0000 2 indeks kelestarian lingkungan kualitas perairan biomonitoring2


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  Sustainability Index



It’s a simple fact - we can’t live without water.


People use it every day for drinking, washing and cooking, as well as

for irrigating crops and generating electricity. Water is also

essential for maintaining the health of natural systems, which in

turn support us.

There are many actions to take to use water wisely at home and in

the garden to help secure water for our future.


Sumber: http://www.livinggreener.gov.au/water)

  KUALITAS AIR Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


Kualitas air mencerminkan karakteristik kimia, fisika

dan biologis air.

  It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact and drinking water. The parameters for water quality are determined by the intended use. Work in the area of water quality tends to be focused on water that is treated for human consumption, industrial use, or in the environment.

  Environmental water quality, also called ambient water quality, relates to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and oceans. Water quality standards for surface waters vary significantly due to different environmental conditions, ecosystems, and intended human uses. Toxic substances and high populations of certain micro- organisms can present a health hazard for non-drinking purposes such as irrigation , swimming , fishing, rafting , boating, and industrial uses. These conditions may also affect wildlife, which use the water for drinking or as a habitat. Modern water quality laws generally specify protection of fisheries and recreational use and require, as a minimum, retention of current quality standards.


Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012

Parameter kualitas lingkungan air tawar

  Freshwater environmental quality parameters are the natural and man-made chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics of rivers, lakes and ground- waters, the ways they are measured and the ways that they change. The values or concentrations attributed to such parameters can be used to describe the pollution status of an environment, its biotic status or to predict the likelihood or otherwise of a particular organisms being present. Monitoring of environmental quality parameters is a key activity in managing the environment, restoring polluted environments and anticipating the effects of man-made changes on the environment.

  Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freshwater_environmental_quality_parameters ……………… 28/11/2012


  Contaminants that may be in untreated water include microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria; inorganic contaminants such as salts and metals; organic chemical contaminants from industrial processes and petroleum use; pesticides and herbicides; and radioactive contaminants. Water quality depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse (which may lower the level of the water). In urbanized areas throughout the world, water purification technology is used in municipal water systems to remove contaminants from the source water (surface water or groundwater) before it is distributed to homes, businesses, schools and other users. Water drawn directly from a stream, lake, or aquifer and that has no treatment will be Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012 of uncertain quality.

  Dissolved minerals may affect suitability of water for a range of industrial and domestic purposes. The most familiar of these is probably the presence of ions of calcium and magnesium which interfere with the cleaning action of soap, and can form hard sulfate and soft carbonate deposits in water heaters or boilers. Hard water may be softened to remove these ions. The softening process often substitutes sodium cations. Hard water may be preferable to soft water for human consumption, since health problems have been associated with excess sodium and with calcium and magnesium deficiencies. Softening may sacrifice nutrition for cleaning effectiveness

  Water Quality Indicators We will now take a look at the water quality indicators.



Alkalinity refers to the water’s ability to neutralize acids

  Alkalinity is produced by minerals such as limestone.


Limestone is a type of ocean sediment

composed of calcium carbonate.


Limestone bedrock areas often

have caves and sinkholes, known

as Karst.

  Water with low alkalinity is usually acidic.



Ammonia is produced by the decay of

organic matter and animal waste.


Ammonia is toxic to most aquatic life,

especially at high pH.


Bacteria readily convert ammonia to


  (a plant nutrient)

  Ammonia Ammonia is a form of nitrogen and part of the Nitrogen Cycle.



Most bacteria are important in nutrient and other

organic cycles.

  Excess nutrients cause algal blooms. As algae die and decay, the high bacterial load rapidly consumes dissolved oxygen.

Certain types of bacteria indicate animal and human waste pollution


Escherichia coli are coliform bacteria found in

the intestines of warm-blooded organisms.


Most strains are harmless but one E. coli

strain can cause severe diarrhea and kidney



Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt

  Oksigen Terlarut Dissolved oxygen is a product of photosynthesis and diffusion.


The warmer the water, the less oxygen it can

hold. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt

Most organisms need at least 5 or 6 ppm of oxygen in order to survive


Even cold water rarely contains more than 15

ppm. Summer is often a time of oxygen stress for

aquatic organisms.

  Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt Oksigen Terlarut


Conductivity measures the water’s

ability to conduct an electrical current.

Pure water is a poor conductor


Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt



The addition of dissolved solids,

especially salts, increases the

conductivity of water.


Electrical current is measured using a

conductivity meter.




Hardness refers to the concentration of

calcium and magnesium in water.


Hard water has high concentrations of these

elements. Soft water has low



Water hardness often originates from




  Nitrate is a primary plant nutrient. Nitrate is water soluble and moves easily from surface to groundwater.


Excess nitrate causes algal blooms

that reduce water quality.


Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt



Under normal conditions, the nitrogen

cycle keeps the amount of available nitrogen in balance with the demands.


However, excessive use of fertilizers and

nutrient rich sewage release have created a surplus of nitrate.


The result is eutrophication from excess

algae and bacteria with reduced dissolved oxygen.


These chemicals are very complex.

  Effects on aquatic organisms – Moderately to highly toxic to mammals, molluscs, aquatic insects, amphibians and fish.




pH is the measure of the hydrogen ion (H+)



The pH scale is zero to 14. Seven is neutral,

below seven is acidic, and above seven is basic

(or alkaline).


Most aquatic organisms exist within a pH range of

5.5 to 9.5.

  Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form a weak acid called carbonic acid. pH tolerance for most aquatic life



Phosphate’s concentrations in

clean water is generally low;

however, phosphorus is used

extensively in fertilizer and other




The primary sources of

phosphates to surface water are

detergents, fertilizers, and

natural mineral deposits.



High levels of phosphate can over

stimulate the growth of aquatic plants

and algae.


This in turn, will cause high DO

consumption and death to fish and

many aquatic organisms.



Salinity refers to the salt

concentration in water, mostly

sodium chloride. Salinity is historically measured in parts per thousand (ppt) or grams per



  Saltwater can cause problems when it replaces fresh groundwater near the coastal areas.

  Sediment Erosion causes loose soil to enter the waterways


  Suspended sediment blocks

sunlight to plants and reduces

dissolved oxygen.

  As sediments settle, they can

smother bottom (benthic)




Most aquatic organisms live within a

temperature range of +32º F (+0º C) to

90º F (32º C). Temperature can be measured using field thermometers but digital probes are much more accurate. Temperature is measured in Fahrenheit and Celsius degrees.

  Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt


Rapid temperature change and temperature extremes can

stress aquatic organisms.


Temperature affects the oxygen-carrying

14 Dissolved Oxygen (ppm)

capacity of water.


  12 8 As the water warms, the 6 amount of dissolved 4 oxygen decreases. Winter Summer ____________________________________



TDS is the measure of the material

dissolved in water.


This measure is related to hardness,

salinity and conductivity.

  Hard water has more TDS than soft water.



TSS is the measure of the sediment

suspended in the water.


TSS is related to turbidity.


Water with high TSS usually has high

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) as well.

  TURBIDITY Turbidity refers to water clarity. Sediments suspended in the water increase turbidity.

  A secchi disk is one type of instrument used to measure turbidity.

Senyawa Kimia Toksik


Toxic chemicals usually come

from industry and energy



The effects are often not known

until years after they have entered

the environment.

  Toxic chemicals include heavy metals (lead, mercury), organic compounds (DDT, PCB), inorganic substances (arsenic) and others.



1. An electrical conductivity meter is used to measure total dissolved


  2. The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category:

  3. Alkalinity

  4. WARNA AIR 5. pH

  6. Taste and odor (geosmin, 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), etc.)


7. Dissolved metals and salts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium,

manganese, magnesium)


8. Microorganisms such as fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli),

Cryptosporidium, and Giardia lamblia

  9. Dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.)

  10. Dissolved organics: colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

  11. Radon


  13. Pharmaceuticals 14. Hormone analogs. Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


Indikator Fisika

  1.Suhu Air = Water Temperature

  2.Specifics Conductance or EC, Electrical Conductance, Conductivity

  3.Total suspended solids (TSS)

  4.Transparency or Turbidity

  5.Total dissolved solids (TDS)

  6.Bau air = Odor of Water

  7.Warna air = Color of water

  8.Rasa air = Taste of Water

  Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012


  Indikator Kimia 1.pH

  2.Total Hardness, Hard water, TH = Permanent Hardness + Temporary Hardness

  3.Dissolved oxygen (DO)



  6.Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

  7.Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

  8.Pestisida 9.Logam-logam berat.


Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012



  Biological Indicators/ assessment




  4.Escherichia Coli or E.Coli or E.coli

  5.Coliform Biological monitoring metrics have been developed in many places, and one widely used measure is the presence and abundance of members of the insect orders

Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT).

EPT indexes will naturally vary from region to region, but generally, within a region, the greater the number of taxa from these orders, the better the water quality. EPA and other organizations in the United States offer guidance on developing a monitoring

program and identifying members of these and other aquatic insect orders.

Individuals interested in monitoring water quality who cannot afford or manage lab scale analysis can also use biological indicators to get a general reading of water quality. One example is the IOWATER volunteer water monitoring program, which

includes a benthic macroinvertebrate indicator key.


Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012



Diunduh dari: http://bcn.boulder.co.us/basin/watershed/wqi_info.html ……………… 28/11/2012


A water quality index provides a single number (like a grade) that expresses

overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water

quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water quality

data into information that is understandable and useable by the public. This

type of index is similar to the index developed for air quality that shows if it’s

a red or blue air quality day.


The use of an index to "grade" water quality is a controversial issue among

water quality scientists. A single number cannot tell the whole story of water

quality; there are many other water quality parameters that are not included

in the index. The index presented here is not specifically aimed at human

health or aquatic life regulations. However, a water index based on some very

important parameters can provide a simple indicator of water quality. It gives

the public a general idea the possible problems with the water in the region.


  2. ICMR Standards ICMR Standards for Drinking Water.

  3. International standards or ISI Satandards Water quality regulated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is covered in the section of ICS 13.060, ranging from water sampling, drinking water, industrial class water, sewage water, and examination of water for chemical, physical or biological properties. ICS 91.140.60 covers the standards of water supply systems.

  Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012



Diunduh dari: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012


These criteria are based solely on data and scientific judgments on

pollutant concentrations and environmental or human health effects.


Section 304(a) also provides guidance to states and tribes in adopting

water quality standards. Criteria are developed for the protection of

aquatic life as well as for human health.


  1.Aquatic Life criteria lists chemical concentration goals to protect surface water for aquatic life use.

  2.Biological criteria are based on the numbers and kinds of organisms present and describe the biological condition of aquatic communities inhabiting surface waters.

  3.Nutrients are substances used by living things that promote growth (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). We are developing nutrient criteria to prevent over enrichment in surface waters of the U.S.A.

  Diunduh dari: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012



  1.Human Health includes technical information and guidance on surface water, drinking water and microbials.

  2.Microbial (Pathogen) criteria are used to protect the public from exposure to harmful levels of pathogens in ground and surface waters, food sources, and finished drinking water.

  3.Recreational Criteria protect people who swim and play in coastal recreational waters from exposure to pathogens. We held an Experts Scientific Workshop to help map our future directions.


Diunduh dari: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012



  The integrity of an ecosystem is typically assessed through its ability to provide goods and services on a continuous basis. Together with the air we breathe, the provision of clean water is arguably the most fundamental service provided by ecosystems. Yet, human activities have fundamentally altered inland water ecosystems and their catchments. As a consequence species dependant on inland waters are more likely to go extinct, and future extinction rates of freshwater animals could be up to 5 times higher than for terrestrial animals. Water quality refers to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a water body. These characteristics determine how and for what water can be used and the species and ecosystem process it can support.


Diunduh dari: http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/



  1. Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) all parameters regardless of WHO designation

  2. Source Water Quality Index (SWQI) health and microbial criteria only arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluoride, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate, nitrite, faecal coliforms

  3. Acceptability Water Quality Index (AWQI) acceptability criteria only ammonia, chloride, iron, pH, sodium, sulphate, zinc 4. 4X4 Rule: Each parameter that contributes to the index must be measured at least 4 times per year at stations that have measured a minimum of 4 parameters per year.


Diunduh dari: http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/



Diunduh dari: http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/



In most of the cases, this index represents a numerical expression used in the

assessment of the flowing water quality, through the framing of the values in five

classes on the interval going from 1 to 100; a certain quality state, respectively a usage

domain correspond to each class (Adriano et al., 2006).


The raw values of each quality parameter must be compared with the standard

threshold values that are taken into account for the computation of the index, in the

view of the qualitative assessment. In all cases when the index must be determinate, the

computation formula is the following:

  WQI – the Water Quality Index i – the quality parameter qi – the registered value wi – the rank of implication of the parameter in the computation formula The values of the Water Quality Index that were thus obtained are distributed on a number of intervals, which render the quality of the respective water and the usage domain (Table no. 1): 10–25

percent - highly polluted; 26–50 percent - polluted; 51–70 percent - reasonable; 71–90 percent - good;

91–100 percent - very good (House and Ellis, 1987).

Peranan WQI

  1. WQI numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value

  2. The single value can be used to compare data from several sites


3. It can be used to look at trends over

time on a single site

Parameter untuk WQI Parameter Units For a Q value of 90


DO % sat. % sat. >82% [>90% unless spawning, then >95%]

pH pH units 6.9 or 7.9 [6.5 to 8.5]

E. coli CFU/100 mL <4 CFU/100 mL [406 CFU/100 mL for grab

sample]  Temp  °C +2.5°C or -4°C  [<17.8 deg. C]

  Turbidity NTU

  4.0 NTU’s T Phos mg/L P 0.05 mg/L P [0.1 mg/L P, Tualatin TMDL] NO 3 mg/L N 0.5 mg/L N BOD 5 mg/L 0.8 mg/L

Bagian-bagian dari WQI


1. Q-Value - indication of water

quality relative to 100 of one parameter

  2. Weighting Factor - sets the

relative importance of the

parameter to overall water quality

Q Value

  • The Q-Value is an indication of how good (or bad) the water quality is

  Q = 50 relative to one parameter.


Q = 25

Q = 75

  • 100 = Very Good • 1 = Very Bad

  Very Very Good Bad

  Q = 0 Q = 100


pH : Q-Graph & Q-Table

pH Q-Values

  • 6.6
  • 6.8
  • 7.0
  • 7.2

  • 7.4 100
  • 7.6
  • 7.8
  • 8.0
  • 8.2

  10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

  • 8.4

  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Q 12 pH -V a lu e pH Q-Value









  72 E.coli : Q-Graph & Q-Table

  E. coli Q-Values

E. coli Q-Value 100

  1 10 100 1000 10000 E. coli (CFU/100 mL) Q -V a lu e






  10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100






  74 100 69 200 65 500 27 1000



Faktor-faktor Pembobot


  0.18 pH

  0.12 E. coli

  0.17 Temp

  0.11 Turbidity

  0.09 T Phos

  0.11 NO


  0.10 BOD

  0.12 Total

  1.00 DO

  E. coli pH BOD Temp

  T Phos NO3 Turbidity

Interpretasi WQI

  Kisaran WQI Kualitas Air 90-100

  Excellent 70-89 Good 50-69

  Medium 25-49 Bad 0-24

  Very Bad

Contoh Perhitungan WQI Parameter Units Result Q-Value Weight Factor Parameter Index


  69.2 Quality Rating = MEDIUM

  69.2 WQI =


  4.34 Total




  9.12 BOD mg/L




  5.50 NO3 mg/L N



  DO % Sat %


  10.55 E. coli CFU/100 mL 1750



  17.67 pH pH units







  3.94 Temp  deg C 100


  11.00 Turbidity NTU



  7.07 T Phos mg/L P

  Penyesuaian untuk data yang hilang

  1. When a parameter is missing, the sum of the weighting factors

that have data can be used to

adjust the WQI

  2. Sum of the Parametric Index Values is divided by the sum of the weighting factors that have data.


Perhitungan dengan parameter yang

hilang Parameter Units Result Q-Value Weight Factor Parameter Index


  63.7 WQI =


  4.34 Total




  9.12 BOD mg/L




  7.07 T Phos mg/L P NM NO3 mg/L N



  DO % Sat %

  11.00 Turbidity NTU


  3.94 Temp  deg C 100



  10.55 E. coli CFU/100 mL 1750




  17.67 pH pH units




  71.6 Quality Rating = GOOD

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