Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfilment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Educational Islamic Studies ( S.Pd.I )in English and Educational Faculty
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND
Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfilment
Of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Educational Islamic Studies
( S.Pd.I )in English and Educational Faculty
By : MUHAMMAD NUR DA’I NIM. 11302020 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL
FACULTY STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE ( STAIN )SALATIGA
DEPARTMENT OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE (STAIN) SALATIGA
Jl. Stadion 03 Phone. 0298 323706 Salatiga 50721 Website : Ruwandi, S.Pd., M,A
The Lecturer of Educational Faculty State Islamic Studies Institute of Salatiga
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR’S NOTE Salatiga. July 10th 2006 Case : Muhammad Nur Dai's
Thesis Dear The Head of State Islamic Studies Institute of Salatiga Assalamu ’alaikum, Wr. Wb.
After reading and correcting Muhamad Nur Dai's thesis entitled
"CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIA
ADVERBS OF PLACE". I have decided and would like to propose that if it
could be accepted by educational faculty, I hope it would be examined as soon as possible.
Wassalamu’alaikum, Wr. Wb.
Ruwandi, S.Pd., MK NIP. 150 301 297
DEPARTMENT OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE (STAIN) SALATIGA JI. Stadion 03 Phone, 0298 323706 Salatiga 50721
Website : STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND
INDONESIAN ADVERBS OF PLACE MUHAMMAD NUR DA ’I NIM. 113 02 020
Has been brought to the board of examiners in August, 05th 2006 M / Rajab, 11th 1427 H, and hereby considered to completely fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of Sarjana in English and Educational Faculty.
August, 05th 2006 M
Rajab, 11th 1427 H Board of examiners
MOTTO• Keep the spirit for fighting not fighting for the spirit.
• Life is much easier if we do not complain too much since complain isnot a solution.
This thesis is wholeheartedly dedicated to: I] My beloved parents Mr. and Mrs. DJuhdi, who educate me patiently, thank you for this warm and wonderful family.
12 My family in kacangan, thanks for accepting me whatever I am and regard me as your own son.
'1 My dear “Ella” for all happiness and depression we come to pass, you are the only one who always stand beside me and support me. I believe there is bright future for us and I promise you I will do the best.
My sweet heart “Sasha”, I lay my life on you.
12 My brothers and sisters “ bu’de Casen sekeluarga, Bu’de Nur sekeluarga, Pa’de Mul sekeluarga, Om Thoyeb.
All praises be to Allah, The Almighty, The Lord o f the world, whose blessing make it possible for the writer to realize this graduating paper entitle” Contrastive Analysis Between English and Indonesian Adverbs of Place There are many kinds of helps received appreciatively from many persons.
The writer cannot realize this thesis without their helps. In this occasion, he would like to thanks to:
1. Drs. Imam Sutomo, M.Ag., the head of State Islamic Studies Institute (STA IN ) of Salatiga.
2. Hanung Triyoko, S.S.,M.Hum., The head of The English Department of STAIN Salatiga.
3. Mr. Ruwandi, S.Pd.,M.A., who guides the writer. The one who always be ready to solve problems concerning this graduating paper.
4. All lectures of State Islamic Studies Institute, especially Mr. Ruwandi, Mr.
Sa’adi, Mr. Hammam, Mr. Hanung, Mrs. Woro, Mr. Ari thank for you knowledge, motivation, advice and attention.
5. My beloved family, mom, dad, my wife, my daughter, my brothers and my sisters, who have given me a true love, cares, prayers, supports and valuable lesson. Thanks you for this warm and wonderful family.
6. My dearest friends in TBI’02.
7. These who cannot be mentioned one by one toward their supports to the writer in realizing this study.
Finally, the writer realizes that this thesis is still far from being perfect and still needs many improvements. The writer gladly accepts constructive critique and evaluation to make this thesis better.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER V CLOSURE
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The Background of the Study English is an international language. Most countries in the world use it
as a means of international communication, including Indonesian. It is learned by Indonesian students from junior high school up to senior high school.
Nowadays it is also learned elementary school students.
Language is a system of sounds, words, pattern, etc used by humans to communicate thoughts and feelings.1 Based on the statement, the writer that language has very important roles in the human lives. Language is used to interact not only among individuals but also among groups of people in the world.
Every year millions of people start learning English ( a foreign language ) but not all of them succeed to master it. The most obvious reason is because the learners of the foreign language are interfered by their mother language ( have had experiences on sentence structure, spelling which vary from person to person).
Learners tend to transfers the native language systems into that o f the foreign language. Teachers must compare between the two systems in order to be able to find out the differences and to avoid mistakes.
'AS. Hornby, O xford A d v a n c e d Learners D iction ary English, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Third Edition, 1974, page 700.
2 Therefore, if the mother language is transferred into the learning of it, problems will arise, so by comparing the foreign language systems with the native ( first language) they will know the potential learning problems.
Obviously, learning English as a foreign language is more difficult than that of the native language. In fact the main problems arising are not only caused by the difficulties of the foreign language system but also from that of the native language systems.
In addition there are many kinds of differences between the students native and the target languages. Among others are the differences between English and Indonesian sentence structures. In learning process, the learners are influenced by Indonesian sentence structures, so they are confused to construct English sentence structures correctly.
Learners tend to transfer structures of native language into the structures of foreign language. Therefore, the learners learning foreign language have to master the structure of the target language well to mistakes. One of the mistakes that is easily to be formed is the use of adverb of place because of the interference of the native adverb of place, the following are the examples of the adverb of place English and in Indonesia: 1. Here comes the train.
2. Mrs. Person goes there.
3. Down comes the rain.
3 The next are the examples of adverb of place in Indonesian: 1. Dari sini kita harus bergerak.
2. Kita menanamkan pohon ini di sana.
3. Keluarga Ella akan pindah ke Amerika.
The phrases in underlined types above are called adverbs of place. Indonesian adverbs of place in the examples above can be put in the beginning or in the end of a sentence, and so can English adverb of place.
Based on the fact above, the writer would like to study one of the adverbs that influences the mastery of English that is the adverbs of place. The writer wants to compare English and Indonesian adverbs of place to get differences and similarities to contribute learners to learn English.
B. The Reason for Choosing the Topic
Some reasons that encourage the writer to choose the title are as follows:
1. It is important for the learners to know adverbs of place of English and Indonesia, because a little mistake in using adverb of place is erroneous.
2. The writer find that in the beginning of learning English, Indonesian students often get difficulties in using adverbs of place.
C. The Problem of the Study
The problem of this study can be formulated as follows:
1. What are the kind, position and function of adverbs?
2. What are the kind, position and function of English and Indonesian adverbs of place?
3. What are the similarities and the differences between English and Indonesian adverb of place?
D. Limitation of the Study
To avoid the misunderstanding o f English and Indonesian adverbs of place, the writer tends to limit this study, namely:
1. This study is focused on The Contrastive Analysis of Adverbs of Place Between English and Indonesia. The English adverbs of place are here,
there, upstairs, away, inside, down, in, out, indoors, outdoors. Whereas,
the Indonesian adverbs of place are di sini, di sana, ke sini, ke sana, ke situ, dari sini, dari situ, sampai.
2. This study is limited to describe the differences and similarities between English and Indonesian Adverbs of place especially considering their kinds, positions and functions in sentences.
E. The Objective Of The Study
The aim of the study are: 1. To find of the kinds, function and position of adverbs.
2. To find of the kinds, functions and positions of English and Indonesia adverbs of place.
3. To identify and compare the differences and the similarities between English and Indonesian adverbs of place.
F. The significance of the Study
The writer expects, that the result of this study can be used: 1. For the writer, it can deepen his knowledge in improving English ability.
2. For the English teacher, it can be used to make preposition in presenting English adverbs of place.
G. The Definition of the Key Terms
To give the clearer information, the writer would like to clarify the terms concerning with the title:
1. Contrastive Analysis
a. Contrastive is adjective taken from the word contrast. A contrast mean to compare one thing with another, so the differences are made clear, showing a difference when compared.2
b. Analysis is separation into part, possibly with comment and judgment, instance o f the result of doing this.3 c. Contrastive Analysis ( next contrasly mentioned as C.A )
1) Carl James state that CA is a linguistic enter price aimed at producing inverted ( i.e; contrastive, not comparative ) two valued typologies ( CA is always concerned with part of 2AS. Hornby, op.cit.,page 186.
J Ibid, page 29.
6 language ) and founded on the assumption that language can be compared.4
2) CA is considered as the comparison of the structure of language to determine the point that differ them and the differences of the source of difficulty in learning target language.5
3. Adverb of Place English adverbs are closely concerned with the verb in a sentence. The verb describe the state of things or the activity and adverbial add information about such things as the manner, place, time, and view of the state or action.
P.C. Wren and H. Martin state6 7 that adverbs of place say where some thing happen, such as in the sentence “ The children are playing upstairs”.
Depdikbud states in Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia that Keterangan
tempat adalah keterangan yang menunjukkan tempat terjadinya suatu peristiwa atau keadaan , (Adverbs of place are adverbs that show where an
event or a condition happen) like in the sentence “ Kita meletakkan batu
pertama ini di sana
4 Carl, James, C on trastive A nalysis, Longman, London and N ew York, 1980, page 3.
5 Robert, Lado, L inguistic A cross Culture, The University o f Michigan Press, Michigan, 1962, page 21.
6 P.C Wren and H. Martin, H igh School English G ram m ar a n d C om position, S. Chord and Company LTD, N ew Delhi, YO, page 100
7 Depdikbud, Tata B ahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, 1991, page 298
H. The Thesis Organization
In order to give a brief description to the readers and to facilitate the thesis arrangement, the writer presents this thesis as follows:
Chapter I is introduction. It consists of the background of the study, The reasons for choosing the topic, the problems of the study, limitation of the study, the objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the definition of the key terms, literature reviews, research methodology and thesis organization.
Chapter II is review of the related literature. The chapter deals with detailed discussion on English and Indonesian adverb of place. It consists of definition, kinds, positions and functions of adverbs and adverbs of place.
Chapter III is Research Methodology. It consists of the meaning of method, the type of the research, the object of the study, the method of collecting data and the method of analyzing the data.
Chapter IV is Result of the Study. This chapter describes data analysis the similarities and the differences between English and Indonesian adverbs of place.
Chapter V is Conclusion and Suggestions. In this chapter the writer give some conclusions of the study described in the previous chapter and some suggestions for English teachers.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Adverb We know there are a lot of vocabularies in English and they can be classified into two kinds namely content words and function words. Content words consist of noun, verb, adjective and adverb. These kinds of words usually have clear meanings. Function words are sometime called structure words. They commonly do not have clear meanings. These include preposition ( on, in, at ), article ( a, an, th e ), and conjunction (and, but, because).
1. The Definition of Adverbs
Adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, another adverb.'According to Mun Fika et,al1 2, adverb is a word to add and to explain verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, and conjunction. Some adverbs have the same forms with their corresponding adjectives, Thus the words can be used some as adjective, or adverb.
The terms adverbial is used here for such simple adverbs as now,
often, well, much, too, quite; adverbs with a suffix as quickly, probably, briefly; phrases such as now and again, two weeks ago, since two o’clock; and for adverbial clauses such as when I was boy.
1 P.C Wren and H. Martin, H igh School English G ram m ar a n d Com position, S. Chord and Company LTD, New Delhi,YO, page 100.
2. The Kind of Adverbs
P.C Wren and H. Martin3 state that adverbs may be divided into the following classes, according to their meanings.
a. Adverbs of manner Adverbs of manner say how something happens. They are happily, quickly, terribly, beautifully, badly, well, fast, etc.
Example: 1) The dog runs quickly.
2) Sasha sang beautifully.
b. Adverbs of time Adverbs of time say when something happens. Among others are today,
afterward, in June, last year, daily, weekly, before, soon, still, last.
Example : 1 ) 1 am going to London today.
2) She has a new hair style every week.
c. Adverbs of degree or quantity Adverbs of degree modify an adjective or another adverb. They are placed before the adjective or adverb. Those adverbs of degree or quantity are for instance absolutely, almost, barely, completely, enough, only, quite, so, too, very, just, much, etc.
Example : 1) Mr. Da’i explained the topic so clear.
2) You are absolutely right.
10 d. Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of frequency show how often something happens. The adverbs of frequency are always, often, usually sometimes, never, etc.
Example : 1) The students never come late.
2) She often writes a letter.
e. Adverbs of place Adverbs of place show where something happens. They are around, upstairs, here, to bed, in London, out of the window, etc.
Example: 1) The children are playing upstairs.
2) Come and sit here!
f. Adverbs of affirmation and negation Example : \) Surely, you are mistaken.
2) I do not know him.
g. Adverbs of reason Example: He is hence unable to refute the charge.
Marcella Frank says there are many kinds of adverbs.4 1) Types of adverbs classified by meaning
b) Place and direction
4 Marcella Frank, M odern English, Practical Reference Guide, Prentice-Hall. INC, 1972,
11 d) Degree or quantifier
2) Types of adverbs classified by function
a) Sentence adverbs These adverbs modify an entire sentence.
Example: - Fortunately, the boy threw the ball quickly.
b) Conjunctive adverbs They probably should be considered as modifying the whole sentence or clauses rather than the verb alone. These adverbs show such a relationship as result (therefore, accordingly), addition
(besides, moreover), contrast (however, nevertheless), condition (otherwise), time (then).
(1) Put one box beside the other; please ! (2) I would like to go; however, I have not time.
c) Explanatory adverbs These adverbs illustrate or enumerate : namely, for example, as, i.e.( that, is ), e.g.( for example).
Example : (1) He worked as he talked.
(2) I bought many things namely book, bag and pen.
d) Relative, interrogative adverbs
e) Exclamatory' adverbs ( h ow ) These adverbs are used with adjectives and adverbs.
(1) How beautiful she is!
12 (2) How beautifully she dresses!
Mun Fika et. al classify adverbs into three kinds;5 they are :
a. Simple adverbs ( adverbs of time, place, number, manner,
b. Interrogative adverbs ( interrogative adverbs of time, place, number,
manner, degree, reason )
c. Relative adverbs ( conjunctive adverbs ) Thomson and Martinet state there are several kinds of adverbs:6 a. Adverbs of manner.
b. Adverbs of time.
c. Adverbs of degree.
d. Adverbs of frequency.
e. Adverbs of place.
f. Adverbs of sentence.
These modify the whole sentence or clause and normally express speaker’s opinion.
Example : 1) They certainly work hard.
2) He actually lives next door.
g. Adverbs of interrogative ( why?, when?, where?, how? )
Why? means “ for what reason? “ When? means “ at what time? “ Where? means “ in what place? “ How? means “ in what way? “
5 Mun Fika, page 116 op.cit.,
6 Thomson and Martinet, P ractical English G ram m ar, Oxford University Press, London,
13 h. Adverbs of relative (when, where, why )
When can replace in/on which ( used for time) Where can replace in/at which ( used for place )
Why can replace for which
Example: (1) The year when he bom ( in which ).
(2) The hotel where they were staying ( in/at which ) (3) The reason why he refused is...( for which )
3. The Function of Adverbs
Marcella Frank states7 that there are three functions of adverbs. They are as follows : a) The modifier of a verb.
Example : (1) The boy threw the ball quickly.
(2) They speak English fluently.
b) The modifier of an adjective and adverb Example : ( 1 ) 1 work quite hard every day.
(2) He was clearly disappointed when he failed.
c) The modifier of an entire sentence.
Example : (1) Fortunately, the boy threw the ball quickly.
(2) Yesterday, we submitted the report to the committee.
4. The Position of Adverbs
There are three positions of adverbs : a) Initial position before the subject.
Example : Sometimes, she comes late.
b) Mid-position with the verb.
Example : She sometimes come late.
c) Final position after the verb plus an object or an other complement.
Example : She come late sometimes.
B. Adverbs of Place
1. English Adverbs of Place
Adverbs of place say where something happens
a. Kinds of adverbs of place
1) Single word In this division, there are a few of single words.8
a) He left the box here
b) Come and sit here
a) I will go there
b) He will get there tonight
b) She wants away Somewhere
b) I can’t find any glasses everywhere
a) They are playing inside
a) Badminton is played indoors
b) He wants to eat outdoors
a) Football is played outdoors
b) There is a meditation room inside
a) He sent him away
b) The children are playing upstairs
a) The accident happened when I was upstairs
2) Prepositional phrase in single words There are some kinds of prepositional phrases in adverbs of place.
a) I looked for it everywhere
b) He wants to go to somewhere today Everywhere
a) I have seen that man somewhere
b) He likes playing indoors
a) In this moment, he is outside
b) I will throw it outside 3) Prepositional phrase
There are some prepositions that can be used to construct prepositional phrase of adverbs of place, such as on, in, at.
Let’s see the following example:
a) Ring me up at my office
b) Put the books on the table
b. The function of adverbs of place
Adverbs of place function to explain the place and the direction where the activity happens.
For example: 1) They will go abroad
2) She will come here again
c. Position of adverbs of place There are two positions of adverbs of place. The positions of adverbs of place is at the end of clause, but when there is a descriptive style, initial position is used.
1) At the end of clause
a) She is sitting outside
b) There is a box inside 2) Initial position
a) Here comes your bus
b) There goes Mrs. Parson
2. Indonesian Adverbs of Place
2) Di sana saya menunggu Adverbs of place are used to answer the question jalan mana, mulai dimana, hingga dimana.
b) Dia datang kemari
a) Ia tinggal diluar kota
For example :
2) Kami pergi ke Bandung melalui Purwakarta
For example: 1) Dari ujung gang itu para pemuda bergotong royong
1) Ia tinggal diluar kota
Adverbs of place is Keterangan yang menunjukan tempat terjadinya
2) Keluarganya akan pindah ke sana Adverbs of place are used to answer the question di sana.
1) Kita meletakan batu pertama ini di sana
and pada. After those prepositions it can stand words denoting place, such as di sini, di sana, di situ, ke sana, etc.
peristiwa atau keadaan.9 Adverbs of place use preposition di, ke, dari, sampai,
a. Kinds of adverbs of place 1) Single words.
18 2) Prepositional phrase
In Indonesian adverbs of place, there are some prepositions which are used to make prepositional phrase of adverbs of place such as :
di, ke, dari, sampai, and pada.10
For example: (1) Dia pergi ke Bogor
(2) Ayah meletakannya di atas meja
b. Function of adverbs of place
Adverbs of place function to describe where the activity or the condition happens.
For example: 1) Mereka akan berlatih di sini
2) Ibu suka duduk di luar
c. The position of adverbs of place Based on their positions, adverbs of place have two positions. They are as follows:
1) The initial position Example:
a) Di sana dia membeli buku
b) Di sini dia pulang dari kantor 2) The end of a clause
a) Tono akan pergi ke Surabaya
b) Dia berobat ke sini
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH In order to get some data that are required in this study, the writer conducted library research. The writer selected the grammatical data of various English books which are obtained in the library and also other available sources.
In this chapter, the writer would like to explain the methodology of the research which will be used. It consists of method used in the research, the object of the research, the method of collecting data, and the method of analyzing data.
A. The Method Used in the Research
In this study, the writer uses:
1. Contrastive Analysis Method ( CA Method ) CA refers to an activity that tries to compare between English and
Indonesia language structures, to identify the differences between both languages and their 'similarities. CA is a work procedure of language activities comparing the structure of LI and L2 or any languages and identifying their differences from the two languages.1 This is important because the greatest obstacle in the process of mastering L2 is the mix up between the system of LI into L2. CA tries to overcome this problem by contrasting the system of both languages to predict the difficulties that commonly happen.
1 Tarigan, Guntur, P engajaran A nalysis K onstrast i f Bahasa, Dikbud, Jakarta, 1989, page
20 Actually, the history of CA is based on three assumptions:2
a. Teaching experiences of foreign language teachers who always find out errors made by learners that can be detected through mother language.
b. Interference o f LI into L2.
c. Learning theory, especially transfer theory which is considered as positive facility beside negative interference.
According to Tarigan, CA has some essential contributions in teaching-learning process. These may be clearly seen as follows: a. Constructing language teaching materials which are based on the divergent aspects of the two languages being leamt.
b. Constructing the system of pedagogical language which is based on the linguistic theory.
c. Arranging the class properly, in which the first language is applied to help in learning the second language.
d. Presenting the language materials directly by: 1) Showing the stmctural differences between the languages.
2) Showing the structural aspects of the first language which causes possible difficulties or errors in the second language.
3) Suggesting the ways of how to overcome the interferences.
2 Pranowo, A nalysis Pengajaran Bahasa, Gajah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta, C et.l, 1996, page 45.
21 4) Giving the exercise intensively to the aspects which are divergent.3
The CA as one of the fields of stitches in language teaching gives favors toward composing the grammatical education. This contrastive attainment can give beneficial contributions for implementing the direct instruction of language. We can predict difficulties probably found in learning. Thus it can be used to tackle difficulties found.4
There are two polar views on this and a range of compromise position between them:5 a. The strong claim says that the deviant behavior of the learner is the direct result of the transfer of the ‘habit’ of the LI into L2. Those who make the strong claim consider that CA is not as a means of explaining error but also as a technique for predicting error. The supporters of this are: Fries, Lado, Valaman’s.
b. The weak claim says that the structure of the LI provides only a partial explanation of the phenomena involved in L2 learning. Those who make this claim insist that the structure of the LI is only one of many influences at work in the learning process. It follows that CA may be of some value in explanation of error but cannot have a strong predictive value. The supporters of this use Stocwell and Browen.
3 Ibid, page 50
4 Nurhadi, Tata bah asa Pendidikan,
IKIP Semarang Press,Semarang, 1995, page
5 Roger T. Bell, An Introduction to a p p lie d L in g u istic : Approachesh and M ethod inLanguage Teaching, Bastford Academicand Education Ltd, London, 1981, page 181-182.
22 This study uses CA because it functions to provide guidelines in analyzing of foreign language. The functions are: a. Predictive It means to detect the errors of students in learning foreign language.
b. Clarificative It means to explain the errors which are made by the students.
c. Complementary It means to complete knowledge of the candidate teachers and the teachers who do not have experience.
d. Preventive It means to prevent and to limit the errors done by the students.
e. Curative It means to correct the errors and to overcome the language teaching problems.
2. Non statistic Analysis Method ( Qualitative Method ) It is an analysis done by reading and collecting data.6 In this thesis, the writer uses a qualitative method because it is a library research. The writer reads and collects data from some books which relate with the study.
B. The Object of the Research
1. Data The data of this research are English and Indonesia adverbs of place.
6 Hermawan Warsito, Pengantar M etodePenelitian, Rineka Cipta,Jakarta, 1993, page 89
2. The sources of the data The research aims at to comparing English and Indonesia adverbs of place so, the writer takes some adverbs of place as the object of the research from both English and Indonesia literatures.
a. Depdikbud, 1992, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia, Indonesia, Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
b. Fika, Mun, et.al., YO, Complete English Grammar, Surabaya: Apollo.
c. Homby, A.S, 1975, Guide to Patterns and usage in English, London: Oxford University Press.
d. Frank, Marcella, 1972, Modern English: Practical Reference Guide, Prentise-Hall. INC.
e. J. Hall, Eungene, 1993, Grammar fo r Use, London: Oxford University.
f. Keraf, Gorys, 1991, Tata Bahasa Rujukan Bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta: PT Gramedia.
g. Muslich, Masnur, 1990, Garis-garis Besar Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Malang: Yayasan Asih Asah Asuh.
h. Thomson, A.J., and A.V., Martinet, 1986, A Practical English Oxford: Oxford University Press.
i. Wren, P.C and H. Martin, YO, High School English Grammar, New Delhi: S. Chand and Company LTD.
C. Method of Collecting Data
Collecting data is very a important work in this research. The writer must determine what method used to get the data. Suharsimi Arikunto states7 that there are six method of collecting data. They are questionnaire, observation, interview, rating scale, test and documentation.
Because this research is a literary study, the writer uses documentation method that is taken from books that have been mentioned before.
D. Method of Analyzing Data
1. Descriptive Method Descriptive method means the thinking of every ideology and philosophy described clearly and completely, so the similarities and differences can be treated clearly too. Using this description it will be known the description of language.8
The writer only interprets and explains the collected data without hypothesis9.
2. CA Method The writer uses CA method in this study because it is used to analysis between two languages. In this research, the writer works on the data in three steps:
7 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian : Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, Rineka Cipta, Jakarta, 1998, page
8 Anton Bekker and M. Charis Zubair, Kanisius,M etodology P enelitian Filsafat, Yogyakarta, 1998, page 88.
9 Suharsimi Arikunto, M anajem enPenelitian, Rineka Cipta, Jakarta, 1990, page 310 a. The writer describes both English and Indonesian adverbs of place.
The description is mainly about their kinds, functions, and positions in sentences.
b. Based on the description, the writer contrasts the characteristics of English and Indonesian adverbs of place. He tries to go through the possible complexities : similarities and differences between them. He also directly predicts learning problems that are likely encountered by Indonesian students learning English and Indonesia.
c. The writer draws some conclusions and presents some suggestions.
CHAPTER IV THE RESULT OF THE STUDY In this chapter, the writer would like to show the data analysis, differences
and similarities between English and Indonesia adverbs of place which have been studied.
A. Data Analysis
After presenting the data of the research, the writer describes the main points of the research as follows:
1. English adverbs of place
a. Kinds of adverbs of place 1) . Single words In this section, there are only a few of it.
For example: a) I have seen that man everywhere.
b) She put the books there. 2) . Prepositional phrase in single words There are some kinds of prepositional phrases of adverbs of place.
For example: a) He wants to eat outdoors .
b) He likes playing indoors.
3) . Prepositional phrases
27 There are some prepositions that can be used to construct prepositional phrases of adverbs of place, such as on, in, at.
Let’s see the following examples:
a) Ring me up at my office
b) Mr. Jenkins is in the conference room
b. The functions of adverbs of place Adverbs of place function to explain the place and the direction where an activity happens.
For example: 1) They will go abroad.
2) I can’t find the glasses everywhere.
c. Positions of adverbs of place There are two positions of adverb of place. Generally, the position of adverb of place is at the end of clause, but when there is a descriptive style, initial position is used.
1) Final position For example:
a) She is sitting outside
b) He wants to go there 2) Initial position
For example: a) Here comes your bus.
b) There goes Mrs. Person
29 1) Initial position
Examples: a) Di sana dia membeli buku.
b) Di sini dia pulang dari kantor. 2) Final position
Examples: a) Tono akan pergi ke Surabaya.
b) Dia berobat ke sini.
B. The Similarities between English and Indonesia Adverbs of Place
1. Based on their kinds, there are single-word and preposition phrase adverbs of place in English and Indonesian languages.
English: a. My father puts this pen here.
b. Ella has arrived there. ^
Indonesia: a. Sha-sha datang kemari.
b. Ella tinggal di luar kota.
2. Based on their positions both English and Indonesia adverbs of place are placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
English: a. here you watch television.
b. We like to sit here.
Indonesia: a. Kakakku makan malam di rumah.
b. Di sini dia meninggalkan anaknya.
3. Based on their functions, both English and Indonesian adverbs of place function to denote where the activity or the condition happens:
English: a. She’ll come here again.
b. My room is upstairs. Indonesia: a. Mereka akan berlatih di sini.
b. Dia menyimpan mainannya di dalam almari.
C. The Differences between English and Indonesian Adverbs of Place
a. Prepositional phrase in single words
There are adverbs of place pronounced and written as single words which are actually phrases. The words are compounded.
Outside, outdoors, indoor, inside, upstairs, downstairs, etc.
1) She like sitting outside. 2) My mother is upstairs.
In Indonesia there is no prepositional phrase in single words to make adverbs of place, b. Prepositional phrase
Constructing prepositional phrase of adverbs of place meaning di in Indonesia needs some prepositions like: on, in, at.
1) He arrives at my house. 2) They study in the classroom.
In Indonesia there is only one preposition “ di “ meaning di to construct prepositional phrase of adverbs of place.
1) Dia bersembunyi di tempat tidur.
2) Mereka berhenti di ujung jalan itu.
2. Position There is no difference in position between English and Indonesia adverbs of place.
3. Function There is no difference in function between English and Indonesia adverbs of place.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion Based on the data analysis of English and Indonesian adverbs o f place taken from English and Indonesian grammar books, the writer draws some conclusion as follows:
1. The English adverbs of place are here, there, upstairs, away, inside,
down, in, out, indoors, outdoors. Indonesian adverbs of place are di sini, ke sini, ke sana, ke situ, dari sini, dari situ and sampai.
2. Using CA method, the similarities and the differences between English and Indonesian adverbs o f place will be seen.
3. a. Kinds of adverbs: - Adverbs of manner
- Adverbs of time
- Adverbs of degree or quantity
- Adverbs of frequency
- Adverbs of place
- Adverbs of affirmation and negation
- Adverbs of reason
b. Functions of adverbs: - The modifier of a verb
- The modifier of an adjective and adverb
- The modifier of an entire sentence
33 c. Positions of adverbs: - Initial positions before subject
- Mid-position with the verb
- Final position after the verb plus an object or an other complement
4. a. English of adverbs of place 1) Kinds
a) Single word
b) Prepositional phrase in single words
c) Prepositional phrase 2) Functions
To explain the place and the direction where the activity happens 3) Positions
a) At the end of clause
b) Initial position
b. Indonesian adverbs of place 1) Kinds
a) Single words
b) Prepositional phrase 2) Functions To describe where the activity or the condition happens.
a) The initial position
b) The end of a clause
34 5. a. The similarities between English and Indonesia adverbs of place
1) Based on the kinds, both English and Indonesian adverbs of place have single words and preposition phrases to make adverbs of place. 2) Based on their positions, both English and Indonesian adverbs of place can be placed at the initial positions or final positions of a sentence. 3) Based on their functions, both English and Indonesian adverbs of place functions to denote the place where the activity or the condition happens.
b. The differences between English and Indonesian adverbs of place Based on their kinds, in English there are prepositional phrase of place pronounced and written as single words which are actually phrases, but in Indonesian there is no prepositional phrase in single words.
Based on the conclusion above, the writer would like to give some suggestion for both the teachers and learners of English, especially in teaching and learning English adverbs of place.
1. For the teachers The teacher should give a elear explanation about the rules of usage and examples of English adverbs of place. They should also be able to predict the difficulties about adverbs of place faced by the students. The teachers
35 can also explain clearly the difference and similarities between English and Indonesia adverbs of place.
2. For the learners
a. Learning by hearts is one way to avoid errors or difficulties in learning English, in this case the adverbs of place.
b. The learners must pay attention to the rules of adverbs of place.
c. To solve the problem in learning adverbs of place the learners have to do many exercises in older that they can use adverbs of place correctly.
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DEPARTEMEN AGAMA SEKOLAH TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI (STAIN) SALATIGA J]. Tentara Pelajar 02 Telp.(0298) 323706,323433 Fax323433 Salatiga 50721 Website : . id
17 April 2006 p. : Proposal Skripsi
: Pembimbing dan Asisten Pembimbing Skripsi Yth. 1. Ruwandi, S.Pd., M.A. .
2 Assalamualaikum w. w.
Dalam rangka penulisan Skripsi Mahasiswa Program Sarjana (S.l). Saudara ditunjuk sebagai Dosen Pembimbing / Asisten Pembimbing Skripsi mahasiswa :
N a m a
MUHAMMAD NUR DA’l NIM
TARB1YAH Judul Skripsi
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND
INDONESIA ADVERB OF PLACE Apabila dipandang perlu Saudara diminta mengoreksi tema Skripsi di atas.
Demikian untuk diketahui dan dilaksanakan.
h W'assalamualalkum w, _ Ketua,
sV!iM^P^feant^Ketua Bidang Akademik
mam Sutomo, M.Ag . 150216814
nbusan : Yth. Ketua STAIN Salatiga (sebagai laporan)
DAFTAR NILAI SKK
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