the students became more active in the jigsaw activity. The class was more alive. However, the students still made noises in the class. She also revealed that the students became having responsibility for their own part. Therefore, there was no one jobless in the classroom.

  The teacher stated that the difficulty of implementing the jigsaw technique was the group moving. She also gave opinion about the use of the jigsaw technique. The students could cooperate with each other in listening to their friends’ explanation. The difficult vocabularies attracted the students to know more about the text. However, the teacher said that the researcher should consider the difficult vocabularies which were provided. It was because not all students tried to check the difficult vocabularies in the dictionaries.

  2) Researcher’s Field Notes Result

  The researcher found that there was good improvement of the students’ participation. The students had already been accustomed to the implementation of jigsaw technique. In the moving group, they moved smoothly and quickly. The students could comprehend the text clearly. The researcher could see that they worked together to translate the text. They also tried to check the difficult words in some dictionaries. Besides, the opportunity to ask the researcher was more intensive than the cycle one and the cycle two. The researcher concluded that the girl students were not shy with their friends to ask and share their text like in the preliminary observation result. In this cycle, the girls often asked the researcher about the material.

  Then, the researcher summarized four important things that occurred in the implementation of the jigsaw technique for the third cycle. They were (1) managing the time to explain the material, (2) accompanying the students in the group, (3) the classroom was small, and

  (4) the improvement of students’ participation was already maximal. The researcher decided to finish the research in cycle 3. It was because the researcher received the maximal students’ participation through the implementation of the jigsaw technique in this cycle three. If the students’ participation in the cycle 3 was compared with the students’ participation in the preliminary study, the students’ participation in cycle 3 was better. It could be seen from the high improvement the students’ participation percentage in each criterion of the students’ participation. Therefore, it could be concluded that the students’ participation improved.

3) Intervie w Result

  The researcher conducted an interview with six students after implementing the last cycle. It was used to know their opinion about the implementation of the jigsaw technique. There were five questions in the interview. The first question is about the students’ opinion about the use of jigsaw technique in the class. They stated that the jigsaw technique was fun. It was an interesting activity. It was different from the usual method that was used by the teacher. A girl said that it was fun to move to the different gro up. Besides, a boy stated that jigsaw technique made him memorize English quickly.

  “Menyenangkan. Beda dari biasanya bosan.” (Nd#1)

  (It is enjoying. It is different from the usual learning which is bored)

  “Dapat mempermudah pembelajaran dan bisa lebih cepat menghapal bahasa Inggris, bisa memperlancar bahasa kita bahasa Inggris dan juga menyenangkan.” (Ys#1)

  (It makes the learning easier and I can memorize English quickly. Besides, I can learn English fluently and it is interesting) The second question was about the benefits of using the jigsaw technique to the students in learning English. They stated that it made the learning English easier. In addition, it helped the students to understand the meaning of the words. They described that they could share the difficult vocabularies to their friends.

  “Mempermudah pembelajaran. Membantu pemahaman siswa dalam setiap arti kata.” (Bg#1)

  (It makes the learning easier. Besides, it helps the students understand the meaning of each word.)

  “Ya kalo ada kata kata kalimat yang susah bisa sharing sama temen temennya di master group jadi tau deh.” (Nd#2)

  (I can share the difficult words with my friends in the master group.) The third question was about the difficulty of using the jigsaw technique to learn English. They stated that it was quite complicated. The small place could limit their movement. A girl stated it was confused to move from one group to another group. The other said that sometimes they talked about another thing in the group.

  “Agak sedikit rumit.” (Ys#3)

  (It is quite complicated.)

  “Ya kadang kadang kalau waktu lama bikin ngobrol.” (Nd#3)

  (It makes us chit-chat when the activity takes a lot of time.)

  “Ribet pindah pindah. Nggak dapet tempat duduk.” (Ev#3)

  (It is complicated to move. I do not get a chair to sit.) The fourth question was about the effectiveness of the jigsaw technique which is used to improve students’ participation. They revealed that the jigsaw technique improved their participation. The communication and interaction among students could help them to comprehend the text.

  “Meningkatkan karena lebih mudah dimengerti. Dapat mengetahui

pembelajaran dengan baik. Lumayan menambah percaya diri.” (Rf#4)

  (It improves the participation because the learning becomes easy to be understood. It quite increases my confidence.)

  “Dapat meningkatkan karena ada komunikasi dengan teman juga. Dapat menambah percaya diri.” (Ys#4)

  (It improves the participation because there is communication happens among the students. Besides, it increases my confidence.)

  “Tentu, karena antar personil saling berkomunikasi. Sure menambah percaya diri.” (Bg#4)

  (It can improve the participation because each student makes communication. Surely, it increases my confidence.) The fifth question was about the students’ suggestion for the use of jigsaw technique to learn English in the classroom. They suggested the researcher for making the text easier and the place should be larger. One boy stated that their friends should listen to the others.

  “Dipermudah teksnya dan dipersingkat.” (Rf#5)

  (The text should be easier and shortened.)

  “Sebaiknya tempatnya agak diperluas dan lebih mendengarkan yang laen.”

  (Ys#5)

4) Questionnaire Result

  The researcher distributed the questionnaire to 30 students to know their participation in the class and their opinion about the use of the jigsaw technique.

  There were 15 close-ended questions. In analyzing the data, the researcher divided the questionnaire discussions in two parts. They were students’ participation in the classroom and students’ opinion about the jigsaw technique.

a) Students’ Participation

  Question number one up to eight were the questions which showed students’ participation in the class. 96.7% of the students responded that they listened to the teacher’s explanation. It meant that they did not make noises when the researcher explained the material. Then, 53.3% of the students stated that they asked the teacher when she explained the material or gave the instruction unclearly. It meant that the students participated and gave attention in the learning process.

  All students (100%) stated that they read their text in the home group. It was similar to the result of the students’ participation checklist. It meant that they participated in reading the text loudly. 100% of the student also said that they tried to learn their text in the group. It showed that the students had responsibility to comprehend their texts. Question numbers five and six were about the students’ participation in the expert group. There were more than 50% of the students agreed that they gave an opinion and asked questions about the text in the expert group.

  Q uestion number seven was about the students’ participation to retell the content of the text in the home group. There were more than 50% of the students who agreed that they retold the content of the text to their friends. Then, all students agreed that they answered the questions in the worksheet. The researcher saw that all students tried to answer the questions although not all questions were answered.

b) Students’ Opinion about the Jigsaw Technique

  Question numbers nine up to fifteen were the questions which showed students’ opinion about the use of the jigsaw technique in English class. There were 26 students (86.7 %) stated that they liked to use the jigsaw technique in learning English. The jigsaw technique was the new technique in that class. 80% of the students revealed that the use of the jigsaw technique could make them speak actively in the group discussion. Q uestion number eleven was about the use of the jigsaw technique. It made them work with other groups. There were 76.7% of the students who agreed about that.

  Question number twelve was about the use of the jigsaw technique. It could make them feel confident to speak in front of their friends. There were 83.3% of the students stated that they agreed about it. It meant that the jigsaw could increase the self- confidence. 93.3% of the students revealed that the jigsaw technique invited them to participate in the group. 83.3% of the students stated that the jigsaw technique offered an opportunity to ask the material to the others. In the last question, 96.7% of the students agreed that the jigsaw technique gave them an opportunity to help other friends to understand the material. It meant that the use of the jigsaw technique could improve the students’ participation in the classroom.

5) Summary of the Students’ Participation Improvement

  Students’ participation is the involvement of students in the learning process. In this research, students’ participation is the students’ involvement in the group discussion and in the classroom. As Vandrick (2000) states that participation is defined as speaking in class, asking and answering questions, making comments and participating in discussion. The researcher analyzed the comparison of the students’ participation improvement results from the preliminary study, cycle 1, cycle 2, and cycle 3 below:

Table 4.11 Students’ Participation Improvement in Percentage

  No. Criteria Preliminary Study

  Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3

  1. Reading the text loudly 40 % 93.3 % 100 % 100 %

  2. Asking questions related to the text to friends 23.3 % 46.7 % 66.7% 73.3 %

  3. Sharing the content of the text 33.3 % 90 % 83.3 % 90 %

  4. Retelling the content of the text to friends 0% 96.7 % 83.3 % 96.7 %

  5. Answering questions related to the text in worksheet

  46.7 % 86.7 % 96.7 % 100 %

  6. Asking questions related to the material to the teacher 13.3 % 46.7 % 46. 7 % 60 %

Table 4.12 Students’ Participation Improvement in Quantity

  No. Criteria Preliminary Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Study

  1. Reading the text loudly

  12

  28

  30

  30

  2. Asking questions related to

  7

  14

  20

  22 the text to friends

  3. Sharing the content of the

  10

  27

  25

  27 text

  4. Retelling the content of the

  29

  25

  29 text to friends

  5. Answering questions

  14

  26

  29

  30 related to the text in worksheet

  6. Asking questions related to

  4

  14

  14

  18 the material to the teacher Tables 4.11 and 4.12 showed that the students’ participation improved from the preliminary observation to the implementation of the jigsaw technique. The explanation of each criterion of students’ participation was presented below:

1. Reading the Text Loudly

  In the preliminary observation, the students had low participation in reading the text loudly in the classroom. From 30 students, there were only 12 students who did it. The number of the students who participated in reading the text loudly increased each cycle. In the last cycle, all students (100%) had given their contribution to read the text loudly. It meant that the class made improvement 60% from the preliminary observation to the last cycle.

  2. Asking Question related to the Text to Friends

  In the preliminary observation, the students had very low participation in asking questions related to the material to their friends. There were only seven students (23.3%) who asked their friends about the material. While in the third cycle, the students made an improvement from 23.3% to 73.3%. It was about 22 students who asked their friends about the material through the implementation of the jigsaw technique.

  3. Sharing the Content of the Text

  In the preliminary observation, the students had low participation in sharing the content of the text to their friends. There were only 10 students (33.3%) who did it. After the researcher had implemented the technique, the students were accustomed to sharing the content of their text to friends. In the third cycle, the participation became 27 students (90%). It increased about 56.7%.

  4. Retelling the Conte nt of the Text to Friends

  The researcher found a new criterion. It was the students retold the content of the text to friends in the implementation of the jigsaw technique. In the first cycle, 29 students (96.7%) contributed their participation to retelling the text to their friends but it decreased into 25 students (83.3%) in the second cycle. It increased again to 29 students (96.7%) in the last cycle. In this section, the students had unstable improvement. In the first cycle, they retold by reading the text directly. On the other hand, in the second and third cycles, they really retold the text with their own words.

  5. Ans wering Questions Related to the Text in Worksheet

  In the preliminary study, there were only 14 students (46.7%) who answered the questions from the textbook. It meant that they had low participation in doing the tasks in the classroom. In the first cycle, there were 26 students who obeyed to answer the worksheet. It improved again in the second cycle. In the last cycle, there were 30 students (100%) who did their worksheet in the classroom. They made an improvement about 44.3%.

  6. Asking Question Related to the Material to the Teacher

  In the preliminary study , the students’ participation in asking questions about the materials to the teacher was very low. There were only 4 students

  (13.3%) who asked about vocabularies to the teacher. While, in the first cycle, there was 14 students asked the researcher about the material. Then, it improved again in the second cycle. Finally, there were 18 students (60%) who asked the material to the researcher in the last cycle.

C. The Way of the Jigsaw Technique in Improving the Students’ Participations of VII.10 Students of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  The research process was described in the previous section. The researcher would focus on how the jigsaw technique improves students’ participation. The researcher divided the discussions of how jigsaw technique improves students’ participation into two sections. Firstly, the researcher analyzed the students’ participation into three kinds of interaction proposed by Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007). Secondly, the researcher analyzed the jigsaw learning activities with a theory proposed by Hakkarainen (1992).

1. Three Kinds of Interaction

  Based on the Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007), the stud ents’ participation in the class can be defined in terms of three kinds of interaction:

a. Student to Teacher

  The interaction among the students and the teacher occurred in the implementation of the jigsaw technique. In this research, the interaction among the students and the teacher was the students asked questions related to the material to the teacher. The researcher as the teacher always gave opportunities to the students to ask questions about the material. In c ycle 3, many students asked the researcher about learning materials and the difficult vocabularies. The students contributed their participation in following the learning process.

  In the third cycle of the implementation of the jigsaw technique, some students offered to be a volunteer to share their personal experiences about describing an animal. It meant that the students involved with the researcher by communicating their ideas. The researcher’s instruction stimulated the students to participate in the learning activity.

  In the group discussion, the researcher tried to interact with the students by moving around each group. The researcher always asked the students about the process in the group. The interaction among the students and the researcher co uld influence the students to speak up during the teaching learning process.

b. Student to Student

  In this research, the interaction between student and student was the students asked questions related to the text, shared and retell the content of the text to friends in the group. In the implementation of the jigsaw, the students made an interaction with other students almost in all jigsaw activities. In the first section, the students gathered in the home group to read the text loudly. It made the students communicate with others by listening to other students.

  In the second section, the students gathered in the expert group. In this group, the students who had the same topic gathered in one group to discuss and comprehend the paragraphs of a descriptive text. The interaction occurred through the communication among the students. They shared what they knew about the text with their friends. Besides, the students tried to ask the content of the text to their friends in order to achieve the group goal

  . The students’ responsibility to master their texts appeared in this group. They helped each other to comprehend the text. The students prepared a little presentation to tell what they had learnt in their expert group to their home group members.

  In the last section, the students returned to their home group. In this group, the students’ participation occurred through the interaction among the students to help each other in retelling the content of their text. Each member was being a resource to the othe rs in the home group. Therefore, the students’ participation was very important in this activity. In each cycle of the implementation of the jigsaw technique showed that each students contributed their participation in the group discussion.

c. Student to Material

  In this research, the interaction among the students and the material occurred when the students read the text loudly in front of their friends and the students answered questions in the worksheet. The students participated to read their text in the home group. It made them engage with the material. Besides, they learnt the material through the handout give n by the researcher. They made reactions to respond to the material by asking questions related to the handout.

  While in the last activity, the students completed the reading assignment. The assignment was about students’ comprehension of the text which had been learnt in the groups. They answered the questions in the worksheet individually.

2. Jigsaw Technique for Group Learning Activities

  According to Hakkarainen (2012) jigsaw technique is a group work method for learning and participating in the following group learning activities:

a. Listening

  In the implementation of the jigsaw technique, the students gave their contribution through listening to the material shared by their friends. It was because their friends as their main resource of knowledge in the jigsaw technique activities. Besides, the students participated to prepare their discussion to be the other students in order to understand the material. In cycle 1, there was some students did not pay attention to their friends’ explanation. However, it changed in cycle 3. Each student listened to their friends who explained the text. They realized that listening to the others make them understand the text quickly.

  Therefore, they were able to teach their friends in the home group.

  b. Speaking

  There were three group sections in the implementation of the jigsaw technique in the class. They were home group part 1, expert group, and home group part 2. The students discussed the material in the expert group. Then, the students had responsibility to retell the content of the text which had discussed in the expert group to their home group friends.

  They contributed their participation through presenting their knowledge using their own words to the new listeners. The other members in the home group expected that the speaker could deliver the material clearly. In the implementation of the jigsaw technique, the students of class VII.10 had tried to speak and be a good resource by retelling and presenting the content of the text. In this activity, the students who taught the content of the text were appreciated by other students.

  c. Cooperation

  In the implementation of the jigsaw technique, the students depended on others to comprehend the materials. Their participation came up through the activities which expected their contribution to help the ir friends. Understanding the group are responsible for the success of others in the group. Before implementing the jigsaw technique, the students did not have responsible for participating in the discussion. Since they were expected to help each other by the jigsaw activities, they became likely to cooperate with others in the group discussion. In cycle 3, the girls showed their cooperation to participate in the teaching and learning process. It was different from the preliminary study result that showed the lack of students’ cooperation in the class.

  d. Reflective Thinking

  The students tried to reflect the results of the expert group discussion by retelling the content of the text to their friends in the home group. In the implementation of the jigsaw technique, the students delivered what they had learnt by using their own words. It had been prepared in the expert group. The students of class VII 10 had tried to reflect the discussion results in the expert group by making notes. The students could successfully complete the activity in the home group by reflecting thinking.

  e. Creative Thinking

  In the implementation of the jigsaw technique, the students taught and presented their knowledge in Indonesian and English. They translated each paragraph in order to make the other students understand the content of the text. They also used some pictures as the visualization of each paragraph. The students tried to retell the content of the text in the home group by creating a good presentation in the expert group.

  The students’ participation was seen by their performance in each group.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter consists of the research conclusions and the suggestions for

  the implementation of the jigsaw technique in English class. The conclusion was derived from the research findings and discussion. The researcher proposed suggestions to the English teachers, and other researchers who are interested in similar research.

A. Conclusions

  This research was conducted to find out how the implementation of the jigsaw technique in the classroom and how the jigsaw technique improved the students’ participation class VII.10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. It was classroom action research based on Kemmis a nd McTaggart’s model. There were four steps for each cycle; planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. In this research, the students’ participation was discussed through the definition of students’ participation which was divided into three kinds of interaction proposed by Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence (2007). They were (1) student to teacher, (2) student to student, (3) student to material.

  In this research, the students’ participation which occurred during the implementation of the jigsaw technique was included into three kinds of interaction. First, the interaction between students and the teacher involved asking student and student involved three activities, such as asking questions about the text to friends, sharing the content of the text to friends, and retelling the content of the text to friends. Third, the interaction between students and material was categorized into two activities, such as reading the text loudly and answering questions in the worksheet.

  Therefore, there are six students’ participation activities which are analyzed in this research.

  The implementation of the jigsaw technique was able to improve the students’ participation of class VII 10 of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta. From the students’ participation checklists, the researcher concluded that the students’ participation improved significantly in the six aspects of students’ participation from the preliminary study to the last cycle. (1) 60% of the students (from 12 to 30 students) had improved their participation in reading the paragraph loudly, (2) 50% of the students (from 7 to 22 students) had improved their participation in asking questions related to the text to other friends, (3) 56.7% of the students (from 10 to 27 students) had improved their participation in sharing the content of the text, (4) 96.7% of students made new participation in retelling the content of the text to their friends, (5) 53.3% of the students (from 14 to 30 students) had improved their participation in answering questions related to the text in worksheet, (6) 46.7% of the students (from 4 to 18 students) had improved their participation in asking questions related to the material to the teacher.

  The data from the field notes and the observation sheets showed that the students gave positive responses to following the teaching and learning activities. classroom condition was conducive because each student had responsibility to master their parts. Besides, the students cooperated with the others in the group discussion. They considered their friends in the group as the resource to comprehend the materials. The questionnaire and the interviews described the students’ opinion about the implementation of the jigsaw technique. They agreed that the jigsaw technique could improve their participation because this activity invited them to be responsible for their own parts.

B. Suggestions

  The researcher addressed the suggestions for the English teachers of seventh grade students of Junior High School and other researchers.

1. For Englis h Teache rs of Seventh Grade Students of Junior High School

  Using the jigsaw technique in the teaching and learning process is suggested English teachers who want to improve their students’ participation. It is because the use of the jigsaw technique gives a lot of benefits to the students and the teacher. As discussed before in the research findings, the students will have responsibility to master their materials. However, the teachers should pay attention to the place for implementing the jigsaw technique. It needs a big place because the students will move to other groups. Besides, the teachers should consider the time because it took a lot of time.

2. For Other Researcher

  This research has limitations to see how the jigsaw technique improved the students’ participation in English teaching and learning process. Therefore, for the future researchers who want to conduct similar research may use the data in this research to support their research. Besides, it is better if the researcher can provide a large place for implementing the jigsaw technique in order to make the students feel comfortable in the discussion activity. In addition, the next researcher s should prepare the variation of interesting texts to avoid the boredom of the students. Therefore, the result will be more effective.

  

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  APPENDICES

  APPENDIX A Covering Letter for the Head of SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  107

  108

  

APPENDIX B

Research Official Statement

from SMP N 8 Yogyakarta

  109

  110

  

APPENDIX C

Research Instruments

  

1. Observation Sheets

  

2. Students’ Participation Checklist

  

3. Field Notes Guide

  

4. Questionnaire

  

5. Interviews Guide

  111

  7. The teacher asks the students to share their paragraph in the expert group

  14. The teacher warns the students who make any noise

  13. The teacher asks the students to answer the worksheet

  12. The teacher moves around in each group

  11. The teacher interacts and involves with the students in the group

  10. The teacher asks the students to tell the content of their paragraph to their home group

  9. The teacher asks the students to return to their home group

  8. The teacher asks the students to ask their friend about the text in the expert group

  6. The teacher asks the students to move in the same text group

  

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

OBSERVATION SHEET ON THE RESEARCHER ’S ACTIVITIES

  5. The teacher asks the students to read the text loudly in the home group

  4. The teacher divides the students in a group of six in the home group

  3. The teacher gives the opportunity to the students to ask about the material to the teacher

  2. The teacher explains the material from the handout

  1. The teacher gives the students some questions related to the material in the beginning of the lesson

  Yes No

  No. Aspects Teacher’s Response

  15. The teacher gives feedback to the students

  112

  

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

OBSERVATION SHEET ON THE STUDENTS ’ ACTIVITIES

  No. Aspects Students’ Response

  Yes No

  1. The students answer some question related to the material in the beginning of the lesson

2. The students pay attention to the teacher’s explanation

  3. The students ask questions about the material to the teacher

  4. The students gather in a group of six in the home group

  5. The students read the text loudly in the home group

  6. The students move to the same text group

  7. The students share their paragraph in the expert group

  8. The students ask their friend about the text in the expert group

  9. The students return to their home group

  10. The students tell the content of their paragraph to their home group

  11. The students answer the worksheet

  113

  

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

STUDENTS’ PARTICIPATION CHECKLIST ON THE PRELIMINARY

STUDY

  Give a tick ( ) that showing each student’s participation based on what you have seen.

  Students Participation Aspects ’ Call

  Cards Number A B C D E 1.

  2.

  3.

  4.

  5.

  6.

  7.

  8.

  9.

  10.

  11.

  12.

  13.

  14.

  15.

  16.

  17.

  18.

  19.

  20.

  114 21.

  22.

  23.

  24.

  25.

  26.

  27.

  28.

  29.

  30. Total

  Participation aspects: A : Reading the text loudly B : Asking questions related to the text to friends C : Sharing the content of the textto friends D : Ans wering questions in the works heet E : Asking questions related to the materials to the teacher

  115

  

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

STUDENTS’ PARTICIPATION CHECKLIST ON THE

IMPLEMENTATION OF JIGSAW TECHNIQUE

  Give a tick ( ) that showing each student’s participation based on what you have seen.

  Students Participation Aspects ’ Call

  Cards Number A B C D E F 1.

  2.

  3.

  4.

  5.

  6.

  7.

  8.

  9.

  10.

  11.

  12.

  13.

  14.

  15.

  16.

  17.

  18.

  19.

  20.

  116 21.

  22.

  23.

  24.

  25.

  26.

  27.

  28.

  29.

  30. Total

  Participation aspects: A : Reading the text loudly B : Asking questions related to the text to friends C : Sharing the content of the text to friends D : Retelling the content of the text to friends E : Ans wering questions in the works heet F : Asking questions related to the materials to the teacher

  117

  

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

TEACHER ’S AND RESEARCHER’S FIELD NOTES GUIDE

  1. How is students’ situation in the class? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

  2. What kind of difficulty found in teaching descriptive texts using Jigsaw technique? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

  3. What works well in implementing teaching descriptive texts using Jigsaw technique? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

  4. What part should be improved? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

  118

  

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

STUDENTS’ QUESTIONARIE ON THE PRELIMENARY STUDY

  Pada saat PELAJARAN BAHASA INGGRIS

  

1. Faktor apa yang mungkin menyebabkan kamu untuk berpartisipasi (misal:

  karena suasana kelas, semangat, asik, ingin tahu,faktor lain) atau tidak

  

berpartisipasi (misal: ngantuk, ada masalah, malu, males, ga tau kudu ngapain,

  bingung, faktor lain) di dalam kelas? Kenapa bisa begitu?

  Jawab:

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

  2. Silahkan curhat di kertas ini..terserah kamu..misal kesan kamu terhadap teman

  teman dan kelas VII/10 selama 2 semester ini ^_^ Jawab:

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

  119

  

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

STUDENTS’ QUESTIONARIE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF

JIGSAW TECHNIQUE

  Partisipasi Siswa Dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar Bahasa Inggris Nama : ………………………………….. No. Call Card : …………………………………..

  Berdasarkan pegalaman Anda dalam mengikuti Jigsaw Classroom, jawablah pernyataan di bawah ini dengan memberi tanda centang (√) padak kolom yang tersedia.

  No.

  Pernyataan Ya Tidak 1. Saya mendengarkan penjelasan guru 2. Saya bertanya saat penjelasan guru kurang jelas 3. Saya membaca bagian teks yang saya peroleh di dalam kelompok asal (home group) saya

  4. Saya berlatih memahami bagian teks yang saya peroleh dalam kelompok asal (home group) saya

  5. Saya memberikan pendapat tentang bagian teks yang saya peroleh dengan kelompok yang mendapatkan bagian yang sama dengan saya di kelompok master (expert group) 6. Saya bertanya tentang isi teks kepada teman kelompok yang mendapatkan bagian yang sama dengan saya di kelompok master (expert group) 7. Saya menceritakan isi teks deskriptif yang sudah saya pelajari di kelompok master (expert group) kepada kelompok asal (home group) saya 8. Saya menjawab soal yang diberikan guru tentang isi deskriptif teks

  9. Saya senang dengan tehnik Jigsaw yang diberikan di kelas

  10. Jigsaw membuat saya aktif berbicara di dalam diskusi kelompok

11. Jigsaw membuat saya bekerjasama dengan grup lain

  120 12. Jigsaw membuat saya percaya diri untuk berbicara di depan teman

  13. Jigsaw menarik minat saya untuk berpatisipasi aktif di dalam kelompok

  14. Teknik Jigsaw dapat memberikan kesempatan saya untuk bertanya tentang materi yang dipelajari

  15. Teknik Jigsaw dapat memberikan kesempatan saya untuk membantu menjawab tentang materi yang tidak mengerti oleh teman lain

  121

  

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

STUDENTS’ INTERVIEW GUIDE ON THE PRELIMENARY STUDY

1. Apakah yang kamu rasakan tentang pelajaran bahasa Inggris? 2.

  Apakah yang telah kamu pelajari di kelas di awal semester ini? 3. Bagaimana cara guru menyampaikan materi? 4. Apakah kamu suka bertanya di kelas? 5. Apakah kamu suka menjawab soal yang diberikan guru? 6. Apakah kamu memperhatikan guru selama pelajaran berlangsung? 7. Apakah kamu mengerjakan latihan soal yang diberikan guru di kelas? 8. Apakah kamu suka kegiatan berdiskusi? 9. Bagaimanakah partisipasi siswa di kelas? 10.

  Bagaimanakah situasi kelas saat guru mengajar?

  122

  

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

STUDENTS’ INTERVIEW GUIDE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF

JIGSAW TECHNIQUE 1.

  Apakah pendapatmu tentang pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris menggunakan tehnik Jigsaw?

  2. Apakah keuntungan yang kamu peroleh dari pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris menggunakan teknik Jigsaw?

  3. Apakah kendala yang kamu hadapi dari pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris menggunakan Jigsaw?

4. Apakah tekhnik Jigsaw dapat meningkatkan partisipasi siswa? 5.

  Apakah saranmu terhadap pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris dengan teknik

  Jigsaw ?

  123

  

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

TEACHER ’S INTERVIEW GUIDE ON THE PRELIMENARY STUDY

  1. Bagaimana pendapat Ibu mengenai kelas 7.10?

  2. Bagaimanakah situasi kelas secara umum saat pelajaran?

  3. Apakah banyak siswa yang aktif?

  4. Apakah siswa suka bertanya?

  5. Apakah mereka suka berdiskusi?

  6. Apakah ada kesulitan mengajar di kelas ini?

  7. Apakah semua siswa aktif di dalam kelas?

  124

  

APPENDIX D

Learning Materials

  

1. Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle One

  

2. Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle Two

  

3. Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle Three

  125

  

Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle One

LESSON PLAN

  School : SMP N 8 Yogyakarta Grade : VII Semester : II Subject : English Text Type : Descriptive Theme : People Skill : Reading Time Allocation : 2 x 40 minutes

  A . STA NDA RD OF COMPETENCE Reading

  11. Understanding meaning in a short functional text, songs and poems and short essay in form of descriptive and procedure to communicate with the environment and / or in the context of academic

B. BA SIC COMPETENCE Reading

  11.2 Understanding explicit meanings correctly and efficiently of the written functional texts, songs, poems, and simple short essay in the form of

  descriptive

  and procedure related to students’ surrounding and / or academic context.

C. INDICA TORS

  Upon completion of the learning activities, students are able to accurately:  Identify the communicative purpose of descriptive text  Identify the retorical steps of descriptive text

   Identify specific information of descriptive text  Identify detailed information of descriptive text  Describe people

D. THE PURPOSE OF LEA RNING

  Students are able to:  Identify the explicit information in the short functional text in the form of descriptive text  Describe people using spoken English

E. CHA RA CTER BUILDING

   Trustworthines  Respect  Diligence  Responsibility

F. MA TERIA LS

  1. Descriptive text

  a) Who do you think this person is?

  b) What does he look like?

  2. Descriptive Text

  a) Social Purpose

  To describe a particular person, place, or things

  b) Structure

  A descriptive text is usually organized to include:  Identification

   Descriptions Describes parts, qualities and characteristics of the person, place, or thing

  c) Grammar

  Common grammatical patterns of a procedure include:

  1. Use of simple present tense

  2. Use of adjectives

  His full name is EntisSutisna. People call him Sule. He Identification is a famous comedian in Indonesia. Sule was born on 15 November 1976 in Bandung, West Java. He speak s Sundanese fluently. He also learns Javanese.

  Sule is very unique. His hair is long with brown and yellow color. He has oval face and flat nose. He is very funny. His jok e mak es everyone smiling even belly laughing. Sule plays in several TV

  Description shows such as Opera Van Java (OVJ), Awas Ada Sule, PAS Mantab, and SaungSule. He also can sing very well. He has very famous song entitled Susis.

  d) Adjectives

AGE BUILD HEIGHT NOSE EYES FACE

  Young, Fat, Thin, Tall, Short, Pointed, Big, round, Long, Round, Old, Slim, Average Flat blue-eyes, Oval, Square,

  • – Middle Plump, Height large, small, Thin lips, Aged, Well - (medium bright, wrinkles, Teenager Build height) narrow freckles, pale, scar

SKIN HAIR DISTINGU CLOTH PERSONALITY STYLE

  Pale, Fair - Long, Beard, casual, Calm, Moody, Cheerful, Skinned, Short, Moustache scruffy, careless, hard-working, Brown, Straight, shabby, independent Black, Wavy, tidy, messy generous, friendly, Sun- Curly, confident, selfish, shy, tanned, Neat, stubborn, white skin Bald,

  Spiky

  G. METHOD

  JIGSAW

  H. LEA RNING A CTIV IT IES

  Pre Teacher Student Time Activity

  a) 5’

  Teacher’s role

  b) Telling the topic of the materials c)

  Relating the topic with the reality d)

  Informing the learning objectives Main

  a)

  a) Answering question Do asking and answering 2’

  Activity questions about Sule

  b) 3’

  The teacher explains about descriptive text briefly c)

  The teacher divides the 3’ students in a group of six (@5 members)

  2’

  d) The teacher gives five descriptive texts about famous people in each group (in a part form of descriptive text)

  5’

  e)

  e) The students read

  The teacher asks the students to read th eir text in “home their text in “home 20’ group” group” f)

  f) The students ask

  The teacher asks the students to share about their text in question related to

  descriptive text in

  another group “expert group” 25’ which has same descriptive

  “expert group”

  text The students share about

  their part of

  10’

  descriptive text in

  g)

  “expert group”

  The teacher asks the students to go back to their group

  g) The students tell about their complete

  “home group” to tell about their complete descriptive descriptive text in h)

  “home group”

  The teacher gives some questions in each group related with the story

  h) The students answer some questions related to the story in “home group”

  Closing The teacher and the students draw The teacher and the 5’

  Activity conclusion and review about the students draw conclusion lesson. and review about the lesson.

I. LEA RNING RESOURCES

  1. http://www.sekolahoke.com/2011/08/descriptive-text-sule-prikitiw- famous.html

  2. http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://cdn.plussizecostumesuperc enter.com/

  3. http://hadirukiyah.blogspot.com/2009/06/describing-people-susilo- bambang.html

  4. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_xVsLXpqZx_w/ShDBGYzNF5I/AAAAAAAA

  AHY/9KSGNA7wur8/s400/New+Picture+(3).png 5. http://naristasandra.blogspot.com/2010/11/describing-people.html 6. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://ifahisablackjack.files.wordp ress.com

  7. http://namakuaziza.blogspot.com/2012/08/contoh-descriptive- text_9839.htmlhttp://www.google.com/search?q=justin+bieber+2009&hl= en&gbv=2&tbm=isch&gs_l=img.

  8. http://www.sekolahoke.com/2013/01/Descriptive.Text.Artis.Indonesia.Raf fi.Ahmad.html

1. Indicators

  Competence Attainment Indicators

  Technique Form Assessment Instrument

   Identify the communicative purpose of descriptive text  Identify the retorical steps of descriptive text  Identify the main idea of the descriptive text  Identify specific information of descriptive text  Identify detailed

  Written test Essay Attached

  (Attachment 2) J. A SSESSMENT information of descriptive Attached text

  (Attachment 1)

   Describe things using spoken English Jigsaw Participation checklist 2.

  Assessment Instrument Identify specific information of descriptive text

  a. Technique : Written test

  b. Form : Essay

  c. Instrument : Describing people Rubric assesment

  Criteria Score

  Max. Score : 5+5 =10

  Mentioning Physical

  5 Min. Score : 0 Feature Mentioning Personality

  5  Describe things using spoken English

  a. Technique : Jigsaw

  b. Form : Participation checklist

  c. Instrument : Describing people Elements

  × 100% P=

  The student read the text loudly The student ask question related to text to friends The students share the content of the text to

  P = percentage friends Fo = frequency observed N = number of sample

  The students retell the content of the text to friends The students answer questions in the worksheet The students ask about the material to the teacher

  Yogyakarta, March, 2013 PipietDhanayuPratiwindya

  091214134 Approved by, English Teacher

  Advisor

  Attachment 1

1.MY PRESIDENT (1) Look at the picture! That is our president picture. The name is Mr.

  SusiloBambangYudhoyono. He is between Mrs. AniYudhoyono and Mr. Budiono. He is wearing black skull cap red shirt and he has black hair. Now, he is sixty years old.

  (2) Mr. SusiloBambangYudhoyono is calm and hard-working person. He always tries to make our country, Indonesia, living in peace and prosperous. He is a responsible president.

  (3) Mrs. Yudhoyono is wearing red shirt too, she has black hair and she is 55 years old. They have got two children. They are AgusHarimurti and Edi Baskoro. Yudhoyono’s family lives at PuriCikeas Indah Street, Bogor West Java.

  (4) Mr. Budiono is an Indonesian Bank Governor, he is wearing red shirt too, black skull cap and he has black hair. Now he is sixty six years old. He older thanYudhoyono. He always wearing glasses and the name of his wife is Herawati.

  (5) She is sixty years old. She has black hair and she is wearing red shirt. She always wears glasses like her husband. They have got two children they are RatrianaEkarini and Dios Kurniawan. Budiono’sfamily lives at MampangPrapatan, South Jakarta.

  (6) Mr. Yudhoyono is taller than Mr. Budiono and Mrs. Yudhoyono is shorter than Mrs. Budiono and Mr. Yudhoyono is tallest of all.

  1

  2

  3

  4

  5

  6

2. JUSTIN BIEBER

  (1) His name is Justin Bieber. He is very famous singer nowadays. He begins to be a star after his voice was published at youtube.com. (2) Justin was born on 1 March 1994 in Stratford, Ontario, Canada. His father's name is Jeremy Jack Bieberdan his mother's name is Patricia (Pattie) Lynn

  Mallette.

  (3) Justin has red hair, sharp nose and blue eyes. People say that his face is cute. It makes his fans being crazy when they meet him. (4) Justin is a friendly person. When he performs in the stage, he often invites his fans to come in the stage to sing together. He also loves his mother very much.

  (5) Justin is a very talented musician. He can sing beautifully. He also can play some music instruments, for instance piano, drum, guitar, and saxophone. (6) Justin Bieber starts his career by releasing his first single "One More

  Time" and his album in 2009 entitled "My World." "Baby, Somebody to Love, and Never Say Never" are very popular to everyone in the world.

  1

  2

  3

  4

  5

  6

3. AGNES MONICA

  (1) In Indonesia, there are many multitalented actresses, actors, singers and many others talents. One of them is Agnes Monica Muljoto as known as Agnes

  st

  Monica. She was born in Jakarta on July 1 1986. She is one of famous artist in Indonesia.

  (2) She is becoming phenomenon and controversial because of her career, gossips, and issues. Her appearances, manners, and life style are always being a trendsetter to many people.

  (3) She is quite tall for Indonesian. Her height and weight is about 170cm and 55kg. She is Chinese, beautiful and has oriental face. She has thick eyebrows and narrow eyes.

  (4) She also has pointed nose, and thin lips. Her body is slim, so she is very energetic and powerful in every performance. She is humble, easy going, and down to earth.

  (5) She is very mature and she always has a plan for future. She wants to go international and it is come true. (6) The last, even she is a big and famous artist; she would never be selfish and forget to her God. In every Award which she was accepted, she never forgets to thank to God.

  1

  2

  3

  4

  

5

  6

4. BARACK OBAMA

  (1) His full name is Barack Hussein Obama. People often call him Barack Obama or Obama only. He is African-American. (2) He was elected the 44th President of the United States on November 4, 2008, and sworn in on January 20, 2009. (3) He was born on 4 August 1961 in Honolulu, USA. Obama is quite tall, 183 cm. He has got dark skin and oval face. He has got short, black a nd curly hair. His face looks patient and strong.

  (4) He is also very intelligent, polite, and ambitious. He always keeps smiles when he gives speech. Obama has got married to Michelle. They have 2 daughters, Malia and Natasha Obama.

  (5) Obama’s hobby is having sport. He likes playing golf in his spare time. Obama also loves blogging. He writes on his twitter quite often.

  (6) He lives in white house, Washington DC. His almamater are from Occidental Collage, Coloumbia University, and Harvard Law School.

  3

  1

  2

  4

  5

  6

5. RAFFI AHMAD

  (1) His full name is RaffiFaridz Ahmad. People usually call him Raffi Ahmad or Raffi. He was born on 17 February 1987 in Bandung, West Java. (2) He is a presenter and a famous actor in Indonesia. Raffi has 2 siblings. He is the first child of the family. His father's name is Munawar Ahmad and his mother is Amy Qanita.

  (3) He has well build body with fair skin. He has also pointed nose. Besides that, he is very friendly person. Because of his character, he has so many friends.

  (4) Raffi is a good looking guy. Many girls like him. Unfortunately, he is sort of heart-breaker. He easily gets in touch with girls and has a special relationship. Let's say for example LaudyaChintya Bella, VeloveVexia and YuniShara.

  (5) Raffi works as a presenter. He works with Olga Syahputra on some TV shows like Dahsyat and OMG. He also works as an actor and a singer. He sings with his vocal group BBB.

  (6) Raffi has many lifetime achievements during his career. Some of them are SCTV Award 2006 as the popular artist, Panasonic Gobel Award 2011 and 2012 as the best music presenter.

  1

  2

  3

  4

  5

  6

  Attachment 2

  EXERCISE IN “HOME GROUP”

  Identify specific information of descriptive text!

  Name : No. Call Card :

SBY JUSTIN AGNES OBAMA RAFFI BIEBER MONICA AHMAD

  Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical Feature: Feature: Feature: Feature: Feature: Personality : Personality : Personality : Personality : Personality :

  

Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle Two

LESSON PLAN

  School : SMP N 8 Yogyakarta Grade : VII Semester : II Subject : English Text Type : Descriptive Theme : Place Skill : Reading Time Allocation : 2 x 40 minutes

  A . STA NDA RD OF COMPETENCE Reading

  11. Understanding meaning in a short functional text, songs and poems and short essay in form of descriptive and procedure to communicate with the environment and / or in the context of academic

B. BA SIC COMPETENCE Reading

  11.2 Understanding explicit meanings correctly and efficiently of the written functional texts, songs, poems, and simple short essay in the form of

  descriptive

  and procedure related to students’ surrounding and / or academic context.

C. INDICA TORS

  Upon completion of the learning activities, students are able to accurately:  Identify the communicative purpose of descriptive text  Identify the retorical steps of descriptive text

   Identify the main idea of the descriptive text  Identify specific information of descriptive text  Identify detailed information of descriptive text  Describe place using spoken English

D. THE PURPOSE OF LEA RNING

  Students are able to:  Identify the explicit information in the short functional text in the form of descriptive text fluently, accurately, and acceptably.

   Describe place correctly.

E. CHA RA CTER BUILDING

   Trustworthines  Respect  Diligence  Responsibility

F. MA TERIA LS

1. Describing Place

  

When you describe a place you commonly used the verb there is/there are,

descriptive adjectives and place prepositions like at, on, under, below, above,

near, opposite, on the right, on the left.

  a) Where is it?

  b) Have you ever visited this place?

  c) What does this place look like?

  141 Malioboro is the biggest shopping centre in Yogyakarta. It located in center of Yogyakarta nearTampin (Taman Pintar) and MonumenSeranganUmum

  1 Maret. Actually, Malioboro is not a building but it is a street.

  Malioboro is also for shopping beside for a recreation place. There are many interesting places in Malioboro, like distro, hotel, mall, restaurant and many more. The tourists can choose what they want because there are so many street vendors along the Malioboro Street. If you want to buy clothes, you can go to distro or mall, or if you want to buy some special snacks from Yogya like "BakpiaPatok" you can buy it in special snack store there.

  Malioboro is a big and clean place. It is because the local government maintains that area to be tourism place. If you have no much money you can still enjoy Malioboro, you can just walk around to see the crowd along the street.

2. Vocabulary

  1. : Masjid 11. : Rumahsakit Mosque Hospital 2.

  12. : Kantor polisi Railway Station : Stasiunkeretaapi Police Station

  3. : Penjara 13.

  Prison Drugstore : Apotek 4. : Gereja 14. : Pantai

  Church Beach 5. : Pasar 15. : Pelabuhan

  Market Harbour 6. : Ruangtamu 16. : Bandara

  Living room Airport 7. : Dapur 17. : Candi

  Kitchen Temple 8. :Pengadilan 18. : Istana

  Court Palace 9. : Pabrik 19. : Desa

  Factory Village 10.

  20. : Kota Swimming pool : Kolamrenang Town

  G. METHOD

  JIGSAW

  H. LEA RNING A CTIV IT IES

  Pre Teacher Student Time Activity

  a) 5’

  Teacher’s role

  b) Telling the topic of the materials

  142 reality

  d) Informing the learning objectives

  Main

  a)

  a) Answering question Do asking and answering 2’ questions about Malioboro

  Activity

  b) The teacher explains about

  3’ describing place briefly c)

  The teacher divides the 3’ students in a group of six

  (@5 members)

  d) 2’

  The teacher gives one descriptive text about BunakenNatioanal Marine Park in each group (each student in the group has different paragraph)

  5’

  e) The teacher asks the

  e) The students read their

  students to read their

  paragraph in “home

  paragraph in “home group”

  group” 20’

  f) The teacher asks the

  f) The students ask

  students to share and

  question related to

  understand their

  their paragraph in

  paragraph in “expert

  “expert group”

  group”

   The students share about their paragraph in “expert group” 25’

  g) The students tell about

  g) The teacher asks the students to go back in

  their paragraph in “home

  their “home group” to

  group”

  share about their 10’ paragraph based on what they’ve learnt in “expert group”

  h) The students answer

  h) The teacher gives some

  some questions related

  questions in each group related with the

  to the descriptive text in

  description

  “home group”

  Closing The teacher and the students The teacher and the 5’

  Activity draw conclusion and review students draw conclusion about the lesson. and review about the lesson.

  143

I. LEA RNING RESOURCES

   http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/averroes/recursos_informaticos/an dared02/easy/descplaces.htm

   http://dontstopreading.wordpress.com/tag/describing-place/ 3.

  Indicators Competence Attainment Indicators

  Technique Form Assessment Instrument

   Identify the communicative purpose of descriptive text  Identify the retorical steps of descriptive text  Identify the main idea of the descriptive text  Identify specific information of descriptive text  Identify detailed information of descriptive text  Describe place using spoken English Written test Jigsaw Essay Participation checklist

  Attached

   http://yogyakarta.panduanwisata.com/files/2012/04/malioboro.jpg &imgrefurl

  Attached

  (Attachment 1) 4.

  Assessment Instrument Identify specific information of descriptive text

  a. Technique : Written test

  b. Form : Essay

  c. Instrument : Describing place

  J. A SSESSMENT

  (Attachment 2)

  144 Rubric assesment

  Criteria Score

  Max. Score : Score x 2 =10

  Mentioning 5 right answer 5 Mentioning 4 right answer 4

  Min. Score : 0

  Mentioning 3 right answer 3 Mentioning 2 right answer 2 Mentioning 1 right answer 1

   Describe place using spoken English

  a. Technique : Jigsaw

  b. Form : Participation checklist

  c. Instrument : Describing place Rubric assesment

  Elements × 100%

  P= The student read the text loudly The student ask question related to text to friends The students share the content of the text to friends

  P = percentage Fo = frequency observed

  The students retell the content of the text to N = number of sample friends

  The students answer questions in the worksheet The students ask about the material to the teacher

  145 Yogyakarta, March , 2013 PipietDhanayuPratiwindya

  091214134 Approved by, English Teacher

  Advisor

  146

  Attachment 1

Bunaken National Marine Park

  (1) Ever fancy yourself being a mermaid? Being able to swim along with other creatures of the sea, moving to the rhythm of the waves? In the Bunaken Marine Park, you will e ncounter a real “mermaid”, and you can also get a glimpse of sea life here. Bunaken is an 8.08 km² island in the Bay of Manado, situated in the north of the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bunaken forms part of the administrative city of Manado, capital of North Sulawesi. (2) The Marine Park around Bunaken is part of the National Park that also includes the ocean around the island of ManadoTua

  • – or Old Manado, Siladen and Mantehage. Within the Bunaken Marine Park, visitors can see various

  

strange and colourful marine life along its sea bed. To reach this park, you can

  take a motorboat. The journey from Manado takes around 40 minutes. Entrance fee is 25,000 rupiahs per person per visit. (3) The translucent waters of the Bunaken seas enable people to clearly view numerous sea biotas. There are 13 species of coral reefs in this park, dominated by edge ridges and block ridges of rocks. The most attractive view is the steep vertical sloppy coral reef that plunges down as deep as 25-50 meters. (4) Feast your eyes on 91 types of fish found in the Bunaken National Park, amongst which are the locally known gusimi horse fish (Hippocampus), the white

  

oci (Seriolarivoliana), yellow-tailed lolosi (Lutjanuskasmira), goropa

  (Ephinephelusspilotoceps and ),

  Pseudanthiashypselosoma ilagasi

  (Scolopsisbilineatus) and others. Divers may also meet mollusk like the giant

  

kima (Tridacnagigas), goat head (Cassis cornuta), nautilus (Nautilus pompillius)

and tunicates/ascidians.

  (5) For those who enjoy scuba diving, this is a great place to be. With about 20 diving spots to choose from, divers will have the chance to swim below the sea, and frolic joyfully while admiring the sea creatures. Make sure to visit Bunaken during its best season between May to August. That way you can explore the Park to its fullest.

  147

  Attachment 2

  EXERCISE IN “HOME GROUP” Name : No. Call Card :

  Identify specific information of descriptive text! 1.

  Where is Bunaken National Marine Park? ____________________________________________________________ 2. How much does entrance fee in Bunaken National Marine Park?

  ____________________________________________________________ 3. What is the advantage of translucent waters in Bunaken?

  ____________________________________________________________ 4. How many types of fish offered in Bunaken National Park?

  ____________________________________________________________ 5. What is the best season to visit Bunaken National Park?

  ____________________________________________________________

  148

  

Lesson Plan and Teaching Materials of Cycle Three

LESSON PLAN

  School : SMP N 8 Yogyakarta Grade : VII Semester : II Subject : English Text Type : Descriptive Theme : Animal Skill : Reading Time Allocation : 2 x 40 minutes

  A . STA NDA RD OF COMPETENCE Reading

  11. Understanding meaning in a short functional text, songs and poems and short essay in form of descriptive and procedure to communicate with the environment and / or in the context of academic

B. BA SIC COMPETENCE Reading

  11.2 Understanding explicit meanings correctly and efficiently of the written functional texts, songs, poems, and simple short essay in the form of

  descriptive

  and procedure related to students’ surrounding and / or academic context.

C. INDICA TORS

  Upon completion of the learning activities, students are able to accurately:  Identify the communicative purpose of descriptive text  Identify the retorical steps of descriptive text

  149  Identify specific information of descriptive text  Identify detailed information of descriptive text  Describe an animal

D. THE PURPOSE OF LEA RNING

  Students are able to:  Identify the explicit information in the short functional text in the form of descriptive text  Describe an animal using spoken English

  E. CHA RA CTER BUILDING

   Trustworthines  Respect  Diligence  Responsibility

  F. MA TERIA LS

1. Describing Animal

  

It has . . . It lives . . . It eats . . . Adjectives

  Feathers In a desert Grass dangerous Fur In a ocean Fruits poisonous Scales In a jungle Leaves tame Horns In a cave Other animals aggressive Shell On a farm wild Claw herbivorous

  Paw carnivorous

  Wing predatory

  Wings Shell Scales Claws Fur Paw Horns Spots Stripes

  150

  Brownie is a Chinese b reed. It is small and cute. It has got thick bro wn fur. Bro wnie does not like bones. Everyday it eats soft food like steamed rice, fish or b read. Every morning I give her milk and bread. When I am at school, Brownie plays with my cat. They get a long well, and never fight maybe because Brownie does not bark a lo t. Brownie is really a sweet and friendly animal.

  Identification Descriptions

2. Komodo Dragon(see attachment 1, 2&3)

  Relating the topic with the reality d)

  Informing the learning objectives 3’

  Main Activity

  a) Do asking and answering questions about animal b)

   Text Vocabulary Exercise JIGSAW Pre Activity Teacher Student Time

  c) The teacher shows a video about komodo d)

  The teacher divides the students in a group of six (@5 members)

  a) Answering question 1’ 3’ 4’ 1’ 1’

  H. LEA RNING A CTIV IT IES

  G. METHOD My dog, Brownie I have a pet. It is a dog and I call it Brownie.

  b) Telling the topic of the materials c)

  a) Teacher’s role

  The teacher explains about describing animal briefly

  151 descriptive text about Komodo Dragon in each group (each student in

  5’ the group has different paragraph)

  f) The students read their

  f) The teacher asks the

  paragraph in “home 25’

  students to read their

  group”

  paragraph in “home

  g) The students ask question

  group”

  g) The teacher asks the

  related to their

  students to share and

  paragraph in “expert

  understand their

  group”

  paragraph in “expert

   The students share about

  group”

  their paragraph in “expert group”

  h) The teacher asks the students to write the meaning of the

  i) The students tell about

  20’ vocabulary given in the

  their paragraph in “home

  whiteboard

  group”

  i) The teacher asks the students to go back in their “home group” to

  5’ share about their paragraph based on what they’ve learnt in “expert group”

  10’ j) The teacher gives the complete text to each student and discuss the vocabularies

  k) The students answer

  k) The teacher gives some questions in each group

  some questions related to

  related with the

  the descriptive text

  description Closing The teacher and the students The teacher and the students

  2’ Activity draw conclusion and review draw conclusion and review about the lesson. about the lesson.

I. LEA RNING RESOURCES

  152

  Attached

  J. A SSESSMENT

  c. Instrument : Describing Animal

  b. Form : Essay

  a. Technique : Written test

  descriptive text

   Identify the explicit information in the short functional text in the form of

  (Attachment 1)

  (Attachment 2 &3)

   www.bogglesworldesl.com

  Attached

  Essay Participati on checklist

  English Written test Jigsaw

  Instrument  Identify the communicative purpose of descriptive text  Identify the retorical steps of descriptive text  Identify the main idea of the descriptive text  Identify specific information of descriptive text  Identify detailed information of descriptive text  Describe an animal using spoken

  Indicators Competence Attainment Indicators Technique Form Assessment

   http://www.englishlanguageworld.com/Intermediate_English_Lesson14/Inte rmediate_English_Lesson14_Vocabulary.html 5.

   http://www.misterguru.web.id/2011/11/descriptive-text-komodo-dragon- varanus.html

6. Assessment Instrument

  153 Rubric assesment

  Criteria Score Mentioning 8 right answer 8 Mentioning 7 right answer 7 Mentioning 6 right answer 6 Mentioning 5 right answer 5 Mentioning 4 right answer 4 Mentioning 3 right answer 3 Mentioning 2 right answer 2 Mentioning 1 right answer 1

   Describe animal using spoken English

  a. Technique : Jigsaw

  b. Form : Participation checklist

  c. Instrument : Describing animal Rubric assesment

  Elements The student read the text loudly The student ask question related to text to friends The students share the content of the text to friends The students retell the content of the text to friends The students answer questions in the worksheet The students ask about the material to the teacher

  Score : Right answer + 2 Max. Score : 10 Min. Score : 0

  P= × 100%

  P = percentage Fo = frequency observed N = number of sample

  154 Yogyakarta, April , 2013

  PipietDhanayuPratiwindya 091214134

  Approved by, English Teacher

  Advisor

  155

  Attachment 1

Komodo Dragon (VaranusKomodoensis)

  The Komodo dragon or the Komodo monitor (VaranusKomodoensis) is a

  

giantlizard found in Komodo island, a small semi-arid island located between

  the islands of Sumbawa and Flores. The pre historic animal can also be found in several othernearby islands includingRincaIsland in the Indonesian archipelago. The Komodo dragon, which is called "Ora" by the local people, is considered the

  

largestlizard and the last of their kind remaining in the world today. It can grow

up to 3 to 4 meters in length and run at the speed of up to 24 kilometers per hour.

  The Komodo dragons use their forkedtongue to sample the air for scents. Komodo dragons’ eyesight is good for distinguishingmovement and color as far away as 300 metersexcept in low light. Despite their visibleear holes, they are only able to hear sounds between 400 Hz up to 2000 Hz. Thegiantlizards are characterized by their short legs with large talons, a stout body and very long

  tails that can be used as weapon to crush an opponent.

Preferring hot and dry places, the Komodo dragons typically live in dry open

grassland, savanna, and tropical forest at low elevations. They are solitary

  animals and usually come together only to mate and feed on carrion. They sleep in caves and among tree roots at night, and come out to feed in the morning. Female Komodo dragons can lie from 20 up to 40 eggs in a hole in the ground. Komodo dragons' diet consists of a varietyof animal species. Young Komodo dragons normally feed on insects and small lizards. However, they begin to eat

  

mice and other small mammals as they grow older. Adult komodo dragons prey

on bigger animals such as pigs, goats, deer, young buffaloes, and horses.

  Although the Komodo dragons are considered harmless, it is advisable to keep a safe distance from them.

  156

  Attachment 2 Vocabulary

  Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 Paragraph 5 giant lizard scents prehistoric found nearby including archipelago considered largest lizard remaining grow length run speed forked tongue air semi-arid eyesight distinguishing- movement except visible ear holes giant lizards talons, stout tails weapon crush opponent

  Preferring dry grassland, low elevations solitary feed carrion caves roots lay hole distance feed lizards mice grow adult prey deer buffaloes harmless advisable diet consists

  157

  Attachment 3

  Name : No. Call Card :

  A. Reading Comprehension: Answer these questions based on the text 1.

  What is the purpose of descriptive text? ____________________________________________________________ 2. What are the generic structures of descriptive text?

  ____________________________________________________________ 3. What is the Komodo dragon?

  ____________________________________________________________ 4. Where can we find Komodo dragons?

  ____________________________________________________________ 5. Describe Komodo dragons based on their size!

  ____________________________________________________________ 6. Describe Komodo dragons based on their sense!

  ____________________________________________________________ 7. Describe Komodo dragons based on their physical appearance!

  ____________________________________________________________ 8. How many eggs female dragon can lie in a hole in the ground?

  ____________________________________________________________ 9. Mention five animals which are included in Komodo dragons’ diet!

  ___________________________________________________________ 10. “…as they grow older...” (paragraph 5) What does “they” in the sentence refer to?

  ____________________________________________________________

  158

  

APPENDIXE

Raw Data

1. Students’ Participation Checklist Result ofPreliminary Study

  3

. Students’ Participation Checklist Resultsof Cycle Two

  4

. Students’ Participation Checklist Resultsof Cycle Three

  5

. Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle One

  6

. Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Two

  7

. Teacher’s Field Notes Result on Cycle Three

  8

. Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle One

  2

. Students’ Participation Checklist Resultsof Cycle One

  Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Three

  

11. Observation Sheet Resultsof Cycle One

  

12. Observation Sheet Resultsof Cycle Two

  

13. Observation Sheet Resultsof Cycle Three

  

14. Sample of Students’ Worksheet Results

  

15. Sample of Questionnaire Results

  

16. Inte rvie wsTranscript

  9

. Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Two

10.

  159

  

Students’ Participation Checklist Result of Preliminary Study

CHECKLIST

  Give a tick () that showing each student’s participation based on what you have seen.

  Students ’ Call

  Cards Number Participation Aspects

  A B C D E 1.  - - -  2.    -  3.   -  - 4.     - 5. - -   - 6. -    - 7.

     

  • 8. - - -
  • 10.
  • 11.

   - 9.

   -  

     

   - - - - 12.

   - - - - 13. - - - - - 14. - - - - - 15. - - - - - 16. - - - - - 17. - - - - - 18.

   - - -

   19. -   -  20. - - - - - 21. - - - - -

  160 23. - - - - - 24.  -    25.  -   - 26. - - - - - 27. - - - - - 28. - - -   29. - - - - - 30. - - - - -

  Total

  12

  7

  10

  11

  4 Participation aspects:

  A : Reading the paragraph of the descriptive text loudly B : Asking questions related to the descriptive text to friends C : Sharing the content of the paragraph of the descriptive text to friends D : Ans wering questions in the works heet E : Asking questions related to the materials to the teacher

  161

  

Students’ Participation Checklist Results of Cycle One

  162

  163

  164

  165

  

Students’ Participation Checklist Resultsof Cycle Two

  166

  167

  168

  169

  

Students’ Participation Checklist Results of Cycle Three

  170

  171

  172

  173

  

Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle One

  174

  

Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Two

  175

  

Teacher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Three

  176

  

Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle One

  The situation was quiet in the beginning of the lesson. They tended to be silent when the researcher gave an explanation about describing people. However, there was one student who was active. He gave his contribution and idea in the expert group.He tried to be active by asking about the material to the teacher. The English teacher said that the boy was different from the others because he was active in the classroom.

  On the contrary, the girls were passive in the class. It was similar to the situation in the preliminary observation. However, there were no students who were busy with themselves when the researcher explained the material for the first time. They began to make a noise when they were in the group. They talked about other things outside the material. However, they wanted to read their texts in the home group. In the expert group, only some students wanted to ask about the text to their friends.

  In this meeting, the researcher found the problems related to the time management, moving group, and texts materials. It tooka lot of time in grouping section. In the first time, the researcher made a mistake in grouping the students. The researcher asked the students to count from one to five, therefore there was six groups for the home group, while it should be five groups in the class. Each group had five members. It wasted the time and made a noise. Then, the researcher asked them to return to their sit and counted from one to six.

  177 Moving group from the home group to the expert group took a lot of time. It was because the class was small. They crowded in gathering to the expert group. The material was too many and difficult to be comprehended. It was because there were five descriptive texts that must be understood by the students. The result showed that the students could not comprehend all texts.

  Then, the researcher summarized nine important things that occ urred in the implementation of the jigsaw technique for the first cycle. They are (1) the erroneousness of group division, (2) time consuming in the group moving, (3) small class, (4) too many descriptive texts, (5) the students did not have enough time to comprehend the all text, (6) the students talked about other things when they gathered in the group, (7) the students copied their friends’ work in doing the assignment,(8) the result of comprehending text was not maximal, (9) the researcher could not manage the time to give the feedback.

  178

  

Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Two

The researcher found that the students could comprehend the text clearly.

  It was because each group only had responsibility to comprehend one text. They really tried to understand their texts in the expert group by translating the text.

  They checked the meaning of the difficult vocabularies in the dictionaries. However, the researcher felt that the students’ participation in sharing the content of the text reduced rather than in the previous cycle. The students’ situation was very noisy. In this expert group, the students still liked to talk about another thing outside the material when they had already comprehended the text. Besides, she found that the students showed their texts to the other friends when they retold their text in the home group.

  Then, the researcher summarized six important things that occ urred in the implementation of the jigsaw technique for the second cycle. They were (1) grouping movement was faster than cycle one, (2) the students comprehended the text by translating the text, (3) the students talked another thing in the expert group, (4) the students still copied their friends’ work in answeringquestions in the worksheet, (5) they have already been accustomed to standing up when they read the text in home group, (6) students’ participation for sharing and retelling the text in the group decreased from cycle one to cycle two.

  179

  

Researcher’s Field Notes Result of Cycle Three

  The researcher found that there was good improvement of the students’ participation. The students had already been accustomed to the implementation of jigsaw technique. In the moving group, they moved smoothly and quickly. The students could comprehend the text clearly. The researcher could see that they worked together to translate the text. They also tried to check the difficult words in some dictionaries. Besides, the opportunity to ask the researcher was more intensive than the cycle one and the cycle two. The researcher concluded that the girl students were not shy with their friends to ask and share their text like in the preliminary observation result. In this cycle, the girls often asked the researcher about the material.

  Then, the researcher summarized four important things that occurred in the implementation of the jigsaw technique for the third cycle. They were (1) managing the time to explain the material, (2) accompanying the students in the group, (3) the classroom was small, and (4) the improvement of students’ participation was already maximal. The researcher decided to finish the research in cycle 3. It was because the researcher received the maximal students’ participation through the implementation of the jigsaw technique in this cycle three. If the students’ participation in the cycle 3 was compared with the students’ partic ipation in the preliminary study, the students’ participation in cycle 3 was better. It could be seen from the high improvement the students’ participation percentage in each criterion of the students’ participation. Therefore, it could be

  180

  

Observation Sheets of Cycle One

Observation Sheet on the Researcher’s Activity

  181

  Observation Sheet on the Students’ Activity

  182

  

Observation Sheets of Cycle Two

Observation Sheet on the Researcher’s Activity

  183

  Observation Sheet of the Students’ Activity

  184

  

Observation Sheets of Cycle Three

Observation Sheet on the Researcher’s Activity

  185

  Observation Sheet on the Students’ Activity

  186

  Sample of Students’ Worksheet Results

  187

  188

  189

  190

  191

  192

  

Sample of Questionnaire Results

SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNARIE RESULTS ON THE PRELIMENARY

STUDY

  193

  194

  

SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNARIE RESULTSON THE IMPLEMENTATION

OF JIGSAW TECHNIQUE

  195

  196

  197

  Inte rvie ws Transcript Students’ Interview Result on the Preliminary Study

  Date : Tuesday, February 19, 2013 Student’s Initial

  : Rm 1.

  Apakah yang kamu rasakan tentang pelajaran bahasa Inggris? Jawab: Menyenangkan. Tugasnya enggak banyak. Aku lumayan suka 2. Apakah yang telah kamu pelajari di kelas di awal semester ini?

  Jawab: Deskripsi. Deskripsi orang 3. Bagaimana cara guru menyampaikan materi?

  Jawab: Singkat, mudah dipahami, tidak bertele tele. Pake bahasa

  

Indonesia. Biasanya kalo bu sugi buat opini. I think.....setiap waktu

4.

  Apakah kamu suka bertanya di kelas? Jawab: Enggak juga 5. Apakah kamu suka menjawab soal yang diberikan guru?

  Jawab: Lumayan 6. Apakah kamu memperhatikan guru selama pelajaran berlangsung?

  Jawab: Ya lumayan 7. Apakah kamu mengerjakan latihan soal yang diberikan guru di kelas?

  Jawab: Ya lumayan 8. Apakah kamu suka kegiatan berdiskusi?

  198

  9. Bagaimanakah partisipasi siswa di kelas? Jawab: Ya kedua duanya. Jadi kita tu serius tapi juga rame. Disuruh

  

jawab ada yang langsung angkat tangan tapi cuma satu orang, Bg

10.

  Bagaimanakah situasi kelas saat guru mengajar? Jawab: Tenang..eh ramai..ngerjain tugas

  Date : Tuesday, February 19, 2013 : Da

  Student’s Initial 1.

  Apakah yang kamu rasakan tentang pelajaran bahasa Inggris? Jawab: Senang ya bisa dapet pelajaran bahasa inggris. Soalnya bisa

  bicara tau kata-kata 2.

  Apakah yang telah kamu pelajari di kelas di awal semester ini? Jawab: Bilang permintaan maaf, asking information, minta tolong,

  description juga tentang rumah. People uda tapi cuma sekilas. Place uda tapi engga terlalu

  3. Bagaimana cara guru menyampaikan materi? Jawab: Sejauh ini tu..jujur ya mbak..kita merasa ketinggalan soalnya

  karena guru kelas lain kan beda beda tiap kelas nah aku tuh pernah tanyak sama yang lain tentang materinya. Nah aku tuh juga pernah tanyak sama gurunya tentang kompetensi dasarnya tu beliau enggak tahu. Jadi agak ketinggalan jauh.Sebenernya gurunya tu asik. Tapi kadang kadang gak jelas mbak. Malah justru kita yang ngasih tau. Jadi kadang kadang

  199

  suka salah ngomong. Beliau gak tau artinya. Misalnya ada soal trus ada jawaban kan. Beliau tu bingung gitu lho trus suka tanya tanya menurutmu gimana gitu gitu 4.

  Apakah kamu suka bertanya di kelas? Jawab: Ya justru kita sering tanya karena kurang dong 5. Apakah kamu suka menjawab soal yang diberikan guru?

  Jawab: Lumayan mbak soalnya sering ditunjuk. Sistem ngajarnya tu bukan

  nulis tapi ngomong langsung gitu lho. Ditunjuk tunjuk langsung gitu lho 6.

  Apakah kamu memperhatikan guru selama pelajaran berlangsung? Jawab: Kalo aku jarang mbak hehe..soalnya mbak boseeeen. Apa ya aku

  merasa kayak mau belajar apa kayak gini terus setiap hari ga ada materi yang pasti gitu lho. Tiap hari tu Cuma kayak misalkan suruh bikin description trus ada yang baca trus gurunya didepan. Ayok misalnya ini bikin pertanyaan Cuma gitu gitu doang mbak

7. Apakah kamu mengerjakan latihan soal yang diberikan guru di kelas?

  Jawab: Kalo di dalam kelas..yaaa...hmm iya sih mbak 8. Apakah kamu suka kegiatan berdiskusi?

  Jawab: Ya suka sih mbak. Tapi lebih suka dijelasin kayak bagaiman bikin

  kalimat, grammarnya 9.

  Bagaimanakah partisipasi siswa di kelas? Jawab: Siswa tu kayak aktif tapi yang cowok cowok. Yang cewek cewek tu

  bosen mbak. Kalo cowok cowok tu sukanya „gayheng‟ tu lho mbak apa apa ditanggepin langsung dikit dikit ketawa. Kalo partisipasinya tu

  200

  kurang rata. Yang sering ditunjuk tu cowok. Dan yang ditunjuk tu orang yang dia kenal. Misal ni ya mbak yang dia kenal tu siswa F trus yang ditunjuk tu F F F 10.

  Bagaimanakah situasi kelas saat guru mengajar? Jawab: -

  Date : Tuesday, February 19, 2013 : Ad

  Student’s Initial 1.

  Apakah yang kamu rasakan tentang pelajaran bahasa Inggris? Jawab: Asik ya senang tapi kadang bosen 2. Apakah yang telah kamu pelajari di kelas di awal semester ini?

  Jawab: Banyak kayak minta tolong , description tentang seseorang teman

  kita kadang tentang keluarga kita. Pertama kita suru baca halaman ini ini trus ada soal kita langsung ditunjuk ini suruh jawab misal nomer 1 sampai

  5. Jarang ada penjelasan lebih tentang deskripsi. Kalo kita ndak tanya mungkin ndak dikasi tau

3. Bagaimana cara guru menyampaikan materi?

  Jawab: Ya kadang gimana ya kadang dong kadang ga dong hehe..gimana

  ya beliau pun kadang ditanyain artinya pun suka ndak tau 4.

  Apakah kamu suka bertanya di kelas? Jawab: Hmm..lumayan

  201

5. Apakah kamu suka menjawab soal yang diberikan guru?

  Jawab: Kadang sih 6. Apakah kamu memperhatikan guru selama pelajaran berlangsung?

  Jawab: Kadang sih 7. Apakah kamu mengerjakan latihan soal yang diberikan guru di kelas?

  Jawab: Di dalaem kelas iya 8. Apakah kamu suka kegiatan berdiskusi?

  Jawab: Suka. Melatih kebersamaan kita. Menambah wawasan dari temen

  kita yang tahu 9.

  Bagaimanakah partisipasi siswa di kelas? Jawab: Ya kalo yang cowok itu suka jawab. Tapi kalo yang cewek itu

  kadang ada. Ya partisipasinya tu kurang rata 10.

  Bagaimanakah situasi kelas saat guru mengajar? Jawab: Ya kalo misalnya lagi ada mood ya kadang pada merhatiin tapi

  kalo udah bener bener ga suka sama gurunya yaudah semaunya

  202

  Teacher’s Interview Result on the Prelimenary Study

  Date : Wednesday, February 20, 2013 Teacher’s Initial: Sg 1.

  Bagaimana pendapat Ibu mengenai kelas 7.10? Jawab: Ya anak anaknya welcome ramah. Saya kan guru baru. Trus

  mereka tu seperti padi. Pokoknya kalaudisana tu lebih saling memahami 2.

  Bagaimanakah situasi kelas secara umum saat pelajaran? Jawab: Ya kita tu saling kerja sama istilahnya bukan yang pintar lalu

  egois endak pokoknya kerjasamanya enak gitu 3.

  Apakah banyak siswa yang aktif? Jawab: Insya alloh 4. Apakah siswa suka bertanya? Jawab: Ya...

  5. Apakah mereka suka berdiskusi? Jawab: Kalau cerita sih namanya juga anak anak.

  6. Apakah ada kesulitan mengajar di kelas ini? Jawab: Ya kadang ada. Kosakata.

  7. Apakah semua siswa aktif di dalam kelas? Jawab: Kelas ini tu beda dengan yang lain. Yang cowok lebih hidup

  daripada yang anak cewek. Anak cewek kebanyakan diem

  203

  Students’ Interview Result on the Implementation of Jigsaw

Technique

  Date : Wednesday, April3, 2013 Students : Rf, Ys, Bg, Nd, Ev, Sr

  ’Initial Question Codes : #1, #2, #3, #4, #5 1.

  Apakah pendapatmu tentang pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris menggunakan tehnik Jigsaw? Jawab: Rf : Menyenangkan, lumayan suka Ys : Dapat mempermudah pembelajaran dan bisa lebih cepat

  menghapal bahasa Inggris, bisa memperlancar bahasa kita bahasa Inggris dan juga menyenangkan

  Bg : Dapat membantu cukup baik dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris

  di sekolah-sekolah. Membantu dalam pemahaman siswa setiap arti kata dan kalimat

  Nd : Senang mbak. Beda dari biasanya mbak bosen. Ev : Asik mbak kalo kayak gitu soalnya ada yang muter muter itu Sr : Sama sama mbak 2.

  Apakah keuntungan yang kamu peroleh dari pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris menggunakan teknik Jigsaw?

  204 Rf : Dapat mempelajari susunan kata Ys : Dapat mempermudah belajar Bg : Ya mempermudah Nd : Ya kalo ada kata kata kalimat yang susah bisa sharing sama

  temen temennya di master group jadi tau deh

  Ev : Sama mbak Sr : Mungkin jadi bisa lebih mendalam gitu 3.

  Apakah kendala yang kamu hadapi dari pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris menggunakan Jigsaw? Jawab: Rf : - Ys : Ya agak sedikit rumit Bg : Tempat yang diperlukan harus lebih gede Nd :

  Ya kadang kadang kalau waktu lama bikin apa ya „kegrumet‟ gitu deh mbak ga tau apa itu haha

  Ev : Kendalanya ya itu kadang ribet pindah pindah itu lho Sr : Nggak dapet tempat duduk 4.

  Apakah tekhnik Jigsaw dapat meningkatkan partisipasi siswa? Jawab: Rf : Meningkatkan. Karena lebih mudah dimengerti. Dapat mengetahui

  pembelajaran dengan baik. Lumayan menambah percaya diri

  205 Ys : Dapat meningkatkan karena ada komunikasi dengan teman juga.

  Dapat menambah percaya diri

  Bg : Tentu. Karena antar personil saling berkomunikasi. Sure menambah percaya diri.

  Nd : Iya. Aku sukak bahasa Inggris kalau ada kayak gini tapi kalau

  kayak biasanya itu bosen. Biasanya itu cuman gitu mbak. Kita disuruh berdiri toh “I think ….” Trus dilempar ke laen “I think …..” bla bla bla bla. Bosen mbak.

  Ev : Iya. Sr : Iya.

5. Apakah saranmu terhadap pembelajaran BahasaInggris dengan teknik

  Jigsaw ?

  Jawab: Rf : Dipermudah teksnya dan dipersingkat Ys : Sebaiknya tempatnya agak diperluas dan lebih mendengarkan Bg : Sama Nd : - Ev : - Sr : -

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