THESIS Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for The Sarjana Sastra Degree in English Department By: BUNTAR TRI ANGONO C0307013
commit to user
The purposes of this study are to find out the techniques used by the translator and to describe the effect of the techniques onthe translation quality of the words of the user interface in the software UCweb browser This research belongs to descriptive qualitative method. Meanwhile, the technique resulting translationare to find out the techniques used by the translator and to describe with the highest level of readability is modulation and thethe effect of the techniques on the translation quality of the words technique resulting translation with the lowest level of readabilityof the user interface in the software UCweb browser is generalization.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Research Background The usage of mobile web browser increases year by year globally because it is easy in use, and high mobility. The condition also happens in Indonesia. Indonesia has a great number of Internet mobile users. Considering the fact, some
An article written in Avangate (http://www.avangate.com/articles/software commit to user This research was conducted to find out the translation techniques and the quality assessment of the user interface in the program: UCweb mobile webbrowser. Considering the premises above, the researcher is interesting in investigating the technique and quality assessment of user interface in thesoftware UCweb mobile web browser.
B. Research Limitation
C. Problem Statement
The focusof analysis includes the types of translation techniques used by the translator, and the effect of the techniques to the translation quality. What are the effects of the techniques on the translation quality of the words of the user interface in the software UCweb browser?
D. Research Objectives
The objectives of this study are as follows: 1. To find out the techniques used by the translator to translate words of the user interface in the software UCweb browser.
2. To find out the effect of the techniques on the translation quality of the words of the user interface in the software UCweb browser
E. Research Benefit
TranslatorsTranslating is not only transferring the message from the source text into the target text, but also considering the cultural background of the target readers. Students and other researchersConducting research to investigate the translation of Internet and computer term in software is an interesting activity since this topic brings a challenge for theresearcher himself.
F. Thesis Organization
This thesis is arranged into five chapters; CHAPTER I: In the chapter I, the researcher introduces the Background of The Research, Research Limitation, Problem Statement, Research Objectives, Research Benefits, and Thesis Organization. This chapter discusses the Type of The Research, Data and Source ofData, Sampling Technique, Method of Data Collection, and Method of Data Analysis.
A. Translation Definition Some experts have provided definitions concerning translation. Roger T
Bell's concept was concerning equivalence in both semantics and stylistic aspects corresponds very well with the idea given by Nida and Taber(1974:4) "translating consists of reproducing the receptor language the closest natural equivalence to the message of the source language first in meaning andsecondly in style". commit to user Considering the statements above, it can be concluded that translation is a process of transferring message from source language to the target language,which should consider the content of the messages, the language structures, and the style as well.
Modulation technique according to Molina and Albir (2002:510) is a technique that changes the point of view, focus or cognitive category in the sourcetext; it can be lexical or structural. In some case, the element in the source language is general and when commit to user transferred into target text, it replaced with a more specific term to make acceptable to the target reader.
Compensation technique according to Molina and Albir (2002:510) is a technique that introduces a source text element of information, or stylistic effect in another place in the target text because it cannot be reflected in the same place as in the source text. ‘my sister’ as subject in the source text become object in the target text and so does ‘book’ as object in the source text becomes subject in the target text.
C. Translation Quality Assessment Translation quality assessment is an evaluation of the translation product
Al-Qinai (2000:499)states that the assessment of a translated text sought to measure the degree of efficiency of the text with regard to the syntactic, semantics, and pragmaticfunction of source text within the cultural frame and expressive potentials of both source language and target language. While it is usually refers to preservation of the information content of source textin target text, with an accurate translation being generally literal rather than free, its actual meaning in the context of a giventranslation must depend of the type of equivalence." Shuttleworth and Cowie explained that accuracy deals with the content or the message of the text.
3. Readability in Translation
The success is the extent to which they understand it, read it at an optimal speed, and find it interesting.” Readability relates to competence of the readers in understanding the element of the text. The sentence has two meanings, the truck driver stopped at the pub and drained the radiator, or the truck driver stopped at thepub and go to the toilet.
D. Software Localization
Software localization is the process of redesigning the software to fit the requirements, so it can be received by the target market. Software localizationaccording to Web Collins: (2002:74) is the translation and adaptation of software, including the software itself and all related product documentation, making thesoftware more usable to target customers.
E. UCweb Browser
With their slogan, “help you to put the Internetin your pocket!” UCweb provide the easier and faster way to connect to theInternet using cellular phones. The other benefit of using UCweb, user can feelthe computer-like browsing experience, because the program is featured with cursor, copying data ability, and download manager.
CHAPTER II I RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Type of Research The research uses quantitative and qualitative techniques that are mixed in
Quantitative research according to Charoenruk (2007:1) is a research concerning with investigation which can be observed and measured insome way and Qualitative research according to Marshal and Rossman inCharoenruk (2007:1) is a research which attempts to increase our understanding of why things are the way they are in our social world and why people act the waythey do. The researcher uses type of qualitative research bydescribing the result of data analysis, not in the numerical form but in the form of words.
B. Data and Source of Data
The data of this research are all phrases, clauses, and sentences of user interface in UCweb in English and their translation in Indonesian. Therefore, the translator should apply the right and proper technique in translating clauses, phrases, and sentences in order to get theright meaning in Indonesia.
C. Sample and Sampling Technique
Second data are data in form of numerical based on the questionnaire. would to take part in the research The second group comprises some correspondents.
D. Method of Data Collection
The scale of translation acceptability Scale DescriptionAcceptable, the translation sounded natural and suitable with the grammar structure of the target language. Less Acceptable, the translation of user interface sounded natural but there were some problems in using terms of words, phrases, and 2 sentences in the target language.
E. Technique Data Analysis
The researcher observes and compares the English version of user interface of UCweb and their translation in Indonesian. commit to user Finally, the researcher draws some conclusions and gives some recommendations from the result of analysis.
F. Research Procedure
Classifying the data according the kind of the texts and its impossible meaning in the target language. The researcherreviews all the data of UCweb user interface and examine the translation technique used, then classify the data into several categories.
After analyzing the data in both texts, the researcher found out 14 techniques based on Molina and Albir (2002:509-511) and Newmark commit to user (1988:91)used by the translator to translate user interface from the source language into the target language. The function of the pop-up is to inform the user that update the program is in progress.
1.6 Linguistic Compression
Linguistic compression techniqueaccording to Molina and Albir (2002:510) is a technique that reduces the linguistic element in the target text. The function of the pop-up menu is to infoms the commit to user menghemat arus data.
1.7 Literal Translation
The translator changes the point of view ofsource language by translating into Anda telah menggunakan versi terbaru instead of the literal translation of the source language ‘your browser is up to date’; Browser Anda adalah yang terbaru. The data translated using modulation technique Datum Source language Target language 062 Your browser is up to date Anda Telah Menggunakan Versi Terbaru Naturalization techniqueaccording to Molina and Albir (2002:510)is similar to the borrowing technique, but with any changes to fit the spelling rulesin target language.
The translator adds the word efekin the target language to give the additional information to target users that there is an effect ofanimation in using the program. The translator introduces the wordsuntuk sementarato make clear that cache is just saved in the device for a while, and also enhances with theinformation nilai awal direkomendasikanto inform the users that the default preset of cache image is recommended.
11. Transposition 12
It is followed by couplet that has been used to translate 44 data or 33,33% from the overall data, Discursive creation that has been used to translate 9 data or6,82%, then triplet with 7 data or 5,30% from the overall data. The next is transposition with 4 data or 3,03%from the overall data, generalization, linguisticcompression, and particularization that each technique has been used to translate 2 data or 1,52%from overall data, and then borrowing, description, modulation,naturalization, and particularization that each techniques have been used to translate a datum or 0,76% from overall data.
2. Translation Quality
The second part of this chapter analyzes the quality assessment of the translation of user interface of mobile browser UCweb. The three raters were asked to complete thequestionnaires to determine the accuracy and acceptability of the message transfer of the translation.
In this form of questionnaires, first the raters determined the accuracy of the translation by giving score to the translation, and they might give comments orsuggestions related to the accuracy of the translation. The accuracy of message transfer of the translation is measured based on the following scale: Scale Description 3 Accurate, the content of the original user interface is perfectly conveyed into the target language.
a. Classification A: Accurate translation
‘Preload WAP content of the next page’ is a pop-up menu informing the user the function of the menu ‘Preload WAP’. 2010SR006794 130 The copyright of this software is Perangkat lunak ini dilindungi protected by the Copyright Law of hak ciptanya oleh Undang-the People's Republic of China, the Undang Hak Cipta RRC danJudicial Interpretations by Supreme Interpretasi Yudisial olehPeople's Court of the People's Pengadilan Rakyat Tertinggi Republic of China and the dan Konvensi Internasional.
b. Classification B: Less accurate translation
The data are classified less accurate if the content of the original user interface is less perfectly conveyed into thetarget text and there is one or more distortion ofmeaning or ambiguity, and deleted word that has an impact on the messages. Some of the data are presented below:Example 1: commit to user ‘Open in background’ menu is used when the user want to open URL in the existing tab without opening a new tab.
c. Classification C: Inaccurate translation
Thedata are inaccurate since the content of the original user interface is not perfectly conveyed or not conveyed al all into the target texts, and there are some problems;choosing lexical items, omitting, or deleting. The translation is inaccurate because it deletes the word ‘mode’ which in this case isthe key point in here, and the message of the word ‘normal’ is not conveyed in the target language.
In this form of questionnaires, first the raters determined the acceptability of the translation by giving mark to the translation and then they might give theircomments or suggestions related to the acceptability of message transfer of the translation. The acceptability of message transfer of the translation is measuredbased on the following scale: Scale DescriptionAcceptable, the translation sounded natural and suitable with the grammar structure of the target language.
a. Classification A: Acceptable translation
By adding the word tab because of the phrase ‘close current’ is under menu ‘tab’, the translation is more acceptable to the target language and easier to understand by the user. 130The copyright of this software is protected by the Copyright Law ofthe People's Republic of China, theJudicial Interpretations by SupremePeople's Court of the People'sRepublic of China and the International Covenants.
b. Classification B: Less acceptable translation
The data are classified less acceptable since the translation of the user interface sounds like natural but there are some displeasing in terms of words,phrases, and sentences in the target language. The raters argued that according tostandardization of computer term in the target language, the word ‘mode’ though it has been familiar with the user, it is not acceptable.
c. Classification C: Unacceptable translation
Readability in translation qualityassessment is the ability of a target text to be understood grammatically as the original by the target reader. The first respondent has been using the UCweb browser of commit to user Scale DescriptionReadable, the translation of user interface could be easily understood 3 by target readers.
a. Classification A: Readable Translation
The datum is translated word-for-word and there is ambiguity, but it is readable according to the respondents since therespondents can recognize the function of the feature. 2010SR006794 130 The copyright of this software is protected by the Copyright Law ofthe People's Republic of China, theJudicial Interpretations by SupremePeople's Court of the People'sRepublic of China and the International Covenants.
b. Classification B: Less Readable Translation
The first respondent gave score 2 because it cannot be easily understood, the second respondent gave score 3 because it has been familiar, andthe third respondent gave score 1 because it cannot be understood, and the respondent did not know the function of this feature. Nikmati situs WAP atau 3G yang lebih berwarna dengan efekvisual dinamis Datum Source language Target language 112Improved the Display of sites withWap 2.0 Lebih menggurangi arus data halaman WAP untuk memotongbeban, tapi tidak diterima untuk beberapa situs IP terlarang Further to low the WAP page traffic to cut your cost, but notaccetable to some ip restricted sites.
c. Classification C: Unreadable Translation
Borrowing technique, and translation quality Translation Translation Level of Tot al of Percentage Technique Category Category Data Accurate 1 100%Accuracy Less accurate 0%Inaccurate 0% Borrow ing Acceptable 1 100%Acceptability Less acceptable 0% (1 dat a) Unacceptable 0%Readable 1 100% ReadabilityLess readable 0% Unreadable 0%There is a datum or 0.76% from the overall data that are translated using borrowing technique. The content is perfectly conveyed, sounded natural, and can be understood by target users It can be concluded that the data are translated using borrowingtechnique according to the table 4.3.1tends to be accurate, acceptable, and readable.
c. Discursive creation
In the analysis of translation accuracy, the alldata are categorized less accurate because some elements are deleted; the data ‘auto save’ that is translated into otomatis removes the word save from the source language, and the data ‘Save more traffic flow’ that is translated into Menghemat arus datadeletes the word more from the sorce language. From 2 data, a data or 50% are classified accurate, thecontent is perfectly conveyed, and a data or 50% is less accurate because there is distortion of meaning, the data ‘traffic statistic’ that is translated into arus datadistores the meaning of the word statistic that can be translated into statistik.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION A. Conclusion After the data analysis is completed, the researcher draws two conclusions
The user interface in the program UCweb browser are generally well translated in the target language based on the quality of translation:The analysis of translation accuracy indicates that 95 data (71.97%) from overall data are categorized accurate, 25 data (18.94%) are less accurate, and 12data (9.09%) are inaccurate. The analysis of translation acceptability indicated that 99 data (75%) from overall data are categorized acceptable, 32 data (24.24%) are less accurate, and a commit to user The analysis of translation readability indicated that 118 data (89.4%) are categorized readable, 14 data (10.6%) are less readable, and there is no dataconsidered unreadable.
The translators are expected to improve theircompetence in translating text related to the information technology. Besides, knowing new dimension of software localization in digitalization world is badlyneeded in order to produce high quality translation that is appropriate with the aim of the software user interface translation as a part of localization.