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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE MARXIST FEMINIST CONCEPT IN THE CHARACTER OF ANNE ELLIOT IN JANE AUSTEN’S PERSUASION AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By SINTA FITRIANI Student Number: 104214010 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 i

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE MARXIST FEMINIST CONCEPT IN THE CHARACTER OF ANNE ELLIOT IN JANE AUSTEN’S PERSUASION AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By SINTA FITRIANI Student Number: 104214010 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 ii

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(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI iv

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(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Don’t you give up Don’t you quit You keep walking You keep trying There is help and happiness ahead It will be alright In the end.. Trust GOD And believe in good things to come.. -Jeffrey R. Holland- vii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Jesus Christ, my Savior, who always strengthens me, so that I can accomplish this thesis. I could not imagine how I could be without His blessings. May His name always be venerated all of the time. I would like to thank A.B Sri Mulyani,M.A.,Ph.D, my advisor, for her guidance, kindness, and support for finishing this thesis. I would also like to thank Ni LuhPutu Rosiandani,S.S.,M.Hum, my co-advisor, for reading my thesis and giving me advices for the improvement of this thesis. I thank all the lecturers of English Letters Department, especially Anna Fitriati S.Pd.,M.Hum, and to all the staff of Faculty of Letter, Sanata Dharma University. To both of my parents, I thank them for supporting me. I could not be happier than being your daughter. I am here and I am belonging to this stage right now is because of you, all of your sacrifices and prayers. No words can explain how grateful I am for having such great parents like you both. I will not disappoint you, mom and dad. To my sisters and my brothers, thank you for your support. Even though you never show your support through words, but I am sure you take your minutes to pray for me. To all my friends of English Letters Department 2010, especially class A, I feel honoured to be part of your life. We start our journey together, until now we are about to separate, to chase our dreams. See you in other chance, guys. Thank you for the memories. To my close friends that I cannot tell one by one, thank you for the viii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI time, the story and sharing moments, the attention, the help, and all of the bittersweet we have spent together. I will not forget you guys, no matter what happens in the world. You mean a lot to me. Special thanks to Putri Riskya and Augustina Kresia, for the laughs, tears, and help, and for encouraging me when I am about to loose hope. Last but not least, to Andrew Nantio Subekti, my sunshine, my vitamin. Thank you for all. I am grateful to have such a wonderful guy on earth like you. You are the best thing that has ever been mine. Finally, to everyone who has helped me these years, thank you… Sinta Fitriani ix

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………………………... APPROVAL PAGE……………………………………………………………. ACCEPTANCE PAGE ……………………………………………………….. LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY………………………………………….. MOTTO PAGE…….…………………………………………………….......... ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...………………………………………………….. TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………....... ABSTRACT...………………………………………………………………….. ABSTRAK...……………………………………………………………………. ii iii iv v vi vii viii x xi xii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ...…………………………………………... A. Background of the Study……………………………………………. B. Problem Formulation ……………………………………….............. C. Objectives of the Study …………………………………………….. D. Definition of Terms ...………………………………………………. 1 1 4 4 4 CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF LITERATURE………………………………. A. Review of Related Study …………………………………………… B. Review of Related Theories ………………………………............... 1. Theory of Character and Characterization ……………………... 2. Theory of Marxist Feminism …………………………………… 3. Review of Social Class in Austen’s Persuasion ……………….. 4. Review of Women’s Status in the late 18th and early 19th Century British Society………………………………………… 5. Review of Class, Title and Ranks in Jane Austen’s Time……… C. Theoretical Framework ……………………………………………. 6 6 9 9 11 13 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY …………………………………………. A. Object of the Study ………………………………………................ B. Approach of the Study……………..……………………………….. C. Method of the Study ………………………………………………... 19 19 19 22 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ………………………………………………… A. The Description of Anne Elliot in Jane Austen’s Persuasion……… 1. Anne Elliot as a Woman………………………………………. 2. Anne Elliot as a Daughter of a Noble Family………………… B. The Marxist Issues Experienced by Anne……………………………. C. The Concept of Marxist Feminism Reflected by Anne…………… 24 24 24 31 34 41 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION……………………………………………...... 48 14 16 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………… 51 x

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT FITRIANI, SINTA. The Marxist Feminist Concept in the Character of Anne Elliot in Jane Austen’s Persuasion. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. This thesis examines the characteristics of the woman character in Persuasion, a classic novel written by Jane Austen, that reflects the concept of Marxist Feminism. It has a close relation with the historical background of the story, which was in the late 18th century to early 19th century, where gender and class were very influential in many aspects in the society. There are three problems. The first problem is about how the character of Anne Elliot is described in Persuasion. The second problem is about how the issue of gender and class related to Marxism at that time is revealed. The last problem is in what way the concept of Marxist Feminism is reflected through Anne Elliot. The method used in this study is library research. The books about literary theories are used to understand the theory that is relevant with the topic of the discussion, especially in this case the theory of character and characterization to reveal Anne Elliot character. Another supporting theory is theory of Marxist Feminism that leads into a further discussion of the topic. Various books about the history of British society in late18th century to early 19th century are also used to get deeper understanding about historical background of British society of that era. The result of the analysis shows that Anne Elliot is an extraordinary figure, attractive, friendly, smart, open-minded, multi-talented, and helpful. Anne is also an introvert, that sometimes she keeps her own feeling. Based on the background of the story which is the late18th century to early 19thcentury British society, the character of Anne reflects the concept of Marxist Feminism in the case of how she deals with problem and how she solves it. Anne looks like she is a frail woman yet actually she is tough and brave. Even though at the beginning she has been persuaded by her relatives, but her maturity of feeling and mind finally help her change the condition where she is forced not to be her own self. The issue that women at that time are considered powerless of making a decision and have to be obedient to the rule of the family and society, does not preclude Anne for struggling to get what she truly wants. Anne who comes from a prominent family whose father has high position in the work, is willing and able to break the rules that oppose relationship of different social status and classes. Anne’s consciousness and power to take a decision finally lead her to her true love and true happiness, without any interference, compulsion, and persuasion from others. xi

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK FITRIANI, SINTA. The Marxist Feminist Concept in the Character of Anne Elliot in Jane Austen’s Persuasion. Yogyakarta: JurusansastraIngggris, FakultasSastra, UniversitasSanata Dharma, 2014. Skripsi ini meneliti tentang karakter tokoh utama wanita dalam novel klasik ciptaan Jane Austen berjudul Persuasion, yang mencerminkan konsep Marxist Feminis. Hal ini sangat erat kaitannya dengan latar belakang sejarah cerita yaitu pada akhir abad ke 18 danawal abad ke 19, dimana jenis kelamin dan strata sosial dalam masyarakat sangat berpengaruh dalam segala aspek kehidupan. Ada tiga pokok permasalahan yang akan diteliti dalam skripsi ini. Permasalahan pertama yang diteliti adalah karakter Anne Elliot. Permasalahan kedua adalah bagaimana permasalahan tentang jenis kelamin dan strata sosial yang dihadapi oleh Anne digambarkan di dalam cerita. Permasalahan terakhir adalah dari segi apakah tokoh Anne Elliot mencerminkan konsep Marxist Feminis. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kepustakaan, yaitu dengan mempelajari buku-buku yang memiliki kaitan dengan topik yang akan dibahas dalam penelitian ini. Oleh Karena itu, metode yang digunakan adalah metode kepustakaan.Buku-buku tentang teori kesusastraan digunakan untuk membantu memahami teori-teori yang relevan dengan topic pembahasan, dalam hal ini khusunya teori karakter untuk meneliti karakterisasi Anne Elliot. Selain teori karakter, teori lain yang mendukung penelitian ini adalah teori Marxist Feminis yang akan menjadi topik pembahasan lebih dalam. Buku-buku tentang pengetahuan dan sejarah juga digunakan untuk memahami lebih dalam mengenai sejarah kehidupan masyarakat Inggris pada sekitar akhir abad ke 18 dan awal abad ke 19. Hasil dari analisis menunjukkan bahwa Anne adalah tokoh yang luarbiasa, menarik, ramah, pandai, berpikiran luas, multi talenta, dan senang membantu. Anne juga memiliki jiwa introvert yang terkadang membuatnya memendam dan menyimpan perasaan untuk diri sendiri. Berdasarkan latar belakang cerita yaitu pada masa akhir abad ke 18 masyarakat Inggris, tokoh Anne mencerminkan konsep Marxist Feminis dalam menghadapi dan menyelesaikan masalah yang terjadi dalam kehidupannya pada saat itu. Anne adalah sosok wanita yang anggun, terlihat lemah namun sejatinya Anne adalah sosok wanita pemberani.Walaupun pada awalnya Anne terbujuk oleh pengaruh dari keluarganya, namun kedewasaan hati dan pikiran Anne pada akhirnya merubah segalanya.Wanita yang pada saat itu dianggap tidak memiliki kuasa apapun untuk mengambil keputusan, bukan menjadi halangan bagi Anne untuk meraih apa yang sejatinya dia inginkan. Anne “mendobrak” peraturan masyarakat yang menentang hubungan berbeda strata atau kelas sosial. Kemampuan Anne dalam mengambil keputusan pada akhirnya akan menuntunnya pada cinta dan kebahagiaan sejati, tanpa ada campur tangan, paksaan, atau bujukan dari pihak lain. xii

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Literary works cannot be apart from characterization. Characters are extremely important because they are the medium through which a reader interacts with a piece of literature. By understanding the character, a reader can become more aware of other aspects of literature and more complete understanding of the work. According to Stanton, character is commonly used in two ways. The first is that character designates the individuals who appear in the story. The second is that character refers to the mixture of interests, desires, emotions, and moral principles that makes up each of these individuals. Character gives a certain situation or circumstance in the story because he or she shows his or her emotions in it (1965:17). In most of her works, Austen revealed the life of woman which is interesting to discuss. One of her works entitled Persuasion, tells about the romance between a couple in different social class that lead them into a complicated love story. Anne Elliot, who comes from a middle class family, feel deeply in love with a handsome young naval officer, Frederick Wentworth, at the age of nineteen. After dating for a few months, they talk about marriage. Wentworth's service in the navy, however, does not give him enough steady 1

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 income or social status to please Anne's family so that Anne is persuaded to break off her engagement with Wentworth. Anne has no other choice except to obey the will of her family. It does not mean that Anne approves that kind of rule, but it is because she understands and respects the position of her family, especially her father. Here, the role of the family is very influential in making decision, especially to choose the marriage partner. By the time Anne realizes that the fact about her past when her decision finally leads her to regret, makes her to be more mature and open minded woman in making the second decision that can influence her life forever. All things that she and Frederick have been through, change Anne’s mindset and perception on how a woman should have the encouragement to take her own decision to get a happiness. By discovering the characteristics of the characters in the novel, it can lead the reader into a deeper understanding of the message that the author wants to deliver, especially through the woman main character, Anne Elliot. Women that at that time remain silent and obedient to the power of men become a discussion for centuries. They cannot express their feelings freely, without oppression by the rule of the family and society. Anne’s father, is described as a person who has a great deal of ambition to preserve the high social class. His vanity for having a position as a Baronet, makes him look down the people whose social class or status is beneath him. That is also one of the reasons he feels insecure when he knows Anne has a

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 relationship with Frederick Wentworth, a man who has no good title which can impress him and the family. By this matter, Anne’s position as a daughter and as a woman is considered. Jane Austen’s novels, including Persuasion revealed about the life of women in late 18th to 19th era. Since the discussion on women at that era is interesting to discuss, the character of Anne Elliot here can also give another opinion of what women should do to make a better life, and how women can deal with their conscience and the society that shapes them. It emphasizes the power of women through literary works that the writer wants to analyze. In Jane Austen’s Persuasion, the economic issue is seen as another aspect that bring enormous influence towards the main character’s life. As W.H. Auden’s statement which is included in the introduction part of the novel: “You could not shock her more than she shocks me; Beside her Joyce seems innocent as grass. It makes me most uncomfortable to see an English spinster of the middle class describe the amorous effects of the “brass”, reveal so frankly and with such sobriety the economic basis of society” (Auden, 2003: xiii). Related to the era of the story when women still behind control of class and economic status to choose their mate or partner, it is very strong evidence that the character of Anne Elliot shows the spirit of feminism, in this case Marxist feminism.

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 B. Problem Formulation In order to make a clear and organized discussion, the writer has formulated the problems as follows : 1. How is Anne Elliot described in Persuasion in relation to her gender and class status? 2. What issue of Marxist is experienced by Anne on Persuasion? 3. How does the character of Anne reflect the concept of Marxist Feminism? C. Objective of the Study The objective of the study is to answer the questions mentioned in the problem formulation above and to identify the woman major character Anne Elliot, in Jane Austen’s novel Persuasion. From the character itself, the writer also tries to explain the way Anne Elliot is making decision. Anne Elliot encourages herself to change the “old” rules and seek for her true love to get a happier life. Through the change of mindset, she braves to take a decision on her own, no interference from family or other people. It has a close relation with the spirit of feminism that the writer wants to reveal through the character of Anne Elliot. D. Definition of Terms In the part of Catharine A. MacKinnon’s book SIGN (Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: An Agenda for Theory), Marxism and Feminism are

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 explained as the theories of power and its distribution: inequality. “They provide accounts of how social arrangement of patterned disparity can be internally rational yet unjust. Their specificity is not incidental. In Marxism to be deprived of one’s work, in feminism of one’s sexuality, defines each one’s conception of lack of power per se” (MacKinnon, 1982: 516). This is the most important terms that need to be defined so that the readers can get the idea or concept of Marxist feminism that the writer wants to discuss further.

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies This discussion is not the only one that discusses Jane Austen’s Persuasion. The topic of the study is diffrent, but there are other people who have done the same topic in the previous years. To make this discussion complete, the writer found other findings on the same object. This chapter provides some related studies on previous findings about Persuasion with the topic that is discussed. A thesis entitled “The Portrait of Ideal Woman in Early 19th Century British Society as Seen in Anne Elliot in Jane Austen’s Persuasion” by Selly Handayani portrays Anne Elliot’s life as a woman of 19th century British society. She explains that the society expected an ideal woman to have good behavior, able to fulfill the expectations of her society, maintain the traditional value of domesticity, and have no weaknesses as the figure to look up to in the society. “Anne Elliot bears a lot of good behaviors. She also has fulfilled one of her society expectations, which was to marry a suitable match for her. This is proved when Anne broke her engagement with Wentworth, a man she really loves, but from the society’s point of view was not suitable for her” (2003:8). Selly examines the characters of Anne to reveal the concept from the society about the criteria of an ideal woman at that time. Anne is, indeed, an ideal 6

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 figure of woman at that time since she is the daughter of noble person, and she has good manners and attitudes. However, the writer wants to analyze further than that. The writer figures out that the fact that Anne fulfilled the expectation of the society is not the end, since in the end of the story, Anne changes her mind to decide Wentworth as her partner of life. Another related study is Elizabeth Kollman’s thesis entitled Jane Austen Re-visited: A Feminist Evaluation of the Longevity and Relevance of the Austen Oeuvre reviews feminism in Jane Austen’s works, including Persuasion. In her thesis, Kollman states : Austen does not necessarily express the wish to eradicate forms of power or oppression in her novels. Yet, if we read her work from a feminist point of view, we are made aware of the social construction of power. From her fiction we can infer that male power is enshrined in the very structure of society, and this makes us aware of women’s lack of power in her time (dspace.nmmu.ac.za, 2014). Kollman thesis also shows that Austen’s novels, however, are not merely novels of powerlessness but of empowerment. By creating rounded women characters and by giving them the power to judge, to refuse and to write, Austen challenges the stereotyped view of woman as weak and fragile angel. In addition, her novels seem to question women’s inherited identity and to suggest that qualities such as emotionality and mothering are not natural aspects of being a woman. Another criticism concerning Austen’s Persuasion entitled Jane Austen, Persuasion, and the Pursuit of Happiness written by Claire Eileen

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 Tarlson. She analyzes Austen works, Persuasion compared with Pride and Prejudice to examine the female character of each story, related to the spirit of feminism. The contextual frameworks for both of Jane Austen's novels Pride and Prejudice and Persuasion are so similar but the difference is, they have different way to characterize the heroines. In Persuasion, Anne finally chooses Frederick as her true love despite of the social class and economic reason. It happens because Anne considers her own emotion, her own feeling, not because based on certain standards. The similarities juxtaposed with a discernible shift in the qualities of the heroine strongly suggest that Anne Elliot is a reworking of Elizabeth Bennet, and that the purpose of Persuasion is to reinvent Pride and Prejudice. This reinvention shows Austen's reconsideration of the value and motives of marriage and gives even more intellectual and emotional credit to Persuasion's heroine (www.lurj.org, 2013). From the criticisms above, the character of Anne Elliot is seen as the important element in the story. Those previous discussions portray Anne’s life as a figure of an ideal woman in late 18th century British society when social system was really fierce. Women had to be obedient due to the society’s prosecution. Other related studies come from Therese Andersson on her essay “The Importance of Class and Money-A Marxist Analysis of Jane Austen’s Persuasion”. She discusses the same topic and theory with the writer, but the difference is, in her essay, Andersson highlights the view of Marxist analysis through the character of Sir Walter Elliot, Elizabeth Elliot, and William Elliot. By

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 examining those characters, her explanations show more about the issue of Marxist rather than of Feminist. On the other hand, the writer tries to comprehend the issue of Marxist in the scope of Feminism, through the character of Anne Elliot. Besides evaluating Marxist analysis through some characters, Andersson also explains about Jane Austen and her era to give more information and understanding of the discussion related to the Austen social-historical background. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theory of Character M.H Abrams defines character as the person presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and disposition qualities that are expressed in what they say- the dialogue- and by what they do- the action (Abrams,1981: 20-21). While according to Henkle, characters can also be described as “major” and “secondary” ones. Major characters are the most significant characters in a novel. They can be identified through the complexity of their characterization, the attention given certain figures, and the personal intensity that a character seems to transmit. The major character will completely need our fullest attention because they perform ‘a key structural function’. Through their existence, we built expectations and desires that, in modification, shift or establish our values. Hence,

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 the ability of the major character in expressing and dramatizing the human issues of the novel will determine its effectiveness. (Henkle, 1997: 87-101) 2. Theory of Characterization Characterization is the creation of imaginary persons so that they exist for the readers as a lifelike (Holman and Harmon, 1985: 81). There are three fundamental way characterizations in fiction according to Holman and Harmon : a. The explicit presentation by the author of the character to direct exposition, either in introductory block or more over piecemeal throughout the work, illustrated by the action. b. The presentation of the character in action with little or no explicit comment by the author, in the expectation that the reader will be able to deduce the attribute of the actor from the actions. c. The presentation from within character, without comment on the character by the author, of the impact of actions and emotions on the character’s inner self, with the expectation that the reader will come to clear understanding of the attributes of the character. (1985: 81) 3. Theory of Marxist Feminism Based on the book Beginning Theory by Peter Barry, Marxist criticism analyzes the difference of class and evaluate on how the differences bring effects

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 to the society. It actually has a close relation with the economical problem since economic cannot be apart from the class levels. Marxist criticism refers to Marxist theory that sees progress as coming about through the struggle for power between different social classes. This view of history as class struggle regards it as ‘motored’ by the competition for economic, social, and political advantage. The exploitation of one social class by another is seen especially in modern industrial capitalism, particularly in its unrestricted 19th century form (Barry, 2002: 157). In this discussion, the theory of Marxist that is applied is the part of superstructure model of Marxist, which contains the cultural world of ideas, art, religion, law, and so on. In this point, Barry also explains that “the essential Marxist view is that the latter things are not innocent, but are determined (or shaped) by the nature of the economic base” (Barry, 2002: 158). This belief is the central part of traditional Marxist thinking, known as economic determinism. In addition, the writer’s social class and ideology have a big contribution to the work. So the context of the work is related to the social-class status of the author. According to Karl Marx, the main idea of Marxism is that “instead of making abstract affirmations about a whole group of problems such as man, knowledge, matter, and nature, he examines each problem in its dynamic relation to the others and, above all, tries to relate them to historical, social, political, and economic realities”. Marxist literary criticism sees art cannot be separated from the society. It influences each other and related one another. And the concern of Marxist literary criticism is the relationship between the economy and the literature.

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 The first thing that one needs to do in order to do a Marxist analysis is then, according to Eagleton, “to understand the complex, indirect relations between works (of art) and the ideological worlds they inhabit” (2002: 6). It has connection with what Haslett states that “art is social because it is produced and received in concrete contexts, and because the creator is someone with a class, gender and racial identity, the author is, unavoidably, part of her own context” (Haslett, 2000: 8). Marxist actually discusses not only in one aspect, but also many other aspects and relate them in one scope of theory. Marxist literary theories are not homogenous, and there is no one way to do a Marxist analysis, but all approaches have in common that they try both to convey the relationship between literature and society and to challenge the separation which this relationship entails. Literature is situated within the larger parameters of social, economical and cultural history, effectively erasing the division between ‘literary’ and ‘cultural’ theory (Haslett, 2000: 9-10). Marxist critics also claim that the aspects that we accept as characteristics of a certain age, are only expressions of the class that dominated during that period of time. Art or literature produced in a certain environment is ideological, signifying the class conflicts at work at the time, and it is the job of the Marxist analyst to show these conflicts as they are portrayed in the text. Marxist criticism also tries to create what it believes is “progressive political and social change”, the final goal generally being a classless society (Childers and Hentzi, 1995: 175-176).

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 While Marxist discuss about the social structure where class and society become the basic issue, Feminism mostly discuss about the problem of women’s inequality in society. C. Review of Social Class in Jane Austen’s Persuasion In the introduction part of Austen’s work Persuasion, Susan O. Weisser (2003) reviews Persuasion as showing the obsession with hierarchical rankings of value, both social and moral. Concerning the story that takes place in late 18th to 19th century and Austen social background, the story emphasizes the oppression on women at that time in terms of class, gender, and work. The readers are made intensely aware not only of shades of dominance in class, but of discriminations between the value of old and young, married and unmarried, sons and daughters, older sisters and younger, the respectable and the vulgar, and of the frequent arbitrariness of these unearned distinctions of worth and power. “The titled are often fools, vain, pompous, deluded by self-love and selfimportance, all of which implies that the author seeks ironic distance from a world that makes class distinctions in particular the barometer of personal worth” (Weisser, 2003). The fact already seen is that class is an important part of the society. Sir Walter Elliot is obsessed with his social status. Therefore, he obliges Anne to choose the suitable partner for the marriage, because the status of the family can be determined by the marriage partner of the daughter. In other word, the social status

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 of a family or a woman depends on the status of her husband. The connections (connexions) in the upper classes are also regarded as an important thing. D. Review of Women’s Status in the Late 18th and Early 19th Century British Society According to Stone, in terms of power to make a match, four basic options were available in the 18th century society. The first is that the choice was made entirely by parents, kin and family friends, without the advice or consent of the bride or groom. The second option is that the choice was also made by parents before but the children are granted a right of veto, to be exercised on the basis of one or two formal interviews which took place after the two sets of parents and kin had agreed on the match. This right could be exercised only once or twice and tends to be more readily concerned to the groom than to the bride. The third option, made necessary by the rise of individualism, was that choice was made by children themselves, on the understanding that children will make it from a family of more or less equal financial and status position and the parent have the right of veto. The fourth option, which was very rare in the eighteenth century, especially among upper classes, was that the children made their own choice, and merely informed their parents of their decision (Stone,1990:181-182). Young women could be controlled more easily because of their rather passive role in a courtship and their marriages ensured their economic security. Daughters were in a weak position because their only future lay in a marriage. Sometimes the manoeuvres to marry off a daughter, especially in upper class circles in late eighteenth century, turned into a desperate man-hunt. (Dobosiova, 2006: 24)

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 Women’s status and position in the late 18th century is depicted as powerless and have no authority, especially for those who come from upper and middle class family, to choose the marriage partner freely despite of the social rank or status. Wollstonecraft states in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: “They (women) are regarded as weak creatures dependent on men to whom they are obliged to look for protection, advice, and every comfort; they still have no power over themselves” (1975: 131-133). Yet in the early 19th century, the equal liberty of women start appears. Tong restates John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor’s idea that “if society is to achieve sexual equality, or gender justice, then society must provide women with the same political rights and economic opportunities as well as the same education that men enjoy” (2009: 16). Tong also restates the statement of “using your head to get what you want”. Women are not only assumed as silent object or instrument to get something that can bring advantage to men. “Mill and Taylor claimed the ordinary way to maximize aggregate utility (happiness or pleasure) is to permit individuals to pursue their desires, provided the individuals do not hinder or obstruct each other in the process” (Tong, 2009: 16). From the review above, the condition of women in the society in late 18th and early 19th century are clearly explained. The development of the era also brings an influence toward the development of women status.

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 E. Review of Class, Title and Rank in Jane Austen’s Time During the time of Jane Austen’s life, class is part of the everyday life. The phenomenon drives Austen to observe how it works in the society and then she writes it in her novels. Copeland and McMaster state that “her (Austen) novels should show people in their social roles, and be precise about the differences between them” (1997: 128). In addition, Copeland and McMaster explain that “in Austen’s world, social status was always pertinent, but people were to be judged by standards higher and more durable than this” (Copeland and McMaster, 1997: 129). Moreover, the social status is perceptible for women in upper and middle class. Women at that time are supposed to take their status in society from their husbands. On top of the social ladder in Jane Austen’s time is, of course, the Royal Family. Below Royalty is what is known as the Peerage, a system of titles and nobility and a part of the British honours system. The highest title in the Peerage is Duke and Duchess, under which are four titles: highest is Marquis and Marquise, then comes Earl and Countess, after that Viscount and Viscountess, and finally Baron and Baroness (janeausten.co.uk, 2014). Here we can see such hierarchical power which exists at that time. The level of rank determines people for belonging to certain classes and who they will socialize with. A Baronetcy can be inherited by a male heir. The heir then become Baronet, but was before this not given any special title, nor were the other children of the Baronet. The wife of the Baronet is called Lady. A woman could be a ‘Lady’ by birth, as the daughter of an Earl, or she could achieve the title by marrying a Baronet or a Knight. If she had the title by birth, she would maintain it regardless of the status of her husband, whereas if she gained the title by marriage, she would lose it if she chose to remarry a ‘Mr’ (Copeland and McMaster, 1997: 116-117).

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 F. Theoretical Framework To support the analysis, the writer applies the theory of character and characterization to reveal Anne’s Elliot character in Jane Austen’s Persuasion. Anne’s actions, dialogues, thought, and experiences are examined in order to get deeper understanding of the character , which is related to the concept of Marxist Feminism. To show the concept of Marxist feminism which is presented by the character of Anne Elliot, the theory of Marxist Feminism is needed. Concerning the period when the story happened, the social class was very influential in every aspects of life, and the patriarchal system in the family was very strong. Feminists pointed out that in late 18th and early 19th century fiction very few women work for a living, unless they are driven to it by dire necessity. Instead, the focus of interest is on the heroine’s choice of marriage partner which will decide her ultimate social position and exclusively determine her happiness and fulfillment in life. In the story, the character of Anne reflects the issue of gender and class in the society. Through her thoughts, utterances, and attitudes, Anne shows how she is dealing with the issue and how she finally solves the problem. Anne who is used to be persuaded to brake off her engagement with Frederick Wentworth, realizes that woman should not be restrained by the rules of family and society, that power, class, and social status do matter in determining someone’s happiness in life. Women have freedom to choose her partner despite of the differences in class and women are proper to have the same right as men.

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 The relation between Anne’s characteristics and the problem that she faces, shows that Anne Elliot reflects the concept of feminism, especially Marxist feminism.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of the study in this analysis isPersuasionby Jane Austen. The novel consists of 249 pages, and divided into 24 chapters. Persuasion is Jane Austen’s last completed novel, yet it does not appear until 1818, after she passed away. It is also shorter than most of her other novels. Persuasion is actually a novel that is made by Austen to criticize the condition of Austen’s time, especially about social class in the form of love story. Since Austen writes realistic novels, the background of the story of Persuasion takes place in Bath, a fashionable health resort which Jane Austen was well acquainted and has lived there from 1801 to 1805. In 1995, Persuasion and three other Austen’s novels: Emma, Sense and Sensibility, and Pride and Prejudice are made into films. Persuasion film is produced by BBC’s lavish production with Roger Michell as the director, and it is the most challenging to adapt into film since it deals primarily with an unspoken psychology of love. B. Approach of the Study In conducting the analysis, the writer uses Marxist feminist approach. The reason of the writer chooses this approach is because the writer wants to highlight 19

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 the woman main character, Anne Elliot when (at that time) dealing with social class, gender and the power of patriarchal family that oppressed her too seek her happiness and freedom to take decision. By analyzing this problem, the writer wants to discover the spirit of feminism reflected by Anne Elliot. In the story, the existence of patriarchal family is very strong since Anne’s father who has a high position in the family, rules every matter. Almost all of the decisions and ideas are based on economical power in the society. As Frederick Engels states in Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State(1942), Communal, matrilineal societies were violently replaced with patriarchal societies in which individual wealth and private property were key (patriarchal, profit-driven societies became dominant by conquest and colonialism, though remnants of matrilineal culture survived in tribal societies throughout the world). From a position of early leadership and respect, women became powerless domestic slaves (http://www.feministezine.com/feminist/philosophy/Introduction-toMarxist-Feminism.html). Women become domestic slaves here means that women can only be appreciated on domestic works and have to obey the rule of the men as the holder of the authority in work and household. In other sources, Engels also states, Women loose power when private property comes into existence as a mode of production. Men's control of private property, and the ability thereby to generate a surplus, changes the family form to a patriarchal one where women, and often slaves, become the property of the father and husband (plato.stanford.edu). In Feminist Thought, Rosemarie Tong emphasizes that Marxist feminism enable women to express what they want freely, that women always become a ‘victim’ of the ones who have an authority. “Marxist feminists claim it is

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 impossible for anyone, especially women, to achieve true freedom in a classbased society, where the wealth produced by the powerless many ends up in the hands of the powerful few” (Tong, 2009: 4). Also on the same part of the book, Tong restates what Friedrich Engels suggested. Marxist feminists insist women’s oppression originated in the introduction of private property, an institution that obliterated whatever equality of community humans had previously enjoyed. Private ownership of the means of production by relatively few persons, originally all male, inaugurated a class system whose contemporary manifestations are corporate capitalism and imperialism (2009: 4). Based on Feminist Theory and Literary Practice, Deborah L. Madsen, states that “Marxist feminism is organized around the basic conflicts between capitalism versus patriarchy and class versus gender oppression. Marxist feminism combines the study of class with the analysis of gender” (Madsen, 2000: 65). It examines the injustice of gender caused by the issue of class. Another supporting idea about this theory is by Lilian S. Robinson who states “…that the focus of Marxist feminist is the relationship between class and gender oppression and the structural elements that determine the quality and nature of our experience as gendered beings” (Robinson,1978: 75). Here the scope of the analysis is more specific. The oppression of gender, especially which is experienced by women is closely related with the class system that exist in certain place and society, and Marxist Feminism focuses on that issue. On Women’s Oppression Today: the Problem in Marxist Analysis, Michele Barrett also stated that “In Marxist feminism the concept of patriarchy is

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 not in terms of the biological basis of power relations but in terms of class analysis, to allow a more properly materialist understanding of women’s oppression” (1980: 70). The approach is used to give a further understanding to get the idea of Marxist feminism that applied on literary work and to analyze the topic of this discussion. C. Method of the Study The study was conducted based on written source from books and articles. The writer also gets supporting information by some journals and articles from the internet. Therefore, the type of the study was library research. The main source of the study was the novel titled Persuasion by Jane Austen. While the secondary sources were books and articles regarding Jane Austen’s works, and other books or articles about the related studies and related theories. There are some steps taken in analyzing the novel. The first step is reading the novel to examine the woman main character, Anne Elliot, and to get the idea of how the character is characterized in the novel. By reading the novel, the writer also tries to understand the content of the work to prevent wrong comprehension about the character that the writer wants to analyze. The second step is studying the social and historical background of the society in which the major character lives to understand about the culture of the society that

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 exists at that time. Then the analysis would pay attention at the women’s life in the society in late 18th and early 19th century British society. The third step is finding and examining some theories that are suitable with the topic that the writer wants to discuss. The theory of character and characterization are used by the writer to analyze further about the character, especially woman main character in the novel in order to answer the first problem formulations. The review of social and historical background of 18th and 19th century is also examined by the writer to answer the second problem formulation. This review can be related through the concept of Marxist Feminist that will be discussed on the next problem. The writer is studying the theory of Feminism to identify what kind of approach of Feminism that the writer wants to highlight from the character of Anne. This theory of Feminism, especially Marxist Feminism is used to answer the third problem formulation.

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS A. The Description of Anne Elliot in Jane Austen’s Persuasion 1. Anne Elliot as a Woman in the Society Anne has attractive performance and personality. A woman is usually acknowledged by her outer and inner beauty, and Anne has those criteria. Her inner beauty is actually something that is hard to find in women in general. “Anne, an extremely pretty girl, with gentleness, modesty, taste, and feeling” (IV:25). These characteristics might be the reasons why Frederick Wentworth can feel deeply in love with her. While Frederick himself, is a remarkably fine young man, with a great deal of intelligence and spirit, even though his social status is lower than Anne. After Anne off to Uppercross, she gets a new experience, new atmosphere, meets a lot of people, but she is the kind of woman who can adjust herself easily. She does not mind to associate with anybody without mind about their age, their rank, and so on. Anne, the figure of sweet mind and nice behavior, cannot disappear from people’s mind from the very beginning they met Anne. “She was always on friendly terms with her brother-in-law; and in the children, who loved her nearly as well, and respected her a great deal more than their mother, she had an object of interest amusement, and wholesome exertion” (VI:41). The character of Anne here is very amiable and she is loved by people around her. 24

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 However, behind her warm and friendly character, Anne actually has another side of herself that is private and introvert. She likes playing music, especially piano. Sometimes she expresses her feeling, her emotion, and her loneliness through music. “She knew that when she played she was giving pleasure only to herself; …In music she had been always used to feel alone in the world” (VI:44-45). Even though nothing seems worry to her, but inside, Anne is a lonely girl, that since the age of fourteen loss the figure of her dear mother, never known the happiness of being listened to, or encouraged by any just appreciation. She ‘enjoys’ her loneliness through music. Music is a part of Anne’s life. Even though her life is not as cheerful as the music, but she can bring joy and pleasure to everybody who listens to her music. Like when Anne comes to the party at the Great House, she plays a country dance by piano and she draws compliments. “Well done, Miss Anne! Very well done indeed! Lord bless me! How those little fingers of yours fly about!” (VI:45). From her skill on playing such a great music, Anne can be characterized as a talented woman. Anne is completed with an open-minded character. Her open-mindedness can be seen through her point of view about equality. She thinks that people are equal regardless of their job. “The navy, I think, who have done so much for us, have at least an equal claim with any other set of men, for all the comforts and all the privileges which any home can give. Sailors work hard enough for their comforts, we must all allow” (III:19). The social status of her father as a baronet, makes her family think that the navy have no good fortunes for them. But Anne has different

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 perception about that. Unfortunately, this point is something that finally will lead Anne into a dilemma. That perception about the equality on work can be reflected through Anne’s experience. She felt deeply in love with Frederick Wentworth, a young naval officer, which is unfortunately rejected by Anne’s family. Anne accepts Wentworth just the way he is, and she just does not care about the inequality between them. “Anne Elliot, with all her claims of birth, beauty, and mind, to throw herself away at nineteen; involve herself at nineteen in an engagement with a young man, who had nothing but himself, to recommend him, and no hopes of attaining affluence, but in the chances of a most uncertain profession….”(IV:25-26) The figure of Anne is a woman with pure heart and mind. She conforms to other people from any grades, any social ranks, or even any ages. That is the reason why she can be accepted by everybody. When Anne, Charles, and Mary want to attend a party held by The Musgroves, suddenly an unexpected accident happens. Little Charles, the son of Mary and Charles Hayter, got an injury and had to be kept in bed. Whereas, Charles and Mary really want to go to that party and meet the other relatives that night. Anne hereafter, by her own proposal, undertakes to stay with little Charles, to take care and nurse him. She says to Mary, “Well, if you don’t think it too late to give notice for yourself, suppose you were to go, as well as your husband. Leave little Charles to my care. Mr. and Mrs. Musgrove cannot think it wrong, while I remain with him” (VII:55). Anne’s consideration makes Mary affected. She looks at Anne with brightening eyes, and said,”An excellent thought of

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 yours, indeed, Anne” (VII:55). Even Charles, her husband thanked Anne’s sincerity and kindness. From here, Anne reflects the characteristic of being kind and sincere. Besides that, she is also a caring person and good in nursing. The same thing happens when Louisa fell from the high part of the new Cobb. Her eyes are closed and she does not breath, her face was like a death. Anne is really responsive in such condition. She knows what to do to help Louisa. “Rub her hands, rub her temples; here are salts, take them.” (XII:105). Anne’s proficiency is really needed and trusted. In such urgent and tense situation, Charles and Wentworth for many times asking Anne for what they have to do to help Louisa. Charles cried,”Anne, Anne, what is to be done next? What, in heaven’s name, is to be done next?” (XII:106). In this case, it is very clear that Anne is very helpful and capable of handling everything. For the many times, she becomes a guardian angel for people around her. Besides, Anne is also a trustworthy person. People believe that Anne is right in doing anything and people believe on what she says. Even Wentworth admits: “If Anne will stay, no one so proper, so capable as Anne!” (XII:109). Every woman has her own beauty and what is called sex appeal. A woman can be described as a perfect creature of God if she is beautiful both of her heart and behavior. In chapter 12, it is explained when Mr.Elliot sees Anne for the first time, he admires Anne and likes her for the very first sight. Anne’s performance is beautiful. It is states that it is easy for gentlemen to be attracted to Anne.

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 “Anne’s face caught his eye, and he looked at her with a degree of earnest admiration, which she could not be insensible of. She was looking remarkably well; her very regular, very pretty features, having the bloom and freshness of youth restored by the fine wind which had been blowing on her complexion, and by the animation of eye which it had also produced. It was evident that the gentleman, (completely a gentleman in manner) admired her exceedingly” (XII:100). In this novel, Anne can be described as a perfect figure of woman, because besides she is full of benevolent, she also has attractive appearance which can attract people, especially man who sees her. With her gentleness of heart and great presentation, Anne is described as a lovable person. Besides Mr. Elliot, there is also Captain Benwick, a friend of Frederick Wentworth, who admits Anne as an ideal figure of woman. Charles, who is hearing Captain Benwick tells about Anne, extend the information of what have been said by Captain Benwick about Anne to Mary and Lady Russell. “Elegance, sweetness, beauty. Oh! There was no end of Miss Elliot’s charms” (XIV:123). From here, it can be seen that the character of Anne Elliot is admirable. Her nature gains attention from every body, and her genuineness of heart and thought are worth admired. Gentlemen such Captain Wentworth, Mr. Elliot, and Captain Benwick acknowledge the meaning of real beauty from the figure of Anne. Related to that point, Captain Wentworth, after dealing with his dilemma, whether to show her feeling or to stay away from Anne because of the pain from the past, finally confesses that he cannot forget Anne as the one who cannot be replaced by another woman. It means that Anne is irreplaceable. In chapter 23, it is explained that Wentworth sends a letter to Anne, express his feeling and his confession.

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 “…You pierce my soul. I am half agony, half hope. Tell me not that I am too late, that such precious feelings are gone for ever. I offer myself to you again with a heart even more your own, than when you almost broke it eight years and a half ago. Dare not to say that man forgets sooner than woman, that his love has an earlier death. I have loved none but you. Unjust I may have been, weak and resentful I have been, but never inconstant. You alone have brought me to Bath. For you alone I think and plan. Have you not seen this? Can you fail to have understood my wishes? I had not waited even these ten days, could I have read your feelings, as I think you must have penetrated mine. I can hardly write. I am every instant hearing something which overpowers me. You sink your voice, but I can distinguish the tones of that voice, when they would be lost on others. Too good, too excellent creature! You do us justice indeed. You do believe that there is true attachment and constancy among men. Believe it to be most fervent, most undeviating in” (XXIII:224). When Anne moves to Lyme and stay with The Musgroves, she has done many things to make The Musgroves feel impressed. Anne brings such a different atmosphere to them. The presence of Anne among them is like bearing blessings. “But Mrs.Musgrove, who got Anne near her on purpose to thank her most cordially, again and again, for all her attention to them, concluded a short recapitulation of what she had suffered herself, by observing, with a happy glance round the room, that after all she had gone through, nothing was so likely to do her good as a little quiet cheerfulness at home” (XIV:126). Anne, with her gentle manner, always tries to make people around her feel affection. Her caring for people can be seen naturally through her actions. People feel blessed with her presence. “Anne, attending with all the strength and zeal, and thought, which instinct supplied, to Henrietta, still tried, at intervals, to suggest comfort to the others, tried to quiet Mary, to animate Charles, to assuage the feelings of Captain Wentworth” (XII:106). The character of Anne is different with any other Austen’s woman characters. Austen presents Anne as a woman who shows her passions and resignation to every

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 situation rather than complaining about to become a “victim” of injustice. The “escape” is not shown in an aggressive attitude yet more in the way of feelings and thoughts. Anne can be seen as having qualities that reflect her self-esteem toward woman existence. She realizes the requirements of the society on how the woman is expected to be yet in her silence feeling, she thinks and speaks a lot in mind. Anne was nineteen when she was persuaded to break off the engagement with Wentworth, but by the time flies, she grows as twenty seven year old woman who has a lot of experiences. She becomes mature and wise. The pain of the past and limitation that she experienced, have something to teach her. Her maturity can be seen when she is not angry and put the blame on Lady Russell for persuading her breaking off the engagement, but she tries to look deeper on something positive she can get from what has happened. The first decision of Anne when she obeys to break off the engagement is evidently not all a mistake. Even though Anne has been persuaded to keep her family’s reputation, while actually it turns out that it misguides her, she always keeps a little space in mind to question about right and wrong, and to accept the reality or, conversely, escape from it. In the end, Anne’s independent mind leads her to something big in her life that become the starting way to pursue the real value of happiness and freedom. For women at that time, who cannot speak their mind because of the repression of the society rules, Anne’s courage is something that worth to be proud of.

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 2. Anne Elliot as a Daughter of a Noble Family Anne Elliot is one of woman characters of Persuasion. The condition and situation of her family makes her lose the purity of adolescence while it obliges her to fulfill some adjustments that lead her into a bridle. From the issue experienced by Anne, she is depicted as the unhappy character yet in the end, she is the happiest one. The story tells Anne’s condition since her mother, Lady Elliot, passed away, then she and her sisters are raised by their father. It is explained that their father, Sir Walter Elliot is unwise and uphold the pride of being a noble. His status as a baronet, which is considered as a high position job, gives him such kind of authority to conduct. The baronetcy brings him an endless pride and vanity. With a strong role of her father in the family, it is understandable that the daughter must obey the father’s will no matter what in order to maintain the rank and status of the family. Such rule not only exists in the family, but also in the society where they live. Therefore, people have understood the social order of the society, of what women should and should not do. While Anne lives in such family and society, she is extraordinary. Anne is depicted as the figure of an ideal woman. “…but Anne, with an elegance of mind and sweetness of character, which must have placed her high with any people of real understanding, was nobody with either father or sister: her word had no weight; her convenience was always to give way; she was only Anne” (I: 5). For a people who belongs to a high social class family, Anne qualities are noted different with her

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 family. She does not only concern on the class, the wealth, and rules. She understands her position in the family, but she also remembers her nature as a woman. That is why her gentle manner is acknowledged by people. To Lady Russell, a best friend of Anne’s dear mother, instead of Elizabeth and Mary, it is only Anne who has similarities with her mother. “To Lady Russell, indeed, she was a most dear and highly valued god-daughter, favourite and friend. Lady Russell loved them all; but it was only in Anne that she could fancy the mother to revive again” (I: 5). Trouble soon arose when Sir Walter finds out that her daughter, Anne, is acquainted and engaged with an “ordinary” man, Frederick Wentworth. Anne and Wentworth do not have their relationship accepted by Sir Walter. For Sir Walter, it is such a degrading alliance if her daughter married Wentworth. “Sir Walter, on being applied to, without actually withholding his consent, or saying it should never be, gave it all the negative of great astonishment, great coldness, great silence, and a professed resolution of doing nothing for his daughter” (IV:25). Despite of her families’ perspective about Wentworth and his career as a navy, Anne with her gentle manner and elegant mind, accept Frederick as her love. She is different, indeed, in case of her behavior as a daughter of a baronet, but she chooses to live humble yet still, in an elegant way. She does not care about rank or social status in the society, including Wentworth’s status. “Captain Wentworth had no fortune. He had been lucky in his profession, but spending freely, what had come freely, had realized nothing. But, he was confident that he should soon be rich; full of life and ardour, he knew that he

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 should soon have a ship, and soon be on a station that would lead to everything he wanted. He had always been lucky; he knew he should be so still. Such confidence, powerful in its own warmth, and bewitching in the wit which often expressed it, must have been enough for Anne” (IV:26). Even after Anne is persuaded by Lady Russell, a relative of her parents, to break off the engagement with Wentworth, she still cares about him. She knows that it hurts, but her feeling never lie. Anne is kind of loyal person in relationship. She cannot resist her saddest feeling when says to herself: “He has not, perhaps, a more sorrowing heart than I have. I cannot believe his prospects so blighted for ever. He is younger than I am, younger in feeling, if not in fact, younger as a man. He will rally again, and be happy with another” (XI:93). That statement can be understood that Anne becomes weak after Wentworth’s leaving and it shows Anne’s lamentation after losing someone she loves. It is clearly seen that Anne shows her courage through the way she against her father’s arrogance and opposes the law of the family that wealth and social status is the most important aspects in life. Anne understands that her status as a member of the upper class obliges her to marry a suitable partner based on the requirements of her family. She is conscious of the social structure that exists in the environment where she lives but it does not mean that she can deal with it wholeheartedly. Therefore, it can be understood that the reason Anne accepts to break off with Frederick is because she realizes her position as a daughter of noble person and understands what her family expects from her. Anne, in her young age, does not know yet about conspiracy of the connection of noble person to increase wealth and

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 land, she only wants to materialize her responsibility as a daughter and sacrifices her own feeling. B. The Marxist Issues Experienced by Anne On the introduction part of the novel, W.H. Auden paraphrases the issue contains in the novel in a short poem: …. An English spinster of the middle class Describe the amorous effects of “brass” Reveal so frankly and with such sobriety The economic basis of society The novel Persuasion is described with the historical background of early 19th century British society, where the power of social class, job, and economic status are very crucial and influential at that time. People from the upper class do not want to be associated with people from lower class. It really stick with the idea where people just mainly considering about power and wealth. Besides, as the job that mostly be done by man, patriarchal system at that era did exist, especially in the family rules. Men (especially father) have a strong authority for taking decisions, while women do not have authority or even chance to against the authority due to the condition where class is the main thing that has to be maintained. Anne who came from upper class family, a daughter of a baronet, could not get a freedom to choose her own decisions. The oppression from the society that women have certain rules to do, sent her into a dilemma.

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 In the perspective of Anne’s family, connexions (connections) is the important thing for those who belong to a noble class. That is why Anne’s family rejected the relationship between Anne and Frederick while they are about to marry because they judge Wentworth as a navy cannot bring a fortune to the family. She (Anne) involves herself at nineteen in an engagement with a young man, who has nothing but himself to recommend him, and no hopes of attaining affluence, but in the chances of a most uncertain profession, and no connexions to secure even his farther rise in that profession, would be, indeed, a throwing away, which she grieved to think of (IV:26). Anne, who has no power and authority in the family, has to do the will of the family since she realizes her position as a daughter of a baronet. Besides, Anne will be noted to live in a “grief” since if she married Wentworth, she will live in a family which the social class and status is considered beneath from her family’s. Anne Elliot, so young , known to so few, to be snatched off by a stranger without alliance or fortune, or rather sunk by him into a state of most wearing, anxious, youth-killing dependance! It must not be, if by any fair interference of friendship, any representations from one who had almost a mother’s love, and mother’s rights, it would be prevented (IV:26). In the introduction part of the novel, it is stated that when the plot moves Anne and her family to Bath, where people and places and habits and speech are constantly classified, she is exposed to limitations in the society with its sharp social distinctions and fine gradations of who stays where and appears with whom. It shows a strong system of classification, through a range of discriminations among lovers, friends, relations, levels of income, taste in art, fashions, etc (Weisser, 2003:xxxv).

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 The gender differences in the novel are due to economics (women cannot earn their living, while the men can, which gives them more power and mobility) and women's inability to escape their families (they must be daughters until they are wives, which limits how their identity can develop). Anne realizes those set of problems. She understands her position as a daughter and she is surrounded by rules. All that she can do is obeying the rules, stays at home, do some domestic works, and so on. From the way she lives, it turns out that Anne becomes a person full of care and good in nursing. It can be seen when little Charles is getting sick, Charles (his father) chooses to attend the dinner party with the Musgroves instead of nursing his child. He considers that that kind of thing is woman’s job, woman’s authority. Anne statement, “…and indeed, Mary, I cannot wonder at your husband. Nursing does not belong to a man, it is not his province” (VII:54) shows that she is aware of such “division of labor” between man and woman. At the time when the story takes place, men dominance is seen in almost all aspects of life. It seems like all women were born unequal with the men. Even though Anne is a middle class woman, she is still cannot get whatever she wants freely. In fact, she lives in limitation and full of roles, like a bird in the golden cage. This is related to Wollstonecraft’s statements in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, as cited in Feminist Thought by Rosemarie Tong (2009:13) : Middle-class women were “kept” women who sacrificed health, liberty, and virtue for whatever prestige, pleasure, and power their husband could provide. Because these women were not allowed to exercise outdoors lest they tan their lily-white skin, they lacked healthy bodies. Because they were not permitted to make their own decisions, they lacked liberty. And because

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 they were discouraged from developing their powers of reason, given that a great premium was placed on indulging self and gratifying others, especially men and children, they lacked virtue (Wollstonecraft, 1975). The other aspect that women cannot enjoy is education. They get the main education from the family, while higher and formal education belongs to men. In Persuasion, this kind of issue does exist. It is stated by Anne: “Men have had every advantage of us in telling their own story. Education has been theirs in so much higher a degree. The pen has been in their hands” (XXIII:221). Men’s role are very offensive and strongly influence at that time. The dominance of men in almost all aspects, trigger the oppression towards women. In the case of Anne Elliot, the oppression is based on gender, class, and work. The story of Persuasion does not begin with its central character, Anne Elliot. Instead the first pages are devoted to her father and his obsessive vanity about his lineage as baronet, from which follows his contempt for those he considers beneath him. Anne’s father, Sir Walter Elliot, is a person who is growing distressed for money (I: 9). Vanity was the beginning and the end of Sir Walter Elliot’s character: vanity of person and of situation. …He considered the blessing of beauty as inferior only to the blessing of a baronetcy; and the Sir Walter Elliot, who united these gifts, was the constant object of his warmest respect and devotion (I: 4). Sir Walter Elliot’s position as the head of the family and also as a baronet, makes him powerful to control the family. The worse is that power is full with arrogance and thirst for money.

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 In Jane Austen’s Persuasion, it is clearly explained that Anne family, especially her father does not allow Anne for having a relationship with Frederick Wentworth, a people she loves, because Frederick who comes from lower class society, cannot give good reputation for Anne’s family. Lady Russell who is a best friend of Anne’s mother and she has been reputed as the part of Anne’s family, persuades Anne to give up her relation with Frederick. Anne breaks off the engagement with Frederick for the sake of family dignity and follows the rule of the society. Lady Russell is the one whose advice is listened to by Anne. Besides, Lady Russell has always brought influence to the member o the family. Like what Henrietta says about Lady Russell: “I have always heard of Lady Russell, as a woman of the greatest influence with every body! I always look upon her as able to persuade a person to any thing!” (XII:99). To Lady Russell herself, she regards Anne as her responsibility, after the death of Anne’s mother, her best friend. Lady Russell wants Anne to maintain the title of Lady Elliot and not to overthrow the rank, the prestige, of The Elliots. As Lady Elliot says to Anne: “I own that to be able to regard you as the future mistress of Kellynch, the future Lady Elliot, to look forward and see you occupying your dear mother’s place, succeeding to all her rights, and all her popularity, as well as to all her virtues, would be the highest possible gratification to me” (XVII:150). From Lady Russell’s statement, it can be understood the reason of Lady Russell to persuade Anne breaking off the engagement with Frederick Wentworth, who at that time, has nothing but himself.

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 The role of Lady Russell for Anne is quite important. As it is explained by Susan Ostrov Weisser on the introduction part of the novel: “Anne “relies” on Lady Russell as a mother, the one who combines wisdom with “tenderness”. Yet Lady Russell is immediately shown up as narrow and self-interested when she wishes Anne would marry the mediocre Charles Musgrove because of his landed property, general importance, good character and appearance, and (apparently not least important) his location “near herself””. It is also stated that Lady Russell is the temporary impediment in that she has a value for rank and consequence that “blinds” her. Her decisive victory over the lovers at this point groups her with those who defend social hierarchies as fixed and given, so that she stands in need of correction by Anne. From here it can be seen that family, relatives, or even friends can be very influential towards other’s life. Moreover, in that society, where capitalism culture is very strong, the term of “alienation” can be created. Anne itself, realizing that alienation happens to her. It is stated: “How absurd to be resuming the agitation which such an interval had banished into distance and indistinctness! What might not eight years do? Events of every description, changes, alienations, removals, all must be comprised in it” (VIII:57). That statement is closely related to the concept of alienation by Alison Jaggar which is explained in Feminist Thought by Rosemarie Putnam Tong: She (Jaggar) used the unifying concept of alienation to explain how, under capitalism, everything (work, sex, play) and everyone (family members and

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 friends) that could be a source of women’s integration as persons becomes instead a cause of their disintegration (Tong, 2009: 5). The starting point of the overall problem is actually when The Elliots is in financial difficulties. Here it can be known that the high ranking of this family on the social hierarchy does not guarantee the stability of their economic value. Because of the financial problem, they go after something that can “save” them from bankruptcy and keep the family’s name from degradation. The problem does not stop here. To cover the economic problem without degrading the prestige, Anne has to marry with somebody that can lift up her family status. It can be seen on the novel: Their two confidential friends, Mr.Shepherd, who lived in the neighbouring market town, and Lady Russell were called on to advise them; and both father and daughter seemed to expect that something should be struck out by one or the other to remove their embarrassment and reduce their expenditure, without involving the loss of any indulgence of taste or pride (I:10). The Elliots finally rent an estate and live at less expense in Bath for winter. The family who rent The Elliots home turn out to be the sister and brother in law of Frederick Wentworth. Since then, Anne and Wentworth spend much of the days moving in the same social circles. On the other hand, Sir Walter Elliot, Anne’s father, would like to match Anne with Mr.Elliot, who will be considered as the next heirs of Sir Elliot, as the baronet. But Anne finds out the cunning of Mr.Elliot from Mrs.Smith. Anne finally finds out that Mr.Elliot wants to marry her completely for money. Mrs. Smith tells her: “Money, money, was all that he wanted” (XXI:190). Mr. Ellliot is also described as a person that only seeks for wealth and desire. “Mr. Elliot is evidently a

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 disingenuous, artificial, wordly man, who has never had any better principle to guide him than selfishness” (XXI:196). The portrait of Mr. Elliot here helps to emphasize the issue of Marxism, especially in family and relationship, experienced by Anne. Anne’s family asks her to marry Mr.Elliot, who is seen as a highly-regarded man, without paying attention to his bad intentions. The marriage of Anne and Mr.Elliot is considered as the way to lift up or at least maintain the social rank of the family. C. The Concept of Marxist Feminism Reflected by Anne The concept of Marxist reflected by Anne is closely related with the historical background of the story. As been described previously that in late 18th and early 19th century feminist pointed out that the focus of interest of women at that time was on the heroine’s choice of marriage partner, which will decide her ultimate social position and exclusively determine her happiness and fulfillment in life. Anne’s father who is craving for wealth through his house and land, always look down the people who are beneath him. His position as a baronet, as an educated person and highly regarded by society, makes him feel ashamed once he lose or detached from that position. Therefore, Anne is forced to choose a man who is considered equal with her family status. That condition is in accordance with Engel’s statement in The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1942). He says that Women lose power when private property comes into existence as a mode of production. Men's control of private property, and the ability thereby to generate a surplus, changes the family form to a patriarchal one where women, and often slaves, become the property of the father and husband (plato.stanford.edu).

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 As a daughter of Sir Walter Elliot, Anne becomes like a “property” to her family because her status as a woman and daughter oblige her to fulfill and to be obedient to the need of the father. The need of her father here, is that Anne can maintain the rank of her family. One of the factors is through marriage. The partner of the marriage determine the rank of the family, whether it will lift up or decline the family’s name, remembering that in Bath, Sir Walter and his family will always be worth knowing and always acceptable as acquaintance. In Persuasion, Anne’s privilege to choose Frederick as a partner was opposed by her family because of the different social class between Anne and Frederick. At that time, Anne was still a young lady. Her family, especially her father had a big role to take control of her life, including her love life. Until then Anne had to end her relationship with Frederick because she was forced to obey the family rules. From all they have been through, Frederick found something from Anne that still cannot be easily forgotten. Meanwhile, Anne grew as more mature woman with critical thinking and open mind. As the time goes by, by all of the oppression from the family that dampened her, Anne starts to think that she had to break the rule that people from different class were equal and could be live together. From her bitter experience that she got from the past, she can distinguish what should be and what should not be. “She had been forced into prudence in her youth, she learned romance as she grew older; the natural sequel of unnatural beginning” (IV:29). Anne, at

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 twenty seven, thought very differently from what she had been made to think at nineteen. It is also explained by Weisser in the introduction part of the novel, Anne tells Wentworth that she was right in submitting to Lady Russell even though her advice was wrong. Anne considers that it is the part of woman’s duty to submit to authority. Anne, at her young age, has her own way in getting approval for her marriage. The character of Anne has different way to struggle of her life. She tends to think and feel alone and in silence. Anne deals with the problems without resistance but she involves her thought and feeling. The character of Anne described as the heroine who is always under-controlled by the family, while actually she has right to go after something she wants to achieve. Not merely about money and wealth, or a “high position” lady. Anne represents as having the qualified mind for discovering this even though she is depicted as silent and insensible. Anne’s silence can be seen when she gives no resistance when her happiness is about to be captured. Insensible here means that Anne’s status as a daughter, does not make her feel her own freedom in her own family. She is alive, but has no other choice except submitting herself to the will of the family. Anne has no voice to express what she actually feels. However, in her silence, she keeps thinking and questioning of what become her right and freedom. She is actually disappointed by the greed of her father, especially when the connection of her family with nobility is getting firm, authorization becomes the most important value in life. Anne satirizes that issue by saying: “I certainly am

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 proud, too proud to enjoy a welcome which depends so entirely upon place” (XVI:142). Anne’s statement actually shows her indignation toward the power of capitalism of her family (especially Sir Walter) that exists on certain location, and the social status which measures the power itself. Anne can find “wisdom” from the past. Such a lesson learned for her, that she had been in wrong decision. But Anne is growing up person right now, she is more mature in her thought and actions. It does not matter for her for being mistaken, it is human nature, yet the most important thing is she can get something valuable in the future. She herself realizes that her experience for being persuaded by Lady Russell is not all a mistake. As she says: “I have been thinking over the past, and trying impartially to judge of the right and wrong…” (XXIII:232). That statement is the form of her struggle in order to get a justice. The maturity of Anne can be seen here, remembering that in Anne Elliot’s period, to stand with your own thought regardless of society’s insistent persuasion is one of the most liberating achievements for a woman. Finally after Frederick offered her the second chance through the letter that he gave to Anne to make up their relationship, Anne had become stronger in personality and mentally. She is sure that her final decision was right. She does not want to live in regret anymore, and ignore the social and economical status as the obstacles for her relationship. Besides, after she knows the real character and bad intentions of Mr.Elliot, she is more certain that she will not take a wrong decision. Here the reader can see the changing of mindset of Anne that materialized through her thought and

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 actions. She decided to listen to her own heart in order to get happiness, rather than persuaded by others that will lead her into regret. “Her attachment and regrets had, for a long time, clouded every enjoyment of youth, and an early loss of bloom and spirits had been their lasting effect” (IV:27). In the end of the story, Anne finally married Captain Wentworth who has become a sailor, which is the part of the navy. They both live happily after the struggle that they have been through. “Her spring of felicity was in the glow of her spirits, as her friend Anne’s was in the warmth of her heart. Anne was tenderness itself, and she had the full worth of it in Captain Wentworth’s affection” (XXIV:238). Besides, the marriage of Anne and Wentworth implies a rejection of the traditional perspective about the importance of class roles, since Wentworth is, in that perspective, is seen as having no such qualities and assurance to maintain the status of Anne’s family. “ Frederick is a young man, who had nothing but himself to recommend him, and no hopes profession, and no connexions to secure even his farther rise in that profession” (IV:26). Beyond Anne’s happiness to be together with Wentworth, there might be a dread of a future war. The last sentence of the novel: “She gloried in being a sailor's wife, but she must pay the tax of quick alarm for belonging to that profession which is, if possible, more distinguished in its domestic virtues than in its national importance" (XXIV:238) is such a warning or reminder for their relationship. The truth is that the navy is also the part of the military, which means they have to be ready whenever war happens.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 War here represents the happiness as Wentworth can reunite again with Anne, and a dread that something bad might be happen anytime. “War is what brought Wentworth his fortune and made his reunion with Anne is possible, it's also a continuing threat to their happiness. That particular war may be over, but if Anne and Wentworth have learned anything from their romance, it's that you can't entirely trust an ending to stay ended. Wars and love are like Freddy Krueger: they all have a tendency to keep coming back” (shmoop.com, 2014). Anne’s consciousness about her true love and true feeling, finally lead her to recover herself from suffer. Women have their own way and own right to speak up, to express their feeling. In silence they are actually thinking about wisdom and justice. The statement of Mrs. Smith, “There are so many who forget to think seriously till it is almost too late” (XVII:147), reminds Anne that everybody deserves a second chance, including Wentworth, the person she loves, despite of the social and economic status. Besides, Anne’s maturity is demonstrated through the choices that she made. By learning from the past, she understands the consequences of every decision that she makes, without blaming others. Even though she has been persuaded to break up the engagement which ends up on making her sad, she does not blame Lady Russell yet she understands that things happen for a reason. “She did not blame Lady Russell, she did not blame herself for having been guided by her, but she felt that were any young person, in similar circumstances, to apply to her for counsel, they would never receive any of such certain immediate wretchedness, such uncertain

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 future good” (IV:28). The way Anne thinks lead her to learn and decide that she would prefer believing her own self rather than others. In addition, Anne’s loyalty and consistent feeling towards Wentworth take her consciousness to realize and to be sure that real love can never be replaced. In this case, feeling speaks louder than logic. The character of Anne Elliot shows the development especially on the way of thinking and act, which finally take her to “freedom”. From the explanation above, it can be seen that the character of Anne Elliot reflects the spirit of Marxist Feminism since the issue that she is dealing with is related to economic, power, and status, and her action reflects that women also have right to choose and to take a decision.

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Concerning the topic that has been chosen, some problem formulations have been formulated in the earlier chapter. To answer the first problem, the writer applies the character and characterization to reveal Anne’s Elliot character in Jane Austen’s Persuasion. Anne’s actions, dialogues, thought, and experiences are examined in order to get deeper understanding of the character , which is related to the concept of Marxist Feminism. Character is defined as the person presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and disposition qualities that are expressed in what they say- the dialogue- and by what they do- the action. (Abrams: 1981: 20-21). Anne Elliot has a big role to recite the story about woman who deals with the matter of gender, social class, and economic status in scope of love problem, especially on how to choose the right partner. The writer tries to figure out the development of the character of Anne to reveal the spirit of Marxist Feminism related to the issue that she faces. The writer has found some conclusions on the character of Anne Elliot as the woman major character in Persuasion. Anne is pretty, patient, obedient, gentle, open-minded, talented, humble, helpful, mature, caring, and admirable. Anne understands her position as a woman in the society and as a daughter in her family. 48

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 To show the spirit of Marxist feminism which is presented by the character of Anne Elliot, the theory of Marxist feminism is needed. Concerning the period when the story happened, which was the late 18th and early 19th century British society, the social class was very influential in every aspects of life, and the patriarchal system in the family was very strong. In the late 18th and early 19th century fiction very few women are permitted to get to work for a living. The focus of interest is on the heroine’s choice of marriage partner which decide the ultimate social position and that can determine her happiness and fulfillment in life. In other words, the destiny of the family is determined by the husband, the male. The economic and class status have a big contribution to the ruling system of the society, in this case, in the households. In the story, the character of Anne reflects the issue of gender and class in the society. Through her thoughts, utterances, and attitudes, Anne shows how she is dealing with the issue and how she finally solves the problem. Anne’s maturity can be seen through the way of thinking and the way of act, when she is finally accept Wentworth as her true love. Anne, who is used to be persuaded to brake off her engagement with Frederick Wentworth, realizes that woman should not be restrained by the rules of family and society that power, class, and social status do matter in determining someone’s happiness in life. Women have freedom to choose her partner despite of the differences in class and women are proper to have the same right as men.

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 In the end, Anne’s decision and attitude show that Anne is more mature than her father and elders in the way she sees something differently and she responses the issue wisely. Even though her attitude is seen as rebellion toward the family’s rule, but in the end she is right in having such qualities to get a freedom as a woman and as a daughter. The way of the character of Anne satirizes the issue is successfully turns into a good result. The relation between Anne’s characteristics and the problem she experience, shows that Anne Elliot reflects the spirit of feminism, especially Marxist Feminism. Woman is not only a mere means or an instrument yet she has her own dignity. Despite of the differences of gender, work, position, and rank, woman always has a space. Persuasion presents Anne Elliot as a “symbol” of women’s freedom, gentle yet strong in mind, and deserve a chance to make a decision to get a life they want to live in.

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1957. Austen, Jane. Persuasion. London: Penguin Books, 1994. Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory (An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory). New York: Manchester University Press, 2002. Childers, Joseph and Gary Hentzi, eds. Columbia Dictionary of Modern Literary and Cultural Criticism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995. Copeland, Edward and Juliet McMaster. The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Dobošiová, Michaela. “Marriage and Human Relationships in the Eighteenth-century Britain”. Masaryk University in Brno. Spring 2006. (http://is.muni.cz/th/125216/ff_b/Masaryk_University_in_Brno.pdf). Augustus 4, 2014. Eagleton, Terry. Marxism and Literary Criticism. London: Routledge Classics, 2002. Ferguson, Ann and Hennessy, Rosemary. “Feminist Perspective on Class and Works”. Stanford. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. October 1, 2004. (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/). July 7, 2014. Gonzalez, Alejandra. “Written Response: Persuasion by Jane Austen”. January 28, 2013.(http://web.calstatela.edu/faculty/jgarret/446b/StudentSamplePersuasion.pdf). July 17, 2014. Handayani, Selly. “The Portrait of Ideal Woman in Early 19th Century British Society as Seen in Anne Elliot in Jane Austen’s Persuasion”. Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2003. Haslett, Moyra. Marxist Literary and Cultural Theories. Basingstoke: McMillan Press Ltd, 2000. 51

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 Kollman, Elizabeth. Jane Austen re-visited: A feminist Evaluation of the Longevity and Relevance of the Austen Oeuvre. Thesis. Port Elizabeth: University of Port Elizabeth, 2003. ( www.dspace.nmmu.ac.za:8080/jspui/bitstream/10948/299/1/KollmannE.pdf ). November 21, 2013. MacKinnon, A. Catharine. SIGN (Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: An Agenda for Theory). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Madsen, L. Deborah. Feminist Theory and Literary Practice. London: Pluto Press, 2000. Shmoop Editorial Team. "Persuasion." Shmoop.com . Shmoop University, Inc. November 11, 2008. (http://www.shmoop.com/persuasion/ending.html). July 17, 2014. Stone, Lawrence. The Family, Sex and Marriage in England 1500-1800. London: Penguin Books, 1990. Tarlson, Claire Eileen. “Jane Austen, Persuasion, and the Pursuit of Happiness”. Undergraduate Research Journal. Vol. 1. No. 1 (2006). (www.lurj.org/article.php/vol1n1/austen.xml). November 22, 2013. Tong, Rosemarie. Feminist Thought 3rd Edition. Colorado: Westview Press, 2009. Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1975.

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