Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I) in English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salat

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THE INFLUENCE OF STUDENTS’ MASTERY ON

GERUND PHRASE TOWARD STUDENTS’ WRITING

PERFORMANCE

  

(A Correlative Study of Fifth Semester Students of English

Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of

2014/2015)

  A GRADUATING PAPER

Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a Partial Fulfillment of

the requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam

  

(S.Pd.I) in English Education Department of Teacher Training

and Education Faculty

State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga Created by: NUFIYATI

  

113 09 113

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY

STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN)

  

SALATIGA

2015

  

DECLARATION

ميحرلا نمحرلا الله مسب

  Hereby the writer fully declares that this thesis is made by the writer herself, and it is not containing materials written or has been published by other people ideas except the information from the references.

  The writer is capable of accounting for this graduating paper if in the future it can be proved of containing others ’ idea or in fact, the writer imitates the other s’graduating paper.

  Likewise, this declaration is made by the writer, and she hopes that this declaration can be understood for all human being.

  rd

  Salatiga, April13 2015 The Writer

NUFIYATI NIM. 11309113

MINISTRY OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN) SALATIGA

  Jl. TentaraPelajar02 Tlp (0298) 323433Fax 323433 Salatiga 50731 Website

  th

  Salatiga,April 13 , 2015

  Mashlihatul Umami, S.PdI., M.A

  The Lecturer of English Education Department State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR’S NOTE Case:

  Nufiyati’s Graduating Paper

  Dear, The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga

  Ass alamu’alaikumWr. Wb. After reading and correcting Nufiyati’s graduating paper, entitled THE

  INFLUENCE OF STUDENTS’ MATERY ON GERUND PHRASE TOWARD STUDENTS’ WRITING PERFORMANCE ( A Correlative Study of Fifth Semester Students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of 204/015, I have decided and would like to propose that if it

  could be accepted by the Teacher Training and Education Faculty and I hope this graduating paper can be examined as soon as possible.

  Wassalamu’alaikumWr. Wb.

  Counselor

   Mashlihatul Umami, S.PdI.,M.A NIP. 19800513 200312 2 003

  

GRADUATING PAPER

THE INFLUENCE OF STUDENTS’ MASTERY ON GERUND

PHRASE TOWARD STUDENTS’ WRITING PERFORMANCE

(A Correlative Study of Fifth Semester Students of English

  

Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of

2014/2015)

BY:

NUFIYATI

  

113 09113

  Has been brought to the board of examiners of English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education faculty of State Institute for Islamic Studies

  nd

  (IAIN) Salatiga on Thursday, April 2 , 2015 and hereby considered to completely fulfill of the requirement for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S. Pd. I) in English Education Department.

  Boards of examiners, Head : Moh Khusen, M.Ag., M.A. Secretary : Mashlihatul Umami, S.Pd.I., M.A.

  st 1 Examiner : Rifqi Aulia Erlangga, M.Hum. nd 2 Examiner : Ari Setiawan, S.Pd.,M.M. nd

  Salatiga, April 2 , 2015 Dean of Teacher Training and Education faculty Salatiga Suwardi, M.Pd.

  NIP.196701211999031 002

  

Motto

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to

change the world

  

(Nelson Mandela)

  

DEDICATION

  This graduating paper is whole heartedly dedicated to: My Lord, Allah SWT… Thanks to Allah for giving me guidance and

   strength in my life, especially to finish this graduating paper. Alhamdulillahirobbilalamin! My beloved parents, thanks for your love, prayer, motivation, and your

   sacrifice to me. You are everything in my life. No words aside you are is the best.

   our togetherness. I love you.

  My lovely husband, whois never tired to support me, deeply thanks for

   family, thank a lot for your continued encouragement, advice, and pray.

  My sister and brother, ( mbksri, mas mat, mas rip) and all of my big

   always give me suggestion and patience throughout my graduating paper. Thank you very much! Thank you for all lecturer of Educational faculty State Institute of Islamic

  My honorable consultant (Mrs. Mashlihatul Umami, S.Pdi.MA.) who

   Studies of Salatiga, who always teach me brilliantly, give me the best advice. I will never forgetting to you.

  Thanks you for my struggle friends bundayanah, bundalaily, bundabudi,

   bundabibah, bunda noir, umi, misihkopay. Don’t be give in. Lets we come up together!

   All of my friends who could not be mentioned one by one. Thank you guys!

  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful, The Lord

of Universe . Because of Him, the writer could finish this graduating paper as one

  of the requirement for Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I) in English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education faculty State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga.

  Secondly, peace and salutation always be given to our prophet Muhammad SAW who has guided us from the darkness to the lightness.

  However, this success would not be achieved without supports, guidance, advices, helps, and encouragements from individual and institution. Therefore, in this moment the writer would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to:

  1. Dr. Rahmat Hariyadi, M.Pd. as a Rector of State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga.

  2. Suwardi, M. Pd, as a Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty.

  3. Noor Malihah, M.Hum,.P.hD. as a chief of English Department 4.

  Mashlihatul Umami, S. Pd.I, M.A. as a consultant who has educated, supported, directed and given the writer advices, suggestions, and recommendations for this graduating paper from beginning until the end.

  5. All of the lecturers in English department, the writer deeply thanks to you all for your knowledge, advices, kindness and for everything.

  6. All of the staffs who have helped the writer in processing of graduating paper administration.

  7. The beloved family, who have given a true love, care, prayers, and support. Thanks them for this warm and togetherness.

  8. All of her friends who have help me to finish this graduating paper.

  9. Those cannot be mentioned one by one.

  Finally this graduating paper is expected to be able to provide useful knowledge and information to the readers. And the writer is pleased to accept more suggestion and contribution from the reader for the improvement of the graduating paper.

  Salatiga, April13

  rd

  2015 The writer, Nufiyati Nim :113 09 113

  

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE ......................................................................................................... i

DECLARATION ........................................................................................ ii

ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES ..................................................... iii

STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION .................................................... iv

MOTTO ...................................................................................................... v

DEDICATION ............................................................................................ vi

ACKNOWLEDGENMENT ...................................................................... vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................... ix

LIST OF THE TABLE............................................................................... xii

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................ xiii

  CHAPTER I:INTRODUCTION A.

  1 Background of the Research .....................................

  B.

  4 Problems of the Research ..........................................

  C.

  4 Objectives of the Research ........................................

  D.

  5 Limitation of Research ..............................................

  E.

  5 Benefit of the research ...............................................

  F.

  6 Hypothesis ...............................................................

  G.

  7 Definition of Key Term........................................ .....

  H.

  7 Graduating Paper Out Line .......................................

  CHAPTER

  II: THEORETICAL REVIEW A.

  9 Mastery ......................................................................

  B.

  10 Gerund Phrase ...........................................................

  1. Definition of Gerund Phrase................................ 10 2.

  12 Function of Gerund Phrase ..................................

  3.

  21 Verb Frequently Followed by Gerund Phrase ....

  4. Differences between Gerund Phrase and Participle 23 5.

  Indicator of Students Mastery on Gerund Phrase 26

  26 C. Students’ Writing Performance…………………....

  1.

  26 Definition of Writing…………………………… 2.

  27 Process of Writing….............................................

  3.

  28 Basic Principle in Writing………………............

  4.

  30 Style in Writing…………………………………..

  5. The Indicator of Students Writing Performance… 31

  CHAPTER

  III: RESEARCH METHOD A. Setting of the Research ..............................................

  32 1.

  32 Profile of STAIN Salatiga……………………… 2. Vision, mission of STAIN Salatiga……………. 33 3.

  34 Faculty and Study Program…………………….

  B. Research Method .......................................................

  36 1.

  36 Type of Research………………………………..

  2.

  37 Subject of Research……………………………..

  3.

  40 Technique of Collecting Data…………………..

  4.

  41 Technique of Data Analysis…………………….

  C. Data Presentation…………………………………… 46 1.

  46 Data of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase…. .

  2.

  47 Data of Students’ Writing Performance………..

  CHAPTER

  IV: DATA ANALYSIS A. Data Analysis ..............................................................

  49 1. Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase………….. 49 2.

  53 Students Writing Performance………………….

3. Correlation Students Mastery on Gerund Phrase

  Toward Students Writing Performance………… 55

B. Discussion……………………………………………. 60

  CHAPTER V: CLOSURE A. Conclusion ..................................................................

  66 B. Suggestion ...................................................................

  68 BIBLIOGRAPHY

  APPENDIXES

  LIST OF THE TABLE TABLE 2.1

  Example Verb Followed by Gerund………………………… 22

  TABLE 2.2

  Example Gerund after Preposition…………………………... 22

  TABLE 3.1The Number of the Fifth Semester Students that Taken

  Writing Class………………………………………………… 37

  TABLE 3.2

  List of Subject of the Research……………………………… 39

TABLE 3.3 Scoring of Gerund P

  hrase…………………………………… 42

  TABLE 3.4

  Scoring of Writing Performance……………………………. 43

  TABLE 3.5

  .Data of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase………………. 46

  TABLE 3.6

  Data of Students’ writing Performance…………………….. 47

  TABLE 4.1

  Score of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase…………….. 50

  TABLE 4.2

  Score of Students’ Writing Performance………………….. 53

  TABLE 4.3

  The Accumulation Data of Variable X and Variable Y…… 56

  TABLE 4.4

  The Result of Data Correlation……………………………. 57

TABLE 4.5 Correlations between Gerund Phrase and their Writing

  60 Performance………………………………………………

  TABLE 4.6

  Interpretation of r Value…………………………………… 62

  

ABSTRACT

  Nufiyati. 2015. The

  Influence of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase toward Students’ Writing Performance (A Correlative Study of the Fifth Semester Students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2014/2015). A Graduating Paper. Teacher Training

  and Education Faculty. English Education Department. State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga. Counselor: Mashlihatul Umami, S. Pd.I, M.A.

  Keywords: gerund phrase, writing performance, correlation

  As we know applying gerund phrase in writing still rarely is used by the university students. Moreover, they are not good enough in mastering on gerund phrase. In line withthese issues, the writer proposes three objectives of the research: how far is students’ mastery on gerund phrase, how is the condition of students’ writing performance, and the influence of students’ mastery on gerund phra se toward students writing’ performance. The method of this research is correlation research, and the type of this research is quantitative research. The subject of this research is fifth semester students of English department students in writing class. The 40 total number students are the subject of this research. The test is applied to collect the data. The data have been collected are analyzed by SPSS windows program. The result shows that the students’ mastery on gerund phrase is excellent (35%) and th e students’ writing performance is good (60%). Furthermore, the result of calculating the correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase and writing performance is 0.334. It means that there is correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance, but the correlation is weak.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Research In the context of English language teaching as a foreign language

  taught in Indonesia, the teaching and learning of English especially writing is one of particular importance. In the subject of writing, the students should be able to express their ideas both in academic and non academic writing. They are expected to be able to improving their writing skill from writing sentences, paragraph through writing an essay and an article especially to the students of university.

  However, helping students to be able to have good writing skill is not easy and it needs effective efforts. This is because writing is a difficult subject. According to Heaton as quoted by Rohmah (2009: 1) states that writing is complex and difficult to teach and also to learn, requiring mastery not only of grammatical and rhetorical but also of conceptual and judgmental elements.

  Grammatical mastery on writing is very important in combining the use of part of speech, article, preposition, combining of phrase, choosing the appropriate tenses, etc. So, in order to be good in writing the students have to a mastery of a subject above. According to Noden as quoted by Polette (2008: xiv) writing is not constructed merely from experiences, information, character or plots, but from fundamental artistic elements of grammar.

  There are many kinds of grammar element which is composed in English written language. According to Keith Polette:

  “ to compose grammar in written English language there are sixteen element they are seven part of speech, six phrases, and three clauses.”(Polette, 2008: xiv)

  From this point of view the class of phrase will be composed in this paper especially of gerund phrase. Gerund phrase is group of words (not a complete sentence) that acts like a noun. Gerund phrase begin with an- ing word; the

  • ing word is usually followed by a noun or a prepositional phrase (Polette, 2008:32).0n the other hand, gerund phrase is two or more noun which its main word is gerund, that is made by verb + -

  

ing form. The verb in gerund phrase is reduced to participial form. All

  participial form may function as gerunds except the

  • –ed past participle; the

  most common form, however, is the

  • –ing present participle. The subject of

  the gerund may be found in another part of sentence or it may be understood. A subject that is contained within the gerund phrase takes inflected possessive form, prepositional form, or unchanged form. The object of a gerund is unchanged or is contained within the gerund an of phrase. By means of such changes in the nominal elements of a simple sentence, these elements may be strung along after the verb as prepositional phrase. For example,

  “the hunters shot the birds” can

  become the gerund phrase

  “the shooting of the birds (original object) by

  the hunters

  (original subject)”. These changes from subject – predicate form also permit the gerund phrase to be embedded as a noun within another predication

  • “the shooting of the birds by the hunters caused her

  

great distress”. Gerund phrase can creating by combining a gerund and a

  noun, a gerund and a prepositional phrase, and both a gerund a noun and a prepositional phrase. Gerund phrase can be placed in anywhere, for example, Jordan writes in her journal everyday. It is her favorite activities (original sentence). The sentences can combined become writing in her

  

journal every day is Jordan favorite activities. The function of gerund

  phrase is as subject of the sentence, the gerund writing modifier of the prepositional phrase in her journal.

  Or, Jordan’s favorite activity is writing

  

in her journal everyday . The function gerund as object of preposition, the

  gerund writing modifier object of preposition in her journal .Therefore, by applying gerund phrase in writing is hoped the students’ writing English will be more varied.

  According to the above explanation, the writer is interested in conducting the study entitled: The Influence of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase toward Students’ Writing Performance (A Correlative Study of Fifth Semester of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2014/ 2015).

B. Problems of the Research

  Based on the explanation above, the writer proposes the statement of the problems as follow:

  1. How far is the students’ mastery on gerund phrase in the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015? 2. How is the condition of students’ writing performance in the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Saltiga in the academic year of 2014/2015? 3. What are the influences of students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance in the fifth semester students of English

  Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015? C.

   Objectives of the Research

  The objectives of the research are: 1. To know how far is students’ mastery on gerund phrase in the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015.

  2. To know the condition of students’ writing performance in the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015.

  3. To know the influences of students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance in the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015.

  D. Limitation of the Research

  The study will be limited on the mastery on gerund phrase and writing performance of the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga, especially on the influence of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase and their writing performance.

  E. Benefit of the Research

  This research is conducted in order to give theoretical and practical benefits:

  1. Theoretical benefit The result of the research is expected can be useful for other researcher who wants to conduct a research that is related with grammar usage in writing.

  2. Practical benefit a.

  The English teacher The result of the research hoped useful to the teacher for additional information in teaching grammar especially gerund phrase and writing. By the result of this research the teachers are hoped can improving students’ mastery in using gerund phrase that composed in writing.

  b.

  The students The result of the research can be useful for the students to enhance their ability to mastery gerund phrase and the students will be able to write well in grammatically.

  c.

  The writer By conducting this research, the writer gets many experiences that useful and as a starting point become English teacher. Also, the result of the study can be reference in teaching and learning English grammar.

F. Hypothesis

  Hypothesis is a declarative statement of theory in testable form or tentative statements about reality. In this problem, the writer puts hypoth esis that “there is correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing performance in the fifth semester students of English department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015.

  G. Definition of Key Terms a.

  Mastery According to Webster (1974: 586) mastery is the state of having control over something, superiority in competition, victory, eminent skill or through knowledge.

  b.

  Gerund phrase Gerund phrase is a group of words (not complete sentence) that act like a noun. Gerund phrase begin with an

  • –ing word; the –ing

  word is usually followed by a noun or a preposition phrase. Gerund phrase can be the subject of a sentence, the subjective complement (if they follow a linking verb), the direct object (if they follow an action verb), or the object of a preposition. (Polette, 2008: 32) c.

  Writing Writing is clearly a system of human intercommunication by means of conventional visible marks, but it is evident from what has been said that what the primitive understood as writing is not the same thing as what we do.(Gelb, 1962: 12)

  H. Graduating Paper Out Line

  To facilitate the reader in understanding this paper, the writer will describe the parts in this paper are: Chapter I is introduction; introduce the researcher by giving a description of background of the research, problem of the research, purposes of the research, limitation of the research, benefit of the research, hypothesis, definition of keys term, and graduating paper out line.

  Chapter II is theoretical framework; it contains theory about mastery, gerund phrase and its explanation, and the last, theory about writing and the explanation of writing.

  Chapter III is methodology of the research; it contains the data presentation which shows the data of respondents, data of students’ mastery on gerund phrase and the data of students’ writing achievement.

  Chapter IV is data analysis; it explains the analysis of the data collected and the discussion the finding of the research. Chapter V is closure; it contains about conclusion and suggestion.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. Mastery Allowing students the opportunity to achieve mastery of content at

  different time intervals has proven to be an effective method of increasing student learning . Regarding students’ grade, they move on to the next set of chapters, until they are tested on those. They go on to learn more and take the next test and so on, until they are done with the class. Maybe they really learned what they were taught, or maybe they only learned a portion, or maybe they barely understood most of the material, and it's reflected in their ending grade. But, the question is what are they had to master what they were taught?.

  Based on the statements above, all students must master what they were taught before moving on the next unit. Thus, students have to achieve a specified level of content knowledge prior to progression on to a next unit of instruction.

  Mastery is the state of having control over something, superiority in competition, victory, eminent skill or through knowledge (Webster, 1974:586).

  Based on the explanation above, students mastery is students who is continually and chronically master of knowledge by using their skill to reach some goals in their learning.

B. Gerund Phrase 1. Definition of Gerund Phrase

  In the English language verb can acts like a noun by adding

  • – ing word in the ending of the word, it is called gerund. And gerund it may have modifier and complements it is called gerund phrase.

  Gerund phrase can be defined as a group words (not complete sentence) that acts like a noun. Gerund phrase begin with an – ing word; the –ing word is usually followed by a noun or a prepositional phrase. (Polette, 2008: 32). Prepositional phrase is a group of words (not complete sentence) that is made up of a preposition plus an object (Polette, 2008: 37). According to Polette (2008: 33) there are some variations for creating gerund phrase. For example:

  Gerund: eating, dancing, jumping

  • Gerund + noun: eating apples, dancing jig
  • Gerund + prepositional phrase: skiing down mountains, dancing at
  • dusk, jumping through hoops.
  • moon, dancing a jig at dusk, jumping through hoops during a thunderstorm

  Gerund + noun + prepositional phrase: eating apples beneath the full

  • slept, calming the sea because he was compelled to.

  Gerund + noun + adverbial clause: eating apples while the princess

  In addition, Frank (1972: 314) states that a verb in gerund phrase is reduced to participial form. All participial forms may function as gerunds except the

  • –ed past participle; the most common form, however, is the ing

  present participle. The “subject” of a gerund may be found in another part of the sentence or it may be understood. A “subject” that is contained within the gerund phrase takes inflected possessive form, prepositional form, or unchanged form. The “object” of a gerund is unchanged or is contained within an of phrase. By means of such changes in the nominal elements of a simple sentence, these elements may be strung along after the verb as prepositional phrase.

  Thus, the simple sentence the boy shot the bird can become the gerund phrase the shooting of the bird (original object) by the boy (original subject). These changes from subject- predicate form also permit the gerund phrase to be embedded as a noun within another predication for example: the shooting of the bird by the boy caused her great distress. The gerund functions as noun head of the gerund phrase, the transformed “subject” and “object” as adjectival modifier.

  In other word, it can be said that the meaning of the gerund phrase is gerund phrase consist of a gerund and any modifier and complements it may have. The entire of gerund phrase can do anything a noun can do. Gerunds lend action to the sentences, when combining two choppy sentences using a gerund phrase, it may create strong sentences. It may need to delete, change, or move word when combine sentences using gerund phrase. For example: Original: I learned to write novel, it was challenging.

  Combined: learning to write novel was challenging.

  Gerund phrase can be put anywhere in the beginning of the sentence or as an object of the sentence. For example: Original: Lisa writes journal everyday, it is her favorite activity. Combined: Lisa’s favorite activity is writing journal every day. Combined: writing journal every day is Lisa’s favorite activity.

  While another source Risdianto (2010: 128) explains that gerund phrase is groups of word that consist of a gerund, modifier, pronouns, or noun phrase that have function as a direct object, indirect object, or complement of noun.

  Finally, from the definition above, the writer can conclude that gerund phrase is verb that adding by

  • –ing form that act like a noun and it may have modifier and complement.

2. Function of Gerund Phrase

  Risdianto (2010: 128) states that there are four functions of gerund phrase, such as: a)

  Gerund phrase as a subject of sentences

  Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than when we’re trying to do.

  • finding (gerund)
  • a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund)

  • in a haystack (prepositional phrase a adverb)

  b) Gerund phrase as direct object of “ appreciate” verb

I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity .

  • my (possessive pronoun, )
  • offering (gerund)
  • you (indirect object expressed in gerund)
  • this opportunity (direct object expressed in gerund)

  c) Gerund phrase as a subject of complement

Newton’s favorite tactic has been lying to his constituents.

  • lying to (gerund)
  • his constituents (direct object expressed gerund)

  d) Gerund phrase as a preposition

  

You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work

  • Faking (gerund)
  • an illness (direct object expressed in gerund)
  • to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb) In addition, the function of gerund phrase will be explained as follows.

  Frank (1972: 314) states that gerund phrases may perform all the functions that nouns are capable of fulfilling. According her there are some functions of gerund phrase in sentences.

a. Subject in Gerund Phrases

  The subject of a gerund usually denotes a live being, but sometimes it designates a lifeless thing or an abstract idea. In the majority of gerund phrase, especially those functioning as objects of verb or preposition, the subject is either understood or is found in another part of the sentence. The subject is understood:

  1) The subject is understood as a generic person (everyone, anyone, people, etc.). Such a subject less gerund phrase is common in general statements, especially with a form ofbe as the main verb. For the examples:

  Playing with gun is dangerous. Fishing in this lake is forbidden.

  2) The subject is understood from general context He suggests eating dinner at airport.

  Going there today isn’t wise.

  If subject is included in the gerund phrase, it may be used in possessive or unchanged form, in an of phrase, in a by phrase.

  a) Subject of gerund in possessive or unchanged forming

  Subject a word denoting a live being. The choice of possessive or non-possessive form often depends on whether formal or informal usage is being observed.

  In formal usage, possessive forms of nouns and pronoun are required. For the examples:

  The girl resents her sister’s getting more attention than she does.

  The idea of Horold’s getting a job as a traveling salesman doesn’t appeal to his wife.

  In informal usage, the unchanged forms of nouns, as well l as the object forms of personal pronouns, may be used for “subject” of gerund. These forms establish a closer relationship with the verb or preposition after which they commonly appear.

  They are more emphatic than the possessive form; in speech they receive greater stress and are followed by a longer pause.

  Gerund phrase after main verb, especially such verbs as (dis)like, not mind, miss, remember, understand. For the example: We can’t understand them doing a thing like that.

  I remember my father being very strict with us.

  The non-possessive forms are probably more common with noun “subject” than with pronoun “subject”. Subject a word denoting a lifeless thing or an abstract idea. Much less frequently than a “subject” that presents a human being, such a “subject” of a gerund is usually in non-possessive forms. For the examples:

  

They told us a story of a pirate ship having been sunk in these

waters.

  The doctors are afraid of a relapse occurring in a few months.

  b) “ Subject” of gerund an of phrase

  An of phrase subject of a gerund may denote a live being or an inanimate thing. This kinds of “subject” is used mostly with intransitive verbs. The (occasionally another determiner) initiates the phrase. For the examples:

  The plotting and intriguing of the ambassador for his own ends finally caused this dismissal.

  The shouting of the children disturbed his sleep.

  A “subject” representing a live being may sometimes be put either in an of phrase or in s’ possessive form

  • the shouting of the children or the children’s

  shouting

  . The gerund with the possessive “subject” has greater force as a verb; the gerund with the of phrase “subject” has greater force as a noun.

  c) “Subject” of Gerund a By Phrase

  A by phrase “subject” mark the passive voice of a transitive verb in a gerund phrase.

  The broadcasting by that station comes from the top of a skyscraper.

  He resents being nagged by his wife.

  b. “Object” in Gerund Phrases

  The form of an “object” in gerund phrase may depend on what precedes the gerund. If the introduces the gerund, the “object” of the gerund is in an of phrase. For the examples: The shooting of those rare birds appalled us.

  The storing of merchandise became a problem after the warehouse burned down.

  Determiners other than the ( a, this, some, any) occasionally initiate a gerund phrase containing an of phrase “object.” In the construction the . . . –ing + of phrase “object,” only the

  • –ing ending is used for the gerund (the gerund cannot have perfect or passive form, nor can it be made negative).

  If there is no the or possessive “subject” preceding the gerund, the “object” of the gerund remains unchanged.

  For the examples: Repairing that lamp will not expensive.

  

They plan on setting aside some money each month for their old age.

  If a possessive “subject” precedes the gerund the “object” may remain unchanged, for the examples:

  Their returning the money was a surprise. I can’t understand her losing the ring.

  And the “object” may be in an of phrase. For the examples: His reporting of the war won him an award for good journalism.

  

The dictator was hated by many people for his silencing of all

opposition.

  Of

  phrase “objects” are not used at all with gerunds that represent non-action (the remembering of, the thinking of, the needing of), but it can used in abstract noun phrase (the remembrance of, the thought of, the need of).

  Personal pronoun “objects” of gerund phrase ( as well as “subject”) cannot be put in of phrases (the launching of it, their finding of it).

  In a gerund construction that is given passive force only by a by phrase, an of phrase expresses the original object.

  For the examples: The sailor told us a story about the sinking of ship by pirates.

  They complained about the shooting of the birds y the hunters.

  This kind of gerund construction with passive force competes with the construction containing the passive form of the gerund it self. For the examples:

The sailor told us a story about a ship having been sunk by pirates.

  They complained about the birds being shot by the hunters.

  Without a by phrase, a gerund construction containing an

ofphrase may sometimes be interpreted as either active or passive.

  Thus, in the shooting of the birds disturbed him, the gerund phrase may be considered as being derived from either someone shoots the birds or the birds were shot by someone.

  After verbs that have both a transitive and intransitive sense, an of phrase may cause ambiguity, since it functions either as “subject” or “object” of the gerund. For the examples:

  The ringing of the bells (may be derived fromthe bells are ringing, or someone is ringing the bells).

  The sinking of the ship (may derived from the ship is sinking or someone sank the ship).

  Generally, however, in such phrases the presumption with

  of

  is in favor of the “object” rather than the “subject.” c.

   Adverb in Gerund Phrase

  In a gerund phrase, a word used a an adverb may remain unchanged or it may take adjective form.

1. Adverb in unchanged form

  Such adverb may be used in final position, or, less commonly, in initial position.

  a) Final position

  For examples: The company appreciated his handling the affair discreetly.

  Eating and drinking intemperately may ruin one’s health.

b) Initial position.

  For examples: He received a reward for promptly returning the money.

  His employer was irritated at his never getting to work on time.

  Gerunds are usually preceded by the same types of adverbs as those that precede finite verbs- usually manner of frequency adverbs.

  2. Adverbs changed to adjective form In gerund phrases, adverbs from simple sentences are often transformed to adjectives that precede the gerund.

  For the examples:

His wife was shocked at his reckless breaking of the law.

  

The company appreciated his discreet handling of the affair.

d. Gerund Phrases as Subjects of Verbs A gerund phrase does not occur frequently as a subject.

  One of it common use as a subject is in general statements with be as the main verb. For the examples:

  Eating a good breakfast is very wish. Taking a long walk every day is good exercise.

  The gerund phrase may also function as the subject of a verb expressing: a) Cause – effect relationship

  For the example:

  Seeing her every day made him realize how wonderful she was.

  b) Emotion

  For the example:

Seeing her so thin and pale shocked him.

  e. Gerund Phrases as Object of Verb

  Certain verbs in English are followed by verbal

  • – either gerunds or infinitives which are considered as the objects of these verbs. Common verbs that can be followed by gerunds for example

  avoid, consider deny etc. further more, verbs that can be followed by gerund will be explained in the next section.

  f. Gerund Phrases as Objects of Prepositions

  Any verb used as the object in a prepositional phrase takes the form of a gerund. For the examples:

   He insisted on paying the entire bill for dinner. She often dreams about having a lot of money to spend on luxuries.

3. Verbs Frequently Followed by Gerunds

  As has been shown, when gerunds follow verbs, they function as direct objects of those verbs. The sentence pattern thus formed is noun + verb + noun, a pattern that requires a transitive verb. However, only certain verbs can be followed by gerunds.

  Here is a difference list of some of the more common verbs that can be followed by gerunds.

Table 2.1 List of Verb followed by gerund No. Words Words

  1. Admit 16. mind (dislike)

  2. Appreciate 17. miss

  3. Avoid 18. notice

  4. Consider 19. postpone

  5. Continue 20. practice

  6. Defer 21. prevent

  7. Delay 22. quit

  8. Deny 23. resent

  9. Detest 24. resist

  10. Enjoy 25. risk

  11. Escape 26. suggest

  12. Finish 27. stop

  13. Forgive

  28. Try (experiment)

  14. Imagine 29. understand

  15. Keep (continue) 30. urge (Whison and Julia, 1980:270)

Table 2.2 List of Gerund after preposition

  No. Common phrase with No. Common phrase with prepositions prepositions

  1. Angry about

  14. Look for to

  2. Bored with (by)

  15. Believe in

  3. Certain of

  16. Care about

  4. Concerned about

  17. Consist of

  5. Excited about

  18. Depend on

  6. Happy about

  19. Dream about

  7. Interested in

  20. Insist on

  8. Nervous about

  21. Succeed in

  9. Responsible for

  22. Take care of

  10. Satisfied with

  23. Talk about

  11. Thrilled about (by)

  24. Think about

  12. Be accustomed to

  25. Work (hard) at

  13. Be used to

  26. Worry about (Baker and friends, 2003: 244)

4. Differences between Gerund and Participle

  Both gerund and participle are adding the – ing form of the verb. But, of them there are differences between gerund and participle. If the gerund or gerund phrase is the

  • ing form of the verb used as a noun (gerund) and may be it have modifiers like a noun (gerund phrase). The participles will be explained as follow: a.

   The Simple Participle

  According to Whison and Julia (1980: 261) the present participle (the

  • – ing form of the verb) and the past participle (the – ed / en form of the verb) may be used in sentences as adjective modifiers. They may modify nouns occurring in any position in the sentence. For examples:

  The sewing machine is out of order (present participle) He is spoiled child (past participle)

  The simple participle may have some positions in the sentences.

  a.

  Before a noun The crying baby is suffering from the heat b. After a noun

  The baby, crying, woke his mother c. At the beginning of sentence, to modify the subject

  Crying , the baby woke his mother d.

  After linking verb She seemed worried

b. The participial phrase

  Participles commonly have objects and adverbial modifiers and they can sometimes have objects. The participle and its subjects, objects, and modifiers make up the participial phrase (Whison and Julia, 1980: 262).

  For examples: The girl wearing the red blouse is Angela.

  • The man being my uncle, I had no choice but to do as he asked me.
  • 1) Punctuation of the participial phrase

  The participial phrase may be restrictive, that is, necessary to identify the noun it modifies, or nonrestrictive, that is, not essential to the identification of the noun it modifies.

  As with adjective clauses, the nonrestrictive participial modifier is set off by a comma or commas, according to its position in the sentence, while the restrictive participle is not punctuated.

  Restrictive: the boy wearing the red shirt is Jerry Webster. Nonrestrictive: Jerry Webster was there, wearing the red shirt.

2) Position of the participial phrase

  The restrictive participle follows the word it modifies. The nonrestrictive participle, however, may appear before the noun it modifies, after the noun it modifies, or at the end of the sentence. If participle comes at the beginning of a sentence, it must modify the subject of the following clause.

  Crying for milk , the baby woke everyone up.

  The baby, crying for milk, woke everyone up. The baby woke everyone up, crying for milk. When a participle has a subject, the resulting participial phrase comes either at the beginning or the end of the sentence and se off by comma. These phrases are sometimes called nominative absolutes. Usually, they have adverbial function in the sentence.

  For example: Time : her lesson finished, the student relaxed

  (when her lesson was finished. The student relaxed) Cause : the weather appeared stormy, the class cancelled the picnic.

  (because the weather appeared stormy, the class cancelled the picnic).

  Condition : weather permitting, we will have the picnic next week.

  (if the weather permits, we will have the picnic next week).

5. Indicator/ Nature of Students Mastery on Gerund Phrase

  There are some indicators of students’ mastery on gerund phrase, as follow: a.

  The students get information to what is expressed in certain verbs and verb + object combination b.

  The students can use a verb+ ing after preposition c. The students are able to identifies the gerund phrase in a texts d. The students are able to make sentence related the gerund phrase e. The students can make list activities related gerund phrase C.

  Students’ Writing Performance 1. Definition of writing

  According to experts there are many definition and explanation of writing. Crimmon (1984: 16) states that the definition of writing is hard work but writing is also opportunity to convey something about your self, to communicate ideas to people beyond your immediate vicinity, to learn something you not know. To make good use of the opportunities, you develop the confidences that will enable you to overcome whatever frustration writing assignment may present. Gelb (1962: 12) defines writing is a human intercommunication by means of conventional visible mark. According to Siburian (2013: 33) states that writing is a process of formulating and organizing ideas in right words to deliver the aim and present them in pieces of paper.

  In addition, Harmer (2007: 112) state that writing is used as an aide-memoire or practice tool to help students practice and work with language they have been studying. Nunan (2003: 88) defines writing is the physical act of committing words or ideas to some medium, weather it is hieroglyphics inked onto parchment or an e-mail message type into computer. On the other hand he states that writing is the mental work of inventing ideas, thinking about how to express them, and organizing them into statements and paragraphs that will be clear to a reader.

  Based on the explanations above the writer formulates that writing is a proces s of submitting the writer’s ideas and developing their language in intercommunication in right word in order to the reader could understand what the writer want to say.

2. Process of Writing

  Langan (2011: 22) divides writing process into four parts, they are: a. Prewriting

  There are four prewriting techniques that will help to think and develop a topic and get words. They are free writing, questioning, making a list, and preparing a scratch outline.

  b.

  Writing Be prepared to put in additional thoughts and details that did not emerge during prewriting. c.

  Revising Revising means making any changes and any point in the writing process. There are three stages to the revising process: revising content, revising sentence and editing.

  d.

  Editing After revising for the content and style, the next step is editing for error grammar, punctuation and spelling.

3. Basics Principle in Writing

  According to Leo (2007:1), he divides basic principle in writing into three parts, they are:

a. Content

  The content is the body of a piece or the core of writing including discussion, evaluation, elaboration or explanation of the writer. In this basic should be relevant, clear and specific.

  a) Relevant

  The topic and the content should be relevant it is mean that the readers enjoy when they grasp the concept.

  b) Clear

  In writing we want to convey what our concept to reader then must be clearly.

  c) Specific

  The reader does not catch the message when the writer means too general. In this way the content should be specific.

  b. Register

  Register is a choices of vocabulary or style language which be used in writing.

  1) Formal

  The language is used as casual expression, free from grammatical error and simplistic sentence structure. The particular style of writer avoids slang, colloquial and nonstandard language.

  2) To the point

  The writer tells to the reader without wandering here or there. In this way it save energy and can be understood.

  3) Concise

  Concise is necessary in academic writing. Unclear explanation can lose the reader concentration.

  c. Topic (offences free)

  The offences should be avoided in academic writing. It is include plagiarism and sensitive issue.

  a) Plagiarism

  It means that the writer puts people’s opinion without enclosing the sources. b) Sensitive issue

  The issue has avoided such as races, social groups and religions because there are very sensitive, controversial and personal.

  4. Style in Writing

  Crimmon (1984: 309) state writing style is anything from writers’ philosophy to his or her choice of words or sentence structure. According to him there are three elements of writing style, they are: a.

  Word choice/ sentence structure Good writers are concise and precise, weeding out unnecessary words and choosing the exact word to convey meaning. Precise words, active verbs, concrete nouns, specific adjectives help the reader visualize the sentence.

  b.

  Diction

  Diction is the flow and rhythm of phrases and sentences. Good

  writers use a variety of sentences with different lengths and rhythms to achieve different effects..

  c.

  Tone Tone is the sum of those characteristic that reveal writers’ attitude toward their subject and their read

  5. The Indicator of Students Writing Performance

  In the writing performance the indicator is used to knowing the students outcome in their learning. Performance indicator should be developing which identify the focus on instruction and the level which students should demonstrate their writing performance. There are some indicators the students writing performance, they are: a.

  Students consistently use the rules of standard English convention in their writing (application level).

  b.

  Students able in choosing appropriate words choices (evaluation level).

  c.

  Students can apply the writing process to compose text (application level) d.

  Students should use the logical organizational pattern in their writing (application level).

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD In this chapter, the writer will explain about research method. It consists of

  setting of the research that is STAIN Salatiga, research method, and data presentation.

A. The Setting of the Research 1. Profile of State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga.

  State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga is located on TentaraPelajar Street Number 02, East Java. At the beginning, this institute is constitute private institute and then was changed became a state institute and as a branch of IAIN Walisongo Semarang. This status based on recommendation letter of Minister of Religious Affair number

  th 30, April 16 1970.

  In the year 1997, Education Faculty of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Walisongo, Semarang that located in Salatigawas changed into State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN),Salatiga became independent college under the Islamic Religion Ministry. The transferring of status

  st based on presidential decree of Indonesia number11, March 21 1997.

  The transferring status become STAIN have been take along the raising, not only in physical aspect but also in non-physical aspect. Until now STAIN Salatiga have two college locations, the first is located on TentaraPelajar Street number 02 and the second is located on NakuloSadewo Street VA number 09, KembangArum,Salatiga. Since, in the year 2010 STAIN Salatiga have prepared the integrated area college in Pulutan (jalanlingkarselatan), Salatiga. It is in accordance with an effort to increase the institutional status of STAIN become IAIN and finally is hoped can become State of Islamic University (UIN),Salatiga. (STAIN Salatiga’s Academic Guiding Book, 2014:17) 2.

   Vision, Mission and purpose of State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga.

  a.

  Vission STAIN Salatiga hope can be references of Islamic- Indonesian study for building society piece and prestigious in the year 2025.

  b.

  Mission 1)

  Implementing education in all discipline science of Islamic that base on Indonesian values.

  2) Implementing a research in all discipline science of Islamic for reinforcing Indonesian values.

  3) Implementing society service that base on research for reinforcing Indonesian values.

  4) Developing culture of students that reflect Indonesian Islamic values.

  5) Implementing management of educational that professional and accountable. c.

  Educational purpose 1)

  Developing potential of the students in order to be human who have devout and pious to the God and have good morals, healthy, bookish, skillful, creative, independent, competent, and cultured to importance the nation;

  2) Producing the graduate who mastering science and technology that based on Islamic science to fulfill importance the notion;

3. Faculty and Study Program

  Based on the Academic Guiding Book (2014: 10), STAIN Salatiga has several kinds of faculties. Those faculties are as follow: a.

  Educational faculty Its functions are organizing academic and professional education. Purpose of educational faculty is making Bachelor of

  Islamic Educationthat is skillful in the Islamic education and teaching with specific skill in the subject of Islamic education, Arabic language, English language, and teacher of Islamic Primary School. Furthermore, Educational faculty has six study programs, namely: 1)

  Islamic Department

  2) Arabic Department

  3) English Department

  4) Islamic Primary School Teaching Department 5)

Islamic Kindergarten School Teaching Department

  6) Islamic Communication and Broadcasting

  b.

  LawFaculty Law faculty has function to educate the graduated students that have both Islamic law and judicature court (Ahwal al-

  Syakhshiyyah). The study program of law faculty has six

  programs,they are: 1)

  Judicature Court Department

  2) Islamic Banking Department (S1)

  3) Islamic Banking Department (D3)

  4) Islamic Accounting Department

  5) Al-Qur’an Science and Tafsir

  6) Islamic History and Culture Department

  c.

  Particular program( international class program) International class program was opened in the academic year

  2010/2011. This program consists of the students from either Educational or Law faculty that pass the selection. International Class Program has aim to give opportunity to get experience on living or studying abroad.

  d.

  Postgraduate Program Postgraduate program is the newest program was established in the academic year 2011/2012. It is based on decree of General

  Director Islamic Study No. Dj. l/818/2010 on November 22,

  2010.By study program postgraduate Islamic Educational Religion that the end of the graduated students will accept M.Pd.I (Master of Islamic Education degree).

B. Research Method 1. Type of Research The type of research in this study is quantitative research.

  According to Emzir (2010: 28) quantitative research is a research approach in primarily using post positivist paradigm in developing knowledge and using research strategy likes experiment and survey that require statistic data.

  The method that is used by the writer is correlation research. According to Gay as quoted by Emzir (2010: 28) correlation research is to find out correlation between variables, or to use the correlation to make prediction. Thus, in this research, the writer uses a bivariate correlation. Bivariate correlation is a research that has aims to describe correlation between two variables, variable X and variable Y (Emzir, 2010: 48). Variable in this research are variable X is students’ mastery on gerund phrase, and variable Y is students’ writing performance.

  The writer uses this method because the sample of this research has homogeneity and has same opportunity to become member of research.

2. Subject of the Research

  Subjectsof this research are the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015 who joins in writing class. To clarify the subject of the research, the writer explains as follows: a.

  Population Population is groups of people, occurrence, and things which it can be object of research (Alting, 2010: 88). On the other word, a population is a set (or collection) of all elements processing one or more attributes of interest (Arikunto, 2006: 130).

  Populations of this research are fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year 2014/2015. As in the presence list of fifth semester students of English Department overall the total numbers students are 173 students that divided into five classes. But, there are only 132 students who are take writing class, and the other students are in the upper semester.

Table 3.1 The Number of the Fifth Semester Students That Taken Writing Class

  No Class Male Female Total

  1. TBI A

  5

  19

  24

  2. TBI B

  9

  14

  23

  3. TBI C

  10

  18

  28

  4. TBI D

  8

  23

  31

  5. TBI E

  7

  19

  26 Total

  39 92 132 The presence list of each group in the academic year 2014/2015 b.

  Sample According to Alting (2010, 88) Sample is a part of elements or parts of population that is chosen to get the data. From thetotal numbers of 132 students that taken writing class the writer just takes 40 students randomly as a data of this research because they have difference ability in mastery both gerund phrase and writing.Sometimes, they are good in grammar but bad in writing.

  Otherwise, they are good in writing but in grammar very weak. So, the writer takes sample randomly they will have same opportunity to be a sample.

  c.

  Sampling Sampling is process of determination sample or representative the population (Alting, 2010: 88).They are two kinds of sampling technique, they are random sampling and non random sampling ( Arikunto, 2002: 109).

  In this research, the writer uses randomsampling. The writer uses simple random sampling in this research because the members of population have the same opportunity and the classes are homogeneity to be chosen as member of sample (Eriyanto, 2007:

  73).

  Here, 40 students of fifth semester of English Department as the subject of the research.

Table 3.2 List of subject of the research No. Students Number Name

  1. 113-12-004 EK 2. 113-12-047 FA 3. 113-12-050 AN 4. 113-12-067 KA 5. 113-12-002 MAS 6. 113-12-014 AZ 7. 113-12-026 FAY 8. 113-12-051 YS 9. 113-12-061 AS

  10. 113-12-085 MM 11. 113-12-110 UK 12. 113-12-127

  IRD 13. 113-12-129 NF 14. 113-12-136 HSP 15. 113-12-156 DWU 16. 113-12-165 MA 17. 113-12-167 AAM 18. 113-12-171 AM 19. 113-12-008 DL 20. 113-12-011 FL 21. 113-12-022

  INM 22. 113-12-071 NU 23. 113-12-151 HAN 24. 113-12-072

  IM 25. 113-12-080 SPT 26. 113-12-081 WRP 27. 113-12-104 AS 28. 113-12-122 BY 29. 113-12-016 AH 30. 113-12-052 LNH 31. 113-12-065

  IMH 32. 113-12-077 MM 33. 113-12-113 MS 34. 113-12-114 NI 35. 113-12-117 RAD 36. 113-12-137 ESR

  37. 113-12-159 NZN 38. 113-12-169 WDN 39. 113-12-170 AM 40. 113-12-134 NK 3.

   Techniques of Collecting Data

  For collecting the data, the writer uses some methods as following: a. Documentation

  Documentation is finding the data about all variables in the notebook, newspaper, magazine, and so on (Arikunto, 2006: 231).

  The writer used this method to get the data for knowing the profile of students’ gerund phrase achievement and condition of STAIN Salatiga.

  b.

  Test According to Hadjar (1999: 173) Test is instrument used to measure someone’s behavior, performance, knowledge, intelligence, ability or attitude. By doing the test it can become guidance for the teacher to collect the data of students’ mastery on gerund phrase and the students’ writing performance.

  In this research, the writer chooses the multiple - choice items and short - answer items. Multiple - choice items types were developed to overcome a number of the weakness of the composition test and the items generally can be answer fairly rapidly (Haris, 1969: 7). While, short - answer items is a test to examinee either to complete a sentence or to compose one of their own according to very specific directions (Haris, 1969: 8).

  The writer uses both multiple- choice types and short - answer types because is hoped the students not only can answer the test rapidly but also they can provide the examinee with the opportunity to compose their own answer and it can measure their intellectual achievement.

  Furthermore, both multiple choice type and short answer test is usedby the writer to measure the students’ mastery on gerund phrase. The test consists of 25 items that is divided into two kinds of test variation that is 10 multiple - choices items and 15 short - answer types to examine students’ mastery on gerund phrase. While, to measure students’ writing performance the writer asks the students to make short essay that related with gerund phrase.

  The students make essay according to their own ideas.

4. Technique of Data Analysis a.

  Scoring From the explanation above, the tests is used to knowing the students mastery on gerund phrase are multiple choice type and short-answer type, and written expression type to knowing the writing performance.

  The gerund phrase test is divided into two kinds of test variation, the first is 10 items multiple choices type and second is 15 items short answer question type. The writer uses 10-100 scale to determine the level of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase.

  Because the gerund phrase test has two kinds of test, so, each item has different score. 10 items multiple choice has 1 score only and 15 items short answer question has 4 score. The scoring can be seen in the following table.

Table 3.3 Scoring of Gerund Phrase

  score Detail explanation 4 excellent command of language, proper use of grammar/writing conventions, few to no misspelled words, correct word choice, excellent variety and complexity of sentence structure, uses proper citation format 3 good command of language, generally proper use of grammar/writing conventions, minimal misspelled words, largely good word choice, some variety and complexity in sentence structure, generally uses proper citation format 2 generally proper use of grammar/writing conventions, but with simple sentences generally lacking variety/complexity in structure, acceptable citation format

  1 weak use of language, poor grammar, and numerous mechanical errors undermine coherence, weak citation format

  The test type that is used by the writer to examine the students’ writing performance is written expression by which the respondents are asked to make a short essay that related with gerund phrase. To assess the writing performance the writer uses 1-4 scale. The scoring can be seen as follow:

  Table: 3.4 Scoring of writing performance

  Grade Scale Detail explanation A

  80-100 Well organized. The message is completely comprehensible. Arguments are relevant and related to writer’s view. Main ideas and effective supporting ideas are clearly stated. The language is clear, smooth and interesting, and is consistently accurate. There are no major errors of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, or grammar. B 67-79 Well organized and highly comprehensible.

  Arguments are quite relevant in relation to writer’s view. Main ideas and effective supporting ideas are almost clearly stated. There is clear message with only minor loss of detail and little need for correction of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, or grammar. The language is clear and interesting. C 55-66 It is rather well organization. Arguments are rather relevant in relation to writer’s view. Main ideas and supporting ideas are rather clear. The message is almost clear but with some loss of detail. Many corrections of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, or grammar are needed. D 41- 54 Its organized and message are rather difficult to be followed. Arguments are only slightly relevant in relation to writer’s view. Main ideas and supporting ideas rather trouble the reads. Language is rather unclear and has frequently errors of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, or grammar. E 40 less Its organization and message are difficult to be followed. Arguments are not relevant or not related to writers’ view. Main ideas and supporting ideas are not clearly stated. The language is not clear, has frequently serious errors of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, or grammar.

   (Leo, 2007: viii)

  After knowing the result and the score of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase and their writing performance the writer will find the percentage of these two variables by using the formula as follow:

  X P 100%

  By which: P= the percentage F= the frequency N= the number of students b. Data analysis

  To calculate the data of the students, the writer uses SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solution) 16.0 windows program.

  This program is used to measure the tightness of relationship among the test result from the population that has two variants (bivariate).

  In this research, the writer uses SPSS 16.0 windows program to find out the correlation score between studen ts’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance. The writer usesthis program because faster when calculating the data. As state by Santoso (1999: 7) there are three minds superiority of this program rather than conventional calculating, they are:

  1) Speed

  SPSS 16.0 windows program can calculate the data in big amount and it will faster to find out the result of correlation.

  2) Accuracy

  SPSS 16.0 windows program can manufacture the data rapidly and more dependable than conventional. For instant, it can calculate the division process in the smallest decimal exactly in a second.

  3) Reliability

  SPSS 16.0 windows program can process the data continually and do not have a limitation of fatigue except there is destruction in the machine/ metal fatigue.

  In addition, to show the validity of deviation, the writer also uses product moment process formula as below:

  r xy =

  ฀ (฀ )(฀ ) √* ฀ (฀ ) +* ฀ (฀ )

  • By which: r xy = is product moment correlation score between variable X and Y ( students’ mastery on gerund phrase and students’ writing performance)

  ∑ = is the total score of variable X (students’ mastery on gerund phrase) ∑ = is the score of variable Y (students’ writing performance)

  ∑ = is the total score of variable X and Y (students’ mastery on gerund phrase and students’ writing performance)

  IRD

  IM

  50 24. 113-12-072

  33 23. 113-12-151 HAN

  36 22. 113-12-071 NU

  INM

  32 21. 113-12-022

  84 20. 113-12-011 FL

  84 19. 113-12-008 DL

  62 18. 113-12-171 AM

  64 17. 113-12-167 AAM

  84 16. 113-12-165 MA

  75 15. 113-12-156 DWU

  89 14. 113-12-136 HSP

  92 13. 113-12-129 NF

  54 12. 113-12-127

  N = is the number of students (Arikunto, 2002: 146) C.

  87 11. 113-12-110 UK

  94 10. 113-12-085 MM

  93 9. 113-12-061 AS

  84 8. 113-12-051 YS

  71 7. 113-12-026 FAY

  84 6. 113-12-014 AZ

  63 5. 113-12-002 MAS

  82 4. 113-12-067 KA

  35 3. 113-12-050 AN

  34 2. 113-12-047 FA

  1. 113-12-004 EK

Table 3.5 Data of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase No. Students Number Name Score

  The following table is the test result of gerund phrase of the respondent.

   Data Presentation 1. Data of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase

  44

  25. 113-12-080 SPT

  66 12. 113-12-127

  55 4. 113-12-067 KA

  54 5. 113-12-002 MAS

  48 6. 113-12-014 AZ

  72 7. 113-12-026 FAY

  73 8. 113-12-051 YS

  79 9. 113-12-061 AS

  76 10. 113-12-085 MM

  67 11. 113-12-110 UK

  IRD

  57 2. 113-12-047 FA

  73 13. 113-12-129 NF

  73 14. 113-12-136 HSP

  70 15. 113-12-156 DWU

  75 16. 113-12-165 MA

  79 17. 113-12-167 AAM

  73 18. 113-12-171 AM

  79 19. 113-12-008 DL

  55 20. 113-12-011 FL

  54 3. 113-12-050 AN

  1. 113-12-004 EK

  37 26. 113-12-081 WRP

  71 34. 113-12-114 NI

  36 27. 113-12-104 AS

  39 28. 113-12-122 BY

  31 29. 113-12-016 AH

  62 30. 113-12-052 LNH

  70 31. 113-12-065

  IMH

  93 32. 113-12-077 MM

  48 33. 113-12-113 MS

  40 35. 113-12-117 RAD

Table 3.6 Data of Students’ Writing performance No. Students Number Name Score

  57 36. 113-12-137 ESR

  50 37. 113-12-159 NZN

  58 38. 113-12-169 WDN

  24 39. 113-12-170 AM

  90 40. 113-12-134 NK

  92 2.

   Data of Students’ Writing Performance

  Here is the data of respondents’ writing performance.

  47

  21. 113-12-022

  IMH

  54 40. 113-12-134 NK

  58 39. 113-12-170 AM

  76 38. 113-12-169 WDN

  66 37. 113-12-159 NZN

  39 36. 113-12-137 ESR

  24 35. 113-12-117 RAD

  37 34. 113-12-114 NI

  43 33. 113-12-113 MS

  34 32. 113-12-077 MM

  54 31. 113-12-065

  INM

  54 30. 113-12-052 LNH

  53 29. 113-12-016 AH

  39 28. 113-12-122 BY

  48 27. 113-12-104 AS

  79 26. 113-12-081 WRP

  79 25. 113-12-080 SPT

  IM

  76 24. 113-12-072

  71 23. 113-12-151 HAN

  76 22. 113-12-071 NU

  70 The data above are the result of students’ mastery on gerund phrase and students’ writing performance. Those data will be analyzed statistically in the chapter IV.

CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS In this chapter, the writer presents and analyzes the data that have been

  done by the sixth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015. The data analyses are about two variables students’ mastery on gerund phrase (variable X) and their writing performance (variable Y). Furthermore, the findings will be used to answer the objectives of the research which is explained in the chapter I. The objectives of the research are:

1. To know how far is students’ mastery on gerund phrase 2.

  To know the condition of students writing performance 3. To know there is an influence of students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance (to prove the hypothesis that there is a correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing performance).

A. Data Analysis 1. Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase

  The writer used test to obtain the score of students’ mastery on gerund phrase (variable x). In composing the test, the writer used both multiple choice test and short-answer test by scale of 10-100.

  The s core of students’ mastery on gerund phrase can be seen in the following table:

Table 4.1 Score of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase No. Students Number Name Score Qualificati on

  91 Excellent 31. 113-12-134 NK

  40 Poor 24. 113-12-110 UK

  54 Fair 25. 113-12-113 MS

  71 Good 26. 113-12-114 NI

  30 Poor 27. 113-12-117

  IRD

  62 Good 28. 113-12-122 BY

  38 Poor 29. 113-12-127

  IRD

  92 Excellent 30. 113-12-129 NF

  92 Excellent 32. 113-12-136 HSP

  44 Poor 22. 113-12-085 MM

  75 Good 33. 113-12-137 ESR

  56 Fair 34. 113-12-151 HAN

  53 Fair 35. 113-12-156 DWU

  84 Excellent 36. 113-12-159 NZN

  67 Good 37. 113-12-165 MA

  70 Good 38. 113-12-167 AAM

  62 Good 39. 113-12-169 WDN

  35 Poor 40. 113-12-171 AM

  84 Excellent N = 40

  90 Excellent 23. 113-12-104 AS

  37 Poor 21. 113-12-081 WRP

  1. 113-12-002 MAS

  60 Good 10. 113-12-050 AN

  84 Excellent 2. 113-12-004 EK

  38 Poor 3. 113-12-008 DL

  94 Excellent 4. 113-12-011 FL

  64 Good 5. 113-12-014 AZ

  71 Good 6. 113-12-016 AH

  62 Good 7. 113-12-022

  INM

  50 Fair 8. 113-12-026 FAY

  90 Excellent 9. 113-12-047 FA

  82 Excellent 11. 113-12-051 YS

  30 Poor 20. 113-12-080 SPT

  93 Excellent 12. 113-12-052 LNH

  70 Good 13. 113-12-061 AS

  94 Excellent 14. 113-12-065

  IMH

  90 Excellent 15. 113-12-067 KA

  67 Good 16. 113-12-070 AM

  90 Excellent 17. 113-12-071 NU

  40 Poor 18. 113-12-072

  IM

  55 Fair 19. 113-12-077 MH

  ∑ = 2651 Furthermore, the writer will calculate the data to find out the percentage of students’ mastery on gerund phrase by using the formula:

  X P 100%

  By which: P= the percentage F= the frequency N= the number of students 1. The total number of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase that having excellent qualification are 14 students. The percentage is as follow: P = x 100% = 35% 2.

  The total number of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase that having good qualification are 12 students. The percentage is as follow: P = x 100% = 30% 3. The total number of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase that having fair qualification are 5 students. The percentage is as follow: P = x 100% = 12.5%

  4. The total number of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase that having poor qualification are 9 students. The percentage is as follow: P = x 100% =22.5%

  From the result of students’ mastery on gerund phrase above, it can be seen the four level of mastery as follow: 80%- 100% = excellent 60%-79% = good 50%- 59% = fair 0- 49% = poor (Harris,1969:134)

  Based on the result above, the highest percentage of students’ mastery on gerund phrase is 35% in excellent qualification. It means that the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic year 2014/2015 have an excellent level in mastering the gerund phrase.

2. Students’ Writing Performance

  Moreover, to get the data o f students’ writing performance (variable y), the writer used written expression by 1- 4 scale. The result of t he students’ writing performance can be seen as follow:

Table 4.2 Score of Students’ Writing Performance No. Students Number Name Score Qualificati on

  75 Good 31. 113-12-134 NK

  68 Good 24. 113-12-110 UK

  66 Good 25. 113-12-113 MS

  33 Poor 26. 113-12-114 NI

  24 Poor 27. 113-12-117

  IRD

  39 Poor 28. 113-12-122 BY

  52 Fair 29. 113-12-127

  IRD

  74 Good 30. 113-12-129 NF

  70 Good 32. 113-12-136 HSP

  48 Poor 22. 113-12-085 MM

  70 Good 33. 113-12-137 ESR

  66 Good 34. 113-12-151 HAN

  76 Good 35. 113-12-156 DWU

  75 Good 36. 113-12-159 NZN

  68 Good 37. 113-12-165 MA

  79 Good 38. 113-12-167 AAM

  76 Good 39. 113-12-169 WDN

  56 Fair 40. 113-12-171 AM

  79 Good N = 40

  67 Good 23. 113-12-104 AS

  79 Good 21. 113-12-081 WRP

  1. 113-12-002 MAS

  54 Fair 10. 113-12-050 AN

  50 Fair 2. 113-12-004 EK

  57 Fair 3. 113-12-008 DL

  60 Good 4. 113-12-011 FL

  74 Good 5. 113-12-014 AZ

  72 Good 6. 113-12-016 AH

  54 Fair 7. 113-12-022

  INM

  76 Good 8. 113-12-026 FAY

  73 Good 9. 113-12-047 FA

  55 Fair 11. 113-12-051 YS

  43 Poor 20. 113-12-080 SPT

  72 Good 12. 113-12-052 LNH

  55 Fair 13. 113-12-061 AS

  76 Good 14. 113-12-065

  IMH

  54 Fair 15. 113-12-067 KA

  52 Fair 16. 113-12-070 AM

  54 Fair 17. 113-12-071 NU

  60 Good 18. 113-12-072

  IM

  65 Good 19. 113-12-077 MH

  ∑ 2496 Next step the writer will calculate the data to find out the percentage of students’ writing performance by using the formula:

  X P 100%

  By which: P= the percentage F= the frequency N= the number of students 1. The total number of the students’ writing performance that having excellent qualification are 0 students. The percentage is as follow:

  P = x 100% = 0% 2. The total number of the students’ writing performance that having good qualification are 24 students. The percentage is as follow:

  P = x 100% = 60% 3. The total number of the students’ writing performance that having fair qualification are 11 students. The percentage is as follow:

  P = x 100% = 27.5% 4. The total number of the students’ writing performance that having poor qualification are 5 students. The percentage is as follow:

  P = x 100% = 12.5%

  Based on the result above, the highest percentage of students’ writing performance is 60% in good qualification. It means that the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic year 2014/2015 have a good level in their writing performance.

3. Correlation between Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase and their Writing Performance

  III, the writer uses this program because it is faster, accurately, and reliability.

  48 6. 113-12-014 AZ

  67

  87

  76 10. 113-12-085 MM

  94

  79 9. 113-12-061 AS

  93

  73 8. 113-12-051 YS

  84

  72 7. 113-12-026 FAY

  71

  84

  Table below is used the writer to accumulate result of data the students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance.

  In this research, the writer uses program SPSS 16.0 windows to calculate the correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase and their writing performance. As it have explained in chapter

  63

  55 4. 113-12-067 KA

  82

  54 3. 113-12-050 AN

  35

  57 2. 113-12-047 FA

  34

  1. 113-12-004 EK

  X Y

Table 4.3 The Accumulation Data of the Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase (variable X) and Their Writing Performance (variable Y) No. Students Number Name

  54 5. 113-12-002 MAS

  11. 113-12-110 UK

  71

  39

  39 28. 113-12-122 BY

  31

  53 29. 113-12-016 AH

  62

  54 30. 113-12-052 LNH

  70

  54 31. 113-12-065

  IMH

  93

  34 32. 113-12-077 MM

  48

  43 33. 113-12-113 MS

  37 34. 113-12-114 NI

  36

  40

  24 35. 113-12-117 RAD

  57

  39 36. 113-12-137 ESR

  50

  66 37. 113-12-159 NZN

  58

  76 38. 113-12-169 WDN

  24

  58 39. 113-12-170 AM

  90

  54 40. 113-12-134 NK

  92

  70 N= 40 ∑ = 2651 ∑ 2496

  48 27. 113-12-104 AS

  79 26. 113-12-081 WRP

  54

  84

  66 12. 113-12-127

  IRD

  92

  73 13. 113-12-129 NF

  89

  73 14. 113-12-136 HSP

  75

  70 15. 113-12-156 DWU

  84

  75 16. 113-12-165 MA

  64

  79 17. 113-12-167 AAM

  62

  73 18. 113-12-171 AM

  79 19. 113-12-008 DL

  37

  84

  55 20. 113-12-011 FL

  32

  47 21. 113-12-022

  INM

  36

  76 22. 113-12-071 NU

  33

  71 23. 113-12-151 HAN

  50

  76 24. 113-12-072

  IM

  44

  79 25. 113-12-080 SPT

  Furthermore, the data above will be analyzed by the writer by using the program SPSS 16.0 windows. Table bellow is the result of SPSS program:

  Table: 4.4 The result data correlation

Correlations

  x y

  • Variable x Pearson Correlation

  1 .334

  Sig. (2-tailed) .035 N

  40

  40

  • Variable y Pearson Correlation

  1 .334

  Sig. (2-tailed) .035 N

  40

  40

  • Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

  Notes: Person correlation : the score of coefficient correlation between variable Sig. (2-tailed) : the significance test of coefficient correlation N : the number of sample

  To analyze the significance correlation between students mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing performance, the writer uses the hypothesis formula as follow:

  H = there is no a significant correlation between variable x

  o

  (gerund phrase) and variable y (writing performance) H = there is a significant correlation between variable x (gerund

  i

  phrase) and variable y (writing performance) To analyze the statistical hypothesis of the research, the writer puts criteria as follow: If r- o is rejected calculation ≥ r- table, H If r- o is accepted calculation ≤ r- table, H From the result on the SPSS 16.0 windows program above, the score correlation is 0.334 and the level of coefficient significance correlation is 0.35. Where r- calculation= 0.334 ≥ r table=0.312. It means that the correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing performance is significant by significance correlation is 0.05 or 5%.

  From the explanation above, the writer conclude that there is significant correlation between s tudents’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance but the level significance is low.

  Besides using SPSS 16.0 windows program the writer uses as well as conventional calculation to show the validity of deviation. The data will be calculated by using correlation product moment formula. The formula as follow:

  ฀ (฀ )(฀ )

  r xy =

  • √* ฀ (฀ ) (฀ )
    • ฀ By which:

  = is product moment correlation score between variable X and Y (

  r xy

  students’ mastery on gerund phrase and students’ writing performance)

  ∑ = is the total score of variable X (students’ mastery on gerund phrase) ∑ = is the score of variable Y (students’ writing performance) ∑ =is the total score of variable X and Y (students’ mastery on gerund phrase and students’ writing performance) N = is the number of students

  30 43 900 1849 1290 20. 113-12-080

  94 76 8836 5776 7144 14. 113-12-065

  90 54 8100 2916 4860 15. 113-12-067

  67 52 4489 2704 3484 16. 113-12-070

  90 54 8100 2916 4860 17. 113-12-071

  40 60 1600 3600 2400 18. 113-12-072

  55 65 3025 4225 3575 19. 113-12-077

  37 79 1369 6241 2923 21. 113-12-081

  93 72 8649 5184 6696 12. 113-12-052

  44 48 1936 2304 2112 22. 113-12-085

  90 67 8100 4489 6030 23. 113-12-104

  40 68 1600 4624 2720 24. 113-12-110

  54 66 2916 4356 3564 25. 113-12-113

  71 33 5041 1089 2343 26. 113-12-114

  30 24 900 576 720 27. 113-12-117

  70 55 4900 3025 3850 13. 113-12-061

  82 55 6724 3025 4510 11. 113-12-051

Table 4.5 Correlation between Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase and their Writing Performance

  84 50 7056 2500 4200 2. 113-12-004

  no NIM

  X Y

  X

  2 Y

  2 XY

  1. 113-12-002

  38 57 1444 3249 2166 3. 113-12-008

  60 54 3600 2916 3240 10. 113-12-050

  94 60 8836 3600 5640 4. 113-12-011

  64 74 4096 5476 4736 5. 113-12-014

  71 72 5041 5184 5112 6. 113-12-016

  62 54 3844 2916 3348 7. 113-12-022

  50 76 2500 5776 3800 8. 113-12-026

  90 73 8100 5329 6570 9. 113-12-047

  62 39 3844 1521 2418

  √* +* +

  35 56 1225 3136 1960 40. 113-12-171

  r xy=

  r xy=

  ฀ (฀ )(฀ ) √* ฀ (฀ ) +* ฀ (฀ ) + r xy=

  r xy =

  ∑ =169028 Then, those data is calculated as follows:

  ∑ =162746

  ∑ =192339

  From the tabulation above, indicate the value: ∑ =2651 ∑ =2496

  84 79 7056 6241 6636 N= 40 2651 2496 192339 162746 169028

  62 76 3844 5776 4712 39. 113-12-169

  28. 113-12-122

  70 79 4900 6241 5530 38. 113-12-167

  67 68 4489 4624 4556 37. 113-12-165

  84 75 7056 5625 6300 36. 113-12-159

  53 76 2809 5776 4028 35. 113-12-156

  56 66 3136 4356 3696 34. 113-12-151

  75 70 5625 4900 5250 33. 113-12-137

  92 70 8464 4900 6440 32. 113-12-136

  91 75 8281 5625 6825 31. 113-12-134

  92 74 8464 5476 6808 30. 113-12-129

  38 52 1444 2704 1976 29. 113-12-127

  • – ( ) ( )

    √* ( ) +* ( ) +

  • – √* +* +
r xy=

  √ r xy=

  0.33414382

  r xy=

  0.334

  r xy=

  From the result of calculation that using product moment correlation above is 0,334. It indicates that both of SPSS 16.0 and product moment correlation have similar score that are 0,334.

  From the interpretation of r value, 0,334 is existing between 0, 20

  • – 0, 40. It indicates that there is correlation between studen ts’ mastery on gerund phrase and the students’ writing performance, but the correlations are weak. The interpretation of r value can be seen in the following.

   Table 4. 6

Interpretation of r value

The r value Interpretation

  0,800 Very High

  • – 1.00 0,600 High – 0,800

  0,400 Fair

  • – 0,600 0,200 weak
  • – 0,400 0,000 Very weak
  • – 0,200 (Arikunto, 2002:276)

B. Discussion

  Gerund phrase is verb adds

  • –ing form and a complement that have functioned as noun in the sentence. We know the course of gerund phrase is not only in the structure subject, but also can be applied in the writing subject. It can be applied in writing skill to write some article, an essay, short story, etc, that related with students’ writing performance. As we know that one of the indicator of students writing performance is student can apply Standard English conventions in their writing process. However, some students are rarely applied on gerund phrase in their writing process. This is caused by some students who lack on mastering gerund phrase in combining gerund+ noun, gerund+ prepositional phrase, or gerund+ noun+ prepositional phrase.

  For the reason above, mastery on gerund phrase is one important thing for the students, especially for university students. By mastery on gerund phrase, the students are more creative in applying gerund phrase in their writing; it can make their writing will be better and more varied than they do not mastery on gerund phrase.

  From the table of students’ mastery on gerund phrase score, it is shown that the highest score is 94 and the lowest score is 24 by interval 10- 100. Beside that, the score of students writing performance, the highest score is 79 and the lowest score is 24.

  The first discussion in this graduating paper is how far is students’ mastery on gerund phrase of the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic year of 2014/2015. This data is retrieved from 10 items multiple choices testing of gerund phrase and 15 items short answer questions testing of gerund phrase. From the data analysis, the writer gained that 14 students or 35% include in the high score or having an excellent qualification, 12 students or 30% include in the good qualification, 5 students or 12.5% include in the fair qualification and the last is 9 students or 22.5% include in the poor qualification. So, the writer concludes that the students’ mastery on gerund phrase of fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015 is excellent.

  The second discussion, how is the condition of students’ writing performance of the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015. The data is retrieved from the short essay of students’ writing task. The data is gained there are no one students that having excellent qualification, 24 students or 60% is include good qualification, 11 students or 27.5% is include fair qualification and 5 students or 12.5% is include poor qualification. Finally, the writer concludes that the students’ writing performance of fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the cademic year of 2014/2015 is good.

  The third discussion is the correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase towar d students’ writing performance for the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of

  2014/2015. From the previous explanation, the writer gained the score of gerund phrase and writing performance in both SPSS windows program and conventional calculation that is 0,334 by level of significance is 0,035. From the interpretation of r value, 0,334 is existing between 0, 20

  • – 0, 40. Finally, the writer concludes that there is a weak correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing performance.

  In addition, the writer finds out some factors that influence the result of correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase in their writing performance has weak correlation. First, the students are unaware when they combine some verb+ ing (gerund) with nouns, noun phrases, pronoun, preposition that make up gerund phrase in their written. Second, the students unaware about some words that direct are followed by gerund when they used in their written. For example like, enjoy, continuous, delay, deny, avoid, admit, etc.

  Nevert heless, the correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing performance the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2014/2015 has weak correlation but it accepted.

CHAPTER V CLOSURE In this chapter, the writer will present the conclusion that is related with

  three objectives of the research. Firstly, to know how far is students’ mastery on gerund phrases. Secondly, to know how is the condition of students’ writing performance. And the last, the influence of students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing performance of the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015. Moreover, the writer would like to give some suggestion to the teacher, students, or other researcher.

A. Conclusion

  Based on the result of the data analyses in the previous chapter, the three items of conclusion will be presented based on the problems of the research. The first presents the st udents’ mastery on gerund phrase. Second presents the students writing performance and the third presents the correlation between students mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing performance. Based on the result of study, the writer concludes that: 1.

  Students’ mastery on gerund phrase 1.1.

  The students’ mastery on gerund phrase that has excellent qualification is 35%.

  1.2. The students’ mastery on gerund phrase that has good qualification is 30%.

  1.3. The students’ mastery on gerund phrase that has fair qualification is 12.5%.

  1.4. The students’ mastery on gerund phrase that has poor qualification is 22.5%.

  From the result above, the writer concludes that the students’ mastery on gerund phrase of the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015 has excellent qualification.

2. Students writing performance

  Based on the result of the study, the researcher can conclude that: 2.1.

  The students’ writing performance that has excellent qualification is 0%.

  2.2. The students’ writing performance that has good qualification is 60%.

  2.3. The students’ writing performance that has fair qualification is 27.5%.

  2.4. The students’ writing performance that has poor qualification is 12.5%.

  From the result above, the writer concludes that the stude nts’ writing performance of the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015 has good qualification.

  3. Correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing performance Based on the data analysis in the chapter IV, the writer gains the score of r count is 0.334 by level of significance is 0.035 from the interpretation of r value 0.344 is existing between 0,20- 0,40. It means that the result of the study indicates that there is correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase and their writing performance, but the correlations are weak. It can be caused by some factors; students still false in using gerund after preposition, there are many mistake is made by some students in applying gerund after preposition in their writing task, and they are lack in mastering the function of gerund usage in the sentences.

  Therefore, the students’ mastery on gerund phrase can give brief influence in their writing performance.

B. Suggestion

  And the last of this chapter, the writer would like to present some suggestions for the English teachers, the students and the other researchers and the writer hopes that this research would be useful for them.

1. The teacher a.

  The teacher can improve their students in mastering on gerund phrase in their writing task, for example; make gerund poem, make essay related with their daily activities, etc. b.

  The teacher should pay more attention when teaching gerund phrase, because one part of this phrase is complicated subject of grammar.

  c.

  Using exactly method is hoped the students can mastery of their learning.

  2. The students a.

  The students should be more increase their knowledge related with subject of gerund phrase.

  b.

  The students should keep in mine the verb which is followed either gerund phrase or infinitive.

  c.

  The students have to know the position of gerund phrase in the sentences.

  d.

  The students can combine the gerund phrase in their writing performance.

  3. The other researcher The writer hope that this finding of this research could be reference to the other researcher and hope they can broaden this research completely to get better development in educational progress.

  

BIBLIOGRAPY

  Anonymous.(2014). Buku Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Pendidikan STAIN Salatiga Tahun Akademik 2014/2015 .Salatiga: STAIN Slatiga Press. .(2014). Presensi Perkuliahan Writing IV Program studi Bahasa

  Inggris Semester Ganjil Tahun akademik 2014/2015 .Salatiga: Stain Salatiga.

  Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2002). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek.

  Jakarta: Rineka Cipta .(2006).Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

  Alting, Muh.Guntur. (2010). Asas- asas Multiple Research. Jogjakarta: Tiara wacana. Baker, Lida R and Friends (2003). Interaction 2 Integrated Skills. New York: McGraw-Hill. Crimmon,James M.Mc. (1984). Writing with a Purpose (Eighth Edition). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. Emzir. (2010). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Kuantitatif dan Kualitative ( Revised Edition ) . Jakarta: Rajawali Press. Eriyanto.(2010).Teknik Sampling Analisis Opini Publik. Jogjakarta: Lkis Jogjakarta. Frank, Marcella. (1972). Modern English Grammar.United State of America. Gelb,J.J.(1962). Study of Writing. New York:American Book Company. Hadi, Sutrisno.(1981). Metodologi Research. Universitas Gajah Mada: Yogjakarta. Hadjar, Ibnu. (1999). Dasar- Dasar Metodologi Penelitian Kwantitatif dalam . Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.

  Pendidikan Harmer, Jeremy. (2007). How to Teach English. England: Pearson Education.

  Haris, David P. (1969). Testing Engliss as a Second Language. New York:Mc.Graw-Hill Book Company.

  Langan, John.(2011). College Writing Skill. New York: Mc.Graw-Hill Book Company. Leo, Susanto, at all (2007). English for Academic Purpose: Essay Writing.

  Jogjakarta: ANDI Offset.

  Nunan, David.( 2003). Practical English Language teaching. New York: Mc.Graw-Hill Book Company. Polette, Keith. (2008). Teaching Grammar through Writing (second Edition).

  Boston: Pearson Education,Inc. Prastowo, Panca. (2007).

  The Handbook of TOEFL. Let’s Get Ready for TOEFL.

  Jogjakarta: Diva Press. Rohmah, Galuh Nur (1989). How to Write Autonomously. Malang: UIN Malang Press.

  Risdianto, Faisal. (2010). Contextual English Grammar.Salatiga: Stain Salatiga Press. Santoso, Singgih. (1999). SPSS Mengelola Data Statistik Secara Profesional.

  Jakarta: PT Elex Media Komputer. Siburian, Tiur Asih. (2013).

  Improving Students’ Achievement on Writing Descriptive Text Through Think Pair Share. International Journal of

  Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, (3). Webster, Merriam. (1974). The New Grolier Webster International Dictionary of the English Language (vol.1) . New York: Grolier.

  Whison, E. George and Julia M. (1980).

  Let’s Write English (revised edition). New York: American Book Company.

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