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  FEMINISM PORTRAYED IN THE MAIN CHARACTER, CELIE, IN ALICE WALKER’S THE COLOR PURPLE A THESIS

  Presented as partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

  By Name: Nina Setyorini

  Student Number: 031214078 ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION SANATA DHARMAUNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

  2009

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DEDICATION PAGE

  “

Bermimpilah karena Tuhan akan memeluk setiap mimpimu”

By: Andrea Hirata

  The author of “Edensor”

This Thesis is dedicated to:

My lovely parents, younger brother, younger

sister and best friends

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to Allah SWT for His bless and grace which empowered me to finish this thesis. Everything is possible because of Allah SWT. I thank Him for accompanying me when I felt down and hopeless, so that I could still smile and be stronger than before.

  I would like to thank Henny Herawati, S.Pd., M.Hum., my major sponsor, who guided me in writing this thesis patiently. I thank her for understanding my difficulties. I would also like to thank Christina Lhaksmita Anandari, S.Pd, M.Ed., my co-sponsor, who helped me in checking the language in my thesis. I thank her for giving me guidance and encouragement for finishing my thesis. Without their deep concerns, I am sure that this thesis would never be completed. I would also like to thank all lecturers of English Language Study Program of Sanata Dharma University for the time they taught and gave me knowledge. I wish God always bless them.

  I give my deep appreciation to my lovely parents, Anton Hartono, S.E. and Sukorini, who always become the shelter and take care of me with their endless love. I thank them for the prayers and for everything. I also dedicate this thesis to my younger brother, Hendri Dwi Prasojo and my younger sister, Widya Pusporini, who always support me.

  This thesis is also dedicated to Ari “dogy”, Eva, Mbamboed, Tia, Githa, Budi, Nova, Ferry, and Sary who support me in every single thing. I thank them

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  all friends at the English Language Education Study Program ’03, especially Priska, Febri, Datu, Rere, Yuni “jawa”, Anas, Linda, Uti, Yusta and Wiwit. All of you are my friends that I cannot live without. I thank Uyek and Fahmi for the computer (without their presence, this thesis could not be accomplished!). I thank my friends at my boarding house who also help me and support me during my thesis writing, especially to Githa who always be there for me.

  Last but not least, I thank those who have supported and encouraged me to finish this thesis. May god bless them all.

  Nina Setyorini

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  8 1. Theory of Critical Approach ............................................................

  17 b. Radical Feminism .........................................................................

  15 a. Liberal Feminism ..........................................................................

  12 3. Theory of Feminism .........................................................................

  10 b. Theory on Characterization ...........................................................

  10 a. Theory on Character ......................................................................

  9 2. Theory on Character and Characterization ......................................

  7 B. Review of Related Theories .................................................................

  Page TITLE PAGE ................................................................................................... i APPROVAL PAGES ....................................................................................... ii STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ................................................ iv DEDICATION PAGE ...................................................................................... v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................. viii ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................... xii

  5 CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies ...................................................................

  4 E. Definition of Terms ..............................................................................

  4 D. Benefits of the Study ............................................................................

  3 C. Objectives of the Study ........................................................................

  1 B. Problem Formulation ...........................................................................

  CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ......................................................................

  

ABSTRAK ......................................................................................................... xiii

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  C. Theoretical Framework ........................................................................

  20 CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY A. Subject of the Study .............................................................................

  22 B. Approach of the Study .........................................................................

  23 C. Method of the Study .............................................................................

  24 CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS

  A. Celie’s Character Depicted in The Color Purple before Meeting Shug Avery ....................................................................................................

  26 1. Uneducated .......................................................................................

  27 2. Suppressed .......................................................................................

  28 3. Obedient ...........................................................................................

  29 4. Passive ..............................................................................................

  31 5. Full of Love ......................................................................................

  31 B. Feminism Portrayed in Celie’s Character in The Color Purple ............

  32 1. The Type of Feminism Represented by Celie in The Color Purple ..

  33 2. The Idea of Feminism in the Main Character, Celie .........................

  36 a. Celie Asks for Equality .................................................................

  36 b. Celie’s Freedom ............................................................................

  37 c. Celie’s Independence ....................................................................

  39 d. Celie’s Opportunity .......................................................................

  40 e. Celie’s Strength .............................................................................

  41 CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions ...................................................................................

  44 B. Suggestions ....................................................................................

  46 1) Suggestion for the Future Researchers ....................................

  46 2) Suggestion for Teaching Extensive Reading I

  BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................................................................

  52 APPENDICES ................................................................................................

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TABLE OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 The Summary of The Color Purple .........................................

  56 Appendix 2 The Biography of Alice Walker ..............................................

  60 Appendix 3 Alice Walker’s Complete Works ............................................

  64 Appendix 4 Picture of Alice Walker ...........................................................

  67 Appendix 5 Lesson Plan for Teaching Extensive Reading I .......................

  68 Appendix 6 The Material for Teaching Extensive Reading I ......................

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ABSTRACT

  Setyorini, Nina. 2009. Feminism Portrayed in the Main Character, Celie, in Alice

  

Walker’s The Color Purple. Yogyakarta: Department of Language and Arts

  Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

  This thesis analyzes Alice Walker’s novel entitled The Color Purple. The story is about a black woman’s life. Her name is Celie. It is interesting to discuss this novel since it portrays a struggle of a black woman as a main character. As a main character, Celie, experiences many problems in her life. Realizing the bitter life she faces, she demands the equal right as men to gain her happiness.

  This study contains two problems formulation to be analyzed. The first is how is Celie’s character depicted in the novel and the second problem is how feminism is portrayed through the main character, Celie, in the novel.

  In writing this thesis I conducted a library research to answer all the questions that are presented in the problem formulation. There are two kinds of sources that are used in this thesis. The primary source is obtained from the novel itself, The Color Purple. The secondary source is obtained from the books related to the theories and other sources are from the internet. The approach used to analyze the novel is feminist literary criticism. It is used to analyze the ideas of feminism, which are revealed in the main character, Celie, in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple. I also applied theories on character and characterization to reveal Celie’s characters in the novel.

  Based on the analysis, the results of the study are as follows. First, I can conclude that Celie is described as a person who is uneducated, suppressed, obedient, passive and full of love in the novel. Second, the feminism is clearly portrayed through Celie’s character. Through her way of asking for equality, freedom, independent, opportunity and strength, she can prove that as a woman she can develop her ability in running a pants company. Celie dares to be the leader of a company of her own even though she is a woman. She is able to do what men do. She struggles to become a successful woman in her hard life.

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  ABSTRAK

  Setyorini, Nina. 2009 Feminism Portrayed in the Main Character, Celie, in Alice

  

Walker’s The Color Purple. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa

  Inggris, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

  Skripsi ini menganalisa novel Alice Walker yang berjudul The Color Purple. Novel tersebut menceritakan kehidupan seorang wanita berkulit hitam. Wanita tersebut bernama Celie. Novel ini menarik untuk diulas karena menggambarkan perjuangan seorang wanita kulit hitam sebagai tokoh utamanya. Celie mengalami banyak masalah di dalam hidupnya. Menyadari kepahitan hidup yang dialaminya, Celie menginginkan persamaan hak yang setara dengan laki-laki untuk mendapatkan kebahagiaannya.

  Studi ini berisi dua rumusan masalah untuk dianalisa. Yaitu: (1). Bagaimana karakter Celie digambarkan di dalam novel? (2). Bagaimana feminisme digambarkan melalui tokoh utama, Celie, didalam novel?

  Di dalam penulisan skripsi ini saya menggunakan studi pustaka untuk menjawab pertanyaan yang ada pada rumusan masalah. Ada dua macam sumber yang digunakan pada skripsi ini. Sumber utama diperoleh dari novel itu sendiri, yang berjudul The Color Purple. Sumber kedua diperoleh dari buku-buku yang menunjang teori dan dari internet. Pendekatan yang digunakan untuk menganalisa novel ini adalah pendekatan feminisme. Pendekatan feminisme digunakan untuk menganalisa ide feminisme yang digambarkan oleh tokoh utama, Celie, di dalam novel The Color Purple. Saya juga menerapkan teori karakter untuk menunjukkan karakteristik Celie.

  Hasil dari studi ini sebagai berikut. Pertama, dapat disimpulkan bahwa karakteristik Celie adalah orang yang kurang berpendidikan, tertekan, patuh, pasif dan penuh dengan rasa kasih. Kedua, feminisme dengan jelas tergambar melalui tokoh Celie. Melalui caranya untuk meminta persamaan, kebebasan, kemerdekaan, kesempatan dan melaui kekuatannya, Celie membuktikan bahwa sebagai seorang wanita dia dapat mengembangkan kemampuannya dalam menjalankan perusahaan celana miliknya. Celie berani menjadi seorang pemimpin perusahaannya meskipun dia seorang perempuan. Dia mampu melakukan hal yang dilakukan oleh pria. Dia berjuang untuk menjadi seorang wanita sukses dalam hidupnya yang keras.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION There are five parts in this chapter. They are background of the study, problem formulation, objectives of the study, benefits, and definition of terms. The background of the study provides background information related to the

  issues discussed. It includes a description of the topic and the reason for choosing the topic, as well as why the issue is worth studying. The problem formulation states two problems related with the issues being discussed. The third part, objective of the study states clearly and precisely the objective of the study. The fourth part, benefit of the study, identifies who obtains the benefit from the study. In the last part, that is definition of the terms, the writer clarifies some specific or important key terms used in this study.

A. Background of the Study

  In literature, there are a lot of literary works, such as novels, essays, and plays. In this study, I choose to work on a novel because it is interesting in its ability to take the readers to a certain situation, place or periods that occur in the novel. The novel is a reflection of problems in life. Through its series of events and conflicts experienced by the characters, the readers seem to enter the character's life in the novel. The readers make a kind of effort to feel, to understand and to solve the conflicts that they gain from the novel. At the end of

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  The Color Purple is one of Alice Walker's novels which talks about social issues and feminism, two issues which I am interested in. Alice Walker is a talented author. Her novels are meaningful and enjoyable. Her novel is meaningful because, at the end of the novel, the reader can obtain important values of life that reflect the author’s ideas about life. It can give spirit and enrich the reader’s understanding about the power of a woman’s struggle for equality and happiness in her life. In writing her novel, Alice Walker uses slang and African American’s language. Therefore, her novel is unique, enjoyable, and interesting to read.

  Alice Walker's The Color Purple reveals the role of gender of a woman reflected in the main character, Celie. I intend to explore and write about feminism because it is an interesting issue and it can give spirit for the readers especially for women who struggle and survive in life. Feminism, in which women are struggling to achieve an equal right, is still a controversial topic of discussion today. As a woman, the main character, Celie, has to face many problems in her life. She has to struggle in her life about her gender as a woman in her black community. Her ways to survive give spirit and conviction to the readers. This is an interesting issue which is concerned with women especially in a black community because they have to fight to defend their dignity as women in

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  The main character, Celie, has to be an obedient daughter, a mother and a married woman in her life. The old belief among the black people which states that women's best place is in the house gives them difficulties in finding choices in their life. Women need to be strong and independent rather than weak and dependent, because women have more than one role in life. They can be a mother, a daughter, a housewife, and a wife who should take care of their husbands, children and parents well. Celie’s patience in life makes her survive and bring her to happiness. Realizing the bitter life she faces, she actually demands the equal right. She wants to convince others that she can do everything alone in order to prove that a man is not more important than her. The language, story and messages contained in this novel make me eager and want to reveal feminism portrayed by Celie in Alice walker’s The Color Purple. I am interested in studying Celie’s process in solving her problem in life. Celie’s process can give significant lessons about feminism to the society through Celie’s character in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple.

B. Problem Formulation

  There are two problems formulated in this study. They are:

  1. How is Celie’s character depicted in the novel?

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  C. Objectives of the Study

  The aims of this paper are to describe the characters of the main character, Celie, and to reveal feminism portrayed through the main character, Celie. In order to achieve the objective, there are two points that need to be considered.

  Firstly, this study aims to describe the condition of the main character, Celie, as presented in Alice Walker's The Color Purple. Secondly, I intend to reveal feminism portrayed in the main character, Celie.

  D. Benefits of the Study

  Women's struggle to gain equal and fair treatments in the society is the issue of human being, the issue of men and women. This study also gives benefits for me as a researcher to understand and provide more knowledge about feminism. This study may also give benefits to future researchers who conduct studies on feminism or on The Color Purple, by providing preliminary study on feminism. This study may make readers realize that one’s right is not based on the gender or belief and make them more aware that all people are born to be free and equal.

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E. Definition of Terms The definition of terms is presented in order to avoid misunderstanding.

  There are two definitions that are defined. Those are feminism and character.

1. Feminism

  Humm in The Dictionary of Feminist Theory states that feminism incorporates both doctrines of equal rights of women (the organized movement to attain women's right) and an ideology of social transformation which aims to create a world for women beyond simple social equality (Humm 74). It means that there is social transformation for women to gain social equality. She also states that certain terms in contemporary theory, such as work, family, patriarchy, and sexuality, are used to sum up the basis experiences of women. According to Terrey in Women's Studies Encyclopedia (Vol. 1), feminism can be described as a belief and a commitment to equal rights and opportunities (Terrey 139). Davies in Gender Theories in Education states that feminism is women’s assertion of their equality with men and their demand for access to those roles and positions of public life traditionally regarded as the province of men (Davies 62). In this study, I present feminism as a way to gain equal rights as a woman to obtain her freedom in thinking, acting and living.

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  2. Character

  According to Abrams in A Glossary of Literary Terms, characters are the person represented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the readers as being endowed with particular moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities by inferences from what the person say and their distinctive ways of saying it the dialogue and from what they do the action (Abram 32). The grounds in the characters’ temperament, desires and moral nature for their speech and actions are called their motivation (Abrams 33). In this study, character refers to the figure in the novel. I choose the character of Celie in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple because I intend to reveal the feminism exemplified by Celie’s character.

  3. The Color Purple

  The Color Purple in Alice Walker’s novel explains that purple is a kind of color which represents sadness, gloomy and violence. The main character, Celie experiences bad treatments from her stepfather and husband. Violence becomes a topic from Alice Walker’s The Color Purple. Celie is raped by her stepfather, Alphonso. Celie never feels happy with her marriage with her husband. Her childhood is not enjoyable. Celie has to do all the housework. Alice Walker wants to emphasize about the color in this novel. The Color Purple shows that the issues of color people are explored in this novel. This novel spots the life of black people community.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Review of Related Literature covers three main parts. They are review of

  related studies, review of related theories and theoretical framework. In review of related studies, I review other related studies previously done by other researchers or writers on the same topic or author. In this undergraduate thesis, I review some studies which discuss study from the same author.

  In this part, I review two main theories related with the topic about feminism portrayed in the main character, Celie, in Alice Walker's The Color Purple. They are theory of character and characterization and some theories of feminism, such as liberal, radical, marxist and socialist feminism. In theoretical framework, I explain the contribution of the theories and reviews in analyzing the problems of the study.

A. Review of Related Studies

  In this study, I present some researchers who discussed and subjected to the same work on the Alice Walker’s The Color Purple and other discussions related to the whole study.

  In Sugiharto's undergraduate thesis, which talks about the influence of the society and surrounding on Celie's view toward life, Sugiharto showed how this society had made or had formatted the way of thinking of the main character to

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  decision to lead her life on. Gender criticism also becomes the main topic in Widiastuti's undergraduate thesis. The thesis talks about how people, especially black women at that time, became the lower class of the social class system in the United States. Black women did not just experience the discrimination but also sexual abuse. Black women have to experience two discriminations under the white people and under the black male. The thesis concerns how Celie struggled with all the discrimination she experienced during the time.

  Widiatmoko's undergraduate thesis talks about the concept of nirvana revealed in the main character, Celie, in the Alice Walker's The Color Purple. He wants to show Celie's life and the revelation in the concept of nirvana. Celie accepts all the offerings that she had. Celie’s efforts in seeking what was the cause of her suffering are concept that Buddha has taught in some other continents that has different culture with America in that year.

  In this thesis, I am going to reveal that Celie, the main character of the novel, has shown evidences of feminist action. This study has never been conducted before by other writers. This study talks about Celie's struggle in life to survive and to have equal rights as a human being.

B. Review of Related Theories

  This study uses some theories to support the study. Theories which are used are theory of literature and theory of feminism. Theory of literature is

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  character and characterization. While for the theory of feminism includes radical, liberal, marxist and socialist feminism.

1. Theory of Critical Approach

  In this study I use feminist literary criticism to support the theory of critical approaches. Feminist literary critics or feminist approaches attempt to explain how men and women imbalance, due to gender, are reflected in literature texts. In its diversity, feminism is concerned with the position of women in a secondary position, where women do not gain equal position with men. According to Goodman in Literature and Gender, feminist literary criticism is an academic approach to the study of literature which applies feminist thought to the analysis of literary texts and the contexts of their production and reception. It has developed in recent years into a fascinating and highly specialized field with a language, set of theories and a vocabulary all its own ( Goodman xi).

  Feminist critics examine how languages as a focus for studying women writers can reveal the idea of feminism in a literary text to be analyzed into the writing and allow the readers to illustrate the importance of feminist concerns in the contemporary work such as in the novel The Color Purple. Feminists examine the experiences of women from all races, classes and culture. Despite their diversity, feminist literary criticism convinced that the goal from feminism study are to expose patriarchal premises which result in prejudices, to promote

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  This study uses feminist approach or feminist literary criticism to reveal the idea of feminism exemplified in the main character, Celie, in The Color Purple. The novel tells about the struggle of a young African American woman who lived under the pressure of her father, husband and her black society. Her desire to struggle for a brighter future shows that she can achieve equal rights with men to feel happy, and create the world that she wants. The feminist approach or feminist literary criticism then is used to analyze this novel.

2. Theory of Character and Characterization

a. Theory of Character

  Character and characterization have a very important position and function in literary works. Baldick defines characters as the person in dramatic or narrative work. They also refer to a kind of prose sketch briefly describing some recognizable type of person (Baldick 33).

  Abrams in his A Glossary of literary Terms defined characters as the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what they say, the dialogue and what they do the action (Abrams 20).

  Basically, based on the importance, the character can be divided into two categories. They are main or major character and minor character. A major character usually appears in the story. He/ she becomes the focus of the story. The events that appear in the story always involve him/ her directly or indirectly. On

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  are less important than the main character because they are not fully developed characters and their roles in a story are just to support the development of the major character (Abrams 20). Henkle agrees with Abrams’ definition, that major characters are the most important and complex character in a novel. “It is the major character who deserve our fullest attention because they perform a key structure function, upon them we built expectation and desires, which in modification, shift or establish our values” (Henkle 87).

  The minor characters are the characters who act as a foil to the major character. They interact or clash with the major character in order to bring out into the open crucial elements (Henkle 94). Here the characters appear briefly as hints, since they are the minor figures who are there in the story to show us what is going on (Koesnosoebroto 68). According to Baldick in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, foil is a character whose qualities or actions serve to emphasize those of the protagonist (or some character) by providing a strong contrast with them. Another source says that in literature, foil is characters that is presented as a contrast to a second character so as to point or shows to advantage some aspect of the second character (Webster 423).

  Therefore it can be said that one of the most important aspects of the major novel is the interaction of characters. Contrasts between characters are important, and such contrast makes both figures more real, but the characters also act on one another and develop as a result of these interactions, which is often most of what a mainstream novel is about (Boulton 81). According to Forster in The Aspect of

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  complexity, namely flat character and round character. Sometimes, flat characters can be called types or “two dimensional”. They are captured by the author’s view on one side. The author usually does not develop them as fully as the major character. They are static and not grow or change in the story. The advantages of flat character are easily recognized and remembered by the readers afterward. Round character often appears as the center of the story and looks like real human beings. With his or her complex aspects in temperament and motivation, sometimes he or she surprises the readers with unexpected behavior. The author develops round characters fully, and the characters grow and change during the story (Foster 46-54).

b. Theories of Characterization

  Characterization refers to the presentation of persons in narrative or dramatic work by means of character’s action, speech, or physical appearances (Baldick 30). A character can be differentiated from others because they have their own personality and physical attributes.

  The way to study the characters is through understanding the characterization which provides the creation of major character and the minor ones, so that the result is a clear explanation. Characterization is one of the literary elements representing persons. Holman and Harmon define characterization as the creation of imaginary persons. They are created imaginatively, but they have to be seen real, so that they exist for the readers as lifelike (Holman 81). The author can

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  description of a certain character and the readers can figure out characteristics or personality traits of certain characters.

  According to Allport, as quoted by Larver and Scheier in Perspective on Personality, the characteristics of a character are related with his or her behavior, thoughts, and feelings (Allport 5). They will influence the way of thinking, feeling and behavior from a person. Therefore, to understand deeper about character, it is important to know well about his or her characteristics.

  According to Holman and Harmon, characterization is the description of the characteristics. The characterization is the act, the process or the result, of characterizing. In fiction (the drama, the novel, the short story, and the narrative poem), the author reveals the characters of imagery persons and the creation of these imagery persons so that they exist for the reader as lifelike is called characterization (Holman 81).

  The author describes the character through the characterizations so that the reader can imagine what kind of person the character is. Barnet says that characterization is defined, as in fiction, by what the characters do, by what they say, by what others say about them, and by setting in which they move ( Barnet 746).

  According to Perrine in Literature: Structure, Sound and Sense, characterization must observe three principles. First, the characters must be consistent in their behavior. They must not behave one way on one occasion and a different way on another unless there is a clearly sufficient reason for the change.

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  when there is any change in their behavior. We must be able to understand the reasons for what they do, if not immediately, at least by the end of the story.

  Third, the characters must be plausible of life like (Perrine 69).

  Murphy in Understanding Unseen also conveyed some details of characterizing the character. The character’s personality can be seen through personal description that is from the description of his physical appearances and attributes, which may refer to the clothing or the way he dresses. The author can also give direct knowledge of what a character is thinking about. Besides describing the character directly, the author can describe the character through the eyes and opinions of the characters. It can be through the conversations and the things they say about him. The characters’ past life can also help us to figure out his motives of his present action, and the author can gives us a clue of his character by letting us know how he reacts to various situations and events (Murphy 161-173). Those are some ways which the author makes his reader aware of the characteristics of the characters that he writes about in his book However, I only choose six ways to understand the character of Celie so the writer can get a clue to find the characterization of Celie. They are:

  1. Character as seen by another: the author describes the character through the eyes and opinion of another.

  2. Speech: the author can give the readers an insight into the character of one of the persons in book through what the person says

  3. Past of life: by letting the reader can learn something about a person’s past life the author can give a clue to events that have helped to shape a person’s

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  readers know how that person reacts to various situations and events.

  5. Direct comment: the author can describe or comment on a person’s character directly.

  6. Thoughts: the author gives the readers direct knowledge of what a person is thinking about.

3. Theory of Feminism

  Women, from time to time, carry great duties and burdens serving the men (Harley 45). Women have to take care of their children and have to serve their husband as their responsibilities. Montagu says that “in almost every society there is a belief that men are superior and women are inferior, women also think that belief is right, because it believes as what really happens” (Montagu 23).

  The men from one generation to the next generation exploit women. Gender discrimination is a great burden for women, because they have to face the idea of gender discrimination and have to fight against the men in order to change the idea of gender discrimination and men’s attitude toward women, which is conditioned from time to time. Women are not only physically oppressed but also mentally oppressed (Harley 57).

  Montagu states that in society there was conditioned norm, which states what women can do and cannot do. Women lack of opportunities to develop their skills. They are not given the chances to develop their intelligence and skills and they have different equality of opportunities to men (Montagu 38).

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  feel that they are weak and inferior. The feeling of weakness makes them much weaker than what they think.

  Feminism appears from the women's suffering from injustice, because of their sex and their consciousness of female oppression. Consciousness arises since feminism means knowledge of existing things in a new light. Many feminists described the different historical, psychological, sexual and racial experiences of women and how feminism can be a source of power and knowledge.

  Women are conditioned as weak creatures. People believe this condition from time to time. People believe that women are unable to do hard work better than men. They have double positions in families as mothers and wives. The unfair division of work to women continues from generation to the next until they realize their mistakes in receiving the unfair treatment from men. The realization of the equality of rights and opportunities then becomes a belief called feminism.

  The theory of feminism does not only support the feminist ideas but also the theory of superior feeling. Actually, women are not inferior, as men and people say. Women are more realistic, effectively control their feelings and they can use power for good purposes. Women have good abilities in expressing their feelings. This makes them more realist than men. They are better in handling the bad conditions they face in life, like starvation, exposure, fatigue, shock and illness (Montagu 143). From Montagu’s statement, we can conclude that women are more realistic. They can control their feelings effectively and use their power

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  The basic goal of feminism theory is to understand women's oppression in terms of race, gender, class and sexual preference and also how to change it. It is true that physically women are different from men. Some people believe they are also psychologically different. It can be seen that men are more rational and aggressive than women. Therefore, women are more capable to have domestic job. A job describes women's character such as secretary, nurse and administrator.

  Meanwhile men are more capable to do a job, which is describing male characteristic. In addition, there are many different perspectives between the feminists. As the result, there are four types of feminism presents. They are liberal feminism, radical feminism, marxist feminism and socialist feminism.

a. Liberal Feminism

  The liberal emphasis on the individual stresses the importance of the individual autonomy which is protected by guaranteed rights, economic justice and equality of opportunity. Liberal feminists are using the basic liberalism philosophy that every human being is created with the same rights and every woman must have the same opportunity in developing their future. Basically there are no differences between men and women. Therefore, liberal feminism is trying to put the women and men equal, corporate, independent and free to decide their own future. According to Ilyas, “changing the individual attitudes especially the women's attitude toward men destroys the patriarchy and they must realize on it

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  community where there is a corporation between men and women based on the equality. These kinds of feminism considering inequality are the reaction of the oppressive structures, which result in sexism and patriarchy.

  The fact that women are left behind are the cause of the foolish and irrational thought because of the traditionalism. Therefore, modernization and industrialization are the best ways to increase women's status.

b. Radical Feminism

  This type of feminism is growing faster in the United States since 1960s- 1970s. They consider that the main aspect of the sexual working class is the patriarchy where women’s positions are always under the men’s in every aspect of life. Ilyas says that

  The source of women's is on the biologic structure. Along of the history of women where there is no contraception yet, it is found that women are the victims of the biologic function, such as menstruation, menopause, giving birth and taking care their children, etc. (Ilyas 50).

  Such conditions have made women always dependent on men. This reproduction difference creates the sexual working class. This kind of feminism is inclined as a male hates and asks women to be independent without the presence of men in their life.

  In radical feminist terms, gender oppression is the most fundamental form of oppression. Radical lesbian feminists assert that being a lesbian means to release from male domination. They only worked in the sexual reality and less for other.

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  c. Marxist Feminism

  This kind of feminism is the reaction of the liberal feminism. They think that women’s decline is not the cause of the direct individual action but it is from the economic, social and political structure in relation with capitalism.

  A family is a production group where whole family including women does all humans' needs in survival. But after the development of industrial capitalism, a family is no longer being the production group (llyas 48).

  Nowadays, women are no longer the part of production and the sexual working classes appear. Men can get the public job, which is more productive and economical while women can only have the domestic job, which is unproductive and uneconomical. The Marxist feminism refused the basic gender differentiation, where a husband is described as the bourgeois class and women are the oppressed class.

  d. Socialist Feminism

  The socialist feminist argues that living in the capitalist community is not the main reason of women's under development. Socialist feminists criticize that there is a connection between women's participation in production and women's status. It is true that women's participation is important in economics but it does not mean to increase the women's status. Ilyas stated that there is a correlation between the women’s participation level and women's status but it makes the

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  This feminism movement is focused on the women's consciousness about these disadvantages positions. The socialist feminism's purpose is to structure the society in order to get the equality in gender. On the other hand, socialist feminism highlights the relationship between paid work and domestic labor in which it reveals the impact of the sexual division of labor, by pointing out that women in the home do more work.

C. Theoretical Framework

  The focus of the study is on the analysis of feminism portrayed in the main character, Celie, in Alice Walker's The Color Purple. Theories related to the study must be used to accomplish the analysis. Some theories of intrinsic elements are used to support the analysis of the main character. The theories of character by Abrams, which provide definitions of the term character, extend descriptions on the understanding of what character in fiction is. Abrams also differentiated the character into major and minor based on their importance.

  Foster’s theory is helpful to determine the complexity of the nature of the character, which refers to flat and round character. By using Foster's theory, I can recognize what kind of character Celie is. By the application of the theory, it can

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  To analyze the main character, the writer needs knowledge on how to reveal the character. Therefore, some theories of characterization are needed in the analysis to characterize the main character, which lead the analysis to the traits of his circumstances towards the main character. The theory of characterization proposed by Baldick, Holman and Harmon, and Barnet give various descriptions or explanation about what characterization is. The method of characterization is given by Perrine through his direct and indirect methods. Perrine also gives three principles in characterization in making the process of characterization more understandable.

  I also use the theory of characterization by Murphy to gain the methods of characterization. Murphy proposes several ways in which he gives details of how the character of fiction is portrayed and how the author reveals the story.

  To show what type of feminism portrayed in the main character, Celie, I use the theory feminism to analyze the two questions I proposed. The theories on feminism in liberal feminism, radical feminism, marxist feminism and socialist feminism are used as an addition to support the analysis, that is to show what kind of feminism is revealed in the story which is represented by Celie.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the methodology in conducting this study. This

  chapter consists of three parts. The first part discusses about the subject matter that contains a brief description of the novel. The second part presents the critical approaches used in this study. The third part tells about the research procedure, which discusses the steps done by the writer in conducting the study to answer two questions stated in the problem formulation.

A. Subject of the Study

  This study deals with the novel which is written by an Afro-American woman, Alice Walker. The title is The Color Purple. Alice Walker won the Pulitzer Price for this novel. This novel consists of 244 pages. It was published in 1982 by Harcourt Brace Javanovich, New York. This novel consists of 91 letters.

  These letters were written by the main character, Celie, and also her sister Nettie. In this novel Celie writes 70 letters which are written to God and also addressed to her sister, Nettie. Whereas Nettie, her sister, writes 21 letters all of them addressed to her older sister, Celie. From the letter which Celie wrote to God, she tells about her feeling and also her daily activity, while the letters to Native consists of her interactions with her circumstances includes Sophia, Shug Avery, Mr.___, Harpo,etc and Celie’s opinion about them. Nettie writes letters about her

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  find Celie's children which are sold by Celie's father. Some of these letters are never sent and they are like diaries.

  The story takes place in South of America, where most black people live. Some small towns are mentioned in the story which actually lies in the state of Georgia. This novel portrays the condition about the distinction of black and white people also the men and women in the black community. Black people do not have equal status with white people. In black community, women’s positions are always below the men’s position. Men dominate women in every aspect of life. This black community is a place where the main character, Celie, accepts all the pain, not only from the white people who make her as their slave because she is black, but also from her own society. The black male also makes her as a slave to fulfill their sexual needs, taking care of their children and also the field. All of these bad conditions could be seen as a suffering. The main character has to deal with this condition to survive and not to fight or rid off all the pain from the male domination.

B. Approach of the Study

  In analyzing the problem, I apply the feminist approach as the appropriate approach to deal with the feminism depicted in Celie’s character in The Color Purple. I can analyze Celie's life experience and feminism represents by Celie in

  

The Color Purple . According to Guerin in A Handbook of Critical Approaches to

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C. Method of the Study

  In order to complete the analysis, I used the library research as the method in gathering the data of the study. This method aims to collect data from written source books which would be useful for the analysis. The primary data for the analysis was taken from the novel The Color Purple, while the secondary data was derived from other sources, such as books, movie, internet, and other which could be fully supported the study, and were related to the problem. The books are: A Glossary of Literature Terms; A Handbook of Literature; Gender Theories in Education; Feminisme Dalam Kajian Budaya Al Qu’ran: Klasik dan Kontemporer; Literature and Gender; The Anatomy of prose Fiction; The Aspect of the Novel; The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms; The Dictionary of Feminist Theory; The Natural Superiority of Woman; Understanding Unseen; and Women’s Studies Encylopedia.

  In analyzing Walker’s The Color Purple, firstly I read the novel to gain deeper understanding about the story of the novel. Then I took notes to gain a clear description about Celie, as the object of the analysis. Since I wanted to reveal feminism depicted in Celie’s character, I needed to understand Celie’s life in her society. Secondly, I made a critical analysis by using some references. I tried to analyze the work objectively, therefore, I could make a reasonable analysis. In analyzing the Celie’s character perception of the feminism, I used

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  Celie’s characters. Their thought as the inferior woman has made them feel challenged to maintain a better life. Thirdly, I analyzed Celie’s character as the major character, and tried to analyze feminism. Then I tried to relate it to the main character of the story. Fourthly, I finally made a conclusion from the analysis. In analyzing the particular topic, I used many books that were taken from library as the references and also from the internet.

  After I finished writing my thesis, I proposed suggestions for future researchers and for the implementation of teaching learning activities in English Language Education Program using The Color Purple Novel. I also provided the appendices which contained the summary of the novel, the picture of Alice Walker, biography of the author, the lesson plan for teaching English Subject using the novel and the list of works of the author.

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CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In this chapter I answer two problems that have been proposed in the problem formulation. There are two major parts that are analyzed in this chapter. The first part is Celie’s character depicted in the novel. In analyzing Celie’s

  character, I use the theory of character and characterization. In the second part, I use theory of feminism to find out the type of feminism portrayed by Celie in The Color Purple and to analyze the traits revealed in the evidence of feminism represented by Celie.

  A.

  

Celie’s Character Depicted in The Color Purple before Meeting Shug

Avery

  There are many aspects found in a novel, such as the character, the characterization, the plot, and the setting. These aspects support the novel to be a good story. One of the aspects that will be discussed in the thesis is character. Character and characterization have important roles in literary works. As the first step, I would like to describe the main character in The Color Purple. Celie is the main character of the story. She has a big role in developing the story of The Color Purple. Henkle in Reading The Novel states, “It is the major character who deserve our fullest attention because they perform a key structure function, upon

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  The role of Celie in The Color Purple not only as the main character but also as the narrator of the story. In this novel, Celie writes letters to God and to her sister, Nettie. Celie’s characters before meeting Shug Avery are portrayed below.

1. Uneducated

  Celie is a poor, uneducated fourteen-year-old black girl who lives in rural Georgina, United States. From the language and the grammar that she uses to write her letters to God, we can see that she is not well educated. The language, which is used by Celie, is not well organized. The grammar that she uses is incorrect, such as the use of -s and -es after suffix and the use of the uncompleted words.

  He act like he can’t stand me no more. Say I’m evil an always up to no good. He took my other little baby, a boy this time. But I don’t think he kilt it. I think he sold it to a man an his wife over Monticello. I got breasts full of milk running down myself. He say Why don’t you look decent? Put on something. But what I’m sposed to put on? I don’t have nothing (Walker 5).

  As a young girl, Celie is constantly subjected to abuse and told that she is dumb. It can be seen from the comments of people around her. This shows that Celie is uneducated and does not know much about formal education. She has to do all the housework. Her pa said, “…she ugly. Don’t even look like she kin to Nettie. But she’ll make the better wife. She ain’t smart either and I’ll just be fair, you have to watch her or she’ll give away everything you own. But she can work like a man” (Walker 10).

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  Celie does not receive formal education like Nettie does. Her father, Alphonso, never lets her goes to the school and learns like the others. Alphonso said, “…you too dumb to keep going to school, say pa. Nettie the clever one in this bunch” (Walker 11). From that statement we can conclude that actually she wants to gain education but her father never gives a chance for Celie to go to school.

2. Suppressed

  At the beginning of her life, she is living with her sister, Nettie, her mother, and her stepfather whom she called Pa. Her stepfather rapes her after her mother refuses to have a sexual intercourse. Her mother has serious illness. Celie receives its effect. She is forced to have the sexual intercourse with her stepfather and she does not have the courage to fight it or to refuse it.

  You gonna do what your mammy wouldn't. First he put his thing up gainst my hip and sort of wiggle it around. Then he grab holds my tities. Then he push his thing inside my pussy. When that hurt, I cry. He start to choke me saying You better shut up and git used to it (Walker 3).

  The sexual intercourse that happened to Celie has a big effect on her personality. Celie becomes depressed. This pressure makes Celie suppressed by her husband and her stepfather. She never claims or rebels to what her stepfather has done to her, although she hates to obey her father’s order. Celie's reason for her weakness is the norm, which says that a woman must obey and honor her husband or her father. Celie said, “…couldn’t be mad at my daddy cause he my

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  As a result of the incest, Celie gives birth to a girl, whom her father steals and presumably kills in the woods. Celie said, “When I start to hurt and then my stomach start moving and then that little baby come out my pussy chewing on it fist you could have knock me over with a feather” (Walker 4).

  Celie has a second child from her stepfather, a boy, whom her father also steals. Her stepfather sells Celie’s children to a couple, named Samuel and Corine.

  She does not fight to get her rights as a mother to take care and to protect her children and cannot do anything to keep her children. Celie said, “He took my other little baby, a boy this time. But I don't think he kilt it. I think he sold it to a man and his wife over Monticello” (Walker 5).

  3. Obedient

  Celie is a type of person who does what the others say. Especially men, such as her stepfather and Mr._____. Celie is not a rebellious woman therefore she never dares rebel to what her stepfather does to her. She always obeys her father’s order, for example when her stepfather insists her to get married to Mr.

  ______, Nettie's boyfriend. Celie is forced to marry Mr.____ a man she never loves. Celie said, ”Mr.___ marry me to take care of his children. I marry him cause my daddy made me. I don't love Mr.___ and he don't love me” (Walker 57). Although she never loves Mr._____ but Celie cannot refuse her father’s decision to make Mr._____ as her husband.

  Other comments also come from Sophia and Harpo. Sophia and Harpo are

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  Celie cannot fight for herself and that Celie is just the same with her mama who is always under her daddy’s foot.

  She say, To tell the truth, you remind me of my mama. She under my daddy thumb. Naw, she under my daddy foot. Anything he say, goes. She never say nothing back. She never stand up for herself. Try to make a little half stand sometime for the children but that always backfire. More she stand up for us, the harder time he give her. Ha hate children and he hate where they come from. Tho from all the children he got, you’d never know it ( Walker 38). On the other hand, Harpo gives comments on how Celie becomes an obedient wife because she always does what Mr.____ says.

  I want her to do what I say, like you do for Pa. Oh, Lord, I say. When Pa tell you something, you do it, he say. When he say not to, you don’t. You don’t do what he say, he beat you ( Walker 56).

  In her marriage, Celie gets the same treatment as what she got from her stepfather, a sexual and physical abuse from her husband, Mr. _____.

  He beat me when you not here, I say. Who do she say, Albert? Mr.____, I say.

  I can’t believe it, she say. She sit down on the bench next to m real hard, like she drop (Walker 66). He beats Celie like he beats his children. Celie makes herself silent and pretends to be invisible, also accepts it as her fate, because she never dares to refuse what Mr.___ says.

  I think. I can’t even remember the last time I feel mad, I say. I used to git mad at my mammy cause she put a lot of work on me. Then I see how sick she is. Couldn’t stay mad at her. Couldn’t be mad at my daddy cause he my daddy. Bible say, Honor father and mother no matter what ( Walker 39).

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  4. Passive

  Celie does little act to fight against her stepfather, Alphonso. Later in life, when her husband, Mr.______, abuses her, Celie reacts in a passive manner. She accepts all bad treatments from her father and her husband without complaint. It can be seen from the conversation with Harpo that Celie gets bad treatment from her husband, Alponso, who used to beat Celie like he beat the children. Celie cannot do anything except take it as her fate and pretend that she is a tree, in order not to feel the pain.

  He beat me like he beat the children. Cept he don’t never hardly beat them. He say, Celie, git the belt. The children be outside the room peeking through the cracks. It all I can do not to cry. I make myself wood. I say to myself, Celie, you a tree. That’s how come I know trees fear man (Walker 22).

  Celie is a passive woman. She plays her roles as a traditional wife. She does not have an opportunity to develop her ability and talent. She is doing the monotonous domestic jobs such as cooking, taking care Mr.____'s children and cleaning the house. Kate, Mr._____”s sister give comment, “…and you right about Celie, here. Good housekeeper, good with children, good cook” (Walker 20).

  5. Full of Love

  Celie is full of love. She loves her sister, Netti. Nettie is the only person whom Celie always tell her feeling to after her mother's death. Celie said, “I keep hoping he fine somebody to marry. I see him looking at my little sister. She

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  Celie loves Shug Avery. Shug is a beautiful black woman who could sing and also could conquer man with her charm and sensuality. She loves Shug as a person who understands and treats her as a woman and a human.

  Shug Avery sit up in bed a little today. I wash and comb out her hair. She got the nottiest, shortest, kinkiest hair I ever saw, and I loves every strand of it. The hair that come out in my comb I kept. Maybe one day I’ll get a net, make a rat to pump up my own hair (Walker 48). Celie realizes that she deserves to get her rights as a human who is born free and equal. Therefore, she accepts Shug's offer to come with her to Memphis.

  Celie shows courage to fight Mr____’s order which forbids Celie not to go to Memphis with Shug. Celie tries to show that she is no longer a weak and passive woman. She can be a strong woman who is willing to do what she wants or to apply her skill and talent.

  Anymore letters come? I ast. He say what? You heard me, I say. Anymore letters from Nettie come? If they did, he say, I wouldn't give 'em to you. You two of a kind, he say. A man try to be nice to you, you fly in his face. I curse you, I say (Walker 175).

B. Feminism Portrayed in Celie’s Character in The Color Purple

  In this part, I analyze the type of feminism presented in Celie’s character, in Alice Walker, The Color Purple. In answering the second problem formulation, I analyze the development of the female characters of The Color Purple on their idea of feminism. It is revealed from the feeling of being discriminated and oppressed in the patriarchy.

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1. The Type of Feminism Represented by Celie in The Color Purple

  In the novel, the society at that time holds the concept of patriarchal family. Patriarchy is a rule in society that sees men as the one to hold the power of the house and the whole family, and the women’s position is as the subordinate, as revealed in Celie’s character in The Color Purple. In the novel, Celie is considered always dependent on the men. She must have proper behaviors and duties according to the society’s expectation. She is supposed to be a good mother and only does the domestic jobs. She is not allowed to work outside the house.

  There are many aspects in determining feminism or someone who is considered as a feminist. In this analysis, I would like to focus on Celie’s characters and behaviors which reflect the practices of feminism. In this novel, the main character, Celie, shows the different images of what is society’s view and expectation about women. At that time women were used to staying at home and doing the domestic jobs, but Celie can turn those images and prove that she can change the image into a confident and an independent woman. Celie makes a big change in her life. Celie starts her big changes by deciding to get out from Mr.____’s house and goes to Memphis with Shug. Celie shows that she is no longer afraid of Mr.____ and wants to start her new life.

  You a lowndown dog is what’s wrong, I say. It’s time to leave you and enter into Creation. And your dead body just the welcome mat I need. Say what? he ast. Shock. All round the table folkses mouths be dropping open. You took my sister Nettie away from me, I say. And she was the only person love me in the world. Mr.____ start to sputter. ButButButbutButBut. Sound like some kind of

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  Finally, Celie dares to say what she wants to do in her life and curses Mr.____ for what he has done to her all this time. It is a new start for Celie to reach her own dream in life, also to prove that she can live happily without men.

  She turns from a woman that lacks confidence lack into a confident woman. It can be seen from her letters to Nettie. She has courage and self confidence to write her name and her address in the letter.

  Your sister, Celie Folkpants, Unlimited. Sugar Avery Drive Memphis, Tenesse (Walker 182).

  Celie writes some letters telling him that she feels happy now. She shows big changes in her life because she has the courage to write how her life is now and what she feels as a human being. Celie said, “I am so happy. I got love, I got work I got money, friends and time. And you alive and be home soon. With our children” (Walker 183). Celie’s life is completely happy now surrounded by people who love her and support her.

  Celie can prove that she can live without men. From the letter which she writes to Nettie, it is clearly stated that she gets love from Shug. Shug teaches Celie about love and life. Celie understands how to fulfill her biological need that is, by masturbating.

  I lie back on the bed and haul up my dress. Yank down my bloomers. Stick the looking glass tween my legs. Ugh. All that hair. Then my pussy lips be black. Then inside look like a wet rose.

  It a lot prettier than you thought, ain’t it? She say from the door. It mine, I say. Where the button? Right up near the top, she say. The part that stick out a little.

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  I look at her and touch it with my finger. A little shiver go through me. Nothing much. But just enough to tell me this the right button to mash. Maybe ( Walker 69 and 70).

  Although Celie has a husband in her marriage with Mr._____, but she does not feel happy. Celie doesn’t get love from Mr.____, all she gets only bad treatments and bad words. Celie gets love from Shug and other people that she loved.

  Shug teaches Celie and gives her a motivation to develop her ability in making pants. Then she returns to a society as an independent woman. Celie proves that she can live without man and gets some money from her new business.

  She laugh. Let’s us put a few advertisements in the paper, she say. And let us raise your price s a hefty notch. And let’s us git you some more women in here to cut and sew, while you sit back and design. You making your living, Celie, she say Girl, you on your way ( Walker 181).

  Later, Celie becomes a modern and successful woman as an owner of a pants factory. Celie's thought is also developed from a traditional woman, with a simple thought that a woman should obey and be faithful to her husband's words, to a modern woman with a radical thought that a woman can stand by herself without a man's help. As stated in review of the related theory the main aspect of radical feminism is the sexual working class is the patriarchy where women are managed under male's power. Ilyas says that

  The source of women's is on the biologic structure. Along of the history of women where there is no contraception yet, it is found that women are the victims of the biologic function, such as menstruation, menopause, giving birth and taking care their children, etc (Ilyas 50).

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  This reproduction difference creates the sexual working class. This kind of feminism is inclined as a male hate and asks women to be independent without the presence of men in their life. From the evidence and the characteristic of radical feminism presents above, it can be concluded that the type of feminism represents by Celie in The Color Purple is radical feminism.

2. The Idea of Feminism in the Main Character, Celie.

  In this analysis, I would focus on Celie’s characters and attitudes which reflect the practices of feminism. It is revealed from the feeling of being discriminated and oppressed in the patriarchal of society.

a. Celie Asks for Equality

  The definition of feminism by Humm in The Dictionary of Feminist is incorporate both doctrines of equal rights of women (the organized movement to attain women’s right) and an ideology of social transformation which aims to create a world for women beyond simple social equality (Humm 74). It shows that equality is a balance between men and women with the intention of liberating the individual. The aim of equality is to deny the justice of some existence in equality of treatment. In the United States there is an amendment which states the equality rights on August 20, 1920, which states that the rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state

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  It is stated in the previous explanation that Celie is a weak, passive, dependent, and conventional woman. Alice Walker begins to explore her idea of feminism in Celie's story with the presence of Shug Avery, a jazz and blues singer and also her husband's lover. Celie is asked to leave Mr.___ who never loves her and always treats her not as her wife but more as his maid. It is the way of being free from male domination and getting her rights. Furthermore, the amendment above has been a constitutional and legal recognition to guarantee women in getting their equality rights. It is also an important step in the right direction that women have their rights in developing themselves.

  Shug Avery whose pride, independence, and appetite for living act as a catalyst for Celie and others has made Celie awake and realize that she has rights to get her own life free, equal and an opportunity in developing her ability.

  God creates men and women equal with some characteristically human natures that they are equal and free to develop their own abilities and to find their happiness behind all their differences. You not my maid, I didn't bring you to Memphis to be that. I brought you here to have you and help you get on your feet (Walker 179). Later Celie dares to refuse Mr.____ and she is angry at him because he forces Nettie to leave Celie away and keeps Nettie's letters. Leaving Mr.____ is the only way to get her freedom and equality. Celie said, “You took my sister Nettie away from me, I say. And she was the only person love me in the world” (Walker 170).

b. Celie's Freedom

  One of the absolute keys in getting happiness in human life is freedom. No

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  her lost rights as a free woman from her husband. It happens after the presence of Shug Avery in her marriage. Later she finds out from the letter which is found by Shug that her sister, Nettie, the only person who can understand her still alive.

  Nettie said, “…I know you think I am dead. But 1 am not” (Walker 100).

  Humm explains in her book The Dictionary of The Feminist Theory that actually there are three areas of freedom which are described in feminism: political, economic and sexual. Sexual freedom is not the most important aspect. Women have to define themselves not as the sexual objects but more as the sexual aspect. It can be seen when Shug teaches her how to be a free woman and lives without a man. A woman can have her sexual relationship with another woman. Shug teaches how to masturbate and introduces Celie into a lesbian relationship. Shug said, “Listen, she say, right down there in your pussy is a little button that gits real hot when you do you know what with somebody…” (Walker 69).

  Instead of Shug, Sofia's role has given a good effect to her in getting her freedom and confidence. Her behavior teaches Celie that a woman is not weak.

  Celie's courage to fight Mr.____ is showed when Shug tells him that Celie will come with her to Memphis but Mr.____ refuses it. Celie said, “You a lowdown dog is what's wrong, I say. It's time to leave you and enter into the Creation. And your dead body just welcome mat I need” (Walker 170). It is Celie's first time to fight Mr,____'s order because Celie has realized that she deserves to get her rights as a free woman with the equal rights.

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c. Celie's Independence

  Another stereotype of female inferiority in The Color Purple is dependence. The female weakness has brought her to be dependent on someone else especially to male. It has been a disadvantage for women to develop their abilities. Linda Brannon explains in her book Gender; Psychological Perspective that women are more as the opposition of men in a number of ways. They are more passive, dependent, pure, refined and delicate. Meanwhile men are active, independent and strong. For some people living in dependence can bring them to the monotonous life because they cannot decide the best thing for them easily.

  After moving to Memphis with Shug, Celie changes her opinion that women's duties are not only doing the domestic duties. Later Celie develops her ability in making pants no matter that she is black, because Celie has rights in developing herself like the white woman, rights to be treated equal. As stated in the Declaration of Independence on 4th July 1776, “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” ( Zilversmith 145).

  Later Celie succeeds as an independent woman who has a pants factory with many female employees in it. Shug’s role in making Celie to be an independent woman is important. She gives Celie motivation and her house as Celie's business field. Shug said, ”…and let's us just go ahead and give you this dining room for your factory and git you some more women here to cut and sew,

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  while you sit back and design. You making your living, Celie, she say. Girl, you on your way” (Walker 181).

d. Celie's Opportunity

  Montagu stated that men and women are biologically different in function but not in rights. Women have to emancipate themselves from the inferiority and to realize their potentialities. Women fight to get their freedom and independence as a demand for equality of opportunity between sexes. As cited in The Natural Superiority of Women, Montagu explains that right of every human being to enjoy those opportunities, equality with all other human beings, which would enable them to realize their potentialities to the optimum degree (Montagu 128).

  Celie finds her opportunity to develop her ability and to get her confidence after moving to Memphis with Shug. There, Shug gives her the freedom to do what she likes to do. Celie tries to make pants for Shug. Later it becomes a business field for Celie with the help of Shug. Celie said,” I sit in the dining room making pants after pants. I got pants now in every color and size under the sun…” (Walker 180). Celie starts to enjoy her new activity in making pants which later it becomes Celie opportunity to change her life.

  In her marriage, she never finds this kind of opportunity. There are monotonous activities, such as cooking, taking care children and cleaning the house. Celie learns how to be an independent woman inside of her relationship with Shug. Shug's love has brought Celie to a better life. Therefore, Celie fights to

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  that equal opportunities should be given in realizing their natural potentialities. In achieving their satisfaction through their own abilities the women should have an equal role with men. It means men must accept women's careers outside the home. The tradition says that a woman's place is in the house and doing the domestic job. Montagu stated that the tradition cannot make women enjoy the same encouragement and opportunities for achievement as men unless each sex is given the equal opportunities. There can be no means of knowing whether there are any essential unborn differences in their potentialities for achievement (Montagu 165).

e. Celie's Strength

  In developing the abilities or potentialities women have to face the gender stereotypes. Some of gender stereotypes are weakness and inferiority. It has been extended not only to mental functions but also to the physical traits and functions of the female. In The Natural Superiority of Women, Montagu first explains that all men have known the fact that women are weaker than men. The fact is due to the feminine weakness, as a matter of fact women are only muscularly less powerful. She is stronger than men are. She has greater stamina and lives longer. It can be seen from their roles on the previous chapter. Montagu states that a woman is more realistic, they can effectively control their feelings and they can use their power for good purposes (Montagu 83).

  The myth in the societies makes women face many difficulties in getting a descent job. Women’s work field is a kind of work which does not need energy on

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  these professional field are those traditionally dominated by women- nursing and teaching” (Brannon 330).

  Actually, Celie is not a weak woman. She is afraid of the myth only, which is already stated in the previous part. The other says that a woman must obey their husbands and do not ever oppose them and it is also not good for a woman to go out at night. Harpo said,”…it just a scand less, a woman with five children hanging out in ajukepoint at night” (Walker 72). Celie is an obedient girl who always obeys norm in the society.

  Celie is psychologically strong. She is strong in facing her husband's bad treatments. Celie said, “Harpo ast his daddy why he beat me. Mr.____ say, cause she my wife. Plus, she stubborn. All women good for___he don't finish” (Walker 22). Celie is getting used to face all bad treatments that come to her. Celie never complains in front of Mr.____ for his bad treatments.

  Celie becomes stronger when she meets Shug who later becomes her lover and also brings her free from the discrimination, male domination and violation.

  Shug said, “I won't leave, she say, until I know Albert won't even think about beating you” (Walker 67). Celie gets power and courage from Shug. Power to stay alive and courage to fight back Mr.____ to gain her happiness.

  Later she finds out that her sister is still alive and it makes her realize about the inequalities which happen to her. It also makes her willing to free herself and to get her rights as a human being. Celie said, ” Now I know Nettie alive begin to strut a little bit…” (Walker 126). Knowing Nettie isn’t dead yet

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  make Celie realizes that she can life happier than before. Celie can find new life with her sister, Nettie, besides her.

  Later she becomes stronger when Nettie tells her that her children are alive. They are living with Nettie. Nettie says that children are coming home soon with her. This news makes Celie has power to fight Mr.____. Celie said, “But Nettie and my children coming home soon, I say. And when she do, all us together gun whup your ass” (Walker 170). Celie tries as hard as she can to leave from Mr.____’s house and learns how to make money by making pants. Celie’s strength comes from good news that she gets from Nettie. Celie tries hard to make her life better in both financial and mental.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Chapter five presents the conclusion of the thesis, as well as the

  recommendations for further research on the topic. This chapter also provides suggestions to future researchers and the implementation of literary work in language teaching.

A. Conclusions

  This undergraduate thesis focuses on feminism represented by the main character, Celie. The writer considers that analyzing the character, Celie, is the focus to show further exploration on feminism. Therefore, in this thesis, the writer formulates two problem formulations to understand more about the main character, Celie. The first problem formulation is about the characters of Celie. The second is how the main character, Celie, portrays feminism in the novel.

  Based on the theory, Celie’s characters, before meeting Shug Avery, are uneducated, suppressed, obedient, passive and full of love. Her uneducated character can be seen from the grammar in her letters to God. It also can be seen from her father’s and Alphonso’s opinion. Her suppressed character reflects from her acts that she never rebels to what her stepfather has done to her. Her obedient character is described in her capability of being an obedient wife to her husband, such as always doing what her husband asks. Her passive character is depicted in

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  husband beats her, and accepts it as her fate. Moreover, Celie’s full of love character is shown by her care for her sister, Nettie, and Shug Avery. Celie takes care of Shug when Shug is dying.

  Feminism is clearly reflected through Celie’s characters. She is a strong woman. She is also independent and confident as a woman, although it was hard in the beginning. Celie proves that she can gain happiness in her life. In the novel, it is described that at the end of the story, Celie dares to be the head of the small pants company of her own. Although Celie is inexperienced in running a pants company, she dares to take the challenge.

  We can see feminism in the novel through Celie‘s development on her idea of feminism. Celie asks for equality, Celie asks for freedom, Celie’s independence, Celie asks for opportunity, and Celie’s strength. Celie asks equality for herself by leaving Mr.____ who never loves her and always treats her as a maid. On the other hand, Celie shows feminism by asking freedom for herself. Celie struggles to get her lost rights as a free woman from her husband.

  In her development to be independent, Celie proves that she has an ability which makes her run a small pants factory. Furthermore, Celie portrays feminism in the way she asks for opportunity. Men and women have same opportunities to develop themselves like what they want. After moving to Memphis with Shug, Celie has an opportunity to life happily and develop her ability. The last development that is represented by Celie in presenting feminism in the novel is Celie’s strength. Celie proves that she is a strong woman. She is strong in facing

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  her husband’s bad treatment. Celie becomes stronger after meeting Shug, who brings Celie free from the violation and male domination.

B. Suggestions

  The second part of chapter five is suggestions. In this part, there are two points which are discussed. The first part presents the suggestion for future researchers and the second part presents the suggestion for the teaching learning activities.

1. Suggestion for the Future Researchers

  Alice Walker’s The Color Purple is a very interesting novel, which encourages the researchers to analyze every part of the novel. It presents the life of fourteen-year-old black girl in Georgia, United States. There are many aspects of life that we can get by analyzing this novel, such as relationship between women, male domination, feminism, violation, traditional gender roles, and others. The study on this novel will open opportunities for future researchers to conduct further analysis in the future. This will enrich the next researchers‘s field of study, especially when it comes to feminism topic and gender role of women.

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2. Teaching for Teaching Extensive Reading I Using Literary Work

  The study of literature can be used for promoting interesting language activities in classroom. Lazar gives some important reasons for using literature in language classroom. According to Lazar’s Literature and Language Teaching, there are some reasons why we use literature in the language classroom (Lazar 15- 19). They are:

  1. Motivating Material In many countries around the world, literature is highly valued. If students are familiar with literature in their own language, then studying some literature in English can provide an interesting and thought-provoking point of comparison. If the materials are carefully chosen, students will feel that what they do in the classroom is relevant and meaningful to their own lives.

  2. Access to Cultural Background Literature can provide students with access to the culture of the people whose language they are studying. Reading literature in English does encourage students to become broadly aware of the social, political and historical events which form the background to a particular play or novel.

  3. Encouraging Language Acquisition Literature provides a particularly appropriate way of stimulating language acquisition, as it provides meaningful and memorable contexts for processing and interpreting new language. The use of literary texts is often a particularly successful way of promoting activities where students need to

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  share their feelings and opinions such as discussion and group work. This is because literature is very rich in multiple levels of meaning.

  4. Expanding Students’ Language Awareness By asking to explore sophisticated uses of language, we are also encouraging them to think about the norm of language use. In other words, using literature with students can help them to become more sensitive to some of the overall features of English.

  5. Developing Students’ Interpretative Abilities Literature is a particularly good source for developing students’ abilities to infer meaning and to make interpretations. By encouraging our students to grapple with the multiple ambiguities of the literary text, we are helping to develop their overall capacity to infer meaning.

  6. Educating The Whole Person Literature has a wider educational function in the classroom in that it can help to stimulate the imagination of our students, to develop their critical abilities and to increase their emotional awareness. If we ask the students to respond personally to the texts we give them, they will become increasingly confident about expressing their own ideas and emotions in English.

  Reading is one of the most important skills in learning language instead of listening, speaking and writing. In order to get success in learning English,

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  Paulston and Bruder in Teaching English as a Second Language: Technique and Procedure divide the reading into two groups, namely intensive reading and extensive reading. Both kinds of reading have different main objectives. In intensive reading, the students are expected to focus their attention on the linguistic features so that they are able to decode the message. Whereas in extensive reading, the students are expected to obtain the meaning of the whole text (Paulston and Bruder 158). Before setting the reading activities should pay attention on the reading text. According to Lazar, the teacher has to select the materials which encourage students’ personal response.

  I suggest Alice Walker’s novel, The Color Purple for teaching in the field of extensive reading based on several considerations. The students read for information and enjoyment. The teacher can also give some positive feedback to the students so that they can build their self confidence. The teacher should help the students to keep on reading.

  I choose the extensive reading for the fourth semester students of English Language Education Study Program as the implementation for the teaching learning activities because teaching reading through extensive reading is one of the important basic skills. On the other hand, it deals with a long passage because we use the novel as the teaching media.

  In the first meeting, the teacher asks the students to answer comprehension questions from page 17-26 of the novel in which the material is given to the

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  information about African American author from the internet. In the second meeting, the teacher asks the students to summarize page 17-26 of the novel using their own words. Some procedures that the teacher should do to teach extensive reading I using The Color Purple are as follows:

  Meeting I

  (The teacher asks the students to read page 17-26 of The Color Purple before the meeting)

  1. The teacher gives the students a quiz consist of comprehension questions derived from page 17-26 of The Color Purple in a written form.

  2. The teacher asks the students to answer the comprehension question.

  3. The teacher asks the students to submit the answer.

  4. The teacher offers the students to answer the comprehension question orally. Here the teacher will give points for them who want to answer the comprehension questions. The other students also may give a comment.

  5. The teacher gives a conclusion concerning the discussions.

  Meeting II

  1. The teacher asks the students to recall page 17-26 of The Color Purple by giving some clues.

  2. The teacher asks the students to summarize page 17-26 of The Color Purple using their own words.

  3. The teacher asks the students to submit the summary.

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  The lesson plan and the assignment for the implementation of teaching extensive reading using particular parts of the novel for the fourth semester students of English Language Study Program are provided in Appendix 5.

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REFERENCES

  Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Holt, Reinhart & Winston Inc, 1981. Baldick, Chris. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Barnet, Sylvan, Morton Berman and William Burto. Literature for Composition

  2

  nd ed. Boston: Scott, Foresman, and Co, 1988.

  Boulton, Marjourie. The Anatomy of the Novel. London: Routledge and Keagan Paul, 1975. Brannon, Linda. Gender; Psychological Perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1995. Davies, B. Gender Theories in Education. New York: Macmillan Co. Ltd, 1996. Foster, E. M. Aspects of the Novel. New York: Rineholt, 1927. Guerin, Wilfred L, et al. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. New York: Harper and Row, 1979. Goodman, Lizbeth. Literature and Gender. London: Routledge The Open University, 1996. Harley, Sharon, Penn and Rosalyn Terborg. (ed) The Afro-American Woman.

  New York: Kennikat Press, 1978. Henkle, Roger. B. Reading the Novel. New York: Harper and Row Publisher ltd, 1977.

  Holman, C. Hugh and William Harmon. A Handbook to Literature. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. Humm, Maggie. The Dictionary of Feminist Theory. Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1990. Ilyas, Yunahar. Feminisme Dalam Kajian Budaya Al-Quran: Klasik dan Kontemporer. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 1997.

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  Lazar, Gillian. Literature and Language Teaching: A Guide for Teachers and Trainers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Larver, Charles S., and Michael F. Scheier. Perspective on Personality 3

  rd ed.

  Boston: Allyn an Bacon, 1996. Montagu, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of a Woman. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1953.

  Murphy, M. J. Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd, 1972.

  Nunan, David. Second Language Teaching & Learning. Massashusetts: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1999. Paulston, Christina Bratt and Marry Newton Bruder. Teaching English as a

  Second Language: Technique and Procedure. Cambridge: Winthrop Publisher, Inc, 1976. Perrine, Lawrence. Literature: Structure, Sound and Sense. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc, 1974. Sugiharto, Santi Merina. “The Influence of Society and Surrounding on Celie’s View Toward Life in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple”.

  Undergraduate Thesis. Sanata Dharma University, 2001. Terrey, Helen. Women’s Studies Encyclopedia ( Vol 1). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc, 1989.

  Walker, Alice. The Color Purple. New York: Hartcourt Brace Javanovich, 1982. Webster, Merriam. Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Massachusetts: Merriam Webster, Incorporated, 1933.

  Widiastuti, Ari. “Celie’s Struggle to Show Her Existence”. Undergraduate Thesis.

  Sanata Dharma University, 2001. Widiatmoko, Bayu. “The Concept of Nirvana Revealed in the Main Character of

  Alice Walker’s The Color Purple”. Undergraduate Thesis. Sanata Dharma University, 2000. Zilversmith, Arthur. The First Emancipation: the Abolition of Slavery in the

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  Sources from the internet: Kane, Matt. The Biography of Alice Walker. 2009. 15 January 2009.

  <http://homepage.ntlworld.com/matt_kane/biography.htm> Zezler, Linda. Feminist Characteristics. 1998. 21 February 2008. <http://www.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/femcharacteristics.html>

  APPENDICES PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Appendix 1

  

SUMMARY

  Celie and her right, pretty young sister, Nettie, learn that a man known as Mr.____ wants to marry Netie. Mr.____ has a lover named Shug Avery, as sultry lounge singer whose photograph fascinates Celie. Alphonso refuses to let Nettie marry, and instead offers Mr.____ the ugly Celie as a bridge. Mr.____ eventually accepts the offer, and takes Celie into a difficult and joyless married life. Nettie runs away from Alphonso and takes refuge at Celie’s house. Mr.____ still desires Nettie, and when he advances on her, she flees for her own safety. Never hearing from Nettie again, Celie assumes she is dead.

  Mr.____‘s sister Kate, feels sorry for Celie, and tells her to fight back against Mr.____ rather than submit to his abuse. Harpo, Mr._____‘s son falls in love with a large, spunky girl named Sofia. Shug Avery comes to town to sing at a local bar, but Celie is not allowed to go see her. Sofia becomes pregnant and marries Harpo. Celie is amazed by Sofia’s defiance in the face of Harpo’s and Mr.____’s attempts to treat Sofia as an inferior. Harpo’s attempts to beat Sofia into submission consistently fail, as Sofia is by far the physically stronger of the two.

  Shug falls ill and Mr. takes her into his house. Shug is initially rude to Celie, but the two women become friends as Celie takes charge of nursing Shug.

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  with Harpo’s consistent attempts to subordinate her, Sofia moves out, taking her children. Several months later, Harpo opens a juke joint where Shug sings nightly.

  Celie grows confused over her feelings toward Shug.

  Shug decides to stay when she learns that Mr._____ beats Celie when Shug is away. Shug and Celie’s relationship grows intimate, and Shug begins to ask Celie questions about sex. Sofia returns for a visit and promptly gets in a fight with Harpo’s new girlfriend, Squeak. In a town one day, the mayor’s wife, Miss Millie, asks Sofia to work as her maid. Sofia answers with a sassy “Hell no.” When the mayor slaps Sofia for her insubordination, she returns the blow, knocking the mayor down. Sofia is sent to jail. Squeak’s attempts to get Sofia freed are futile. Sofia is sentenced to work for twelve years as the mayor’s maid.

  Shug returns with a new husband, Grady. Despite her marriage, Shug instigates a sexual relationship with Celie, and the two frequently share the same bed. One night Shug asks Celie about her sister. Celie assumes Nettie is dead because she had promised to write to Celie but never did. Shug says she has seen Mr._____ hide away numerous mysterious letters that have arrived in the mail. Shug manages to get her hands on one of these letters, and they find it is from Nettie. Searching through Mr._____ ‘s trunk, Celie and Shug find dozens of letters that Nettie has sent to Celie over the years. Overcome with emotion, Celie reads the letters in order, wondering how to keep herself from killing Mr._____.

  The letters indicate that Nettie befriended a missionary couple, Samuel and Corrine traveled with them to Africa to do ministry work. Samuel and Corrine

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  friends, but Corrine, noticing that her adopted children resemble Nettie, wonders if Nettie and Samuel have a secret past. Increasingly suspicious, Corrine tried to limit Nettie’s role within her family. Nettie becomes disillusioned with her missionary experience, and she finds the Africans self-centered and obstinate.

  Corrine becomes ill with a fever. Nettie asks Samuel to tell her how he adopted Olivia and Adam. Based on Samuel’s story, Nettie realizes that the two children are actually Celie’s biological children, alive after all. Nettie also learns that Alphonso is really only Nettie and Celie step-father, not their real father. Their real father was a storeowner whom white men lynched because they resented his success. Alphonso told Celie and Nettie he was their real father because he wanted to inherit the house and property that was once their mother’s.

  Nettie confesses to Samuel and Corrine that she is in fact their children’s biological aunt. The gravely ill Corrine refuses to believe Nettie. Corrine dies, but accepts Nettie’s story and feels reconciled just before her death. Meanwhile, Celie visits Alphonso who confirms Nettie’s story, admitting that he is only the women’s stepfather. Celie begins to lose some of her faith in God, but Shug tries to get her to reimagine God in her own way, rather than in the traditional image of the old, bearded white man.

  The mayor releases Sofia from her servitude six months early. At dinner one night, Celie finally releases her pent-up rage, angrily cursing Mr._____ for his years of abuse. Shug announces that she and Celie are moving to Tennessee, and Squeak decides to go with them. In Tennesse, Celie spends her time designing and

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