AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra
in English Letters
WENY NATALIA Student Number: 054214048
ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS
FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF SPELL WORDS
IN J. K. ROWLING’S HARRY POTTER
AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra
in English Letters
WENY NATALIA Student Number: 054214048
ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS
FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
“Verily I say unto you: that this generation
shall not pass, till all these things be done.”
(Mark 13: 30)
This undergraduate thesis is dedicated
with great love to
Dek Vonny (Nyunyun)
I would like to express my gratitude to those who have given their support, assistance, care, love, and prayers in finishing this thesis. First of all, I would like to thank My Lord Jesus Christ. Without His blessings and love, I would have not been able to go through and survive until the end of the thesis. Most of time I have spent with my laziness and other temptations from friends and surrounding situation, but He encourages my willing to finish it now.
I would like to honor and thank my lecturers and all staffs of English Letters Department for their support, patience, and assistence in reading, correcting, and giving contributions to my thesis writing. I am very grateful especially to Dr. Francis Borgias Alip, M. Pd., M. A. who has given his guidance, suggestion correction, and patience in the process of my thesis writing. I am sorry for the delay in finishing my thesis “this month”. From June – October, you keep saying it over and over again until I got bored and decided to finish it right now, this month. Besides, I would like to thank also to Anna Fitriati, S.Pd., M.Hum. who has been very careful correcting my grammar and thesis content. You are very helpful.
I would like to especially thank my beloved parents, Drs. F. Zoana Djais and Eka Veronika, for their holy and invaluable love, prayers, advice, and fund. Thanks also for my younger brother Hendy and my younger sister Nyunyun (Vonny) for being my motivation to be a good model as a sister and always give the best for you. Without their presence, I must be still egoist and hopeless.
Reena); not having reflexion to your spirit in finishing your study before, I must be stuck in my own place. Thanks for “barking” me all the time.
My great gratitude is also extended to all of friends in English Letters Department 2005 of Sanata Dharma University, especially Tetty, Priska, Nani, Agathon, Nana, Pero, Putri, Estu, Lori, “The Ernest Crew”, KKN USD 2009 in Karang Asem (especially for Dek Nancy), for our time, togetherness, sharing, and “chemistry”. I thank all of the sisters in Syantikara Female Dormitory (Kak ‘Ncis, Icha, Ophy, Tasya, Putri, Elis, Windy, etc) and my beloved guardian Sister Benedicte, CB (Suster Ben) for their support and cheerfulness that motivated me in finishing this thesis. You are my second home in this land away from my first home, West Borneo. Without your helps and supports I would not be able to finish this study and this thesis.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PUBLIKASI... vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... ix
CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW ... 6
WENY NATALIA. A Morphological Study of Spell Words in J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2009.
Besides based on the story of real life, a literary work can also be made of imagination, such as done by J. K. Rowling, the author of the famous novel Harry
Potter. The novel talks about a boy named Harry Potter and the magical
phenomena that happen around him. Although based on the imagination, the names of spell words within the novel are actually meaningful. They are derived from some languages and combined in such a way. Because of that, the writer decided to analyze the word formation/ morphological process of the spell words in the novel.
This study has three objectives. The first objective is to see all of the spell words used in the novel Harry Potter along with their meanings. The second objective is to find out the function of those spell words. The last one is to identify the morphological rule of the spell words.
In writing this thesis, first of all the present researcher listed all of the spell words from the seven books of Harry Potter. After that, she classified them into three parts: the spell words with the incantations and vernacular names, the spell words with only the incantation, and the spell words with only vernacular names. The focus was only to the ones having the incantations. Then, she tried to find out the detail informations of the spell words such as the location(s) in the novel (the page number and number of the book), the meaning, the functions and effects, and the etymology. The latter was assisted by using the dictionary of etymology. All the spell words are classified into some general functions. Later, the writer analyzed the morphological process of the spell words based on the mophology theory by comparing the spell words with their etymology. Next, the writer put the similar processes into the same group to draw a conclusion.
WENY NATALIA. A Morphological Study of Spell Words in J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter. Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2009.
Selain berdasarkan kisah dalam kehidupan nyata, sebuah karya sastra juga dapat disusun berdasarkan khayalan, seperti yang dilakukan oleh J. K. Rowling, pengarang novel Harry Potter yang terkenal itu. Novel tersebut mengisahkan seorang bocah laki-laki bernama Harry Potter dan kejadian-kejadian magis yang terjadi di sekelilingnya. Walaupun hanya berdasarkan khayalan, mantera-mantera yang terdapat di dalam novel tersebut tetap penuh makna. Nama-nama tersebut disadur dari beberapa bahasa dan digabungkan dengan sedemikian rupa. Oleh karena itu, penulis memutuskan untuk mengkaji pembentukan kata/proses morfologi mantera-mantera yang ada di dalam novel.
Studi ini memiliki tiga sasaran. Sasaran pertama adalah untuk mengetahui semua mantera yang ada di dalam novel Harry Potter dan juga artinya. Sasaran kedua ialah untuk mengetahui fungsi mantera-mantera tersebut. Sasaran terakhir yaitu untuk mengenali kaidah pembentukan kata dari mantera-mantera tersebut.
Di dalam menulis skripsi ini, pertama-tama penulis skripsi membuat daftar seluruh mantera dari ketujuh novel Harry Potter. Setelah itu, penulis mengelompokkan mantera-mantera tersebut ke dalam tiga bagian, yakni mantera dengan istilah mantera dan istilah umum atau bahasa sehari-harinya, mantera dengan istilah mantera saja, dan mantera dengan istilah umumnya saja. Yang menjadi inti hanya mantera yang memiliki istilah mantera. Kemudian, penulis mencari penjelasan yang terperinci tentang mantera-mantera tersebut seperti letaknya di dalam novel (nomor halaman dan nomor buku), artinya, kegunaan dan efeknya, dan asal-usul katanya (etimologi). Untuk mengetahui asal-usul katanya, penulis menggunakan kamus etimologi. Seluruh mantra dikelompokkan ke dalam beberapa fungsi yang sama. Selanjutnya, penulis menganalisa proses pembentukan kata mantera-mantera tersebut berdasarkan teori morfologi (pembentukan kata) dengan membandingkan mantera-mantera tersebut dengan kata aslinya dengan asal-usul katanya. Setelah itu, penulis mengelompokkan mantera-mantera yang memiliki proses morfologi yang sama ke dalam satu kelompok untuk membuat kesimpulan.
A. Background of the Study
A literary work, similar to any kinds of arts, is mostly the imitation of realities, according to Plato. Many authors of such fictions take the situations and conditions of universe and human’s daily lifes to make their story more alive (Abrams, 1979: 8). However, there are also the authors that use their imagination to create such amazing story that probably another people could not think about or do in similar way. The object of the story can be the unusual animals or artificial creatures, the man’s ability to fly, do magic, move to the pass or future, and other extraordinary things. They can be the entertainment to children and the olders.
One of the famous authors of unreality-based story is a Scottish woman named Joanne Kathleen Rowling, or mostly known as J. K. Rowling (Shapiro, 2000: 2). Her great novel, Harry Potter, has been one of the favorite books, not only for children but also adults. Since its first publishing, Harry Potter was always sold out and even translated in many languages
from Voldemort when he was a baby, now he must meet, face, and defeat Voldemort (Shapiro, 2000).
By seeing the name of the school (Hogwarts Wizarding Academy) the reader may guess that this novel will talk a lot about wizard, charms, spells, black magic, and so on. That is one of the Harry Potter’s special ornaments which is easily remembered. However, if the readers can look at the spells and charms more carefully, those spells actually are not just the creativity of the author at all, yet they have fondation or meaning. Let us take the example of the spell word “protego totalum”. The result of this spell is a complete or total protection to a place. Here we can suggest that the spell word and the result are similar in two ways: “protection” and “total”. Besides, there are the other spell words such as “reparo” which have the same meaning with “to repair”, “quietus” with “to become quite”, “deletrius” with “to delete”, etc.
Based on the examples above, the purpose of this research is to analyze and find out the origin of the spells from the point of view of morphology. So, although there is not any explanation of the spells’ function, especially if it has already been repeated for several times, the readers of Harry Potter would still be able to get the meaning by relating it with
particular English vocabularies which are more common in their daily life and also through the context in the novel.
deeply and accurately, from the point of view of morphology or word formation.
B. Problem Formulation
Based on the explanation above, the writer would like to ask some questions as a guide to the analysis on this paper. The problems are formulated as follows:
1. What are the spell words used by J.K. Rowling in Harry Potter? 2. What are the functions of each spell words?
3. Morphologically, how are the spell words formed?
C. Objectives of the Study
Having the problem formulation above, the writer will have some goals. The first goal is to see all of the spell words used in Harry Potter. They will be used as the objects of the study.
The third goal is to identify the morphological rule of the spells. By understanding their morphological rule, the readers will have more knowledge about morphology.
D. Definition of Terms
There are several terms used in this research as in the following:
1. In talking about spells, Arthur C. Lehmann and James E. Myers mentioned it in their book Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion: An Anthropological Study of the Supernatural
“Divination, special formulas and incantations, spells and curses, all are considered magical, and all can be used for good and evil. Since these activities are learned, they should be differentiated from witchcraft, which is considered innate and, most believe, uncontrollable.” (1985: 194)
It means that spell words (also charms and curses) are the words used in magical activities. It can be used for good reasons, such as to assist human in doing his daily activities, to make human’s work easier, to cure the ill, to protect human’s life, etc. However, a spell word can also be applied to do bad things such as to disturb other people, to get something illegaly, and to do black magic in order to cause others injured, tortured, feel discomfort, even died.
In this chapter, the writer will divide the review into three parts namely review of related studies, review of related theories, and theoretical framework. In the review of related studies, the writer will discuss some studies concerning novel Harry Potter and the process of word formation. In the review of related theories, the writer will use some theories such as theories of word and morphology, theory of etymology, theory of magic, the information of novel Harry Potter and about the spell words inside, and the knowledge of British
religions and beliefs. Then, in the theoretical framework the writer will show the significance of the theories, information, and knowledge in answering the problems of this present study.
A. Review of Related Studies
For this first part, the writer will review some studies done by another researchers which are related to the present analysis. These studies are taken from thesis and journal.
The first is a study for undergraduate thesis titled “English Society’s Belief in the Existence of Magic as Revealed in J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” done by Tersi Erdila Valentina. In this study, Tersi
stated that in Harry Potter novel (especially the first edition, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone) there are many things related to magic. These
magic, although only some of them admit the existence of magic (Valentina, 2003).
A similar study which also analyzes Harry Potter is done by Filipus Nano Suharno from English Education in his graduate thesis “A Study of Rowling’s Personal Life as Reflected in the Main Character of Her Novel Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix”. In his analysis, he shows that
there are some similarities between the real life of J. K. Rowling and her imaginative character of her novel, Harry Potter, in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (Suharno, 2000).
Other studies reviewed in this current thesis are those discussing the aspect of morphology. First is “A Morphological Study of English Prefixes Mega-, Macro-, Poly-, Multi-“ described by Olivia Soenantho where she
explained those prefixes from their stems, their combination with words, and their meanings (Soenantho, 2002). Second is “A Morphological Study of the English Noun Suffix –ion” done by Dalan Mehuli Perangin-Angin that explained the form of suffix –ion (with synchronic and diachronic approach), its meaning, and its application together with morphemes (Perangin-Angin, 1995).
In this present study, the writer will discuss something new. The analysis will combine both aspect of the morphology and spell words in Harry Potter, that is the study of spell words from the point of view of
The analysis will cover the use of any kind of affixes in spell words that might be used and especially the process of word formation.
B. Review of Related Theories
1. Theories of Word and Morphology
According to Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy in his book An Introduction to English Morphology: Words and Their Structure, the
words are “the basic units of language” (Carstairs-McCarthy, 2002: 4). When people speak, they use at least one word, and in the arrangement of phrase or sentence they put down more than one word.
A word actually is not the smallest part of a language. It consists of some smaller parts that are called morphemes. A morpheme is a linguistic term for the most elemental unit of grammatical form. It derives from the Greek word morphe meaning “form” (Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams, 1988: 76). The word has two main elements, they are:
a. A free morpheme is a morpheme that can function as an independent word (Szymanek, 1989: 14). Sometimes, it is also called root.
According to Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams in their book An Introduction to Language, a root is “a lexical content morpheme that
Besides of the root and stem, there is also base which is any item to which affixes may be added (Bauer, 1988: 12). The roots and stems are special types of base.
b. A bound morpheme is a morpheme that cannot occur in isolation or being an independent word (Szymanek, 1989: 14). The bound morpheme is usually called affix and has several types according to Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2002: 78 & 80), they are: prefixes or the affixes precede other morpheme (ex. un-, pre-, dis-, bi-); suffixes or the affixes follow other morpheme (ex. –er, -ist, -ly, -ing, -ed); circumfixes or the affixes that are attached to another morpheme both initially and finally (ex. un-able, dis-ment).
Besides, there are also additional types stated by Szymanek: infixes or the affixes which divides the root but is itself not divided (1989: 65), or in short, it is put in the middle of the morphemes (ex. in Indonesian: suling and seruling); and transfixes or the discontinuous affixes that cuts across the root morpheme so that they are both combined like two interlocking combs (1989: 68). The later can be applied in the following example: if the series of consonantal letters k-t-b are combined with different vowels they will produce distinctive
From the two elements above, we can arrange bigger and more complex word which can contain a root and some affixes. Such process of combining is usualy called the process of word formation.
The study of word formation is morphology. According to Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy in his book An Introduction to English Morphology: Words and Their Structure, morphology is taken from Greek word morphe
‘form’ and logos ‘study’ which means a study of “structure of words and relationships between words involving the morphemes that compose them” while morpheme is “the smaller part of words” (Carstairs-McCarthy, 2002: 16). However, morphology is “not only used for the study of the shapes of words, but also for the collection of units which are used in changing the forms of words” (Bauer, 1988: 4).
Another definition of morphology is composed by Francis Katamba in his book Morphology that mentioning morphology as “a study of the internal structure of words” (1993: 3). In morphology the focus is how a word is built as one unit along with its additional member such as affixes. The meaning of a word as one constituent is very important, besides its meaning in a sequel of words in a sentence or its whole context.
The essential types of word formation are analyzed by William O’Grady, Michael Dobrovolksy, and Mark Aronoff in their book Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction as follows:
and plural), gender classification (masculine, feminine, and neuter), tense (past, present, and future), and voice (active and passive). It does not change the grammatical category of the word to which it applies. It takes place after all word formation processes, including derivation (1989: 107-116).
b. Derivation is the process by which a new word is built from a base, usually through the addition of an affix. It changes the category and/or the meaning of the base to which it applies (1989: 99). For example, a verb (eg. drive and jump) added with affix –er becomes noun with the meaning ‘one who does X’ (driver ‘one who drive’ and jumper ‘one who jump’).
From the inflectional and derivational process, the word can be combined by another process such as compounding and reduplication. A compounding process is the process of combining two already existing words (with or without accompanying affixes) to form a new word, such
as blackbird, doghouse, seaworthy, bluegreen, etc (O’Grady,
Dobrovolksy, Aronoff, 1989: 99&103).
A reduplication (repetition) is a morphological process by which the root or step of a word, or only part of it, is repeated (Alip, 2008). Alip mentions that the reduplication process can be analyzed based on their morphological and phonological process.
i.to imitate sounds, eg. tick-tock, bow-bow;
ii.to suggest alternating movements, eg. ping-pong, seesaw; iii.to disparage by suggesting instability, nonsense, insincerity, vacillation, eg.wishy-washy, hocus-pocus, higgled-piggled;
iv.to intensify, eg. tip-top, teeny-weeny.
Whereas based on phonology, it can be divided into three:
i. Rhyming reduplication, where the rhyme of the first element is repeated in the second, eg. argy-bargy, hot-pot, arty-farty;
ii. Exact reduplication, where the second element is the full repetition of the first, eg. bye-bye, bonbon;
iii. Ablaut reduplication, where the vowel sound of the first element is changed in the second, eg. criss-cross, chit-chat.
Again, William O’Grady, Michael Dobrovolksy, and Mark Aronoff add another word formations as following (1989: 106-107):
i. Clipping (abbreviation) is the process whereby a new word is created by shortening a polysyllabic word, such as the shortening word professor to prof, advertisement to ads, physical education to phys-ed, etc;
iii. Blend is created from parts of two already existing lexical items, such as motel for motor hotel, selectric for select+electric, chortle for chuckle+snort, telethon for telephone+marathon, permapress for permanent+press, etc;
iv. Backformation is the process whereby a word whose form is similar to that of a derived form undergoes a process of deaffixation. This process change part of speech the new form of word from its original form. The example are the word resurrrect (V) from ressurection (N), enthuse (V) from enthusiasm (N), orient (V) or orientate (V) from orientation (N), edit (V) from editor (N), swindle (V) from swindler (N), etc;
v. Onomatopoeic is the process whereby a word imitates the sound of nature, i.e. buzz, hiss, sizzle, cuckoo, etc.
Furthermore, we also have the other processes of word formation as following:
vi. Eponym is a word derived from proper names and are another of the many creative ways that the vocabulary of a language expands (Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams, 2002: 98), such as kleenex for ‘facial tissue’, xerox for ‘photocopy’, watt, curie, fahrenheit, etc; vii. Clitics are the obligatorily bound morphs which are intermediate
viii. Borrowing is the process whereby a word is taken/borrowed from another language and adopted to a certain language. The borrowing words can also being called by the loan word. According to Andrew Radford and his friends in their book Linguistics: an
Introduction, the process of borrowing word “are very often
assimilated to the phonological and morphological structure of the new host language” (1999: 256).
In her book Historical Linguistics 2nd edition, Lyle Campbell mentioned two ways which commonly happen in borrowing words: adaptation and accommodation. In adaptation, the non-existing word in foreign language will be replaced with the nearest and more comfort phonetic equivalent sound in the receiving language, while in accommodation, the phonological pattern of the foreign language will be modified by several processes such as deletion, addition, or recombination. However, sometimes the foreign word is borrowed purely without any changes into the receiving language’s vocabulary (2004: 65-67).
2. Theory of Etymology
It is common for one language to take words from another language and make them part of its own vocabulary. The process is called borrowing and the words are loanwords. They are borrowed primarily because of need and prestige. The speakers of a language acquire some new item or concept from abroad which means they need a new term along with new acquisition and sometimes with the new concept too. Then, because the foreign term for some reason is highly esteemed, it is adopted for prestige reason (Campbell, 2004: 64).
The borrowing process is closely related to etymology or the study of word’s original meaning. It is derived from Greek word etumon that means ‘true’ (Campbell, 2004: 5). In the novel Harry Potter we can find many words that were adopted especially from Latin by Rowling to name the spell words. In order to understand them better, we must look back at their etymological meaning by checking them in the etymology dictionaries.
example, the linguists study how the grammar of spoken English is in some particular speech community (Campbell, 2004: 4). Etymology is not the primary purpose of historical linguistics, but rather the goal is to understand language change in general that will lead to the further explanation of some process such as borrowing, clipping, analogy, amalgamation, sound change, etc (Campbell, 2004: 6).
3. Theory of Magic
The term of magic although is not very popular and real in human’s life, but it cannot be totally pushed aside. Some people think magic as something bad even worst that brings evil’s deed, such as the case of black magic, voodoo tradition, curse, etc. However, sometimes magic can also be a good thing such as its use in magic games, healing people, getting the lost item back, protection from evil power, etc.
In a book titled Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion: An Anthropological Study of the Supernatural composed by Lehmann and
Myers, it is mentioned that magic itself is divided into three, they are: a. imitative magic where the desired result could be achieved by
b. contagious magic where the material or substance once in contact with the intended victim is used in the magical attack,
Those three magical abilities are learned. People cannot gain them genetically. Therefore, magic must be differed from witchcraft which is “innate and uncontrolable” (Lehmann and Myers, 1985: 194).
Because the researcher cannot find other suitable source(s) for practices of magic, she uses a free site Wikipedia that defines those practices as follows (2008: 9):
a. the use of "magic words" said to have the power to command spirits; b. the use of wands (a straight thin stick that is held by somebody when
performing magic or magic tricks) and other ritual tools (such as candle, magic powder, animal, blood, etc);
c. the use of a magic circle to defend the magician against the spirits he is invoking or evoking; and
d. the use of mysterious symbols or sigils thought useful to invoke or evoke spirits.
It has been said in the first explanation of magic above that one of the element used in symphatetic magic is the pronounce of spell. It is strengthened by Lehmann and Myers’ theory that states spell is one of the activity in doing magic.
“Divination, special formulas and incantations, spells and curses, all are considered magical, and all can be used for good and evil” (1985: 194).
curse, and jinx. The curse is very dangerous because it hurts the victim even makes them died. There is only one jinx and it is also worse although it is not as dangerous as the curse. The charm and spell are safe enough and used to help human being, but some spells can also be used for bad intention although it cannot make the victim dead. Charm is more positive in practice than spell.
4. Information of Harry Potter a. About the Novel
Harry Potter is one of the novels written by Joanne Kathleen
Rowling (J. K. Rowling). It tells a story about an orphan named Harry Potter. His parents died because they were killed by the Prince of Dark, Voldemort, in their effort to protect baby Harry. Fortunately, Harry was safe and taken care by his mother’s sister, Aunt Petunia Dursley, and her family. Harry’s life seemed to be quite miserable in that house until one day he got a letter telling he was accepted in Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry where his parents also be its alumni. And the next episode of the novel explaining Harry’s life in his school, his Aunt’s house at long holiday, and when he has to defeat Voldemort until he was succeed to kill him (Shapiro, 2000: 2-6).
Harry Potter is very famous throughout the world, for all ages,
sexes, and social states. There are seven series of it: 1 Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone (the original title is Harry Potter and the
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, 4 Harry Potter and the
Goblet of Fire, 5 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, 6 Harry
Potter and A Half-blooded Prince, and 7 Harry Potter and the Deathly
Hollows. Since its first publication, Harry Potter has always been sold
out and even translated in about 67 languages around the world, such as American English, Indonesian, Ukrainian, Hindi, Bengali, Welsh, Afrikaans, Vietnamese, Latin, Ancient Greek, etc (Wikipedia, Maret 7th, 2009).
One of the very explicit characteristics of the novel Harry Potter is the use of magical terms. It can be seen in the name of spells, charms, and curses. According to Wikipedia, most of the spell words are borrowed from Latin, another are taken from English, Greek, Aramaic, and others. (Maret 7th, 2009). From the first until the last book, there are approximately eighties spell words in Harry Potter novels, not included the spell words which are mentioned only in their vernacular names and the additional spells for the film series.
b. About Spell Words
spell words in the novel and the original language are almost completely similar. Some spells have the incantation and vernacular names in parenthesis (eg. Accio (Summoning Charm)), but some only have the incantation (eg. Reducio) or only the vernacular one (eg. (Unbreakable Vow)). The incantation and vernacular name of the spell words are given by Rowling in the novel, both explicitly and implicitly. 5. British Religion and Beliefs
In many books reviewed and analyzed Harry Potter, such as “J. K. Rowling: The Wizard Behind Harry Potter” written by Marc Shapiro and
“The Magical Worlds of Harry Potter” by David Colbert, the writers
proved that J. K. Rowling has put some referencies from her study of Latin language and her understanding of histories of many countries or nations. We can assumed that it is also possible for her to addopt the tradition of religions and beliefs in British nation as her nationality which is very close to her since childhood in enhancing her story of Harry Potter. This reference also makes us easier to understand the novel. Besides, with the absence of spell words’ exact word pattern, we might also be assisted by the clue of both intrinsic or extrinsic elements, in the magic ritual.
books. In a book titled The Great Cultural Traditions volume I: The Ancient Cities written by Ralph Turner, Ph.d, it is mentioned that
“The chief intellectual element in Celtic culture was a religion characterized by a lively sense of the daimonic universe which peopled every spot and nook with fairies, spirits, and goblins. The colorful folklore of western Europe was derived mainly from this source. This religion was ministered by priests who known as the Druids. They practiced divination.” (1941: 527-528)
The review explains that the Celtics which is leaded by the Druids, used natural aspects for its practice. It is very often for them to use the elements of the nature, such as weather, plants, animals, and anything related to them, whether it is an abstrack or concrete noun. The abstrack noun here means the characteristics of nature, i.e. strong, fly, hot, hard, etc. For addition, it is also noted that the story of fairies, spirits, and the other supranatural power in folk stories inspired by the Celtics ritual.
C. Theoretical Framework
In order to make the present study more accurate and well-composed, the writer had used some theories, related studies, reviews, and other additional information related to the object of the study.
Theoretically, the writer’s problems can be answered because the novel Harry Potter talked mostly about the wizard world as been proved by Tersi Erdila Valentina in her graduate thesis “English Society’s Belief in the Existence of Magic as Revealed in J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” (Valentina, 2003) and in the information of novel Harry
Potter. Certainly, there are many list of spell words in that novel along with
their descriptions and functions. It is about eighties. So, it is not too difficult to answer the first problem. The writer just list all the spell words used in the novel Harry Potter, which are mostly written in italic and implicitly must be understood from the sentences or paragraph, in order to ensure that the words are really the spell words. This can be applied too in answering the question number two that only summarizing the function of spell words that have been explained in the previous question. Besides, the information of the etymology of the word that is also very crucial and helpful in answering the last question, can give the reader better understanding for the whole spell words.
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY
This chapter will be divided into three parts namely object of the study, approach of the study, and method of the study which later will included the data collection and data analysis.
A. Object of the Study
A free site, The Leaky Cauldron, records that since the publication of the first novel Philosopher's Stone (Sorcerer’s Stone), the series of Harry Potter have been the recipients of many awards, including Hugo Awards for
Best Novel for Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2000), four Whitaker Platinum Book Awards for Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2001), three Nestlé Smarties Book Prizes (1997–1999), two Scottish Arts Council Book Awards (1999 and 2001), the inaugural Whitbread children's book of the year award (1999), and the W. H. Smith book of the year (2006). The book also received honours including a commendation for the Carnegie Medal (1997), a short listing for the Guardian Children's Award (1998), and numerous listings on the notable books, editors' Choices, and best books lists of the American Library Association, New York Times, Chicago Public Library, and Publishers Weekly (Maret 7th, 2009).
Harry Potter is praised as "a richly textured novel given lift-off by an
can possibly provide." Besides, various religious conservatives also have claimed that the books promote witchcraft and are therefore unsuitable for children, while a number of critics have criticized the books for promoting various political agendas (Wikipedia, Maret 7th, 2009).
Whatever the critics said, Harry Potter has been a favorite book of children and adults all over the world which challenged a big house film production Warner Bross to adopt it in moving picture. In addition, Harry and his friends and enemies have been enchanted to the forms of many merchandises and the actors in games.
B. Approach of the Study
C. Method of the Study 1. Data Collection
The collecting process of data for this research is a population study, which means that the researcher listed all spell words within the novel Harry Potter and did not left anything. The procedure done by the present writer can be divided into two steps. The first procedure is the writer collected all seven novels Harry Potter. The writer might not miss one book because the population of this study is all the spell words in the novels Harry Potter. The second procedure is the writer read the books one by one carefully. Whenever the writer found the spell words, whether it contains of incantation and vernacular name or only one of them, she listed them along with their function and effect.
2. Data Analysis
To answer the problems and purposes of this paper, the writer had taken some steps. However, the same step cannot be applied for every problems.
a. Classifying the spell words;
b. Finding out the location, functions, and effects of each spell words; To answer this problem, the researcher reread and rechecked the effects and functions of the spell words in the novel. It was done very carefuly because sometimes there was not any explanation of the effects or functions of the spell words especially if they had been repeated many times in the previous books or pages. Besides, the writer also noted the location(s) of the spell words in the novel (the page number and number of the book).
c. Finding out the etymology of the spell words;
In doing this, the writer used the dictionary of etymology and other related sources to find out the words that might be the original words or related words of the spell words.
d. Analyzing the morphological process of the spell words based on the morphology theory;
Here, the writer compared the spell words with their etymology and analyzed the procesess based on the theory of morphology.
e. Putting the similar processes into the same group;
f. Drawing a conclusion;
After all of the spell words grouped in one similar group based on their morphological process, the researcher could see the phenomena and made a conclusion of this whole analysis.
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS
This chapter is the part of analysis of the research. The analysis will be
divided into three parts according to the problem formulation previously
mentioned in the Chapter I. There will be three main divisions in this analysis.
The first division will be the list of spell words taken from the novel Harry Potter
along with their meanings. The second division will be the list of their functions
based on the context in the stories. The last one will be the process of the spell
words’ word formation based on the theories that are used in this research.
A. The Spell Words in J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter
There are about eighties spell words that will be the objects of next
analysis. They are divided into two big groups. The first group is the spell
words that have their incantations (how they are spoken) and also their
vernaculars (the name of spell words in the more common and easier term in
daily life). Their vernacular can refer to their meaning based on the author’s
intention in the context or story. Generally, the vernaculars are given by
Rowling herself and stated explicitly in the context. The other one is the spell
words with only their incantations. Because they do not have vernaculars, we
have to see the context deeper than the first group to know their exact
Some spell words are taken purely from a language, mostly Latin, the
language(s). When they are combined, it can be followed by some
modification(s) in their word formation but their meaning and function are
still similar literally.
Following is the list of the spell words with their incantation and
1. Accio (Summoning Charm)
The map flew up into the air, slipped through Snapes outstretched fingers, and soared down the stairs into Moody’s hand. (#4 : 306)
The word accio is taken from Latin which means “to call or summon”. As
seen in the context, when Moody mentions the word accio followed by the
word “parchment”, a parchment goes to his hand immediately from
somewhere. It is such a calling spell. J. K. Rowling gives this spell word
name summoning charm.
2. Aguamenti (Aguamenti Charm)
"Aguamenti!" he (Harry) shouted, jabbing the goblet with his wand. The goblet filled with clear water; Harry dropped to his knees beside Dumbledore, raised his head, and brought the glass to his lips – ...” (#6 : 729)
From the context above, when “aguamenti” is pronounced, the goblet will
be filled with water. It can be assumed that the spell word is combined
from two words from Latin: aqua and mentio. The word aqua is “water”;
like its related words such as aquarium (a clear glass or plastic container
Whereas, mentio means “mention”. So, aguamenti has meaning
mentioning the water.
3. Avada Kedavra (Killing Curse)
According to Rowling in her book, there are three kinds of the
cruelest spell words. They are classified into curses. One of them is avada
kedavra (the others are crucio and imperio) and is the biggest one. It can
cause death for the victim.
Moody raised his wand, and Harry felt a sudden thrill of foreboding.
"Avada Kedavra!" Moody roared.
There was a flash of blinding green light and a rushing sound, as though a vast, invisible something was soaring through the air - instantaneously the spider rolled over onto its back, unmarked, but unmistakably dead. (#4: 141)
From the context above, after avada kedavra has been mentioned
upon the spider, it dies immediately. This curse is not allowed to be
practised without some authority, for example: The followers of the Dark
Lord, Voldemort, that be named Death Eaters, are not allowed to use the
curse to Harry unless they are commanded to do that although Harry is the
most-wanted person for their leader.
Avada Kedavra seems to have relationship with the word
“abracadabra” that is well known usually used in the magic tricks. It
comes from the phrase abhadda kedhabra that means “let the thing be
destroyed”, belonging to ancient Middle East language (Aramaic) that is
4. Confringo (Blasting Curse)
Hermione screamed, "Confringo!" and her spell flew around the room, exploding the wardrobe mirror and ricocheting back at them, bouncing from floor to ceiling; (#7: 177)
Based on the story above, confringo is mentioned to break something into
pieces. By Rowling, confringo is called blasting curse because when it
destroys something it is followed by exploison. The word is taken from
Latin that also means “to break in pieces or to destroy”. It is grouped into
curse because it is very dangerous if it is casted upon human being and can
cause instant death.
5. Confundo (Confundus Charm)
"Ah, Probity Probes," signed Travers theatrically, "so crude--but so effective!"
And he set off up the steps, nodding left and right to the wizards, who raised the golden rods and passed them up and down his body. The Probes, Harry knew, detected spells of concealment and hidden magical objects. Knowing that he had only seconds, Harry pointed Draco's wand at each of the guards in turn and murmured, "Confundo" twice. Unnoticed by Travers, who was looking through the bronze doors at the inner hall, each of the guards gave a little start as the spells hit them.
Hermione's long black hair rippled behind her as she climbed the steps.
"One moment, madam," said the guard, raising his Probe. "But you've just done that!" said Hermione in Bellatrix's commanding, arrogant voice. Travers looked around, eyebrows raised. The guard was confused. He stared down at the thin golden Probe and then at his companion, who said in a slightly dazed voice,
"Yeah, you've just checked them, Marius." (#7: 277)
As can be seen from the story, confundo makes the two wizards being
confused. They think that they have checked Hermione who is disguising
derived from Latin that means “to confuse or to throw into disorder”. So, it
6. Crucio (Cruciatus Curse)
Moody raised his wand again, pointed it at the spider, and muttered, "Crucio!"
At once, the spider's legs bent in upon its body; it rolled over and began to twitch horribly, rocking from side to side. No sound came from it, but Harry was sure that if it could have given voice, it would have been screaming. Moody did not remove his wand, and the spider started to shudder and jerk more violently -....” (#4: 140)
Crucio is also included in the three cruelest curse but it is in the second
level. It causes torment for the victim as can be seen in the story. The word
crucio is taken from Latin that means “to torture or torment”. So, it means
7. Defodio (Gouging Spell)
Harry’s eyes were shut tight against the heat and dust: Deafened by the crash of rock and the dragon’s roars, he could only cling to its back, expecting to be shaken off at any moment; then he heard Hermione yelling, “Defodio!”
She was helping the dragon enlarge the passage way, carving out the ceiling as it struggled upward toward the fresher air, away from the shrieking and clanking goblins: Harry and Ron copied her, blasting the ceiling apart with more gouging spells. (#7: 284)
By the spell word defodio, Hermione excavates the ceiling to let the
dragon outs of the room for getting fresher air. Literarily, Rowling called it
as gouging action (to dig something); in the context above, the spell word
“digs” the ceiling to open a bigger way out for the dragon. The spell word
8. Diffindo (Severing Charm)
Pausing at a distance from them, he (Harry) pulled out his wand, and took careful aim.
Cedric's bag split. Parchment, quills, and books spilled out of it onto the floor. Several bottles of ink smashed. (#4: 221)
The word diffindo is derived from Latin means “to split, cleave, or open”.
Rowling calls the spell word as severing charm. It separates two things. In
the context above, the spell word diffindo causing Cedric’s bag is opened
and lets the contents out. The spell word separates the zipper that closes
the bag’s upper part.
9. Engorgio (Engorgement Charm)
"Needs to be a bit bigger for you to get the idea," he said, pointing his wand at the spider."Engorgio!"
The spider swelled. It was now larger than a tarantula. (#4: 140)
Engorgio makes the victim of its spell to become larger than the previous
size. Rowling calls the spell word as an engorgement charm. The spell
word is originally derived from English word engorge that means “to
cause something to become filled with blood or another liquid and to
swell”. So, it means swelling.
10.Expecto Patronum (Patronus Charm)
He summoned the happiest thought he could, concentrated with all his might on the thought of getting out of the maze and celebrating with Ron and Hermione, raised his wand, and cried, "Expecto Patronum!"
An enormous silver stag erupted from the tip of Harry's wand; it's antlers caught the Dementor in the place where the heart should have been; it was thrown backwards, weightless as darkness, and as the stag charged, the Dementor swooped away, bat-like and defeated. (#5: 12)
Expecto patronum is called patronus charm. Not different from its original
language, Latin, patronus also means “a protector, defender, or patron”,
while the word expecto might be taken from English word expect. So, we
might suggest that expecto patronum means expecting a protector.
From the two examples above, expecto patronum is used to present
a misty creature to protect the caster from Dementor. As said in the story,
Dementors are scared by many people in magic world and also for
Muggles who have met them because Dementors’ presence takes off the
happines and causes unpleasant and horrible atmosphere around the
victims. Dementors do not have a heart that functions to feel sympathy in
human beings. No wonder that they are very cruel and brutal. To create the
patronum, the speaker must think of something very delightful in his life,
the opponent of Dementors’ lack of feeling.
11.Expelliarmus (Disarming Charm, Disarming Spell)
It worked - the Disarming Spell made the spider drop him, but that meant that Harry fell twelve feet onto his already injured leg, which crumpled beneath him. (#4: 409)
Mundungus scrambled up and pulled out his wand; Hermione, however, was too quick for him.
Mundungus’s wand soared into the air, and Hermione caught it. (#7: 113)
Rowling calls expelliarmus a disarming charm/spell. The word is
composed of two Latin words: expello that has meaning “to drive out,
expel, or thrust away” and arma that means “weapons of war”. The whole
meaning can be to expel the weapon of opponent. As seen in the second
example, when it is pronounced, the opponent of the speaker releases his
wand automatically. He is disarmed by the caster of the spell word.
12.Funnunculus (Funnunculus Curse)
"Funnunculus!" Harry yelled.
---Harry's hit Goyle in the face, --- Goyle bellowed and put his hands to his nose, where great ugly boils were springing up, (#4: 194)
As in the context above, due to the word funnunculus Harry causes a
growth of horrible boils in Goyle’s face. It is included in the curse because
the effect is worse. The spell word might be taken from French word
furoncle that means “Furuncle or boil” and has several modification such
as furonculose (Furunculosis and furonculeux (furunculous). In short, we
13.Geminio (Gemino Curse)
“I know that, Harry, but if she wakes up and the locket’s gone – I need to duplicate it – Geminio! There… That should fool her….” (#7: 136)
Geminio that almost resemble with Gemini, one of the zodiac which is
symbolized with a twin and indicates two similar things. As seen in the
context, the spell word brings effect to produce the same object from the
original one or to duplicate a thing. The word is borrowed from Latin word
gemino that means “to double” in transitive verb, and can also has
meaning “to join together, strike together, or repeat, or doubled”. Rowling
names this as Gemino Curse.
14.Impedimenta (Impediment Jinx, Impediment Curse)
They all divided up obediently; Harry partnered Neville as usual. The room was soon full of intermittent cries of 'Impedimenta!' People froze for a minute or so, during which their partner would stare aimlessly around the room watching other pairs at work, then would unfreeze and take their turn at the jinx. (#5: 238)
"Impedimenta!" yelled Harry.
His jinx hit Amycus in the chest: He gave a piglike squeal of pain, was lifted off his feet and slammed into the opposite wall, slid down it, and fell out of sight behind Ron, Professor McGonagall, and Lupin, each of whom was battling a separate Death Eater. (#6: 760)
The word impedimenta is taken from Latin and is the plural form of word
impedimentum thatmeans ”an impediment or a hindrance”. It is similar to
word data (plural) and datum (singular). A hindrance is a situation that
make progress. The spell word make the opponent of the caster is failed to
do something that he is going to do. As seen in the two contexts above,
when someone gets this spell word upon him, he cannot do anything and
can be defeated easily by the opponent.
15.Imperio (Imperius Curse)
He then pointed his wand at it and muttered, "Imperio!"
The spider leapt from Moody's hand on a fine thread of silk and began to swing backward and forward as though on a trapeze. It stretched out its legs rigidly, then did a back flip, breaking the thread and landing on the desk, where it began to cartwheel in circles. Moody jerked his wand, and the spider rose onto two of its hind legs and went into what was unmistakably a tap dance.
--- "Total control," said Moody quietly as the spider balled itself up and began to roll over and over. "I could make it jump out of the window, drown itself, throw itself down one of your throats. . ." (139 : #4)
When imperio is spoken out, the victim (can be human or animal) to whom
the curse is purposed will move as the caster aims to. As taken from its
original Latin word imperiosus which means “commanding” or in bad
sense it can be “imperious or tyrannical”, with the word imperio the caster
will have “total control” to the victim. From the three worst curse, imperio
is the lightest one. It does not cause death but it is also dangerous.
16.Impervius (Impervius Charm)
"I've had an idea, Harry! Give me your glasses, quick!" He handed them to her, and as the team watched in amazement, Hermione tapped them with her wand and said, "Impervius!"
When Griffindor’s team competes against Hufflepuff on Quidditch match
– a kind of sport that is almost similar to polo and association football style
where the players played up in the air on brooms (The Quidditch
Handbook, 2009) - in a very bad rainy day, it seems very impossible for
Griffindor to win especially because Harry who gets the most important
position in the team to win the game, uses glasses. Because of that,
Hermione offers impervius charm that repels the water so that it cannot
pass through Harry’s glasses. The spell word is originally taken from Latin
that means “impassable”. As seen in the context, the rain cannot pass
into/penetrate Harry’s glasses. So, we could suggest the spell word as an
17.Langlock (Tongue-Tying Curse)
Harry aimed his wand at Peeves and said, "Langlock!" Peeves clutched at his throat, gulped, then swooped from the room making obscene gestures but unable to speak, owing to the fact that his tongue had just glued itself to the roof of his mouth. (#6: 535)
The context explicitly describes the effect of the spell word langlock. It is
said that Peeeves’ tongue glues itself to the roof of his mouth/alveolar so
that it (Peeves is a ghost) cannot speak. It is classified into curse,
tongue-tying curse. The word is combined by two English words: language that
means “a system of spoken sounds or conventional symbols for
communicating thought” and lock means “to fasten”. One of the tools in
tongue. As seen in the context above, Peeves’ tongue is fastened and glued
to its alveolar so that it cannot speak any word.
18.Locomotor Mortis (Leg-Locker Curse)
Ron and Hermione, meanwhile, had found a place in the stands next to Neville, who couldn't understand why they looked so grim and worried, or why they had both brought their wands to the match. Little did Harry know that Ron and Hermione had been secretly practicing the Leg-Locker Curse. They'd gotten the idea from Malfoy using it on Neville, and were ready to use it on Snape if he showed any sign of wanting to hurt Harry.
"Now, don't forget, it's Locomotor Mortis," Hermione muttered as Ron slipped his wand up his sleeve. (#1: 178)
In the story, it is mentioned clearly that locomotor mortis is a leg-locker
curse. It can be used to deactivate enemy. In the context above, Ron and
Hermione get the idea to use that spell word from the accident of Malfoy
using it upon Nevile and causing “his legs been stuck together” (174). The
spell word is combined by three Latin words: loco that means “to place,
put, or to set”; moto means “to move about”; and mortuus that means “to
die or decay”. The whole meaning can be assumed as to set something into
die movement, to lock the movement, or not be able to move.
19.Morsmordre (Dark Mark)
And then, without warning, the silence was rent by a voice unlike any they had heard in the wood; and it uttered, not a panicked shout, but what sounded like a spell.
Suddenly, the wood all around them erupted with screams. Harry didn't understand why, but the only possible cause was the sudden appearance of the skull, which had now risen high enough to illuminate the entire wood like some grisly neon sign. He scanned the darkness for the person who had conjured the skull, but he couldn't see anyone. (#4: 84)
The word morsmordre is composed of two words: Latin mors which
means “death, a corpse, or a cause of death/destruction” and French
mordre that means “to bite”. The dark mark bites people’s peaceful life
with death. In the context above, after the spell has been mentioned by one
of The Death Eaters (Voldemort’s followers), a bright big skull appears in
the dark sky and destroys human peace who see it. It is a sign of
Voldemort, the Lord of the Dark, that means someone has been killed by
Voldemort or his followers. People are really afraid of him because he
once ever been a powerfull and cruelest bad person in magical history.
20.Obliviate (Memory Charm, Memory-Modifying Charm)
At that moment, a wizard in plus-fours appeared out of thin air next to Mr. Roberts's front door.
"Obliviate!" he said sharply, pointing his wand at Mr. Roberts.
Instantly, Mr. Roberts's eyes slid out of focus, his brows unknitted, and a took of dreamy unconcern fell over his face. Harry recognized the symptoms of one who had just had his memory modified. (#4: 51)
By the spell word obliviate, the victim had his memory modified. Rowling
calls it as a memory-modifying charm. The word is derived from Latin
word oblivio that means “forgetfulness/oblivion”. The victim’s memory is
21.Petrificus Totalus (Body-Bind Curse)
"Petrificus Totalus!" she cried, pointing it at Neville.
Neville's arms snapped to his sides. His legs sprang together. His whole body rigid, he swayed where he stood and then fell flat on his face, stiff as a board.
Hermione ran to turn him over. Neville's jaws were jammed together so he couldn't speak. Only his eyes were moving, looking at them in horror. (#1: 219)
Rowling calls petrificus totalus a body-bind curse. As seen in the context,
when having this curse upon him, Neville’s arms and legs as if glued to his
body. His lips and mouth are closed together so that he cannot speak,
although his eyes can still be moved. He is like a human soul in inanimate
thing’s body. The spell word is combined from two words: a French word
pétrifier means “to turn into stone” and a Latin word totus means
“whole/complete/entire”. So, it can be suggested to have meaning to turn
something into stone completely. Rowling uses it to curse body so that the
whole body is like a stone.
22.Point Me (Four-Point Spell)
Harry kept looking behind him. The old feeling that he was being watched was upon him. The maze was growing darker with every passing minute as the sky overhead deepened to navy. He reached a second fork.
"Point Me," he whispered to his wand, holding it flat in his palm.
The wand spun around once and pointed toward his right, into solid hedge. That way was north, and he knew that he needed to go northwest for the center of the maze. The best he could do was to take the left fork and go right again as soon as possible. (#4: 402)
From the context above, we know that the spell word is used by Harry to
four-point spell because it only gives four main points of the compass. The
meaning of the spell word is show me the direction that taken from two
English words: point that means “show the way” and me “for the first
23.Protego (Shield Charm)
He turned his wand on Harry so fast that Harry reacted instinctively; all thought of nonverbal spells forgotten, he yelled, "Protego!"
His Shield Charm was so strong Snape was knocked off-balance and hit a desk. The whole class had looked around and now watched as Snape righted himself, scowling. (#6: 226)
The word protego is derived from Latin that means “to cover in front or to
cover over/protect”. Rowling calls it a shield charm. A shield has a
function to protect. In the context above, the shield charm protects Harry
from Snape who was going to mention any spell words upon him. As the
result, Snape is repeled and hits the desk.
24.Reducto (Reductor Curse)
....how Parvati Patil had produced such a good Reductor Curse that she had reduced the table carrying all the Sneakoscopes to dust. (#5: 209)
Harry had soon mastered ..., the Reductor Curse, which would enable him to blast solid objects out of his way; ... (#4: 395)
From the two contexts above, the word reducto or the reductor curse
continuously until it is destroyed of having no size any longer. The word is
taken from Latin word reductio that means “bringing back or restoration”.
25.Repello Muggletum (Muggle-Repelling Charm)
It is mentioned in the seventh book page 141 but without any
longer explanation, both for meaning and function. But in the other
context, it is called Muggle-Repelling Charm, a charm to refuse Muggle
(people with non-ability of doing magic and many of them do not even
know if there is community of magic around them). The word repello
itself is taken from Latin that means “to drive back/drive away or to
26.Rictusempra (Tickling Charm)
--- wasting no more time, Harry pointed his wand straight at Malfoy and shouted, "Rictusempra!"
A jet of silver light hit Malfoy in the stomach and he doubled up, wheezing.
"I said disarm only!" Lockhart shouted in alarm over the heads of the battling crowd, as Malfoy sank to his knees; Harry had hit him with a Tickling Charm, and he could barely move for laughing. (#2: 163)
The word rictusempra is a combination of two Latin words: rictus means
“the open mouth” and semper means “always or at all times”. In the
context above, Harry gives Malfoy this charm that causes Malfoy to
always open his mouth due to laughing. It is as if somebody is tickling him
27.Scourgify (Scouring Charm)
'Ah, well,' said Tonks, slamming the trunk's lid shut, 'at least it's all in. That could do with a bit of cleaning, too.' She pointed her wand at Hedwig's cage. 'Scourgify.' A few feathers and droppings vanished. Well, that's a bit better — I've never quite got the hang of these householdy sort of spells.. (#5: 30)
Snape let out a stream of mixed swear words and hexes, but with his wand ten feet away nothing happened.
'Wash out your mouth,' said James coldly. 'Scourgify!' Pink soap bubbles streamed from Snape's mouth at once; the froth was covering his lips, making him gag, choking him — ' (#5: 336)
The spell word scourgify is originally taken from English word scour
which means “cleaning something very thoroughly by rubbing it with a
rough material”. In the two examples above, the spell word is used to clean
Hedwig’s cage (Harry’s owl) and wash out Snape’s mouth with soap
bubbles very carefully. The author names it a scouring charm. We can
assume that the spell word scourgify means cleaning thoroughly.
28.Silencio (Silencing Charm)
'Silencio!' cried Hermione and the man's voice was
extinguished. He continued to mouth through the hole in his mask, but no sound came out. (#5: 411)
The word silencio might be taken from Italian word silenzio that means
“silence”. It is clearly showed by the context that silencio is a silencing
charm that is used to make the victim silent without any voice or sound
can be imagined as an act of watching news in television with the volume
is in mute mode.
29.Specialis Revelio (Scarpin's Revelaspell)
"Hey!" said Harry indignantly, as she pulled his copy of Advanced Potion-Making out of his bag and raised her wand. "Specialis Revelio!" she said, rapping it smartly on the front cover. Nothing whatsoever happened. The book simply lay there, looking old and dirty and dog-eared.
--- ( It did not work for a moment.) ---
"Good. Then I'll have it back," said Harry, snatching it off the table, but it slipped from his hand and landed open on the floor. Nobody else was looking. Harry bent low to retrieve the book, and as he did so, he saw something scribbled along the bottom of the back cover in the same small, cramped handwriting as the instructions that had won him his bottle of Felix Felicis, now safely hidden inside a pair of socks in his trunk upstairs.
This book is the property of the Half Blood Prince. (#6: 243-244)
The spell word specialis revelio is formed from two Latin words: specialis
means “special” and revelo that means “to unveil/lay bare”. In the context
above, by the spell word the invisible word in the cover of the book can be
visible at last. Later, the book tells so many surprising news for them. J. K.
Rowling names this spell word a scarpin’s revelaspell. Although the
researcher cannot find the meaning of the word scarpin but she can assume
that revelaspell might be the combination of two words, revelo and spell.
The scarpin’s revelaspell is a spell to reveal something.
30.Stupefy (Stunning Spell, Stupefying Charm, Stunner)
STUPEFY!' screamed Hermione, who had just caught up
The author of the novel gives the name for the spell word stupefy stunning
spell, stupefying charm, or stunner. It surprises the victim of the spell very
extremely so that he cannot attack back. As it is a stunner, it can also be
assumed to have meaning to make someone unconscious for a short time.
It is derived from Latin word stupefio that means “to make
senseless/benumb/stun”. However, it is not dangerous so that is called
spell or charm, not curse.
31.Wingardium Leviosa (Levitation Charm)
Hermione had sunk to the floor in fright; Ron pulled out his own wand -- not knowing what he was going to do he heard himself cry the first spell that came into his head: "Wingardium Leviosa!"
The club flew suddenly out of the troll's hand, rose high, high up into the air, turned slowly over -- and dropped, with a sickening crack, onto its owner's head. The troll swayed on the spot and then fell flat on its face, with a thud that made the whole room tremble. (#1: 142)
The spell word wingardium leviosa is named levitation charm because it
makes the thing that is aimed by the spell flying as if it has wings due to
magic. It can be proved by the context. By the swing of the wand and the
pronounce of the spell word, the troll’s hand rising and flying and then
along with the lowering of the wand, the levitated object is also put down.
The spell word is combined from three words: English wing means “fly”,
Latin arduus means “high”, and Latin levis means “light”. Because a thing
is light, it can fly high as if having a couple of wings.
The next is a group of spell words only with incantations. Because