Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfilment
Of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Educational Islamic Studies ( S.Pd.I )in English and Educational Faculty
MUHAMMAD NUR DA’I
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL
FACULTY STATE ISLAMIC STUDIES INSTITUTE ( STAIN )
Jl. Stadion 03 Phone. 0298 323706 Salatiga 50721
Website : www.stainsalatiea.ac.id E -m ail: email@example.com
Ruwandi, S.Pd., M,A
The Lecturer of Educational Faculty
State Islamic Studies Institute of Salatiga
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR’S NOTE Salatiga. July 10th 2006
Case : Muhammad Nur Dai's
The Head of State Islamic
Studies Institute of Salatiga
Assalamu ’alaikum, Wr. Wb.
After reading and correcting Muhamad Nur Dai's thesis entitled
"CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIA ADVERBS OF PLACE". I have decided and would like to propose that if it could be accepted by educational faculty, I hope it would be examined as soon as
Wassalamu’alaikum, Wr. Wb.
Ruwandi, S.Pd., MK NIP. 150 301 297
JI. Stadion 03 Phone, 0298 323706 Salatiga 50721
Website : www.stainsalatiga.ac.id E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN ADVERBS OF PLACE
MUHAMMAD NUR DA ’I NIM. 113 02 020
Has been brought to the board of examiners in August, 05th 2006 M / Rajab, 11th 1427 H, and hereby considered to completely
fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of Sarjana in English and Educational Faculty.
August, 05th 2006 M Salatiga, ---Rajab, 11th 1427 H
Board of examiners
• Keep the spirit for fighting not fighting for the spirit.
• Life is much easier if we do not complain too much since complain is not a solution.
This thesis is wholeheartedly dedicated to:
I] My beloved parents Mr. and Mrs. DJuhdi, who educate me
patiently, thank you for this warm and wonderful family.
12 My family in kacangan, thanks for accepting me whatever I am
and regard me as your own son.
'1 My dear “Ella” for all happiness and depression we come to
pass, you are the only one who always stand beside me and
support me. I believe there is bright future for us and I promise
you I will do the best.
My sweet heart “Sasha”, I lay my life on you.
12 My brothers and sisters “ bu’de Casen sekeluarga, Bu’de Nur
sekeluarga, Pa’de Mul sekeluarga, Om Thoyeb.
All praises be to Allah, The Almighty, The Lord o f the world, whose
blessing make it possible for the writer to realize this graduating paper entitle”
Contrastive Analysis Between English and Indonesian Adverbs of Place There
are many kinds of helps received appreciatively from many persons.
The writer cannot realize this thesis without their helps. In this occasion, he would
like to thanks to:
1. Drs. Imam Sutomo, M.Ag., the head of State Islamic Studies Institute
(STA IN ) of Salatiga.
2. Hanung Triyoko, S.S.,M.Hum., The head of The English Department of
3. Mr. Ruwandi, S.Pd.,M.A., who guides the writer. The one who always be
ready to solve problems concerning this graduating paper.
4. All lectures of State Islamic Studies Institute, especially Mr. Ruwandi, Mr.
Sa’adi, Mr. Hammam, Mr. Hanung, Mrs. Woro, Mr. Ari thank for you
knowledge, motivation, advice and attention.
5. My beloved family, mom, dad, my wife, my daughter, my brothers and my
sisters, who have given me a true love, cares, prayers, supports and valuable
lesson. Thanks you for this warm and wonderful family.
6. My dearest friends in TBI’02.
7. These who cannot be mentioned one by one toward their supports to the writer
in realizing this study.
and evaluation to make this thesis better.
TITLE... ... i
STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION...iii
TABLE OF CONTENT... :... viii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of The Study... 1
B. The Reason for Choosing The Topic... 3
C. The Problem of The Study... 4
D. Limitation of The Study... 4
E. The Objective of The Study... 4
F. The Significance of The Study... 5
G. The Definition of The Key Terms... 5
H. Thesis Organization... 7
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 8 A. Adverb... 8
1. The Definition of Adverbs... 8
2. The Kinds of Adverbs... 9
3. The Function of Adverbs... 13
1. English Adverbs of Place... 14
2. Indonesian Adverbs of Place... 17
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. The Method Used in The Research... 19
B. The Object of The Research... 22
C. Method of Collecting D a ta ... 24
D. Method of analyzing Data ... 24
CHAPTER IV THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDY A. Data Analysis... 26
1. English Adverbs of Place... 26
2. Indonesia Adverbs of Place... 28
B. The Similarities... 29
C. The Differences... 30
CHAPTER V CLOSURE A. Conclusions... 32
B. Suggestion... 34
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. The Background of the Study
English is an international language. Most countries in the world use it
as a means of international communication, including Indonesian. It is learned
by Indonesian students from junior high school up to senior high school.
Nowadays it is also learned elementary school students.
Language is a system of sounds, words, pattern, etc used by humans to
communicate thoughts and feelings.1 Based on the statement, the writer that
language has very important roles in the human lives. Language is used to
interact not only among individuals but also among groups of people in the
Every year millions of people start learning English ( a foreign
language ) but not all of them succeed to master it. The most obvious reason is
because the learners of the foreign language are interfered by their mother
language ( have had experiences on sentence structure, spelling which vary
from person to person).
Learners tend to transfers the native language systems into that o f the
foreign language. Teachers must compare between the two systems in order to
be able to find out the differences and to avoid mistakes.
Therefore, if the mother language is transferred into the learning of it,
problems will arise, so by comparing the foreign language systems with the
native ( first language) they will know the potential learning problems.
Obviously, learning English as a foreign language is more difficult
than that of the native language. In fact the main problems arising are not
only caused by the difficulties of the foreign language system but also from
that of the native language systems.
In addition there are many kinds of differences between the students
native and the target languages. Among others are the differences between
English and Indonesian sentence structures. In learning process, the learners
are influenced by Indonesian sentence structures, so they are confused to
construct English sentence structures correctly.
Learners tend to transfer structures of native language into the
structures of foreign language. Therefore, the learners learning foreign
language have to master the structure of the target language well to mistakes.
One of the mistakes that is easily to be formed is the use of adverb of place
because of the interference of the native adverb of place, the following are the
examples of the adverb of place English and in Indonesia:
1. Here comes the train.
2. Mrs. Person goes there.
The next are the examples of adverb of place in Indonesian:
1. Dari sini kita harus bergerak.
2. Kita menanamkan pohon ini di sana.
3. Keluarga Ella akan pindah ke Amerika.
The phrases in underlined types above are called adverbs of place.
Indonesian adverbs of place in the examples above can be put in the beginning
or in the end of a sentence, and so can English adverb of place.
Based on the fact above, the writer would like to study one of the
adverbs that influences the mastery of English that is the adverbs of place. The
writer wants to compare English and Indonesian adverbs of place to get
differences and similarities to contribute learners to learn English.
B. The Reason for Choosing the Topic
Some reasons that encourage the writer to choose the title are as
1. It is important for the learners to know adverbs of place of English and
Indonesia, because a little mistake in using adverb of place is erroneous.
2. The writer find that in the beginning of learning English, Indonesian
students often get difficulties in using adverbs of place.
C. The Problem of the Study
1. What are the kind, position and function of adverbs?
2. What are the kind, position and function of English and Indonesian
adverbs of place?
3. What are the similarities and the differences between English and
Indonesian adverb of place?
D. Limitation of the Study
To avoid the misunderstanding o f English and Indonesian adverbs of
place, the writer tends to limit this study, namely:
1. This study is focused on The Contrastive Analysis of Adverbs of Place
Between English and Indonesia. The English adverbs of place are here, there, upstairs, away, inside, down, in, out, indoors, outdoors. Whereas, the Indonesian adverbs of place are di sini, di sana, ke sini, ke sana, ke
situ, dari sini, dari situ, sampai.
2. This study is limited to describe the differences and similarities between
English and Indonesian Adverbs of place especially considering their kinds,
positions and functions in sentences.
E. The Objective Of The Study
The aim of the study are:
1. To find of the kinds, function and position of adverbs.
2. To find of the kinds, functions and positions of English and Indonesia
3. To identify and compare the differences and the similarities between
English and Indonesian adverbs of place.
F. The significance of the Study
The writer expects, that the result of this study can be used:
1. For the writer, it can deepen his knowledge in improving English ability.
2. For the English teacher, it can be used to make preposition in presenting
English adverbs of place.
G. The Definition of the Key Terms
To give the clearer information, the writer would like to clarify the
terms concerning with the title:
1. Contrastive Analysis
a. Contrastive is adjective taken from the word contrast. A contrast
mean to compare one thing with another, so the differences are
made clear, showing a difference when compared.2
b. Analysis is separation into part, possibly with comment and
judgment, instance o f the result of doing this.3
c. Contrastive Analysis ( next contrasly mentioned as C.A )
1) Carl James state that CA is a linguistic enter price aimed at
producing inverted ( i.e; contrastive, not comparative ) two
valued typologies ( CA is always concerned with part of
language ) and founded on the assumption that language can be
information about such things as the manner, place, time, and view of the
state or action.
P.C. Wren and H. Martin state6 7 that adverbs of place say where some thing
happen, such as in the sentence “ The children are playing upstairs”.
Depdikbud states in Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia that Keterangan
tempat adalah keterangan yang menunjukkan tempat terjadinya suatu
peristiwa atau keadaan, (Adverbs of place are adverbs that show where an
event or a condition happen) like in the sentence “ Kita meletakkan batu
pertama ini di sana
4 Carl, James, C on trastive A nalysis, Longman, London and N ew York, 1980, page 3. 5 Robert, Lado, L inguistic A cross Culture, The University o f Michigan Press, Michigan, 1962, page 21.
6 P.C Wren and H. Martin, H igh School English G ram m ar a n d C om position, S. Chord and Company LTD, N ew Delhi, YO, page 100
7 Depdikbud, Tata B ahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, 1991, page
H. The Thesis Organization
In order to give a brief description to the readers and to facilitate the
thesis arrangement, the writer presents this thesis as follows:
Chapter I is introduction. It consists of the background of the study,
The reasons for choosing the topic, the problems of the study, limitation of the
study, the objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the definition
of the key terms, literature reviews, research methodology and thesis
Chapter II is review of the related literature. The chapter deals with
detailed discussion on English and Indonesian adverb of place. It consists of
definition, kinds, positions and functions of adverbs and adverbs of place.
Chapter III is Research Methodology. It consists of the meaning of
method, the type of the research, the object of the study, the method of
collecting data and the method of analyzing the data.
Chapter IV is Result of the Study. This chapter describes data analysis
the similarities and the differences between English and Indonesian adverbs of
Chapter V is Conclusion and Suggestions. In this chapter the writer
give some conclusions of the study described in the previous chapter and some
We know there are a lot of vocabularies in English and they can be
classified into two kinds namely content words and function words. Content
words consist of noun, verb, adjective and adverb. These kinds of words usually
have clear meanings. Function words are sometime called structure words. They
commonly do not have clear meanings. These include preposition ( on, in, at ),
article ( a, an, th e ), and conjunction (and, but, because).
1. The Definition of Adverbs
Adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective,
another adverb.'According to Mun Fika et,al1 2, adverb is a word to add and to
explain verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, and conjunction. Some adverbs
have the same forms with their corresponding adjectives, Thus the words can
be used some as adjective, or adverb.
The terms adverbial is used here for such simple adverbs as now, often, well, much, too, quite; adverbs with a suffix as quickly, probably, briefly; phrases such as now and again, two weeks ago, since two o’clock;
and for adverbial clauses such as when I was boy.
1 P.C Wren and H. Martin, H igh School English G ram m ar a n d Com position, S. Chord and Company LTD, New Delhi,YO, page 100.
2 Mun Fika, et.al, C om plete English G ram m ar, Apollo, Surabaya, YO, page 115.
2. The Kind of Adverbs
P.C Wren and H. Martin3 state that adverbs may be divided into the
following classes, according to their meanings.
a. Adverbs of manner
Adverbs of manner say how something happens. They are happily, quickly, terribly, beautifully, badly, well, fast, etc.
1) The dog runs quickly.
2) Sasha sang beautifully.
b. Adverbs of time
Adverbs of time say when something happens. Among others are today, afterward, in June, last year, daily, weekly, before, soon, still, last.
1 ) 1 am going to London today.
2) She has a new hair style every week.
c. Adverbs of degree or quantity
Adverbs of degree modify an adjective or another adverb. They are placed
before the adjective or adverb. Those adverbs of degree or quantity are for
instance absolutely, almost, barely, completely, enough, only, quite, so, too, very, just, much, etc.
1) Mr. Da’i explained the topic so clear.
2) You are absolutely right.
d. Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of frequency show how often something happens. The adverbs of
frequency are always, often, usually sometimes, never, etc.
1) The students never come late. 2) She often writes a letter.
e. Adverbs of place
Adverbs of place show where something happens. They are around, upstairs, here, to bed, in London, out of the window, etc.
1) The children are playing upstairs.
2) Come and sit here!
f. Adverbs of affirmation and negation
\) Surely, you are mistaken. 2) I do not know him. g. Adverbs of reason
He is hence unable to refute the charge.
Marcella Frank says there are many kinds of adverbs.4
1) Types of adverbs classified by meaning
b) Place and direction
d) Degree or quantifier
2) Types of adverbs classified by function
a) Sentence adverbs
These adverbs modify an entire sentence.
Example: - Fortunately, the boy threw the ball quickly. b) Conjunctive adverbs
They probably should be considered as modifying the whole
sentence or clauses rather than the verb alone. These adverbs show
such a relationship as result (therefore, accordingly), addition
(besides, moreover), contrast (however, nevertheless), condition
(otherwise), time (then).
These adverbs are used with adjectives and adverbs.
(2) How beautifully she dresses!
Mun Fika et. al classify adverbs into three kinds;5 they are :
a. Simple adverbs ( adverbs of time, place, number, manner, extent/degree)
b. Interrogative adverbs ( interrogative adverbs of time, place, number, manner, degree, reason )
c. Relative adverbs ( conjunctive adverbs )
Thomson and Martinet state there are several kinds of adverbs:6
a. Adverbs of manner.
h. Adverbs of relative (when, where, why )
When can replace in/on which ( used for time) Where can replace in/at which ( used for place )
Why can replace for which
(1) The year when he bom ( in which ).
(2) The hotel where they were staying (in/at which ) (3) The reason why he refused is...( for which )
3. The Function of Adverbs
Marcella Frank states7 that there are three functions of adverbs. They
b) The modifier of an adjective and adverb
( 1 ) 1 work quite hard every day.
(2) He was clearly disappointed when he failed. c) The modifier of an entire sentence.
(1) Fortunately, the boy threw the ball quickly.
(2) Yesterday, we submitted the report to the committee.
4. The Position of Adverbs
There are three positions of adverbs :
a) Initial position before the subject.
Example : Sometimes, she comes late. b) Mid-position with the verb.
Example : She sometimes come late.
c) Final position after the verb plus an object or an other complement.
Example : She come late sometimes.
B. Adverbs of Place
1. English Adverbs of Place
Adverbs of place say where something happens
a. Kinds of adverbs of place
1) Single word
In this division, there are a few of single words.8
a) He left the box here
b) Come and sit here There
a) I will go there
b) He will get there tonight
b) She wants away Somewhere
a) I have seen that man somewhere b) He wants to go to somewhere today
a) I looked for it everywhere
b) I can’t find any glasses everywhere
2) Prepositional phrase in single words
There are some kinds of prepositional phrases in adverbs of place.
a) The accident happened when I was upstairs
b) The children are playing upstairs Inside
a) They are playing inside
b) There is a meditation room inside Outdoors
a) Football is played outdoors
b) He wants to eat outdoors Indoors
a) In this moment, he is outside
b) I will throw it outside
3) Prepositional phrase
There are some prepositions that can be used to construct prepositional
phrase of adverbs of place, such as on, in, at.
Let’s see the following example:
a) Ring me up at my office
b) Put the books on the table b. The function of adverbs of place
Adverbs of place function to explain the place and the direction where the
1) They will go abroad
2) She will come here again c. Position of adverbs of place
2. Indonesian Adverbs of Place
Adverbs of place is Keterangan yang menunjukan tempat terjadinya
peristiwa atau keadaan.9 Adverbs of place use preposition di, ke, dari, sampai,
and pada. After those prepositions it can stand words denoting place, such as
di sini, di sana, di situ, ke sana,etc.
1) Kita meletakan batu pertama ini di sana 2) Keluarganya akan pindah ke sana
Adverbs of place are used to answer the question di sana.
1) Ia tinggal diluar kota
2) Di sana saya menunggu
Adverbs of place are used to answer the question jalan mana, mulai dimana,
1) Dari ujung gang itu para pemuda bergotong royong
2) Kami pergi ke Bandung melalui Purwakarta
a. Kinds of adverbs of place
1) Single words.
For example :
a) Ia tinggal diluar kota
b) Dia datang kemari
2) Prepositional phrase
In Indonesian adverbs of place, there are some prepositions which
are used to make prepositional phrase of adverbs of place such as :
di, ke, dari, sampai, and pada.10
(1) Dia pergi ke Bogor
(2) Ayah meletakannya di atas meja
b. Function of adverbs of place
Adverbs of place function to describe where the activity or the condition
1) Mereka akan berlatih di sini
2) Ibu suka duduk di luar
c. The position of adverbs of place
Based on their positions, adverbs of place have two positions. They are as
1) The initial position
a) Di sana dia membeli buku
b) Di sini dia pulang dari kantor
2) The end of a clause
a) Tono akan pergi ke Surabaya
10 Ibid., page 298
In order to get some data that are required in this study, the writer
conducted library research. The writer selected the grammatical data of various
English books which are obtained in the library and also other available sources.
In this chapter, the writer would like to explain the methodology of the
research which will be used. It consists of method used in the research, the object
of the research, the method of collecting data, and the method of analyzing data.
A. The Method Used in the Research
In this study, the writer uses:
1. Contrastive Analysis Method ( CA Method )
CA refers to an activity that tries to compare between English and
Indonesia language structures, to identify the differences between both
languages and their 'similarities. CA is a work procedure of language
activities comparing the structure of LI and L2 or any languages and
identifying their differences from the two languages.1 This is important
because the greatest obstacle in the process of mastering L2 is the mix up
between the system of LI into L2. CA tries to overcome this problem by
contrasting the system of both languages to predict the difficulties that
1 Tarigan, Guntur, P engajaran A nalysis K onstrast i f Bahasa, Dikbud, Jakarta, 1989, page
Actually, the history of CA is based on three assumptions:2
a. Teaching experiences of foreign language teachers who always find
out errors made by learners that can be detected through mother
b. Interference o f LI into L2.
c. Learning theory, especially transfer theory which is considered as
positive facility beside negative interference.
According to Tarigan, CA has some essential contributions in
teaching-learning process. These may be clearly seen as follows:
a. Constructing language teaching materials which are based on the
divergent aspects of the two languages being leamt.
b. Constructing the system of pedagogical language which is based on the
c. Arranging the class properly, in which the first language is applied to
help in learning the second language.
d. Presenting the language materials directly by:
1) Showing the stmctural differences between the languages.
2) Showing the structural aspects of the first language which causes
possible difficulties or errors in the second language.
3) Suggesting the ways of how to overcome the interferences.
4) Giving the exercise intensively to the aspects which are divergent.3
The CA as one of the fields of stitches in language teaching gives
favors toward composing the grammatical education. This contrastive
attainment can give beneficial contributions for implementing the direct
instruction of language. We can predict difficulties probably found in
learning. Thus it can be used to tackle difficulties found.4
There are two polar views on this and a range of compromise position
a. The strong claim says that the deviant behavior of the learner is the
direct result of the transfer of the ‘habit’ of the LI into L2. Those who
make the strong claim consider that CA is not as a means of explaining
error but also as a technique for predicting error. The supporters of this
are: Fries, Lado, Valaman’s.
b. The weak claim says that the structure of the LI provides only a partial
explanation of the phenomena involved in L2 learning. Those who
make this claim insist that the structure of the LI is only one of many
influences at work in the learning process. It follows that CA may be
of some value in explanation of error but cannot have a strong
predictive value. The supporters of this use Stocwell and Browen.
3 Ibid, page 50
4 Nurhadi, Tata bah asa Pendidikan, IKIP Semarang Press,Semarang, 1995, page 5 Roger T. Bell, An Introduction to a p p lie d L in g u istic : Approachesh and M ethod in
This study uses CA because it functions to provide guidelines in
analyzing of foreign language. The functions are:
It means to detect the errors of students in learning foreign language.
It means to explain the errors which are made by the students.
It means to complete knowledge of the candidate teachers and the
teachers who do not have experience.
It means to prevent and to limit the errors done by the students.
It means to correct the errors and to overcome the language teaching
2. Non statistic Analysis Method ( Qualitative Method )
It is an analysis done by reading and collecting data.6 In this thesis, the
writer uses a qualitative method because it is a library research. The writer
reads and collects data from some books which relate with the study.
B. The Object of the Research
The data of this research are English and Indonesia adverbs of place.
2. The sources of the data
The research aims at to comparing English and Indonesia adverbs of place
so, the writer takes some adverbs of place as the object of the research
from both English and Indonesia literatures.
a. Depdikbud, 1992, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia, Indonesia,
Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
b. Fika, Mun, et.al., YO, Complete English Grammar, Surabaya: Apollo.
c. Homby, A.S, 1975, Guide to Patterns and usage in English, London:
Oxford University Press.
d. Frank, Marcella, 1972, Modern English: Practical Reference Guide,
e. J. Hall, Eungene, 1993, Grammar fo r Use, London: Oxford University.
f. Keraf, Gorys, 1991, Tata Bahasa Rujukan Bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta:
g. Muslich, Masnur, 1990, Garis-garis Besar Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa
Indonesia, Malang: Yayasan Asih Asah Asuh.
h. Thomson, A.J., and A.V., Martinet, 1986, A Practical English
Grammar, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
i. Wren, P.C and H. Martin, YO, High School English Grammar, New
C. Method of Collecting Data
Collecting data is very a important work in this research. The writer
must determine what method used to get the data. Suharsimi Arikunto states7
that there are six method of collecting data. They are questionnaire,
observation, interview, rating scale, test and documentation.
Because this research is a literary study, the writer uses documentation
method that is taken from books that have been mentioned before.
D. Method of Analyzing Data
1. Descriptive Method
Descriptive method means the thinking of every ideology and
philosophy described clearly and completely, so the similarities and
differences can be treated clearly too. Using this description it will be
analysis between two languages. In this research, the writer works on the
data in three steps:
7 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian : Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, Rineka Cipta, Jakarta, 1998, page
8 Anton Bekker and M. Charis Zubair, M etodology P enelitian Filsafat, Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1998, page 88.
b. Based on the description, the writer contrasts the characteristics of
English and Indonesian adverbs of place. He tries to go through the
possible complexities : similarities and differences between them. He
also directly predicts learning problems that are likely encountered by
Indonesian students learning English and Indonesia.
THE RESULT OF THE STUDY
In this chapter, the writer would like to show the data analysis, differences
and similarities between English and Indonesia adverbs of place which have been
A. Data Analysis
After presenting the data of the research, the writer describes the main points
of the research as follows:
1. English adverbs of place
a. Kinds of adverbs of place
1) . Single words
In this section, there are only a few of it.
a) I have seen that man everywhere.
b) She put the books there.
2) . Prepositional phrase in single words
There are some kinds of prepositional phrases of adverbs of place.
a) He wants to eat outdoors . b) He likes playing indoors.
There are some prepositions that can be used to construct
prepositional phrases of adverbs of place, such as on, in, at.
Let’s see the following examples:
a) Ring me up at my office
b) Mr. Jenkins is in the conference room
b. The functions of adverbs of place
Adverbs of place function to explain the place and the direction
where an activity happens.
1) They will go abroad.
2) I can’t find the glasses everywhere.
c. Positions of adverbs of place
There are two positions of adverb of place. Generally, the
position of adverb of place is at the end of clause, but when there is a
descriptive style, initial position is used.
1) Initial position
a) Di sana dia membeli buku.
b) Di sini dia pulang dari kantor.
2) Final position
a) Tono akan pergi ke Surabaya.
b) Dia berobat ke sini.
B. The Similarities between English and Indonesia Adverbs of Place
1. Based on their kinds, there are single-word and preposition phrase
adverbs of place in English and Indonesian languages.
a. My father puts this pen here.
b. Ella has arrived there. ^
a. Sha-sha datang kemari.
b. Ella tinggal di luar kota.
2. Based on their positions both English and Indonesia adverbs of place are
placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
a. Kakakku makan malam di rumah.
b. Di sini dia meninggalkan anaknya.
3. Based on their functions, both English and Indonesian adverbs of place
function to denote where the activity or the condition happens:
a. She’ll come here again.
b. My room is upstairs. Indonesia:
a. Mereka akan berlatih di sini.
b. Dia menyimpan mainannya di dalam almari.
C. The Differences between English and Indonesian Adverbs of Place
a. Prepositional phrase in single words
There are adverbs of place pronounced and written as single words
which are actually phrases. The words are compounded.
Outside, outdoors, indoor, inside, upstairs, downstairs, etc.
In Indonesia there is no prepositional phrase in single words to make
adverbs of place,
b. Prepositional phrase
Constructing prepositional phrase of adverbs of place meaning di in
Indonesia needs some prepositions like: on, in, at.
1) He arrives at my house.
2) They study in the classroom.
In Indonesia there is only one preposition “ di “ meaning di to
construct prepositional phrase of adverbs of place.
1) Dia bersembunyi di tempat tidur.
2) Mereka berhenti di ujung jalan itu.
There is no difference in position between English and Indonesia adverbs
There is no difference in function between English and Indonesia adverbs
Based on the data analysis of English and Indonesian adverbs o f place
taken from English and Indonesian grammar books, the writer draws some
conclusion as follows:
1. The English adverbs of place are here, there, upstairs, away, inside, down, in, out, indoors, outdoors. Indonesian adverbs of place are di sini, ke sini, ke sana, ke situ, dari sini, dari situand sampai.
2. Using CA method, the similarities and the differences between English
and Indonesian adverbs o f place will be seen.
3. a. Kinds of adverbs: - Adverbs of manner
- Adverbs of time
- Adverbs of degree or quantity
- Adverbs of frequency
- Adverbs of place
- Adverbs of affirmation and negation
- Adverbs of reason
b. Functions of adverbs: - The modifier of a verb
- The modifier of an adjective and adverb
- The modifier of an entire sentence
c. Positions of adverbs: - Initial positions before subject
- Mid-position with the verb
- Final position after the verb plus an object or
an other complement
4. a. English of adverbs of place
a) Single word
b) Prepositional phrase in single words
c) Prepositional phrase
To explain the place and the direction where the activity happens
a) At the end of clause
b) Initial position
b. Indonesian adverbs of place
a) Single words
b) Prepositional phrase
To describe where the activity or the condition happens.
a) The initial position
5. a. The similarities between English and Indonesia adverbs of place
1) Based on the kinds, both English and Indonesian adverbs of place
have single words and preposition phrases to make adverbs of
2) Based on their positions, both English and Indonesian adverbs of
place can be placed at the initial positions or final positions of a
3) Based on their functions, both English and Indonesian adverbs of
place functions to denote the place where the activity or the
b. The differences between English and Indonesian adverbs of place
Based on their kinds, in English there are prepositional phrase of
place pronounced and written as single words which are actually phrases,
but in Indonesian there is no prepositional phrase in single words.
Based on the conclusion above, the writer would like to give some
suggestion for both the teachers and learners of English, especially in teaching
and learning English adverbs of place.
1. For the teachers
The teacher should give a elear explanation about the rules of usage and
examples of English adverbs of place. They should also be able to predict
can also explain clearly the difference and similarities between English
and Indonesia adverbs of place.
2. For the learners
a. Learning by hearts is one way to avoid errors or difficulties in learning
English, in this case the adverbs of place.
b. The learners must pay attention to the rules of adverbs of place.
c. To solve the problem in learning adverbs of place the learners have to
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Website : www.stainsalatiga.ac.id E-mail email@example.com. id
Dalam rangka penulisan Skripsi Mahasiswa Program Sarjana (S.l). Saudara ditunjuk sebagai Dosen Pembimbing / Asisten Pembimbing Skripsi mahasiswa :
N a m a
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIA ADVERB OF PLACE
Apabila dipandang perlu Saudara diminta mengoreksi tema Skripsi di atas.
Demikian untuk diketahui dan dilaksanakan.
Nama : Muhammad Nur Da’i
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