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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF EMMA’S ADULTERY USING THREE-PART MODEL OF PERSONALITY IN GUSTAVE FLAUBERT’S MADAME BOVARY AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the degree of Sarjana Sastra In English Letters By CINDY CECILIA Student Number: 104214066 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF EMMA’S ADULTERY USING THREE-PART MODEL OF PERSONALITY IN GUSTAVE FLAUBERT’S MADAME BOVARY AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the degree of Sarjana Sastra In English Letters By CINDY CECILIA Student Number: 104214066 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 i

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ii

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI iii

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma Nama: Cindy Cecilia Nomor Mahasiswa: 104214066 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul A Psychoanalytic Study of Emma’s Adultery Using Three-Part Model of Personality in Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal 1 September 2014 Yang menyatakan, Cindy Cecilia iv

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis Yogyakarta, September 29, 2014 Cindy Cecilia v

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited; imagination encircles the world (Albert Einstein) vi

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI For My dearly beloved parents and sisters vii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all I want to say my biggest thanks to the Lord Jesus Christ and Mother Mary for Their great blessings so I can finish my thesis. I also want to give my gratitude to my beloved family especially my parents who have raised me, pray for me and encourage me to finish my thesis. I thank my uncle for his financial support and my beloved sisters Karen, Karin and Claudia for cheering me up whenever I feel down. My special thanks are also dedicated to my thesis advisor, Dr. F.X Siswadi, M.A. who has always been patient to help me during the process. Without his guidance I cannot finish my thesis in time. I thank my Co-advisor Dra. A. B Sri Mulyani, M.A, Ph.D for giving me suggestions so I can improve my thesis. I thank all my lecturers from English Letters Department who help me to learn English better and makes me smarter. I also thank all the staff of Sanata Dharma University for helping me during my study as English Letters student. I want to give my big thanks to my friends who support and help me during the thesis writing process. I want to thank all 2010 students especially those in class C for giving me support. I want to thank my best friends Maria Cynthia Rani and Kartika Violita who play an important part in my thesis writing. I also want to thank Cynthia, Marsha, Gradi and also my KKN friends for their moral support. Last but not least I want to say my deepest thanks to my dear boyfriend, Natalis Yapto who gives me lots of moral support and his greatest help so I can viii

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI finish my thesis. I thank him for cheering me up when I am down and also helps me during the thesis writing process. I thank him for standing by my side. Cindy Cecilia ix

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………………………………. APPROVAL PAGE ………………………………………………………………….. ACCEPTANCE PAGE ………………………………………………….................... LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH …….. STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ………………………………………………… MOTTO PAGE ………………………………………………………………………. DEDICATION PAGE ………………………………………………………………. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………………………. TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………. ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………….. ABSTRAK……………………………………………………………………………. ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix xi xi i i xi v CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………. A. Background of the Study ……………………………………………………….... B. Problem Formulation……………………………………………………………... C. Objective of Study………………………………………………………………... D. Definition of Terms………………………………………………………………. 1 1 6 7 7 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE …………………………………….... A. Review of Related Studies………………………………………………………... B. Review of Related Theories …………………………………………………........ 1. Theory of Character and Characterization……………………………………... 2. The Relation between Literature and Psychology……………………………... 3. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory………………………………………………... a. Id ……………………………………………………………………………... b. Ego …………………………………………………………………………… c. Superego …………………………………………………………………….. C. Theoretical Framework ………………………………………………………….. 9 9 10 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………….... A. Object of the Study ……………………………………………………………….. B. Approach of the Study ……………………………………………………………. C. Method of the Study ……………………………………………………………..... 18 18 18 19 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ………………………………………………………....... A. Characteristics of Emma Bovary ………………………………………………….. 1.Unrealistic ………………………………………………………………………. 2.Demanding ……………………………………………………………………… 3.Selfish …………………………………………………………………………... 4. Deceitful………………………………………………………………………... 5.Religious ………………………………………………………………………. B. The Way Emma’s Characteristics Leads Her to Adultery in The Perspective of Freudian Three-Part Model of Personality………………………………….............. 1. The Interrelation between Emma’s Characteristic and Her Adultery …………… 21 21 21 25 28 30 31 33 x 33

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2. The Relation between Emma’s Characteristic and her Adultery in the Perspective of Freudian Three Part Model of Personality………………….......... A. Emma’s Three Part Model of Personality ……………………………………... 1. Emma’s Id ……………………………………………………………………. 2. Emma’s Superego ……………………………………………………………. 3. Emma’s Ego ………………………………………………………………….. B. The Interaction Between Emma’s Three Part Model of Personality to Her Adultery ……………………………………………………………………….. 36 36 36 41 47 50 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………… 56 BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………………………………….. 60 APPENDIX …………………………………………………………………………… Appendix: Summary of Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary…………………. 61 61 xi

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT CECILIA, CINDY. A Psychoanalytic Study of Emma’s Adultery Using ThreePart Model of Personality in Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert is a novel about Emma Bovary, a hopeless romantic who longs for a perfect marriage life. She marries a dull second-rate doctor named Charles and she is disappointed with her marriage because Charles cannot fulfill her demands of perfect marriage life. Emma’s beauty attracts other men, including Rodolphe, a playboy who wants to make her his mistress. Rodolphe seduces Emma and she starts to commit adultery with him. Then, Rodolphe leaves her and she starts another affair with Leon. Leon is younger than Emma and also has lots of similarities with her. The objective of this thesis is to analyze Emma Bovary’s adultery through Freudian Three-Part model of personality. There are two questions formulated in problem formulation. The first is to find out Emma Bovary’s characteristics in the novel and the second is how her characteristics lead her to adultery from the perspective of Freudian Three Part Model of personality. This study uses library research. The main source of this study is the original copy of Madame Bovary novel. There are also several books of literary theories and psychological theories which are used as references. Theory of Character and Characterization are applied to answer the first problem formulation and Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory is used to answer the second problem. The first analysis of this study shows Emma Bovary’s characteristics as unrealistic, demanding, selfish, deceitful and religious. Based on Freudian Three Part Model of Personality, Emma’s characteristics as unrealistic, demanding, selfish represented her Id, Emma’s characteristics as a religious woman represents her Superego and her deceitful characteristic represents her Ego. The analysis finds that Emma’s Id is the strongest part than another personality part. Her Ego cannot fulfill Id and Superego in the same time. She cannot balance her Id and Superego. She tends to be in the Id side than Superego. The conclusion is that Emma’s adultery is strongly influenced by the tendency of Emma’s Ego towards her Id. Based on literary aspects; Emma’s adultery is also influenced by other external factors such as her background and her disappointment to her husband, Charles Bovary. xi i

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK CECILIA, CINDY. A Psychoanalytic Study of Emma’s Adultery Using ThreePart Model of Personality in Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary. Yogyakarta Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. Madame Bovary oleh Gustave Flaubert adalah novel yang bercerita tentang Emma Bovary, seorang wanita dengan harapan romantis yang mendambakan kehidupan pernikahan yang sempurna. Dia menikahi seorang dokter bermutu rendah yang membosankan bernama Charles. Emma sangat kecewa dengan pernikahannya karena Charles tidak mampu memenuhi tuntutannya akan kehidupan pernikahan yang sempurna. Kecantikan Emma memikat banyak pria termasuk Rodolphe, seorang playboy yang berniat menjadikan Emma wanita simpanannya. Rodolphe merayu Emma dan Emma pun mulai berzina dengannya. Kemudian, Rodolphe mencampakkannya dan dia memulai perzinahan lainnya dengan Leon. Leon adalah pria yang jauh lebih muda dari Emma dan juga memiliki banyak kesamaan dengannya. Tujuan dari tesis ini adalah untuk menganalisis perzinahan Emma Bovary menggunakan tiga bagian kepribadian dari Freud. Dua pertanyaan diformulasikan di perumusan masalah. Pertama adalah untuk mencari tahu karakteristik Emma di dalam novel dan yang kedua adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana karakteristik Emma menuntunnya pada perzinaan berdasarkan perspektif tiga bagian kepribadian Freud. Penelitian ini menggunakan riset pustaka. Sumber utama dari penelitian ini adalah cetakan asli novel Madame Bovary. Ada beberapa buku mengenai teori literatur dan teori psikologi yang digunakan sebagai referensi. Teori tentang karakter dan karakterisasi diaplikasikan untuk menjawab permasalahan pertama dan teori psikoanalisis Freud digunakan untuk menjawab permasalahan kedua. Analisa pertama dari penelitian ini menunjukan karakteristik Emma Bovary sebagai seorang wanita pemimpi, penuntut, egois, penipu dan relijius. Menurut teori tiga bagian kepribadian Freud, Karakteristik Emma sebagai seorang yang pemimpi, penuntut dan egois merepresentasikan Id, Karakteristik Emma sebagai seorang wanita relijius merepresentasikan Superego dan karakternya sebagai seorang penipu merepresentasikan Ego. Analisis mengungkapkan Id Emma adalah yang terkuat daripada bagian kepribadian lainnya. Egonya tidak dapat memenuhi Id dan Superego dalam waktu yang sama. Dia tidak dapat menyeimbangkan Id dan Superegonya. Dia lebih cenderung pada Id daripada Superego. Kesimpulannya adalah, perselingkuhan Emma dipengaruhi oleh kecenderungan Ego terhadap Id. Namun berdasarkan elemen kesusasteraan, perselingkuhan Emma juga dipengaruhi oleh berbagai factor eksternal seperti latar belakangnya dan kekecewaan nya terhadap suaminya, Charles Bovary. xi i i

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of Study Marriage is something which most people consider as something sacred. Both the bride and the groom vowed that they would be together forever in every circumstance. The couples will live together and build their own family. For most people, marriage sounds wonderful just like the ending in the fairy tale which is happily ever after. However, marriage is not that simple. The fact is there are lots of conflicts in marriage, not only small conflicts but there are also serious conflicts which bring a marriage life into the verge of destruction. One of those conflicts is when one of them breaks a vow of their marriage by having an affair with someone other than their spouse: From passionate affairs to one-night-stands, from secretive flings to sexually open marriages, people seem to have a persistent inclination to engage in extramarital sex. Nevertheless, as illustrated by terms such as "adultery," "cheating," "infidelity," and "unfaithfulness," extramarital sexual involvements are generally considered a serious betrayal of one's spouse that may evoke strong jealousy (Duncombe, 2004:103). It is stated that sexual involvement in affair is considered as an ultimate betrayal. Sex currently belongs to a romantic script in which sexuality is highly valued (2004:101). In other words, sex is a way for couples to show their affection toward each other in the most intimate way. Some culture, especially those which strongly hold religion values, sexual intercourse is only exclusively for married 1

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 couples. We consider adultery to be, by definition, the transgression of marriage, which is itself then defined as a legally recognized sexually exclusive monogamy (2004:1). Adultery is always considered as an immoral act by the society. In the past, women who had committed adultery were more likely to be discriminated. This is related to the era of patriarchy when women were considered as inferior. Patriarchal authority is based on male control over the woman’s productive capacity and over her person (Humm, 1992: 96). Although men also tend to commit adultery, his actions bear less consequence: Adultery directly compromises the reproductive exclusivity of a marriage and is less tolerated overall for wives than for husbands; in some cultures mere suspicion of female adultery is justification for severe punishment or death (Betzig, 1989) (2004: 2). In some strict eastern culture, adulteresses are more likely to be punished by law and religion regulation (2004:106). However, in this modern era, especially in western culture, punishments for adulterer/adulteress are not relevant anymore. Regardless of the gender, married couple will bear their own consequences and usually it ends by divorce or being insulted by the society. Men were considered more likely to commit adultery than women, but the recent research proved it wrong. Although the most recent high-profile infidelity scandals all involved cheating men, a new study finds that women cheat at about the same rate as men, though often for different reasons (http://abcnews.go.com/m/story?id=13885519). The different reasons mostly related to emotional aspects. It is stated that adultery committed by both men and

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 women in the same degree. The top 3 reasons men cheat all relate to sex. However sex is not usually the motivating factor for cheating wives. The top 3 reasons women cheat relate to unmet emotional needs or a desire for attention (http://www.womansconnection.com/ar_men_and_women_cheat_for_entirely_different_reasons.htm). Men are always considered as a pleasure seeker who only desires to fulfill their lust. It is strongly justified by the fact that men were visual creatures. While women are considered being more emotional than lustful, but it is still possible that woman can also commit adultery for lust. The issue of infidelity in marriage always becomes an interesting topic to be discussed in literature. Some literary works even brought up a story about adultery in marriage. It added lots of drama to the story and made the story more intriguing. Affairs are a pivotal theme in literature and soap opera, and a major focus of gossip among the public and the press (2004: XI).One of the literary works which is discussed in this thesis is Madame Bovary by a French writer, Gustave Flaubert: The year 1857 propelled Flaubert into the law courts and into celebrity. It was not exactly the kind of celebrity he had wished for. Madame Bovary had appeared serially in La Revue de Paris. Now the imperial prosecutor was attacking the work for being offensive to religion and morality. Not only the seduction scenes, but the episodes dealing with religion and the description of Emma’s death, came under direct censure. More than the subject, the general tone of the novel was denounced as immoral: the pervasive eroticism, the poetry of adultery, the so-called ‘realism’ of the style (Flaubert, 1993: VII). Madame Bovary was written in 1857 and became a controversial literary work in the mid 19th century because it was reputed as an erotic and a satire toward

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 religion. The mid 19th century was the dark ages when people had strong belief in religion and superstition, the issue of adultery still considered as taboo and sinful. This novel tells a story of a married woman named Emma Bovary who committed adultery with two different men. In mid 19th century the way Flaubert described Emma’s adultery had been reputed as vulgar although Flaubert only described it in a poetic way. As a main character in this novel, Emma is described as a hopeless romantic woman who is longing for a romantic love as described in the introduction: Emma Bovary, transgressor and victim, is a great dreamer. Baudelaire, in a perceptive article written soon after the novel’s publication, was quick to see that she is the only dignified and poetic figure in her small world. Her feverish yearnings experienced in the context of the most banal daily existence and in the most mediocre provincial setting reaffirm the powers and prerogatives of the imagination. She not only towers over her lovers (the first is a local rake, the second a weak career-oriented young man), but positively gains in stature as she approaches her doom, always in pursuit of an unattainable ideal of love and happiness (Flaubert, 1993: XI). It is stated that Emma viewed as the transgressor and victim in the novel; she is the transgressor because she violates her marriage vow and also the victim of her own actions. However, there is another way of seeing Emma Bovary other than a transgressor and victim. Emma Bovary and her adultery can be seen through psychoanalytic perspective. Therefore, the psychoanalytic criticism which was introduced by Sigmund Freud can be used to analyze Emma’s motives of adultery. Psychoanalytic criticism is a form of literary criticism which uses some of the techniques of psychoanalysis in the interpretation of literature (Barry, 2002:96). Psychoanalysis used to be a therapy which cures a mental disorder of an individual, but now

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 psychoanalysis is applicable to analyze the literary work, especially the character presented in the novel. In Madame Bovary, Emma’s adultery is a phenomenon which becomes the main concern in the story. According to Duncombe, adultery can be strongly related to the adulterer’s individual aspect which in Emma’s case is her psychological condition: Our psychological vocabulary describes adultery in terms of the insecurities and unresolved issues of individuals. Even the vocabulary of Freudian desires discusses deviance at the individual level while referring to these desires as part of a natural, universal human experience (2004:8). Adultery is all about an individual matter and it is related to human desires which are natural. According to Freud, an individual’s personality is the result of the interaction of the id, ego and superego which is known as three part model of personality (Pettijohn, 1992:262). Freudian theory expresses this belief well. Freud would say that adultery is a classic manifestation of antinomic desires splitting the psyche of the adulterer. The split is externalized in the three actors: the betrayed spouse is the superego, the lover is id, and the adulterer is the ego. Social norms and institutions act as extensions of the superego that serve to regulate behaviors prompted by the id, thus implicitly blaming the third party for intruding between the rational self and the conscience (2004:3). The statement above strongly convinced that adultery can be analyzed through Freudian three-part model of personality. Thus, it is possible to analyze Emma’s adultery by using this theory. Freudian Tree part model of personality contains Id, Ego and Superego. Id as the pleasure principle, Ego is a mediator between Id and Superego or the reality principle and Superego is the moral aspect

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 of a personality. Some people cannot hold themselves against temptation and keep following their desire or the Id. In other word, they are unable to control themselves against the lustful desire and disobey the norms in the society which represented by superego. The ego operates the reality principle, and tries to find socially acceptable ways (according to superego) to gratify the Id. In the personality of a well adjusted person, the ego is the dominant force (Pettijohn, 1992:262). This study aims to analyze the relation of Emma Bovary’s adultery and her psychological aspect. Freudian three part model of personality uses as the main theory of this study. The writer aims to explain more about Emma’s adultery and how it is strongly related to her psychological aspect. B. Problem Formulation 1. What are the characteristics of Emma Bovary in Madame Bovary? 2. How do the characteristics lead to her adultery from the perspective of Freudian Three Part Model of personality?

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 C. Objectives of the Study The objective of this study is to answer the three questions formulated in the problem formulation. First is to find out Emma Bovary’s characteristics as seen in the story. Then, the writer tries to related Emma Bovary’s characteristics to her adultery. After that, the writer connects Emma’s characteristics and Freudian Three Part Model of personality, to see how Emma’s action strongly related to psychological aspects. D. Definition of Terms To avoid any misunderstanding, the key terms used in this study are defined as follows. 1. Three-part Model of Personality Three-part model of human personality or “tri-partite human psyche” is the theory suggested by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud, which states that every person's behavior is the result of the interaction of three forces, namely the id, superego, and ego (Pettijohn, 1992: 262). 2. Id The id is the most basic instinctual or biological drives, which “unconsciously and impulsively seek immediate pleasure and consider nothing else” (Pettijohn, 1992: 262).

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 3. Ego The ego is “a conscious faculty for perceiving and dealing intelligently with reality” it acts like a mediator between the id and the superego (Pettijohn, 1992: 262). 4. Superego The superego is societal and parental values that have been instilled in the person. It is largely unconscious and restrains the impulses of the Id (Pettijohn, 1992: 262).

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies The first related study is Sanata Dharma University; English Education Program Undergraduate Thesis written by Yohanes Basuki Wahyu Lastiyanto entitled An Analysis of Central Character in Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary Based on the Theory of Self-concept. Lastiyanto topic is about the analysis of central character in Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary based on theory of self – concept. The objective of this study is to find out Emma’s self concept influence to her personality and also her personality pattern development based on the theory of self concept as actualized in her behavior. His analysis points out those Emma self-perceptions turn her into an unrealistic, idealist, sentimental, and volatile wife. Her ideal and transitory self concept is the most dominant force in developing her personality pattern. Unlike Lastiyanto study, this study does not use the theory of self concept. This study also focuses on her psychological aspect in the perspective of Freudian Three-Part model of personality. The second related study is Sanata Dharma University; English Education Program Undergraduate Thesis written by Eko Prasetyaningrum entitled The influence of Emma Rouault`s traits of character upon her daily affairs in Gustave Flaubert`s Madame Bovary. Prasetyanigrum focused on Emma’s reason to commit adultery related to her traits as a human being. He uses 9

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 the psychological approach from Rothberger, Woods and also M.J Murphy theory to express 9 expressions and characteristics. The result of his analysis is that Emma traits as immoral, shallow, dreamer and unrealistic is strongly related to her adultery. Emma also has lots of disappointment of her husband who does not give her a marriage life as she expected. The difference between Prasetyanigrum’s analysis and this analysis is on the theory used to analyze the problem formulation. This analysis uses Sigmund Freud Psychoanalytic criticism which focuses more on Emma’s Three-Part Model of personality. This analysis sees the adultery not as an immoral act, but an action influenced by psychological aspects. Those two related studies analyzed Emma’s characteristics by using different psychoanalytic theories. Lastiyanto’s analysis used the theory of selfconcept and Prasetyanigrum’s used Rothberger psychoanalytic theory. The result of those analysis points out that Emma’s adultery strongly related to her traits and lack of morality. Unlike those studies, this study aims to analyze Emma Bovary further and deeper into her psyche by using Freud’s Three-Part Model of personality which consists of Id, Ego and Superego. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theory of Character and Characterization Character is the most essential part in a story. Abrams (2009:42) states that characters are the person presented in a dramatic or narrative work who are interpreted by the reader as possessing particular moral,

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 intellectual and emotional qualities by inferences from what the persons say and their distinctive way of saying it. According to Murphy, characterization is process in which an author describes the characters in his or her work, in order to convey to the reader what sort of people they are” and “make the reader get to know and understand them” (1972: 161). He suggested nine methods to describing a character in literary works, those are personal description, Character as seen by another, speech, past life, conversation of others, reactions, direct comment, thoughts and mannerism. 2. The Relation Between Literature and Psychology Literature and psychology are two different things. Literature is a form of art while psychology is a scientific study about the way human mind works and how it influences behavior. However, psychology has entered the scope of literary studies. According to Wellek and Warren in Theory of Literature the psychology of literature can be the psychological study of the writer, as type and individual, or the study of the creative process, or the study of the psychological types and laws present within works of literature, or , finally, the effects of literature upon its reader (1963:81). The literary study which uses psychological approach often mentioned as Psychoanalytic criticism. Barry in Beginning Theory

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 describes psychoanalytic criticism as a form of literary criticism which uses some of the techniques of psychoanalysis in the interpretation of literature (2002:98). Psychoanalytic criticism often uses to analyze some intrinsic elements of the literary work. Character is an intrinsic element which often becomes the object of the study. Character is the most important element in the literary work and it is certain that every character has characteristics and emotions represented in the story. Thus, psychoanalytic criticism can be used to analyze further the character in the story explicitly. Unlike other theories, psychological approaches provide insight into the thematic and symbolic mysteries of work of literature and enhance other readings. These critics seeks the possible motives behind the literary work, reading “between the lines” for author’s and characters’ psychological conflicts (Guerin, 2011:222). 3. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory For this analysis the writer uses the Psychoanalytic criticism by Sigmund Freud. According to Peter Barry (2002:96) in the Beginning Theory, Psychoanalytic is a form of therapy which aims to cure mental disorders by investigating the interactions of conscious and unconscious elements in mind. Sometimes there are feelings which have been repressed in the unconscious mind, just like an iceberg. When people experience some emotion in their life that they cannot face or handle, they try to

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 repress it. Unfortunately, repressing a feeling will not make it go away but will always be in the unconscious mind and someday it will find a way out to the conscious mind. There will always be a return of the repressed. Freud suggested three part model of psyche, divided into ego, super ego and id those are refers to the consciousness, conscience and unconscious. However, this theory also has some flaws when it is applied to analyze a literary work. First, this theory is only focused on the psyche of the character and sometimes it ignores other aspects which influence a character’s motive. a) Id The Id is the aspect of personality which is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. According to The Freud Reader, Id is considered as the non-moral principle: From the point of view of instinctual control, of morality, it may be said of the id that it is totally non-moral, of the ego that it strives to be moral, and of the super-ego that it can be super-moral and then become as cruel as only the id can be. It is remarkable that the more a man checks his aggressiveness towards the exterior the more severe-that is aggressive-he becomes in his ego ideal (Gay, 1989:655). In other words, Id is the pleasure principle which has no relation with morality. It is human desires that influence their

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 emotional and physical needs and are driven by pleasure principle. It is the primary component of personality: Governed by the pleasure principle, the id demands immediate gratification: “I want it now!” Today, we would identify the id as the primitive, reptilian “gut” brain housed in the brain stem, along with the “emotional” limbic brain (Heller, 2005:90). The Id represents human desires which need to be fulfilled. However it is not always possible for people to always follow their Id immediately. In the society people should behave in an appropriate way so they will be acceptable by the society. That is why there are Ego and Superego which will help to control the Id. b) Ego Unlike Id, Ego is the component of personality that is responsible to dealing with reality. It is developed from the Id and insures that the impulses of Id can be expressed in an appropriate manner in the real world. In The Freud Reader, Ego is defined as: We have formed the idea that in each individual there is a coherent organization of mental processes; and we call this his ego. It is to this ego that consciousness is attached; the ego controls the approaches to motility-that is, to the discharge of excitations into the external world; it is the mental agency which supervises all its own constituent processes, and which goes to sleep at night, though even then it exercises the censorship on dreams (1989:630). Ego functions as the reality principle which controls most of human behavior and also keeps the balance between the Id and the

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 Superego. Ego principle tends to be realistic in fulfilling the Id. It weighs the cost and benefit of an action before committing it: : For the ego, perception plays the part which in the id falls to instinct. The ego represents what may be called reason and common sense, in contrast to the id, which contains the passions. All this falls into line with popular distinctions which we are all familiar with; at the same time, however, it is only to be regarded as holding good on the average or 'ideally'(1989:636). Ego controls so people can see the reality before fulfilling their desires. The Id may say “I want it now.”, but the Ego controls it and convinces the brain to wait until it is possible to follow what Id wants: Representing “what may be called reason and common sense, in contrast to the id, which contains the passions,” the ego works diligently to arbitrate the blind demands of the id and the restrictions that the external world imposes. It helps us survive safely in the world by obeying the reality principle—“I may want it now but I know I have to wait”—and by relying on the power of secondary process thought—sensible, logical thinking about the consequence of eating that candy bar before dinner(2005: 91). The example is when someone is very hungry in the middle of the class. The Id may wants her to just go out to class and get some lunch, but the Ego states that it is not an appropriate time to have a lunch, the teacher will be angry and she will be considered as inappropriate, so the Ego decides that she will have a lunch after the class finished. Ego eventually allows the behavior, but in appropriate time and place

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 c) Superego Superego is the aspect of personality which holds all our internalized moral standards and ideals acquired from both parents and society. It is using the sense of right or wrong. The tension between the harsh super-ego and the ego that is subjected to it is called the sense of guilt; it expresses itself as a need for punishment (1989:756). When someone has a strong Superego and accidentally obey the Id without limiting it with Superego, that person will definitely feel guilty. It is in keeping with the course of human development that external coercion gradually becomes internalized; for a special mental agency, man's super-ego, takes it over and includes it among its commandments. Every child presents this process of transformation to us; only by that means does it become a moral and social being. Such a strengthening of the super-ego is a most precious cultural asset in the psychological field (1989:690). Superego works to suppress those unacceptable urges from the Id and struggles to make Ego act upon idealistic standards rather than realistic principles. People usually get their moral standard from family and society. However, family is the most influential factors which determine a person’s moral standard: Initially, we had to obey our parents or get punished. But as we matured, we identified with our parents and internalized the norms and prohibitions that they taught us, as if our parents were a homunculus or little voice inside the self (2005: 91). The example is when a person who lives in a conservative country wants to have a sexual intercourse. With the Ego that person can have sex with someone in an appropriate time and place, not straightly in a public place, but her moral

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 principles states that she can only have sex with someone who has already be her husband, so to fulfill her Id and make it acceptable for the society which consider that having sex outside of marriage as immoral, she marries a man and finally can have sex in an acceptable way in the society. The key of a healthy psychology is when the Ego is a dominant force which can control the balance between the Id and the Superego. C. Theoretical Framework For this analysis the writer needs to understand fully how to identify the main character’s characteristic and how does she characterized in the story. Then after knowing the main character’s personality, the writer tries to relate the characteristics to the main character’s adultery in the perspective of Freudian Three Part Model of personality.

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of the study is the novel Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert which firstly published in 1857, the age of reason. Madame Bovary is a part of mid 19th century French literary work which has been a controversial piece of work in that era. It is considered to be offensive to religion and morality. Madame Bovary consists of three chapters and 330 pages. This literary work has been made into several movies and TV series. Madame Bovary tells a story about a French woman named Emma who committed adultery with two different men. B. Approach of the Study This study uses Psychoanalytic Criticism by Sigmund Freud. Freud as quoted in Peter Barry’s Beginning Theory defines psychoanalysis as the form of therapy which aims to cure mental disorders by investigating the interactions of conscious and unconscious elements in mind. Freud first used the term psychoanalysis in 1896. The theory of psychoanalysis proposes that problems arise from unconscious desires and unresolved childhood conflicts. It rests on the hotly contested tenets of determinism, conflict, and the unconscious (Heller, 2005:184). This study uses Freud’s tripartite model of personality which consist of Id, Ego and Superego which represent different part in a person’s personality. 18

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 Each of the three agencies exists for a different purpose. Housing the basic survival instincts, the id strives for immediate satisfaction. The ego seeks to control these primal instincts by seeking realistic ways to express them. The superego censures and tries to block instincts that are unacceptable by society (Heller, 2005: 90). Although psychoanalysis are originally derived from psychology. It can also be used to analyze the literary work. However, this theory is also considered as controversial. Wellek and Warren in Theory of Literature stated that: Even if we assume that an author succeeds in making his figure behave with ‘psychological truth’, we may well raise the question whether such ‘truth’ is an artistic value. Much great art continuously violates standards of psychology, either contemporary with it or subsequent. It works with improbable situations, with fantastic motifs. Like the demand for social realism, psychological truth is a naturalistic standard without universal validity. In some cases, to be sure, psychological insight seems to enhance artistic value (1963: 92) It is still debatable whether the application of psychoanalytic criticism is contradictive with the artistic value of a literary work itself. Despite of the flaws, this theory can analyze the inner psyche of the character in a literary work. This analysis focuses more of the main character’s Id, Ego and Superego to see whether the main character has a balance in her personality, and how that relates to her adultery. C. Method of the Study This study uses library research by searching the references in the library. There are several books which are used as the references of this study. The primary source of this analysis is an original copy of Madame Bovary novel. The theories used in this analysis are Abrams’ theory of character, Murphy’s theory of

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 characterization to answer the first problem and Sigmund Freud’s tripartite model of personality which consists of Id, Ego and Superego to answer the second problem and discover how it relates to Emma’s action of committing adultery. There are several steps to complete this study. First step is to read the literary work completely. Then, the writer gathers the related studies, theories and references. Finally, the writer tries to relate the topic and the theory used.

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS The entire questions in problem formulation are answered in this section by analyzing the work using provided theories. The first part answers the question of Emma Bovary’s characteristics and the second part divides into two sub parts, the first sub part answers the relation between Emma’s characteristics and her adultery while the second sub part answers the way Emma’s characteristics leads to her adultery in the perspective of Freudian’s Three-Part model of personality. A. Characteristics of Emma Bovary This section explains Emma Bovary’s characteristics. In Madame Bovary, Emma is described as unrealistic, demanding, selfish, deceitful and religious woman. The writer uses Murphy’s theory of characterization to describe the characteristics of Emma Bovary. 1. Unrealistic In Madame Bovary, Emma is described as a woman who has unrealistic expectations; she is a dreamer who longs for an ideal lover. Emma has been affected by romantic literature; she loves to read. She is stirred by the passion of romantic words and stories in literature. Her passion of romantic literature has brought her to an unrealistic dream that 21

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 her life should be as excitable as the stories in Literature. It is stated that she has read romantic novels since she was a little girl and she also dreams of many things which never come to reality: She had read Paul and Virginia, and had dreamed of the bamboo cabin, of the Negro Domingo and the dog Fidele; and especially she dreamed that she, too, had a sweet little brother for a devoted friend, and that he climbed trees as tall as church steeples to pluck her their crimson fruit, and came running barefoot over the sand to bring her a bird's nest (1993:33). Paul and Virginia is a romantic novel and she also imagines that she lives in the same way as the characters in that novel. Her mind is full of romantic illusions. She has high expectations for her marriage; she expects that marriage will give her a better life. She also believes that marriage will bring lots of happiness even though it brings the opposite in the reality: Before her marriage she had thought that she had love within her grasp; but since the happiness which she had expected this love to bring her hadn't come, she supposed she must have been mistaken. And Emma tried to imagine just what was meant, in life, by the words 'bliss,' 'passion,' and 'rapture'- words that had seemed so beautiful to her in books (1993:32-33). The quotation above explains that Emma’s point of view about marriage is just like those she read in romantic novels. The romantic novels often picture marriage as something which is blissful and passionate. She is trapped in her own illusions and imaginations. She thinks that her marriage

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 will bring the same passion that she feels when she reads those romantic novels. Emma’s desires to get married are also influenced by her eagerness for a change. When she gets married, she persuades herself that the love she always dreams of is already within her grasp, (1993:37). She lives a monotonous and tedious life in her father’s farm. Her father, Monsieur Roault also thinks that she is not really useful for the farm and it is the best decision to let her marry Charles. After she gets married, she quickly gets disappointed and regrets her decision. Emma would ask herself again and again: 'Why -why - did I ever marry?' (1993:42). She did not go for a date with Charles before she decides to marry him. Charles is the one who is charmed by her beauty. He thought that she would be a perfect wife for him. She did not know much about Charles except his occupation as a doctor. When they get married, she discovered that Charles was a dull and boring man. She even dreamed that she would have found another man who met all her expectations if she had not met Charles: She wondered whether some different set of circumstances might not have resulted in her meeting some different man; and she tried to picture those imaginary circumstances , the life they would have brought her, the unknown other husband. However, she imagined him; he wasn’t a bit like Charles. He might have been handsome, witty, distinguished, magnetic-the kind of man her convent schoolmates had doubtless married (1993:42). It is stated that she has unrealistic expectations. She always wants a perfect and flawless man who never exists in the reality. As Charles’ wife,

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 she is never happy. She spends lot of her days dreaming of things which not seem to be real. She is tortured by her own dreams and expectations: Deep down, all the while, she was waiting for something to happen. Like a sailor in distress, she kept casting desperate glances over the solitary waste of her life, seeking some white sail in the distant mists of the horizon. She had no idea by what wind it would reach her, toward what shore it would bear her, or what kind of craft it would be - tiny boat or towering vessel, laden with heartbreaks or filled to the gunwales with rapture. But every morning when she awoke she hoped that today would be the day; she listened for every sound, gave sudden starts, was surprised when nothing happened; and then, sadder with each succeeding sunset, she longed for tomorrow (1993:58). She always wants some exciting events happen to her life. She is bored with everything in her life. She thinks that her life is so horrible and desperate. She never sees the beauty of her life in the reality. She unconsciously tortures herself with those thought of unfulfilled desire and blames her life for her grief. Emma can just enjoy her life and be happy, but she chooses to be desperate with her life which does not match her unrealistic dreams. It is also stated that her unrealistic expectations are the result of her fondness of reading romantic novels. She expects that life is as wonderful as her novels. She feels strong emotions and passions when she read those novels. She hopes that she can also feel those emotions in the reality: One day when they had said farewell earlier than usual, she caught sight of the walls of her convent as she was walking back alone down the boulevard, and she sank onto a bench in the shade of the elms. How peaceful those days had been! How she had longed for that ineffable emotion of love that she had tried to imagine from her books! (1993:268)

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 Emma is not only expecting a perfect man, but she also longs for a luxurious life. The reality is that she is not rich. Her husband is a second rate doctor who does not earn much for the living. When she comes to the ball, she sees the luxurious life she dreams of and yearns for it: The memory of the ball would not leave her. Every Wednesday she told herself as she woke: 'Ah! One week ago . . . Two weeks ago . . . Three weeks ago, I was there! ‘Little by little the faces grew confused in her mind; she forgot the tune of the quadrille; the liveries and the splendid rooms became blurred. Some of the details departed -but the yearning remained (1993:53). 2. Demanding Emma is also a demanding person, she always wants something. She wants her husband to behave just the way she wants him to be, but he just never meets all her expectations. She also demands her lovers to do certain things to her, she feels disappointed when something does not happen as she expected. Emma thinks that a man should be as romantic and passionate as the character in the romantic novels she read. She demands that a man should be like what she pictured. She thought that it was a man's role, though, to know everything. “Shouldn't he be expert at all kinds of things, able to initiate you into the intensities of passion, the refinements of life, all the mysteries?” (1993:39) Emma feels that her husband’s affection for her is never enough. She thinks that he is not passionate enough; he only embraces her in certain moments and rarely does romantic things to her. She wants her marriage to be passionate. Emma wants her husband to kiss and embrace her passionately until her passion

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 awakened. However, her husband has another way to show his love to her which seems dull to her. The description below explains Emma’s yearning of love and pleasure which she always dreams of: In her longing she made no difference between the pleasures of luxury and the joys of the heart, like Indian plants, require rich soils, special temperatures? Sighs in the moonlight, long embraces, hands bathed in lovers' tears - all the fevers of the flesh and the languors of love - were inseparable from the balconies of great idles-houred castles, from a silkcurtained, thick-carpeted, beflowered boudoir with its bed on a dais, from the sparkle of precious stones and the swank of liveries (1993:55). She wants her husband to be famous only to fulfill her ego and pride. “She would have liked the name Bovary- her name- to be famous, on display in all the bookshops, constantly mentioned in the newspaper, known all over France. But Charles had no ambition!” (1993:57). Emma wants her husband to be famous so she can be proud of becoming his wife. She sees that her husband has no ambition at all to be the renowned doctor in France. She is also demanding to her lovers. She asks Rodolphe to give her a ring, exchanges miniatures and cuts handfuls of each other’s hair as symbols of their love. She wants Rodolphe to show that he truly loves her: Besides, she was becoming frightfully sentimental. They had had to exchange miniatures and cut handfuls of each other's hair; and now she was asking for a ring - a real wedding band, as a sign of eternal union. She often talked to him about the 'bells of evening' or the 'voices of nature’; and she would go on about her mother and his (1993:160). She does not only ask for ring, but she also wants Rodolphe to run away together. She thinks that she will live happily with Rodolphe. She keeps demands

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 him to run away with her. She also wants him to take her daughter, Berthe along. She said to Rodolphe: “But I've been patient for four years! I've suffered for four years! A love like ours is something to boast of! I'm on the rack, with those people! I can't stand it any longer! Rescue me, for God's sake!” (1993:182). She becomes more demanding to Leon, she demands him to dress up in the way she likes. She also wants him to decorate his room with curtains just like hers. In other words, Emma wants Leon to be as perfect as she wants him to be: She demanded that he dress entirely in black and grow a little pointed beard, to make himself look like the portraits of Louis XIII. She asked to see his rooms, and found them very so-so; he reddened at that, but she didn’t notice, and advised him to buy curtains like hers. When he objected to the expense: ‘Ah! So you pinch your pennies!’ she said, laughing. Each time, Leon had to tell her everything he had done since their last rendezvous. She asked for a poem, a poem for herself, a love piece written in her honour; he could never find a rhyme for the second line, and ended up copying a sonnet from a keepsake (1993: 262-263). Even though Emma gets things she always desired, she never gets enough of it. “No matter: she wasn't happy, and never had been. Why was life so unsatisfactory? Why did everything she leaned on crumble instantly to dust?” (1993:268). She is not happy with her life. She is not satisfied with everything. The statement below is also stated that Emma destroys all possible happiness by her excessive demands But what way out was there? She felt humiliated by the degradation of such pleasures; but no avail: she continued to cling to them, out of habit or out of depravity; and every day she pursued them more desperately, destroying all possible happiness by her excessive demands. She blamed Leon for her disappointed hopes, as though he had betrayed her; and she

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 even longed for a catastrophe that would bring about their separation, since she hadn't the courage to bring it about herself (1993:275). 3. Selfish Emma Bovary always thinks of herself and only concerns her own matters. She only cares about her pleasure and passion as if it is the most important thing in her world. Emma's passions are the sole concern of her life: for money she has no more thought than an archduchess (1993:269). She does not really care even though she has lots of debts because of her irresponsible actions. Charles’ career is on the edge since he accidentally failed to surgery his patient, Hippolyte. As Charles’ wife, Emma does not support or console him She feels humiliated, and she thinks that Charles is not even worthy to receive her love. She thinks that Charles is an incompetent and unworthy man. She does not care about his feelings and reputation, she only cares about hers: Emma, sitting opposite, was watching him. She was not participating in his humiliation. She was experiencing a humiliation of a different sort: the humiliation of having imagined that such a man might be worth something – as though she hadn’t twenty times already had full proof of his mediocrity (1993:174). It is also shown that she does not pay much attention to her little daughter, Berthe. As a mother, it is Emma’s duty to take a good care of her daughter who is still a toddler. Emma only thinks about her own afflictions and unfulfilled desires .She pushes Berthe away when she really needs her attention:

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 Then little Berthe was in front of her, tottering in her knitted shoes between the window and the sewing table, trying to reach her mother and catch hold of the ends of her apron strings. ‘Let me alone!’ Emma cried, pushing her away. But a few moments later the little girl was back, this time coming closer. Leaning her arms on her mother’s knees she looked up at her with her big blue eyes and a thread of clear saliva dripped from her lip onto the silk of the apron. ‘Let me alone!’ Emma cried again, very much annoyed. The expression on her face frightened the child, who began to scream. ‘Won’t you let me alone!’ she cried, thrusting her off with her elbow (1993:109). It seems to her that her daughter is not a bundle of joy in her life. She often thinks of her as a burden. She even thinks of her daughter as an ugly child (1993:110). Emma always wants a son, but she gives birth to a daughter and it disappoints her. She rarely takes care of her. She brings her to the wet nurse and the maid takes care of her. She neglects her and she only cares about her passion and adultery. One day, Leon promises to see Emma in the usual place. Unfortunately, Leon cannot reach her in time because there are Monsieur Homais and other pharmacists in his office. It is not Leon’s fault, but Emma blames him. She thinks that Leon should only care about her and ignores other things which are not related to her: She had just left in fury. She hated him. His failure to keep their appointment seemed to her an insult, and she sought additional reasons for seeing no more of him. He was unheroic, weak, commonplace, spineless as a woman, and stingy and timorous to boot (1993:267).

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 4. Deceitful Emma is a deceitful person. Sometimes Emma acts or behaves in some way which makes people believe her. Her husband, Charles always trusts her. He never discovers her mischief until she dies. He thinks that his wife is pure, innocent and perfect. He believes in everything she has said and gives her everything she wants. She also acts as if there is nothing wrong with her. She hates to live in Tostes and she hates her life, but she shows to everyone else that she feels the opposite way:”She keep saying that they have to be careful since they weren’t rich; and she always went on to add that she was very contented, very happy, that she likes Tostes very much; and she made other surprising statements that shut up her mother-in-law” (1993:61). When she commits adultery with Rodolphe and Leon, she finds a way so her husband and mother-in-law will not discover her mischief. She goes to see Rodolphe when her husband is not around: “She had dared and won; and from then on, each time that Charles went out early she quickly dressed and stole down the river stairs” (1993:154). Emma also thinks of another way which is safer. Emma even thinks of bribing her maid with present, but it is too risky. The safer way is to find another place in Yonville where nobody can see her with Rodolphe (1993:158). She even makes a more convincing lie when she wants to see Leon. She shows her husband that she is very talented, but she cannot develop her piano skill. Everyone start to pity her because she has such wonderful talent. They think that her talent will be wasted because she cannot take the piano course. Then

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 Emma suggests taking a piano lesson in Paris which actually is a lie. “That is how she obtains her husband's permission to go to the city once a week to meet her lover. Emma uses her talent to play piano as an excuse. By the end of the first month everyone finds that her playing has improved considerably” (1993:247). She goes to see her lover once in a week in the hotel and she also takes the longest way so nobody sees her: For the fear of being seen, she usually didn’t take the shortest way. She would plunge into a maze of dark alleys, and emerge, hot and perspiring, close to the fountain at the lower end of the Rue Nationale (1993:249). One day when her husband starts to discover her lie, she uses another lie to cover it. She piles lie upon lie, using them as veils to conceal her love (1993:256). 5. Religious Emma is also a religious person. It is stated since the beginning of the chapter: When Emma was thirteen, his father took her to the city to enter her as a boarder in the convent; she enjoyed the company of the nuns (1993:33). It is clear that she is raised in an environment which has strong religion influence even though she grows restive under the discipline, which is antipathetic to the nature (1993:37). Emma believes in God and she also goes to the church regularly (1993:101). Her devotion to religion might be her runaway of unfulfilled desires and her dissatisfaction of life. When she feels down, she talks to a Priest, hoping he will

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 hear her and ease away her pain and worries. Unfortunately, the priest does not really care about her and leave before she can tell her stories (1993:106-107). She relies on a religion ritual to heal her sickness. “One day at the height of her sickness, when she thought she was dying, she had asked for communion” (1993:200). She believes that a communion can ease away her worries and her sickness. This shows her belief to her religion and she also thinks that the communion helps her to get rid of her undying love to Rodolphe.”It seemed to her that her spirit, ascending to God, was about to find annihilation in this love, like burning incense dissolving in smoke” (1993:201). Emma is sure that the communion can finally heal her obsession to the adultery. It makes her bury the image of Rodolphe in her unconscious mind. When she has an appointment with Leon in the Cathedral, she forces herself to pray to God. She believes that heaven will send her the strength of will so she can get through everything: Emma was praying, or rather forcing herself to pray, in the hope that heaven might miraculously send her strength of will; and to draw down divine aid she filled her eyes with the splendors of the tabernacle, she breathed the fragrance of the sweet rockets, white and lush in their tall vases, and she listened intently to the silence of the church, which only increased the tumult of her heart (1993:228).

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 B. The Way Emma’s Characteristics Leads Her to Adultery in The Perspective of Freudian Three-Part Model of Personality This section is divided into three parts which consist of the explanation of Emma’s Id, Ego and Superego and its relation to Emma’s characteristics as unrealistic, demanding, selfish, deceitful and religious woman. 1. The Interrelation Between Emma’s Characteristic and Her Adultery As the main protagonist of Madame Bovary, Emma Bovary is a character which is considered as a realistic and round character. Unlike most protagonists in mid 19th literature, Emma has lots of corrupted traits. She is unrealistic, demanding, selfish and also deceitful. However, Emma is also a religious woman who believes in God and regularly goes to church. This section explains the interrelation between Emma’s characteristic as unrealistic, demanding, selfish, deceitful and religious woman and its relation to her adultery as reflected in Madame Bovary. Emma’s characteristics as unrealistic, demanding, deceitful and selfish woman play a big role in her adultery. Emma always wants something which represents her dreams. She dreams of having a wonderful marriage but things do not turn as she expects. Before her marriage she had thought that she had love within her grasp; but since the happiness which she had expected this love to bring her had not come, she supposed she must have been mistaken. (1993:32-33).

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 As an unrealistic woman, Emma is also very demanding. She has an unrealistic demand of her ideal lover. She demands that a man should be able to know everything, talented and initiates her to intensities and passion (1993:39). Then, she finds out that her husband, Charles does not fulfill her requirements and it leads her to disappointment. Emma only thinks about herself and her passion as the sole concern of her life (1993:269). When she meets Leon, she tries to repress her love. Her awareness of the moral value in her society holds her back against her desires. Her desires turn out to be repressed. Then, she continues her life as a good wife and she also goes to church regularly (1993:101). Unfortunately, Rodolphe weakens her defense. Rodolphe is a man who fulfills all her demands; he is handsome, rich and also a smooth talker. He is able to awaken her desires and passion. Emma’s unrealistic nature thinks that Rodolphe is her true love and the love she has with Rodolphe is something that she always dreams of. She cannot see that Rodolphe only uses her to satisfy his lust. She thinks that Rodolphe truly loves her as much as she loves him. Emma’s demanding nature also brings her into disappointment when her husband’s career is on the edge. Charles seems to her so repulsive, so thick- fingered, so heavy-witted, so common (1993:176). When she realizes that her husband is not as good as she expected, she runs to Rodolphe and thinks of running away with him. As a playboy, Rodolphe prefers to end their relationship which makes Emma desperate.

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 Emma becomes more religious during her depression. She takes communions which she thinks can ease away her feelings for Rodolphe. When she thinks that she has already recovered, Leon comes back to her life. Leon becomes more aggressive and plans to reveal his love to Emma. At first Emma is defensive and rejects him, but she is not able to repress her love to him anymore. She thinks of Leon as a man she has always dreamed of. She lies to her husband and makes excuses so she can see him once a week in the city. Her characteristic as a deceitful woman helps her to hide her mischief to her husband and mother in law. She gives her all to Leon and also becomes more demanding to him. She does not mind to pay large amount of money to Lheureux who discovers her infidelity. She does not care even though her family runs out of money. Later, she feels that Leon has failed to fulfill her expectations. In the end of the story Emma kills herself by drinking arsenic. Emma’s unrealistic nature turns her into a woman who always wants something which is impossible to reach. She ignores everything and does anything to fulfill her desires. She is always so demanding and she will do everything to fulfill her demands. She thinks only about herself. She does not really care about her own family and her husband even though he truly loves and cares about her. Those characteristics lead her to adultery. She can hide everything through her deceitful nature. The only thing which holds her back against her desires to commit adultery is her internalized norms and religion regulation. Emma rejects Rodolphe and Leon before she agrees to be their

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 lover. Unfortunately, Emma chooses to fulfill her desires than following her internalized norm. 2. The Relation between Emma’s Characteristic and Her Adultery in the Perspective of Freudian Three Part Model of Personality This section explains more about the relation between Emma’s characteristic and her adultery in the perspective of Freudian Three Part Model of Personality. The previous section has already explained about the relation between Emma’s characteristic and her adultery. Based on the previous analysis, Emma’s personality as unrealistic, demanding, selfish, deceitful and religious are related to her adultery. In this section, Freudian psychoanalytic theory is used to relate those traits to Emma’s Three Part Model of personality. The theory helps to analyze Emma through her psyche and reveal her psychological conflict in the novel. Her characteristics as unrealistic, demanding, deceitful and selfish are represented the Id, her characteristic as religious woman represented the superego and her characteristic as deceitful woman represents her ego. A. Emma’s Three Part Model of Personality 1. Emma’s Id Emma’s Id is strongly related to her characteristics as unrealistic, demanding, deceitful and selfish woman. She loves to read romantic novels and listen to romantic songs. Those characteristics play a big role in her adultery and become a main factor of her adultery. According to Pettijohn, the Id contains two major instincts: the life instinct and death instinct (1992:262). The life instinct is

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 related to the sexual desire and any pleasurable activity while death instinct includes aggression and destruction. In Madame Bovary, Emma is described as a woman who has a strong desire and passion for love. She longs to have a wonderful love story just like the romantic novels she used to read. When she marries her husband, Charles, she feels disappointed because her marriage does not turn out as she expected. It is stated that Charles’s conversation was flat as a sidewalk, a place of passage for the ideas of everyman; he wore drab everyday clothes, and he inspired neither laughter nor dreams (1993: 38).Emma is disappointed with Charles. She expects Charles to be her prince, a romantic man who can lure out her passions. It seems that Emma does not consider Charles as an attractive man for her. However, Charles feels the opposite: She wondered whether some different set of circumstances might not have resulted in her meeting some different man; and she tried to picture those imaginary circumstances , the life they would have brought her, the unknown other husband. However, she imagined him; he wasn’t a bit like Charles. He might have been handsome, witty, distinguished, magnetic-the kind of man her convent schoolmates had doubtless married (1993:42). She dreams she will meet someone better if she had not married Charles. She dreams of a handsome, witty, distinguished and magnetic man. Those are the characteristics of most male main characters in romantic novels she always reads. Emma unrealistic nature also grows her expectations of an ideal life. She always wants something which is represented the Id. Emma longs to travel; she longs to go back and live in the convent. She wants to die. And she wants to live in Paris (1993:56). She thinks that her

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 marriage life is worse than her life in the convent, so she longs to go back there. Her conditions makes she feel that it is better for her to just die. She wants to live in Paris which is a capital city when she can fulfil her demand of glamorous live. Emma has a strong desire on having an excitable life which is influenced by her personality and her past life. Emma has been oppressed by her unrealistic dreams and desires. Day by day she thinks of the same things, same conditions, and same situations. That way of thinking makes her tired of it and traps into it. She sees the reality as a contrast to her dream. She reacted to the drabness of her home by indulging in day-dreams of luxury, and to matrimonial caresses by adulterous desires. She wished that Charles would beat her: then she would feel more justified in hating him and betraying him out of revenge. (1993:103) Emma’s thoughts are full of her unreachable desires. She wants to commit adultery. When she falls in love with Leon, she can repress her affections toward him. Most of the time Emma keeps following what her Id wants. It is showed when Emma seduces by Rodolphe, a playboy who wants to make Emma his mistress. Emma falls on his hand and considers it as a joy of her passion: 'I have a lover! I have a lover!' She kept repeating to herself, reveling in the thought as though she were beginning a second puberty. At last she was going to know the joys of love, the fever of the happiness she had despaired of. She was entering a marvelous real where all would be passion, ecstasy, rapture: she was in the midst of an endless blue expanse, scaling the glittering heights of passion; everyday life had receded, and lay far below, in the shadows between those peaks. (1993:53) As an unrealistic woman she always longs for a perfect love life. It makes her easily seduced. Her defenses are not strong enough to repel those love charms.

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 Emma not only gives all her love to Rodolphe, it is also mentioned in the novel that she gives gifts to him which are expensive. “When she decided she wanted to give Rodolphe a handsome riding crop she had seen in an umbrella shop in Rouen, she told Lheureux to get it for her, and he set it on her table a week later” (1993:178). Ironically, her family starts to run out of money, but she only cares about her lover. She is selfish to only think about fulfilling her own pleasure while her family has money matters. Most of Emma’s Id represents the life desire which is a pleasurable activity. When she commits adultery, she thinks of it as a pleasure. It is shown in her thoughts: “Adultery was triumphant; and she reveled in the prospect of its sordid ironies. The thought of her lover made her reel with desire; heart and soul she flung herself into her longing, borne toward hum on waves of new rapture” (1993:175). When Rodolphe leaves her, she feels that all her passions have gone away with his shadow. She feels depressed and she tries to forget him. Unfortunately she meets Leon. Then, her repressed affections start to rise, so her Id, once again dominates her. They go to hotel and so completely lost in their possession of each other. They imagine the hotel as their own home and behave as if they already become husband and wife. Then after kisses, came a flood of words. They spoke of the troubles of the week, of their forebodings, their worries about letters; but now they could forget everything, and they looked into each other's eyes, laughing with delight and exchanging loving names (1993:250)

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 Emma is dominated by her Id. Emma enjoys this passion in a way that was both deliberate and intense, keeping it alive by every amorous device at her command, and fearing all the while that some day it would come to an end (1993:254). At first her Id might only contain the life instinct which fulfills her sexual needs and pleasurable activity. Later, her Id starts to destruct herself. When her husband almost suspects her infidelity, she starts to lie to him. She does not even feel guilty to her husband. “Lying became a need, a mania, a positive joy - to such a point that if she said that she had walked down the right-hand side of a street the day before, it meant that she had gone down the left.” (1993: 256) Emma only wants to fulfill her passion and desires. Emma goes off to see Leon whenever she feels like it even though Lheureux, a shopkeeper catches her red handed and threats her to give him some money, unless he will tell Charles about Emma’s infidelity. It is stated that Emma thinks of her passion as the sole concerns in her life (1993:269). Emma has been possessed and consumed by her own Id. At other times, seared by that hidden fire which her adultery kept feeding, consumed with longing, feverish with desire, she would open her window, inhale the cold air, let the heavy mass of her hair stream out in the wind: as she gazed at the stars she wished she were loved by a prince (1993:273). Her Id turns her life into chaos; she has lots of debts. At the end of her adultery, she still cannot stop longing for a lover who can fulfill all her dreams and desires as stated below:“But as her pen flew over the paper she was aware of the presence of another man, a phantom embodying her most ardent memories, the most beautiful things she had read and her strongest desires” (1993: 275).

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 Her debts make her feel depressed. She thinks of some way in which she can get some money to pay her debts. She even thinks to ask some money from Rodolphe by seducing him which means that she actually prostitutes herself (1993:292). Unfortunately, Rodolphe also runs out of money then refuses her offer. In the end of the story Emma just ends her misery by drinking arsenic which leads to her death. This proves the death instinct of the Id which is destruction. Emma feels like she has lost her youth. “She loathed everything, including herself. She longed to fly away like a bird, to recapture her youth somewhere far away in the immaculate reaches of space” (1993:276). Emma used to live in a convent while she was a young woman. She loves to read romantic novels. All she knows is that romance is as wonderful and passionate as romantic novels. She has never engaged in romantic relationship before. Her expectations are driven by her unrealistic and demanding nature. She always wants something. She only cares about nothing but her own desires. It is all her expectations which ruin her, and her lack of control of her Id. 2. Emma’s Superego Superego consists of societal and parental values that have been instilled in a person. It represents the person moral aspect and is idealistic rather than realistic (1992:262). Emma’s superego strongly relates to her characteristic as a religious woman. She lives in a society which has a strong religious background. In her childhood times she lives in a nunnery which supposes to have a strict morality background.

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 Even though Emma’s Id dominates her, Emma still has some moral values which reflected in some part of this story. Soon when Emma meets Leon who is younger than her; she feels emotional connection and similarities with Leon as mentioned in conversation below: 'How true!' She said, her great dark eyes fixed widely on him. 'I'm absolutely removed from the world at such times," he said. 'The hours go by without my knowing it. Sitting there I'm wandering in countries I can see every detail of- I'm playing a role in the story I'm reading. I actually feel I'm the characters- I live and breathe with them.' 'I know!' She said. 'I feel the same!' (1993:80) She feels emotional connection with Leon who is a romantic person. He understands much about art, music and literature which her husband does not care about. Thus a kind of intimacy grows up between them, a continual exchange of books and ballads. They also communicate constantly; she gives gifts to Leon which most people finds suspicious, but Monsieur Bovary is not jealous; he finds it all quite natural (1993:94). Emma finds that Leon is far more attractive than her husband. She cannot take her mind off him and she starts to fall in love with him. She found him charming; she could not take her mind off him; she remembered how he had looked on other occasions, things he had said, the sound of his voice, everything about him; and she kept saying to herself, protruding her lips as though for a kiss: 'Charming, charming!.. Isn't he in love? Who could it be?' She asked herself. 'Why- he's in love with me!' (1993: 97) It is clear that Emma has affections toward Leon and the feeling is mutual. She wants to express her love to Leon, but this time she does not follow her Id. Instead

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 of following her desires, she represses her love and starts to be a good mother and wife for her family:“It was the same the following days: her talk, her manner, everything changed. She immersed herself in household tasks, went regularly to church, and was stricter with the maid” (1993:101). Emma’s superego is also reflected when Rodolphe seduces her at the first time, Emma refuses him. In her conversation with Rodolphe, she says something about morality which determined by the society: 'No! Why preach against the passions? Aren't they the only beautiful thing in this world, the source of heroism, enthusiasm, poetry, music, the arts, everything?' 'But still,' said Emma, 'we have to be guided a little by society's opinions; we have to follow its standards of morality.' (1993:136) The conversation shows that she agrees that people should follow the moral standard of society and she disagrees with Rodolphe’s opinion who thinks that people should follow their passion without caring about religion and moral standard. What Emma says is her internalized moral standard which is influenced by the society she lived in. The time when Emma takes a horse ride with Rodolphe, she also refuses when Rodolphe tries to seduce her. She demands Rodolphe to take her back home: She rose to leave. He grasped her wrist. She stood still and gave him a long look, her eyes moist and tender. Then she said hastily: “Please – let’s not talk about it any more. Where are the horses? Let’s go back.” A movement of angry displeasure escaped him. “Where are the horses?’ she asked again. ‘Where are the horses?” Then smiling a strange smile, staring fixedly, his teeth clenched, he advanced toward her with arms outstretched. She drew back trembling. “You’re frightening me!” she stammered. “What are you doing? Take me back!” (1993:151)

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 The conversation above shows that Emma is not comfortable with Rodolphe’s action. She tries to defend herself against Rodolphe’s seduction and she makes it. Emma still can control her Id that time. She chooses to refuse instead of surrender against his assault. Sometimes Emma tries to love her husband. She thinks of it as the proper thing to do. She has married him after all. It just that Emma cannot find things about Charles that she can love. She even wondered why she detested Charles, and whether it mightn't be better to try to love him. But there was so little about him to which her resurgent feeling could attach itself that she was at a loss as to how to put her noble resolution into effect. (1993:163) One day while she thinks about her former lover, Rodophe. Emma tries to focus on her husband: “For a moment the thinks of Rodolphe crossed her mind; but then her eyes swung back to Charles, and she noticed with surprise that his teeth weren't bad at all” (1993:167). Society moral standards emphasize that a wife should be loyal to her husband and that is what Emma tries to do when she focuses on her husband: In her era which is the mid 19th century, religion was the most important aspect which every person should have. People were demanded to be religious and let everything happened in the hands of God. It is reflected when Emma wants to take a communion which she believes to cure her diseases and purifies her (1993:200-201). Emma’s initiative to take a communion shows that Emma is a religious person. In Emma’s society, a religious person is someone who has high

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 morality and passes the society moral standards. She also feels that the communion helps her to forget Rodolphe. On her second encounter with Leon, Emma also refuses him in the first time. She wants to write a letter to him. The letter states that she wants to cancel their appointment and they should not have to meet again: That night Emma wrote the clerk an endless letter canceling their appointment: everything was over between them, and for the sake of their own happiness they must never meet again. But when she finished the letter she didn’t know what to do with it – she hadn’t Leon’s address (1993:226) This shows that Emma actually conscious that adultery is not a good thing and it is better for her to forget Leon. She also says that Leon is too young for her and Leon must find another girl to love instead of her, it is stated in a quotation below: “No, no,' she said. ‘I’m too old.... You're too young.... Forget me! You'll find other women to love you... and to love” (1993:224). However, her refusal does not seem to make Leon gives up on her. In the society, it is immoral for a married woman to have affair with another man, especially if a man is far younger than the woman. Emma’s moral standard is also reflected when she goes to the cathedral and Leon asks her to go in the middle of the tour. Emma thinks that it is improper for them to just leave the cathedral: “'Oh Leon! Really - I don't know whether I should . . .!” She simpered. Then, in a serious tone: “It's very improper, you know.” “What's improper about it?”Retorted the clerk. “Everybody does it in Paris!”(1993:231)

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 In the enlightenment era, some people started to be skeptic with religion and rely on science and reason. Emma used to live in a small country which was conservative. The conversation above shows that Emma still holds her conservative moral standard that everyone should be respectful to religion. In the end of the story she comes to Maitre Guillaumin who is a notary to ask for 3000 francs to pay her debts. She tells all her stories and Guillaumin tries to seduce her. He seized her by the waist. A flood of crimson rushed into Madame Bovary’s face. She shrank back, and will a terrible look she cried: 'It's shameless of you to take advantage of my distress! I'm to be pitied, but I'm not for sale!' And she walked out. (1993:287) Surprisingly, Emma who has committed adultery refuses the notary. She says to him that she is not for sale. This shows that Emma still has her morality; she does not want to prostitute herself for the notary. She chooses to leave and hold her pride as a woman. Unfortunately, her superego cannot protect her any longer to repress her Id; she starts to disobey the social norms and commits adultery which is considered as immoral. Until the end of her life, Id is the strongest and she does not care anymore of her superego.

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 3. Emma’s Ego Ego acts as the mediator between the Id and Superego. The ego operates on the reality principle, and tries to find socially acceptable ways to gratify the Id (1992:262). Emma is an unrealistic person which means that she refuses the reality around her. She refuses the fact that she is a married woman who has an imperfect husband and a daughter who she never expects. She detests her marriage life and blames it for her sufferings. It explains Emma’s lack of accepting and seeing the reality around her which is a contradictory to Ego which operates on reality principle. Sometimes Emma tries to accept the reality by doing her duty as a wife and mother. She also tries to love her husband even though it is hard for her. Her Ego pushes her to wake up from her unrealistic dream and makes her aware to the reality around her. Ego also keeps the balance between Id and Superego, but Emma’s Ego lack of it. Whenever Emma fulfils her Id, her superego suffers and it also applies in the other way around. For example, when Emma does her duty, she is not happy and her wish is not fulfilled and she also against morality when she commits adultery. Emma’s personality as a deceitful woman helps her to fulfill her Id secretly even though adultery is never considered as something acceptable by Emma’s society. She also cannot find an alternative way to substitute the role of adultery to fulfill her desires and passion. Sometimes Emma tries to follow her superego by doing her role as a wife and mother. In that way she is accepted by the society, but her Id is left unsatisfied.

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 In Madame Bovary Emma is portrayed as a woman who only cares about her own desires. The only way to make her Id satisfied is to commit adultery which is against the norm of her society. Emma commits adultery with Rodolphe and Leon in a secret place unknown by her husband. However, some people start to find out about her affairs. She has a desire of having an excitable romance with a man, who can fulfill all of her needs. She decides to do it secretly because she is a wife of someone else. “The next day, therefore, Emma and Rodolphe discussed the best way of arranging their meetings. Emma was for bribing her maid with a present, but it would be better if they could find some other, safer place in Yonville” (1993:158). Bribing a maid might be a safe decision, but it is safer for Emma to do it when there is nobody around. As Charles’ wife, she cannot be seen with another man. The society will start to say something bad about her and ruin her reputation. The most important thing is that Emma does not want her husband and mother-in-law to discover her infidelity. It is best for her to arrange the meetings and meet up with her lover in a secret place. When she meets Leon again, Leon says to Emma that he wants to see Emma again. Emma chooses to meet him in the Cathedral at eleven. It can be seen through the conversation below: “Ah! Now you’re laughing at me! Please don’t! Have pity on me: let me see you again. Once – just once.” ‘Well. . .’ She paused; then , as though changing her mind: “Not here, certainly!” “Wherever you like.” “Will you. . .” She seems to ponder; and then, tersely:

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 “Tomorrow at eleven in the cathedral.” (1993:225) The cathedral is a public place and also a place to pray. So, it is considered as a proper place for them to meet up without being suspected by other people. People will think that they just pray and do not do anything suspicious. When she commits adultery with Leon, Emma lies to her husband that she wants to take a piano course in the city as the excuse to meet Leon, her lover. She makes her husband sympathize her because she is so talented in playing piano. She thinks that her husband will never discover her lie. She obtains her husband’s permission to go to the city once a week to meet her lover and to make it more convincing; she shows everyone that she improves her piano skill. Emma even takes the long way to the city so nobody will see her. She is also aware of her reputation: “For fear of being seen, she usually didn't take the shortest way. She would plunge into a maze of dark alleys, and emerge, hot and perspiring, close to the fountain at the lower end of the Rue Nationale.” (1993:249) By taking the long route, nobody will see her. It saves her reputation as Charles Bovary’s wife. Those Emma’s acts are the way Emma satisfy the Id in the appropriate and acceptable way because nobody knows about it. Adultery is not acceptable in society. It is considered as an immoral act. So, it is better for the adulterer or adulteress to hide their infidelity. Emma has done a great job to hide all her actions without her husband knowing it. However, in the end of the story when Emma dies, her husband finally knows everything about her infidelities by discovering Rodolphe’s and Leon’s letters in her box.

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 C. The Interaction between Emma’s Three Part Model of Personality to Her Adultery In order to simplify the whole analysis, the writer decides to make a chart which shows a more systematic explanation of this section. This section explains more about how Emma’s Three Part Model of personality interacts and leads her to adultery. Emma Bovary’s Characteristics Unrealistic Demanding Id (Desires) Selfish Deceitful Ego (Reality Principle) Adultery Religious Superego (Morality)

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 The chart above shows that Emma has five characteristics which are portrayed in the novel. Emma is unrealistic, demanding, selfish, deceitful and religious. Emma’s characteristics as unrealistic, demanding and selfish represent the Ego. Emma’s characteristic as a deceitful woman represents the Ego and her religious characteristic represents her Ego. Ego is the mediator between Id and Superego and its role is to keep the balance between Id and Superego. There are two kinds of arrows from the Ego which is pointed at Id and Superego. The bold arrow shows that Ego tends to be on Id side. In this case, Ego functions as a means of reaching the reality of what is demanded by the Id. It is represented by Emma’s characteristic as a deceitful woman. The thin and broken arrow shows the Ego weak support to the Superego. Ego fulfills Id wishes, but not in a way which Superego can accept. Superego is a moral principle which holds internalized moral standard. Adultery is considered as immoral in the society. Emma’s Id is the most dominant thing in her personality and it influences the Ego to follow her Id. Her decisions are mostly influenced by her own desires. Emma wants to make her dreams come true. She thinks that the love she feels when she commits adultery with Rodolphe and Leon is the love she always wants. She knows that adultery is not the right thing, but it can fulfill her desires. Her desires awake when she falls in love with Leon. That time, her Superego helps her to repress her love to him. She decides to repress her love to Leon. This shows how Emma’s Superego helps her to limit her desires and makes her to behave in a socially acceptable way. Emma grows in a society which holds strong moral

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 values. The conversation below shows how Emma internalized the moral values in her society: 'No! Why preach against the passions? Aren't they the only beautiful thing in this world, the source of heroism, enthusiasm, poetry, music, the arts, everything?' 'But still,' said Emma, 'we have to be guided a little by society's opinions; we have to follow its standards of morality.' (1993:136) Rodolphe thinks that everyone should embrace their passions and ignore society’s opinion and morality, but Emma disagrees. She still cares about the society standards of morality. She thinks that it is necessary to be guided by society’s opinion. She also refuses at the first time Rodolphe seduces her. She thinks that it is inappropriate to commit adultery. However, she cannot resist Rodolphe and she chooses to be with him. Her Superego takes over again when Rodolphe leaves her. She even relies on religion and does her duty as a good wife for her husband. However, Emma’s Ego does not help to maintain the balance between Emma’s Id and Superego. Her Ego often fulfills the demand of her Id in a more realistic way. Emma’s Ego tends to be in her Id side than her Superego. Emma always uses many excuses and lies to cover up her infidelity so her husband does not find out. Emma’s excuses and lies are her ultimate tools which help her to fulfill her Id in the more realistic way. Emma cannot clearly show her adultery to the society and also her family. In order to fulfill her desires, she needs to do it secretly. Emma’s Ego forces her to try accepting the reality when it is on Superego side. Emma tries to accept the reality that she is a wife of a dull second

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 life doctor who will never be a man of her dreams. She has average life, her husband is not rich and she cannot live a luxurious life she always dreams of. The way she accepts the reality is by doing her duty as Charles’ wife and lives her life in the way it ought to be even though it is bitter for her. Whenever Emma’s Ego follows the Superego, it completely ignores the Id and it makes Emma suffer because she cannot fill her desires. Emma’s Ego also ignores the Superego completely when it fulfills the Id. Emma is not happy when she does her duty as a good wife and mother to her family. She still thinks of her dreams and desires. She cannot stop yearning for it. Later, she meets Leon who recalls her desires. Her Superego tries to restrain the Id, but Emma’s desires strive against the Superego. Emma is dominated by her Id and she starts to think that the only thing which can fulfill her Id is adultery and there is no other way which can feed her Id in the way adultery does. Adultery gives Emma a love she always yearns of. It gives her a passion she always imagines when she reads those romantic novels. Emma is not happy with her marriage. She hates the reality that her husband is a dull and boring man. Charles cannot give Emma a passion she yearns of. To be a good wife for him is against her will. It pains her, but according to morality she has to do it. Adultery is always considered as something which is against morality. The best thing Emma can do is only to do it secretly so nobody will discover her infidelity. Emma does not care about her own family crisis. She only wants to be with Leon. She thinks that adultery is the sole concern in her life. Her Ego fails to balance the Id and Superego. Emma enjoys her adultery and she is willing to pay

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 large amount of money to Lheureux who discovers her adultery. Emma desires destroy everything in her life. Her family runs out of money and she blames Leon for everything. Emma is not happy even though she has fulfilled her desires. She thinks that everything is not exactly like what she always wants. Emma is a very demanding person and everything is never enough to satisfy her. It shows her Ego’s tendency to the Id. The fact that Emma’s Ego tends to be on the Id’s side and her Ego cannot balance between the Id and Superego makes her easily seduced to do everything in filling her desires. However, she still has morals even though in the end her Ego ignores the Superego and follows the Id. Her Superego is not strong enough to fight against her Id. However, Madame Bovary is still a part of literature which can be analyzed through other aspects. It has been mentioned before that Freudian three part model of personality still has flaws when it is applied to analyze a literary work. Freudian three part model of personality can only see Emma’s adultery from her inner perspective as a person. In its relation to literary aspects, Emma’s adultery is also influenced by other external factors such as her society, her past life and also her husband. The setting of Madame Bovary is in the mid 19th century when men are still considered more superior than women. Her father sent Emma to the convent when she was a little girl. Even since she was a girl, she loves to read romantic novels. She fascinated by the passion and desires which is portrayed by those novels. Those novels influence her point of view about love and marriage. When Charles asks Monsieur Roault’s permission to marry Emma,

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 he approves it. Emma also agrees because she thinks marriage can change her life which is boring and tedious. Then, everything turns out to be far beyond her expectations. Charles is dull, boring and flat. Other than her Id, her disappointment also drives her to adultery.

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION This chapter contains the conclusion of the thesis. The object of the thesis is a novel, Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert. There are two questions formulated in this thesis. The first question is about Emma’s characteristics as portrayed in Madame Bovary and the second question is the relation between Emma’s characteristic to her adultery from the perspective of Freudian Three Part Model of personality. The first subject of this study is Emma’s Bovary characterization. The analysis reveals Emma’s characteristic as unrealistic, demanding, selfish, deceitful and religious woman. Emma’s characteristic as an unrealistic woman is influenced by her fondness of romantic novel. She has high hopes that Charles can be the one who brings her unrealistic dreams into reality. She longs for a perfect love life and those dreams keep her away from the reality. She is also a demanding person who always wants everything to be perfect. She demands that a man has to be like those men pictured in romantic novels. She also becomes demanding to her lover and asks them to give her whatever she wants as their proof of love to her. As a wife and mother, Emma rarely thinks of her family. She always thinks about herself. She is a selfish woman. She ignores her daughter who really needs her attention. She is forced to pay large amount of money to Lheureux because he discovers her infidelity. She rarely fails to hide her infidelity to her husband and mother in law. She always thinks of a safe way to cover up her 56

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 57 mischief and she often succeeds. Her husband is the one who always believes her and he even does not discover her infidelity until she is dead. Besides those negative traits, Emma is a religious woman. She used to live in the convent and she also lives in a society which holds strong religion and moral values. Emma believes in God. Sometimes Emma prays and she also takes communion to ease away her worries. Emma’s characteristic as unrealistic, demanding and selfish woman makes it easy for her to be seduced with another man. Emma always thinks of adultery as something which awakens her passions. Adultery helps Emma to run away from the reality and fulfill her desires. For Emma, the love she feels when she commits adultery is the love that she always wants. She does not even realize that her husband, Charles gives her more love than anyone else can do. Charles’ personality makes it hard for him to express his love in the way Emma wants him to. He cannot fulfil Emma excessive demands. Her happiness, passion and desire are the most important thing for Emma. Her characteristic as a deceitful woman gives her a benefit to hide her mischief from her husband. Emma’s characteristic as a religious woman sometimes prevents her from commit adultery, but it is not enough to control her. In the perspective of Freudian Three-Part of personality which contains Id as the pleasure principle, Superego as the moral principle and Ego as the reality principle. Emma Bovary‘s characteristics as unrealistic, demanding and selfish represents the Id. Emma’s characteristic as a religious woman represents her Superego and her characteristic as a deceitful woman represents her Ego. Ego

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 58 functions as a means of reaching the reality demanded by the Id. Her deceitful characteristic helps Emma to fulfill her Id in a more secretive way which is more acceptable. Emma’s Id is stronger than another of her personality part. Most of her characteristics represent the Id. There is only one characteristic which represents her Superego. In the whole story Emma has struggled to deal with the demands of her Id and she often follows the Id than Superego. Her Ego fails to balance between her Id and Superego. The Ego acts like a broken scale which always put a large weight of one side of it. There is only one side which is satisfied. Emma’s Ego cannot fulfil both Id and Superego in the same time. In other words, Emma cannot balance her Id and Superego and the most dominant thing is her Id. The dominance of Emma’s Id is the strongest factor of her adultery. Emma often follows her pleasure principle and forgets about morality. Her characteristic as unrealistic woman makes her unaware of the reality. It explains why Emma’s Ego tends to fulfill her Id’s desire than follows the moral standards. Human basic instincts are the major elements of the Id. The writer concludes that Emma’s adultery is strongly influenced by the tendency of the Ego towards the Id. Adultery is a result of Emma’s Ego which ignores Superego and tries to fulfill the Id’s demands. A psychologically healthy person has Ego as a dominant force, but Emma’s Id dominates her and her Ego is unable to balance the Id and Superego. However, Emma’s disappointment to her husband and her background also becomes the factor which is also influenced her to commit adultery. Her husband, Charles is unable to fulfill her desires. Charles’

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 way of loving her is way too different from Emma’s perception of love and marriage.

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Terms: Ninth Edition, USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory, New York: Manchester University Press, 2002. Carrolo, Kim. Infidelity Gender Gap Is Closing.ABC News. June 20, 2011. (http://abcnews.go.com/m/story?id=13885519). March23, 2014. Duncombe, Jean. The State of Affairs: Explorations in Infidelityand Commitment, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004. Flaubert, Gustave.Madame Bovary: Translated by Francis Steegmuller. New York: Alfred A. KNOPF, Inc, 1957. Gay, Peter. The Freud Reader,New York:W. W. Norton & Company, 1989. Guerin, Wilfred. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature: Sixth Edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Heller,Sharon. Freud A to Z, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. Houston, Ruth. Men and Women Cheat For Entirely Different Reasons. The Woman’s Connection. n.p.(http://www.womansconnection.com/ar_men_and_women_cheat_for_entirely_different_reasons. htm). March 23, 2014. Humm, Maggie. Feminism: A Reader. New York: Harverster Wheatsheaf, 1992. Lastiyanto, Yohanes. “An Analysis of Central Character in Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary Based on the Theory of Self-concept.”Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2001. Murphy, M.J. Understanding Unseens, London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1972. Pettijohn, Terry. Psychology: A Concise Introduction.Connecticut: The Dushkin PublishingGroup,1987. Prasetyanigrum, Eko. “The influence of Emma Rouault`s traits of character upon her daily affairs in Gustave Flaubert`s Madame Bovary.”Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2001. Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren. Theory of Literature. Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1963. 60

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX 1. Summary of Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary Madame Bovary tells a story about a beautiful French woman, Emma Rouault who is married to Charles Bovary, an unremarkable doctor. Emma is an unrealistic woman with a dream of having a great marriage and great life. She loves to read romantic novels and always expects that marriage will be as passionate as the story in the novel. She is disappointed on her husband who is dull and unattractive that makes her marriage dull and far beyond her expectation. She regrets her decision to marry her husband. Her beauty attracts men, including Leon the clerk who is younger than Emma. Emma and Leon have lots of similarities. She loves him, but she tries to repress her love to him. She feels guilty and does her duty as a good wife and mother. After Leon leaves, Emma meets Rodolphe, a playboy who wants to make Emma his mistress. At first, Emma refuses him, but she cannot resist his seduction anymore. Emma starts to think that Rodolphe is her true love. She is willing to do anything for him. She gives him expensive gifts and lots of affection. When Charles’ career is on the edge, Emma feels humiliated, and she thinks that Charles is not even worthy to receive her love. She asks Rodolphe to run away together and bring her daughter, Berthe along. As a playboy, Rodolphe chooses to leave Emma. Emma feels sad, disappointed and tries to forget Rodolphe so that she becomes desperately ill. Charles does everything to help her recover from her 61

(76) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 62 sickness and he also struggles to pay Emma’s debts. Then, Charles takes Emma to the opera in the nearby city of Rouen. There, they encounter Leon. This meeting brings Emma repressed love into the surface. Leon seduces Emma and they start a love affair. Emma lies to her husband so she can see Leon. Unfortunately, Lheureux, a money lender discovers her adultery and threatens her. Emma has no other choice than pay large amount of money to him. Her debts increased but she does not care at all because she thinks that adultery is the sole concern of her life. She enjoys her adultery with Leon. Over time, Emma grows bored with Leon. Not knowing how to abandon him, she instead becomes increasingly demanding. Meanwhile her debts mount daily. She runs out of money and even tries to prostitute herself to Rodolphe so that she can get some money to pay her debts. Rodolphe refuses her and she does not know how to deal with this situation. As a result of her never ending depression, she decides to commit a suicide by drinking arsenic. Before she dies, she finally realized that Charles is the one who always loves her. After Emma dies, Charles finds love letter from Emma’s lovers in her box. Charles who always have a good image of his wife forced to believe the reality that his wife has committed adultery and then he also died not long before his wife commit a suicide.

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