THE INFLUENCE OF STUDENTS’ MASTERY ON
GERUND PHRASE TOWARD STUDENTS’ WRITING
(A Correlative Study of Fifth Semester Students of English
Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of
A GRADUATING PAPER
Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a Partial Fulfillment of
the requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam
(S.Pd.I) in English Education Department of Teacher Training
and Education Faculty
State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga
113 09 113
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN)
ميحرلا نمحرلا الله مسب
Hereby the writer fully declares that this thesis is made by the writer herself, and it is not containing materials written or has been published by other people ideas except the information from the references.
The writer is capable of accounting for this graduating paper if in the future it can be proved of containing others’ idea or in fact, the writer imitates the others’graduating paper.
Likewise, this declaration is made by the writer, and she hopes that this declaration can be understood for all human being.
Salatiga, April13rd 2015
Salatiga,April 13th, 2015 Mashlihatul Umami, S.PdI., M.A
The Lecturer of English Education Department State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR’S NOTE
Case: Nufiyati’s Graduating Paper
After reading and correcting Nufiyati’s graduating paper, entitled THE INFLUENCE OF STUDENTS’ MATERY ON GERUND PHRASE TOWARD STUDENTS’ WRITING PERFORMANCE ( A Correlative Study of Fifth Semester Students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of 204/015, I have decided and would like to propose that if it could be accepted by the Teacher Training and Education Faculty and I hope this graduating paper can be examined as soon as possible.
Mashlihatul Umami, S.PdI.,M.A NIP. 19800513 200312 2 003 MINISTRY OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
THE INFLUENCE OF STUDENTS’ MASTERY ON GERUND
PHRASE TOWARD STUDENTS’ WRITING PERFORMANCE
(A Correlative Study of Fifth Semester Students of English
Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of
Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to
change the world
This graduating paper is whole heartedly dedicated to:
My Lord, Allah SWT… Thanks to Allah for giving me guidance and
strength in my life, especially to finish this graduating paper. Alhamdulillahirobbilalamin!
My beloved parents, thanks for your love, prayer, motivation, and your sacrifice to me. You are everything in my life. No words aside you are is the best.
My lovely husband, whois never tired to support me, deeply thanks for our togetherness. I love you.
My sister and brother, ( mbksri, mas mat, mas rip) and all of my big family, thank a lot for your continued encouragement, advice, and pray.
My honorable consultant (Mrs. Mashlihatul Umami, S.Pdi.MA.) who always give me suggestion and patience throughout my graduating paper. Thank you very much!
Thank you for all lecturer of Educational faculty State Institute of Islamic Studies of Salatiga, who always teach me brilliantly, give me the best advice. I will never forgetting to you.
Thanks you for my struggle friends bundayanah, bundalaily, bundabudi, bundabibah, bunda noir, umi, misihkopay. Don’t be give in. Lets we come up together!
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful, The Lord of Universe. Because of Him, the writer could finish this graduating paper as one of the requirement for Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I) in English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education faculty State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga.
Secondly, peace and salutation always be given to our prophet Muhammad SAW who has guided us from the darkness to the lightness.
However, this success would not be achieved without supports, guidance, advices, helps, and encouragements from individual and institution. Therefore, in this moment the writer would like to express her deepest gratitude and appreciation to:
1. Dr. Rahmat Hariyadi, M.Pd. as a Rector of State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga.
2. Suwardi, M. Pd, as a Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty. 3. Noor Malihah, M.Hum,.P.hD. as a chief of English Department
4. Mashlihatul Umami, S. Pd.I, M.A. as a consultant who has educated, supported, directed and given the writer advices, suggestions, and recommendations for this graduating paper from beginning until the end. 5. All of the lecturers in English department, the writer deeply thanks to you
6. All of the staffs who have helped the writer in processing of graduating paper administration.
7. The beloved family, who have given a true love, care, prayers, and support. Thanks them for this warm and togetherness.
8. All of her friends who have help me to finish this graduating paper. 9. Those cannot be mentioned one by one.
Finally this graduating paper is expected to be able to provide useful knowledge and information to the readers. And the writer is pleased to accept more suggestion and contribution from the reader for the improvement of the graduating paper.
Salatiga, April13rd 2015 The writer,
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE ... i
DECLARATION ... ii
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES ... iii
STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION ... iv
MOTTO ... v
DEDICATION ... vi
ACKNOWLEDGENMENT ... vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... ix
LIST OF THE TABLE... xii
ABSTRACT ... xiii
CHAPTER I:INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Research ... 1
B. Problems of the Research ... 4
C. Objectives of the Research ... 4
D. Limitation of Research ... 5
E. Benefit of the research ... 5
F. Hypothesis ... 6
G. Definition of Key Term... ... 7
CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW
A. Mastery ... 9
B. Gerund Phrase ... 10
1. Definition of Gerund Phrase... 10
2. Function of Gerund Phrase ... 12
3. Verb Frequently Followed by Gerund Phrase .... 21
4. Differences between Gerund Phrase and Participle 23
5. Indicator of Students Mastery on Gerund Phrase 26
C. Students’ Writing Performance……….... 26
1. Definition of Writing……… 26
2. Process of Writing…... 27
3. Basic Principle in Writing………... 28
4. Style in Writing……….. 30
5. The Indicator of Students Writing Performance… 31
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD A. Setting of the Research ... 32
1. Profile of STAIN Salatiga……… 32
2. Vision, mission of STAIN Salatiga………. 33
3. Faculty and Study Program………. 34
B. Research Method ... 36
1. Type of Research……….. 36
2. Subject of Research……….. 37
4. Technique of Data Analysis………. 41 C. Data Presentation……… 46 1. Data of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase…. . 46 2. Data of Students’ Writing Performance……….. 47 CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS
A. Data Analysis ... 49 1. Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase………….. 49 2. Students Writing Performance………. 53 3. Correlation Students Mastery on Gerund Phrase
Toward Students Writing Performance………… 55
B. Discussion………. 60
CHAPTER V: CLOSURE
A. Conclusion ... 66 B. Suggestion ... 68
LIST OF THE TABLE
TABLE 2.1 Example Verb Followed by Gerund……… 22
TABLE 2.2 Example Gerund after Preposition………... 22
TABLE 3.1The Number of the Fifth Semester Students that Taken Writing Class……… 37
TABLE 3.2 List of Subject of the Research……… 39
TABLE 3.3 Scoring of Gerund Phrase……… 42
TABLE 3.4 Scoring of Writing Performance………. 43
TABLE 3.5.Data of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase………. 46
TABLE 3.6 Data of Students’ writing Performance……….. 47
TABLE 4.1 Score of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase……….. 50
TABLE 4.2 Score of Students’ Writing Performance……….. 53
TABLE 4.3The Accumulation Data of Variable X and Variable Y…… 56
TABLE 4.4The Result of Data Correlation………. 57
TABLE 4.5 Correlations between Gerund Phrase and their Writing Performance……… 60
xii and Education Faculty. English Education Department. State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga. Counselor: Mashlihatul Umami, S. Pd.I, M.A.
Keywords: gerund phrase, writing performance, correlation
1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Research
In the context of English language teaching as a foreign language taught in Indonesia, the teaching and learning of English especially writing is one of particular importance. In the subject of writing, the students should be able to express their ideas both in academic and non academic writing. They are expected to be able to improving their writing skill from writing sentences, paragraph through writing an essay and an article especially to the students of university.
However, helping students to be able to have good writing skill is not easy and it needs effective efforts. This is because writing is a difficult subject. According to Heaton as quoted by Rohmah (2009: 1) states that writing is complex and difficult to teach and also to learn, requiring mastery not only of grammatical and rhetorical but also of conceptual and judgmental elements.
experiences, information, character or plots, but from fundamental artistic elements of grammar.
There are many kinds of grammar element which is composed in English written language. According to Keith Polette:
“ to compose grammar in written English language there are sixteen element they are seven part of speech, six phrases, and three clauses.”(Polette, 2008: xiv)
the hunters (original subject)”. These changes from subject – predicate form also permit the gerund phrase to be embedded as a noun within another predication –“the shooting of the birds by the hunters caused her
great distress”. Gerund phrase can creating by combining a gerund and a noun, a gerund and a prepositional phrase, and both a gerund a noun and a prepositional phrase. Gerund phrase can be placed in anywhere, for example, Jordan writes in her journal everyday. It is her favorite activities
(original sentence). The sentences can combined become writing in her journal every day is Jordan favorite activities. The function of gerund phrase is as subject of the sentence, the gerund writing modifier of the prepositional phrase in her journal.Or, Jordan’s favorite activity is writing in her journal everyday. The function gerund as object of preposition, the gerund writing modifier object of preposition in her journal .Therefore, by applying gerund phrase in writing is hoped the students’ writing English
will be more varied.
According to the above explanation, the writer is interested in conducting the study entitled: The Influence of Students’ Mastery on
Gerund Phrase toward Students’ Writing Performance (A Correlative
4 B. Problems of the Research
Based on the explanation above, the writer proposes the statement of the problems as follow:
1. How far is the students’ mastery on gerund phrase in the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015?
2. How is the condition of students’ writing performance in the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Saltiga in the academic year of 2014/2015?
3. What are the influences of students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance in the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015?
C. Objectives of the Research
The objectives of the research are:
1. To know how far is students’ mastery on gerund phrase in the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015.
3. To know the influences of students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance in the fifth semester students of English
Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015.
D. Limitation of the Research
The study will be limited on the mastery on gerund phrase and writing performance of the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga, especially on the influence of the students’ mastery on
gerund phrase and their writing performance.
E. Benefit of the Research
This research is conducted in order to give theoretical and practical benefits:
1. Theoretical benefit
The result of the research is expected can be useful for other researcher who wants to conduct a research that is related with grammar usage in writing.
2. Practical benefit
a. The English teacher
hoped can improving students’ mastery in using gerund phrase
that composed in writing. b. The students
The result of the research can be useful for the students to enhance their ability to mastery gerund phrase and the students will be able to write well in grammatically.
c. The writer
By conducting this research, the writer gets many experiences that useful and as a starting point become English teacher. Also, the result of the study can be reference in teaching and learning English grammar.
7 G. Definition of Key Terms
According to Webster (1974: 586) mastery is the state of having control over something, superiority in competition, victory, eminent skill or through knowledge.
b. Gerund phrase
Gerund phrase is a group of words (not complete sentence) that act like a noun. Gerund phrase begin with an –ing word; the –ing word is usually followed by a noun or a preposition phrase. Gerund phrase can be the subject of a sentence, the subjective complement (if they follow a linking verb), the direct object (if they follow an action verb), or the object of a preposition. (Polette, 2008: 32)
Writing is clearly a system of human intercommunication by means of conventional visible marks, but it is evident from what has been said that what the primitive understood as writing is not the same thing as what we do.(Gelb, 1962: 12)
H. Graduating Paper Out Line
To facilitate the reader in understanding this paper, the writer will describe the parts in this paper are:
purposes of the research, limitation of the research, benefit of the research, hypothesis, definition of keys term, and graduating paper out line.
Chapter II is theoretical framework; it contains theory about mastery, gerund phrase and its explanation, and the last, theory about writing and the explanation of writing.
Chapter III is methodology of the research; it contains the data presentation which shows the data of respondents, data of students’
mastery on gerund phrase and the data of students’ writing achievement. Chapter IV is data analysis; it explains the analysis of the data collected and the discussion the finding of the research.
9 CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. Mastery
Allowing students the opportunity to achieve mastery of content at different time intervals has proven to be an effective method of increasing student learning. Regarding students’ grade, they move on to the next set of chapters, until they are tested on those. They go on to learn more and take the next test and so on, until they are done with the class. Maybe they really learned what they were taught, or maybe they only learned a portion, or maybe they barely understood most of the material, and it's reflected in their ending grade. But, the question is what are they had to master what they were taught?.
Based on the statements above, all students must master what they were taught before moving on the next unit. Thus, students have to achieve a specified level of content knowledge prior to progression on to a next unit of instruction.
Mastery is the state of having control over something, superiority in competition, victory, eminent skill or through knowledge (Webster, 1974:586).
10 B. Gerund Phrase
1. Definition of Gerund Phrase
In the English language verb can acts like a noun by adding – ing
word in the ending of the word, it is called gerund. And gerund it may have modifier and complements it is called gerund phrase.
Gerund phrase can be defined as a group words (not complete sentence) that acts like a noun. Gerund phrase begin with an – ing word; the –ing word is usually followed by a noun or a prepositional phrase. (Polette, 2008: 32). Prepositional phrase is a group of words (not complete sentence) that is made up of a preposition plus an object
(Polette, 2008: 37). According to Polette (2008: 33) there are some variations for creating gerund phrase. For example:
- Gerund: eating, dancing, jumping
- Gerund + noun: eating apples, dancing jig
- Gerund + prepositional phrase: skiing down mountains, dancing at dusk, jumping through hoops.
- Gerund + noun + prepositional phrase: eating apples beneath the full moon, dancing a jig at dusk, jumping through hoops during a thunderstorm
- Gerund + noun + adverbial clause: eating apples while the princess slept, calming the sea because he was compelled to.
except the –ed past participle; the most common form, however, is the –
ing present participle. The “subject” of a gerund may be found in another part of the sentence or it may be understood. A “subject” that is contained
within the gerund phrase takes inflected possessive form, prepositional form, or unchanged form. The “object” of a gerund is unchanged or is
contained within an of phrase. By means of such changes in the nominal elements of a simple sentence, these elements may be strung along after the verb as prepositional phrase.
Thus, the simple sentence the boy shot the bird can become the gerund phrase the shooting of the bird (original object) by the boy
(original subject). These changes from subject- predicate form also permit the gerund phrase to be embedded as a noun within another predication for example: the shooting of the bird by the boy caused her great distress.
The gerund functions as noun head of the gerund phrase, the transformed “subject” and “object” as adjectival modifier.
12 For example:
Original: I learned to write novel, it was challenging. Combined: learning to write novel was challenging.
Gerund phrase can be put anywhere in the beginning of the sentence or as an object of the sentence. For example:
Original: Lisa writes journal everyday, it is her favorite activity. Combined: Lisa’s favorite activity is writing journal every day.
Combined: writing journal every dayis Lisa’s favorite activity.
While another source Risdianto (2010: 128) explains that gerund phrase is groups of word that consist of a gerund, modifier, pronouns, or noun phrase that have function as a direct object, indirect object, or complement of noun.
Finally, from the definition above, the writer can conclude that gerund phrase is verb that adding by –ing form that act like a noun and it may have modifier and complement.
2. Function of Gerund Phrase
Risdianto (2010: 128) states that there are four functions of gerund phrase, such as:
a) Gerund phrase as a subject of sentences
Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than when we’re
trying to do.
- finding (gerund)
- in a haystack (prepositional phrase a adverb) b) Gerund phrase as direct object of “ appreciate” verb
I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity. - my (possessive pronoun, )
- offering (gerund)
- you (indirect object expressed in gerund)
- this opportunity (direct object expressed in gerund) c) Gerund phrase as a subject of complement
Newton’s favorite tactic has beenlying to his constituents. - lying to (gerund)
- his constituents (direct object expressed gerund) d) Gerund phrase as a preposition
You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work
- Faking (gerund)
- an illness (direct object expressed in gerund) - to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb)
In addition, the function of gerund phrase will be explained as follows.
14 a. Subject in Gerund Phrases
The subject of a gerund usually denotes a live being, but sometimes it designates a lifeless thing or an abstract idea. In the majority of gerund phrase, especially those functioning as objects of verb or preposition, the subject is either understood or is found in another part of the sentence.
The subject is understood:
1) The subject is understood as a generic person (everyone, anyone, people, etc.). Such a subject less gerund phrase is common in general statements, especially with a form ofbe as the main verb. For the examples:
Playing with gun is dangerous. Fishing in this lake is forbidden.
2) The subject is understood from general context
He suggests eating dinner at airport.
Going there today isn’t wise.
If subject is included in the gerund phrase, it may be used in possessive or unchanged form, in an of phrase, in a by phrase.
In formal usage, possessive forms of nouns and pronoun are required. For the examples:
The girl resents her sister’s getting more attention than she does.
The idea of Horold’s getting a job as a traveling salesman
doesn’t appeal to his wife.
In informal usage, the unchanged forms of nouns, as well l as the object forms of personal pronouns, may be used for “subject” of gerund. These forms establish a closer relationship
with the verb or preposition after which they commonly appear. They are more emphatic than the possessive form; in speech they receive greater stress and are followed by a longer pause.
Gerund phrase after main verb, especially such verbs as (dis)like, not mind, miss, remember, understand. For the example:
We can’t understand them doing a thing like that. I remember my father being very strict with us.
The non-possessive forms are probably more common with noun “subject” than with pronoun “subject”. Subject a word
denoting a lifeless thing or an abstract idea. Much less frequently than a “subject” that presents a human being, such a “subject” of a
gerund is usually in non-possessive forms. For the examples:
The doctors are afraid of a relapse occurring in a few months.
b) “ Subject” of gerund an of phrase
An of phrase subject of a gerund may denote a live being or an inanimate thing. This kinds of “subject” is used
mostly with intransitive verbs. The (occasionally another determiner) initiates the phrase. For the examples:
The plotting and intriguing of the ambassador for his own ends finally caused this dismissal.
The shouting of the children disturbed his sleep.
A “subject” representing a live being may sometimes be put either in an of phrase or in s’ possessive form –the shouting of the children or the children’s
shouting. The gerund with the possessive “subject” has
greater force as a verb; the gerund with the of phrase “subject” has greater force as a noun.
c) “Subject” of Gerund a By Phrase
A by phrase “subject” mark the passive voice of a transitive verb in a gerund phrase.
The broadcasting by that station comes from the top of a skyscraper.
17 b. “Object” in Gerund Phrases
The form of an “object” in gerund phrase may depend on what precedes the gerund. If the introduces the gerund, the “object” of the gerund is in an of phrase. For the examples:
The shooting of those rare birds appalled us.
The storing of merchandise became a problem after the warehouse burned down.
Determiners other than the ( a, this, some, any) occasionally initiate a gerund phrase containing an of phrase “object.” In the construction the . . . –ing + of phrase “object,”
only the –ing ending is used for the gerund (the gerund cannot have perfect or passive form, nor can it be made negative).
If there is no the or possessive “subject” preceding the
gerund, the “object” of the gerund remains unchanged.
For the examples:
Repairing that lamp will not expensive.
They plan on setting aside some money each month for their old age.
If a possessive “subject” precedes the gerund the “object”
may remain unchanged, for the examples:
Their returning the money was a surprise.
I can’t understand her losing the ring.
And the “object” may be in an of phrase. For the examples:
The dictator was hated by many people for his silencing of all opposition.
Of phrase “objects” are not used at all with gerunds that represent non-action (the remembering of, the thinking of, the needing of), but it can used in abstract noun phrase (the remembrance of, the thought of, the need of).
Personal pronoun “objects” of gerund phrase ( as well as “subject”) cannot be put in of phrases (the launching of it, their
finding of it).
In a gerund construction that is given passive force only by a by phrase, an of phrase expresses the original object.
For the examples:
The sailor told us a story about the sinking of ship by pirates. They complained about the shooting of the birds y the hunters.
This kind of gerund construction with passive force competes with the construction containing the passive form of the gerund it self.
For the examples:
The sailor told us a story about a ship having been sunk by pirates. They complained about the birds being shot by the hunters.
phrase may be considered as being derived from either someone shoots the birds or the birds were shot by someone.
After verbs that have both a transitive and intransitive sense, an of phrase may cause ambiguity, since it functions either as “subject” or “object” of the gerund. For the examples:
The ringing of the bells (may be derived fromthe bells are ringing, or someone is ringing the bells).
The sinking of the ship (may derived from the ship is sinking or someone sank the ship).
Generally, however, in such phrases the presumption with of is in favor of the “object” rather than the “subject.”
c. Adverb in Gerund Phrase
In a gerund phrase, a word used a an adverb may remain unchanged or it may take adjective form.
1. Adverb in unchanged form
Such adverb may be used in final position, or, less commonly, in initial position.
a) Final position For examples:
20 b) Initial position.
He received a reward for promptly returning the money. His employer was irritated at his never getting to work on time.
Gerunds are usually preceded by the same types of adverbs as those that precede finite verbs- usually manner of frequency adverbs. 2. Adverbs changed to adjective form
In gerund phrases, adverbs from simple sentences are often transformed to adjectives that precede the gerund.
For the examples:
His wife was shocked at his reckless breaking of the law. The company appreciated his discreet handling of the affair.
d. Gerund Phrases as Subjects of Verbs
A gerund phrase does not occur frequently as a subject. One of it common use as a subject is in general statements with be as the main verb. For the examples:
Eating a good breakfast is very wish.
Taking a long walk every day is good exercise.
21 a) Cause – effect relationship
For the example:
Seeing her every day made him realize how wonderful she was.
For the example:
Seeing her so thin and pale shocked him.
e. Gerund Phrases as Object of Verb
Certain verbs in English are followed by verbal – either gerunds or infinitives which are considered as the objects of these verbs. Common verbs that can be followed by gerunds for example
avoid, consider deny etc. further more, verbs that can be followed by gerund will be explained in the next section.
f. Gerund Phrases as Objects of Prepositions
Any verb used as the object in a prepositional phrase takes the form of a gerund. For the examples:
He insisted on paying the entire bill for dinner.
She often dreams about having a lot of money to spend on luxuries.
3. Verbs Frequently Followed by Gerunds
Here is a difference list of some of the more common verbs that can be followed by gerunds.
List of Verb followed by gerund
No. Words Words
List of Gerund after preposition No. Common phrase with
4. Differences between Gerund and Participle
Both gerund and participle are adding the – ing form of the verb. But, of them there are differences between gerund and participle. If the gerund or gerund phrase is the – ing form of the verb used as a noun (gerund) and may be it have modifiers like a noun (gerund phrase). The participles will be explained as follow:
a. The Simple Participle
According to Whison and Julia (1980: 261) the present participle (the – ing form of the verb) and the past participle (the – ed / en form of the verb) may be used in sentences as adjective modifiers. They may modify nouns occurring in any position in the sentence. For examples:
The sewing machine is out of order (present participle) He is spoiled child (past participle)
The simple participle may have some positions in the sentences. a. Before a noun
The crying baby is suffering from the heat b. After a noun
The baby, crying, woke his mother
c. At the beginning of sentence, to modify the subject
Crying, the baby woke his mother d. After linking verb
24 b. The participial phrase
Participles commonly have objects and adverbial modifiers and they can sometimes have objects. The participle and its subjects, objects, and modifiers make up the participial phrase (Whison and Julia, 1980: 262).
- The girl wearing the red blouse is Angela.
- The man being my uncle, I had no choice but to do as he asked me. 1) Punctuation of the participial phrase
The participial phrase may be restrictive, that is, necessary to identify the noun it modifies, or nonrestrictive, that is, not essential to the identification of the noun it modifies.
As with adjective clauses, the nonrestrictive participial modifier is set off by a comma or commas, according to its position in the sentence, while the restrictive participle is not punctuated.
Restrictive: the boy wearing the red shirt is Jerry Webster.
Nonrestrictive: Jerry Webster was there, wearing the red shirt. 2) Position of the participial phrase
If participle comes at the beginning of a sentence, it must modify the subject of the following clause.
Crying for milk, the baby woke everyone up. The baby, crying for milk, woke everyone up. The baby woke everyone up, crying for milk.
When a participle has a subject, the resulting participial phrase comes either at the beginning or the end of the sentence and se off by comma. These phrases are sometimes called nominative absolutes. Usually, they have adverbial function in the sentence. For example:
Time : her lesson finished, the student relaxed
(when her lesson was finished. The student relaxed)
Cause : the weather appeared stormy, the class cancelled the picnic.
(because the weather appeared stormy, the class cancelled the picnic).
Condition : weather permitting, we will have the picnic next week.
5. Indicator/ Nature of Students Mastery on Gerund Phrase
There are some indicators of students’ mastery on gerund phrase,
a. The students get information to what is expressed in certain verbs and verb + object combination
b. The students can use a verb+ ing after preposition
c. The students are able to identifies the gerund phrase in a texts d. The students are able to make sentence related the gerund phrase e. The students can make list activities related gerund phrase
C. Students’ Writing Performance 1. Definition of writing
In addition, Harmer (2007: 112) state that writing is used as an aide-memoire or practice tool to help students practice and work with language they have been studying. Nunan (2003: 88) defines writing is the physical act of committing words or ideas to some medium, weather it is hieroglyphics inked onto parchment or an e-mail message type into computer. On the other hand he states that writing is the mental work of inventing ideas, thinking about how to express them, and organizing them into statements and paragraphs that will be clear to a reader.
Based on the explanations above the writer formulates that writing is a process of submitting the writer’s ideas and developing their language in intercommunication in right word in order to the reader could understand what the writer want to say.
2. Process of Writing
Langan (2011: 22) divides writing process into four parts, they are: a. Prewriting
There are four prewriting techniques that will help to think and develop a topic and get words. They are free writing, questioning, making a list, and preparing a scratch outline.
28 c. Revising
Revising means making any changes and any point in the writing process. There are three stages to the revising process: revising content, revising sentence and editing.
After revising for the content and style, the next step is editing for error grammar, punctuation and spelling.
3. Basics Principle in Writing
According to Leo (2007:1), he divides basic principle in writing into three parts, they are:
The content is the body of a piece or the core of writing including discussion, evaluation, elaboration or explanation of the writer. In this basic should be relevant, clear and specific.
The topic and the content should be relevant it is mean that the readers enjoy when they grasp the concept.
In writing we want to convey what our concept to reader then must be clearly.
29 b. Register
Register is a choices of vocabulary or style language which be used in writing.
The language is used as casual expression, free from grammatical error and simplistic sentence structure. The particular style of writer avoids slang, colloquial and nonstandard language.
2) To the point
The writer tells to the reader without wandering here or there. In this way it save energy and can be understood.
Concise is necessary in academic writing. Unclear explanation can lose the reader concentration.
c. Topic (offences free)
The offences should be avoided in academic writing. It is include plagiarism and sensitive issue.
30 b) Sensitive issue
The issue has avoided such as races, social groups and religions because there are very sensitive, controversial and personal.
4. Style in Writing
Crimmon (1984: 309) state writing style is anything from writers’ philosophy to his or her choice of words or sentence structure. According to him there are three elements of writing style, they are:
a. Word choice/ sentence structure
Good writers are concise and precise, weeding out unnecessary words and choosing the exact word to convey meaning. Precise words, active verbs, concrete nouns, specific adjectives help the reader visualize the sentence.
Diction is the flow and rhythm of phrases and sentences. Good writers use a variety of sentences with different lengths and rhythms to achieve different effects..
Tone is the sum of those characteristic that reveal writers’ attitude
toward their subject and their read
5. The Indicator of Students Writing Performance
developing which identify the focus on instruction and the level which students should demonstrate their writing performance. There are some indicators the students writing performance, they are:
a. Students consistently use the rules of standard English convention in their writing (application level).
b. Students able in choosing appropriate words choices (evaluation level).
c. Students can apply the writing process to compose text (application level)
d. Students should use the logical organizational pattern in their writing (application level).
32 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD
In this chapter, the writer will explain about research method. It consists of setting of the research that is STAIN Salatiga, research method, and data presentation.
A. The Setting of the Research
1. Profile of State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga.
State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga is located on TentaraPelajar Street Number 02, East Java. At the beginning, this institute is constitute private institute and then was changed became a state institute and as a branch of IAIN Walisongo Semarang. This status based on recommendation letter of Minister of Religious Affair number 30, April 16th 1970.
In the year 1997, Education Faculty of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Walisongo, Semarang that located in Salatigawas changed into State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN),Salatiga became independent college under the Islamic Religion Ministry. The transferring of status based on presidential decree of Indonesia number11, March 21st 1997.
NakuloSadewo Street VA number 09, KembangArum,Salatiga. Since, in the year 2010 STAIN Salatiga have prepared the integrated area college in Pulutan (jalanlingkarselatan), Salatiga. It is in accordance with an effort to increase the institutional status of STAIN become IAIN and finally is hoped can become State of Islamic University (UIN),Salatiga. (STAIN Salatiga’s Academic Guiding Book, 2014:17)
2. Vision, Mission and purpose of State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga.
STAIN Salatiga hope can be references of Islamic- Indonesian study for building society piece and prestigious in the year 2025. b. Mission
1) Implementing education in all discipline science of Islamic that base on Indonesian values.
2) Implementing a research in all discipline science of Islamic for reinforcing Indonesian values.
3) Implementing society service that base on research for reinforcing Indonesian values.
4) Developing culture of students that reflect Indonesian Islamic values.
34 c. Educational purpose
1) Developing potential of the students in order to be human who have devout and pious to the God and have good morals, healthy, bookish, skillful, creative, independent, competent, and cultured to importance the nation;
2) Producing the graduate who mastering science and technology that based on Islamic science to fulfill importance the notion; 3. Faculty and Study Program
Based on the Academic Guiding Book (2014: 10), STAIN Salatiga has several kinds of faculties. Those faculties are as follow: a. Educational faculty
Its functions are organizing academic and professional education. Purpose of educational faculty is making Bachelor of Islamic Educationthat is skillful in the Islamic education and teaching with specific skill in the subject of Islamic education, Arabic language, English language, and teacher of Islamic Primary School. Furthermore, Educational faculty has six study programs, namely:
1) Islamic Department
2) Arabic Department 3) English Department
4) Islamic Primary School Teaching Department
6) Islamic Communication and Broadcasting b. LawFaculty
Law faculty has function to educate the graduated students that have both Islamic law and judicature court (Ahwal al- Syakhshiyyah). The study program of law faculty has six programs,they are:
1) Judicature Court Department
2) Islamic Banking Department (S1) 3) Islamic Banking Department (D3) 4) Islamic Accounting Department 5) Al-Qur’an Science and Tafsir
6) Islamic History and Culture Department c. Particular program( international class program)
International class program was opened in the academic year 2010/2011. This program consists of the students from either Educational or Law faculty that pass the selection. International Class Program has aim to give opportunity to get experience on living or studying abroad.
d. Postgraduate Program
2010.By study program postgraduate Islamic Educational Religion that the end of the graduated students will accept M.Pd.I (Master of Islamic Education degree).
B. Research Method 1. Type of Research
The type of research in this study is quantitative research. According to Emzir (2010: 28) quantitative research is a research approach in primarily using post positivist paradigm in developing knowledge and using research strategy likes experiment and survey that require statistic data.
The method that is used by the writer is correlation research. According to Gay as quoted by Emzir (2010: 28) correlation research is to find out correlation between variables, or to use the correlation to make prediction. Thus, in this research, the writer uses a bivariate correlation. Bivariate correlation is a research that has aims to describe correlation between two variables, variable X and variable Y (Emzir, 2010: 48). Variable in this research are variable X is students’ mastery on
gerund phrase, and variable Y is students’ writing performance.
37 2. Subject of the Research
Subjectsof this research are the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015 who joins in writing class. To clarify the subject of the research, the writer explains as follows:
Population is groups of people, occurrence, and things which it can be object of research (Alting, 2010: 88). On the other word, a population is a set (or collection) of all elements processing one or more attributes of interest (Arikunto, 2006: 130).
Populations of this research are fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year 2014/2015. As in the presence list of fifth semester students of English Department overall the total numbers students are 173 students that divided into five classes. But, there are only 132 students who are take writing class, and the other students are in the upper semester.
The Number of the Fifth Semester Students That Taken Writing Class
No Class Male Female Total
1. TBI A 5 19 24
2. TBI B 9 14 23
4. TBI D 8 23 31
5. TBI E 7 19 26
Total 39 92 132
The presence list of each group in the academic year 2014/2015 b. Sample
According to Alting (2010, 88) Sample is a part of elements or parts of population that is chosen to get the data. From thetotal numbers of 132 students that taken writing class the writer just takes 40 students randomly as a data of this research because they have difference ability in mastery both gerund phrase and writing.Sometimes, they are good in grammar but bad in writing. Otherwise, they are good in writing but in grammar very weak. So, the writer takes sample randomly they will have same opportunity to be a sample.
Sampling is process of determination sample or representative the population (Alting, 2010: 88).They are two kinds of sampling technique, they are random sampling and non random sampling ( Arikunto, 2002: 109).
Here, 40 students of fifth semester of English Department as the subject of the research.
Table 3.2 List of subject of the research
37. 113-12-159 NZN
38. 113-12-169 WDN
39. 113-12-170 AM
40. 113-12-134 NK
3. Techniques of Collecting Data
For collecting the data, the writer uses some methods as following: a. Documentation
Documentation is finding the data about all variables in the notebook, newspaper, magazine, and so on (Arikunto, 2006: 231). The writer used this method to get the data for knowing the profile of students’ gerund phrase achievement and condition of STAIN
Salatiga. b. Test
According to Hadjar (1999: 173) Test is instrument used to measure someone’s behavior, performance, knowledge,
intelligence, ability or attitude. By doing the test it can become guidance for the teacher to collect the data of students’ mastery on
gerund phrase and the students’ writing performance.
examinee either to complete a sentence or to compose one of their own according to very specific directions (Haris, 1969: 8).
The writer uses both multiple- choice types and short - answer types because is hoped the students not only can answer the test rapidly but also they can provide the examinee with the opportunity to compose their own answer and it can measure their intellectual achievement.
Furthermore, both multiple choice type and short answer test is usedby the writer to measure the students’ mastery on gerund
phrase. The test consists of 25 items that is divided into two kinds of test variation that is 10 multiple - choices items and 15 short - answer types to examine students’ mastery on gerund phrase.
While, to measure students’ writing performance the writer asks
the students to make short essay that related with gerund phrase. The students make essay according to their own ideas.
4. Technique of Data Analysis a. Scoring
The gerund phrase test is divided into two kinds of test variation, the first is 10 items multiple choices type and second is 15 items short answer question type. The writer uses 10-100 scale to determine the level of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase.
Because the gerund phrase test has two kinds of test, so, each item has different score. 10 items multiple choice has 1 score only and 15 items short answer question has 4 score. The scoring can be seen in the following table.
Scoring of Gerund Phrase
score Detail explanation
4 excellent command of language, proper use of
grammar/writing conventions, few to no misspelled words, correct word choice, excellent variety and complexity of sentence structure, uses proper citation format
3 good command of language, generally proper use of grammar/writing conventions, minimal misspelled words, largely good word choice, some variety and complexity in sentence structure, generally uses proper citation format 2 generally proper use of grammar/writing conventions, but
with simple sentences generally lacking variety/complexity in structure, acceptable citation format
1 weak use of language, poor grammar, and numerous mechanical errors undermine coherence, weak citation format
The test type that is used by the writer to examine the students’
Scoring of writing performance
Grade Scale Detail explanation
A 80-100 Well organized. The message is completely comprehensible. Arguments are relevant and related to writer’s view. Main ideas and effective supporting ideas are clearly stated. The language is clear, smooth and interesting, and is consistently accurate. There are no major errors of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, or grammar.
B 67-79 Well organized and highly comprehensible.
Arguments are quite relevant in relation to writer’s view. Main ideas and effective supporting ideas are almost clearly stated. There is clear message with only minor loss of detail and little need for correction of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, or grammar. The language is clear and interesting. C 55-66 It is rather well organization. Arguments are rather
relevant in relation to writer’s view. Main ideas and supporting ideas are rather clear. The message is almost clear but with some loss of detail. Many corrections of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, or grammar are needed.
D 41- 54 Its organized and message are rather difficult to be followed. Arguments are only slightly relevant in relation to writer’s view. Main ideas and
supporting ideas rather trouble the reads. Language is rather unclear and has frequently errors of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, or grammar.
E 40 less Its organization and message are difficult to be followed. Arguments are not relevant or not
related to writers’ view. Main ideas and supporting ideas are not clearly stated. The language is not clear, has frequently serious errors of vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, or grammar.
(Leo, 2007: viii)
After knowing the result and the score of the students’ mastery
the percentage of these two variables by using the formula as follow:
P= the percentage F= the frequency
N= the number of students b. Data analysis
To calculate the data of the students, the writer uses SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solution) 16.0 windows program. This program is used to measure the tightness of relationship among the test result from the population that has two variants (bivariate).
In this research, the writer uses SPSS 16.0 windows program to find out the correlation score between students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance. The writer usesthis
program because faster when calculating the data. As state by Santoso (1999: 7) there are three minds superiority of this program rather than conventional calculating, they are:
45 2) Accuracy
SPSS 16.0 windows program can manufacture the data rapidly and more dependable than conventional. For instant, it can calculate the division process in the smallest decimal exactly in a second.
SPSS 16.0 windows program can process the data continually and do not have a limitation of fatigue except there is destruction in the machine/ metal fatigue.
In addition, to show the validity of deviation, the writer also uses product moment process formula as below:
rxy = ( )( )
√* ( ) +* ( ) +
rxy = is product moment correlation score between variable X and Y ( students’ mastery on gerund phrase and students’ writing performance)
∑ = is the total score of variable X (students’ mastery
on gerund phrase)
∑ = is the score of variable Y (students’ writing
1. Data of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase
The following table is the test result of gerund phrase of the respondent.
Data of Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase
2. Data of Students’ Writing Performance
Here is the data of respondents’ writing performance. Table 3.6
Data of Students’ Writing performance
21. 113-12-022 INM 76
22. 113-12-071 NU 71
23. 113-12-151 HAN 76
24. 113-12-072 IM 79
25. 113-12-080 SPT 79
26. 113-12-081 WRP 48
27. 113-12-104 AS 39
28. 113-12-122 BY 53
29. 113-12-016 AH 54
30. 113-12-052 LNH 54
31. 113-12-065 IMH 34
32. 113-12-077 MM 43
33. 113-12-113 MS 37
34. 113-12-114 NI 24
35. 113-12-117 RAD 39
36. 113-12-137 ESR 66
37. 113-12-159 NZN 76
38. 113-12-169 WDN 58
39. 113-12-170 AM 54
40. 113-12-134 NK 70
The data above are the result of students’ mastery on gerund phrase and students’ writing performance. Those data will
49 CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS
In this chapter, the writer presents and analyzes the data that have been done by the sixth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the academic year of 2014/2015. The data analyses are about two variables students’ mastery on gerund phrase (variable X) and their writing performance
(variable Y). Furthermore, the findings will be used to answer the objectives of the research which is explained in the chapter I. The objectives of the research are: 1. To know how far is students’ mastery on gerund phrase
2. To know the condition of students writing performance
3. To know there is an influence of students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance (to prove the hypothesis that there is a
correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing
performance). A. Data Analysis
1. Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase
The writer used test to obtain the score of students’ mastery on gerund phrase (variable x). In composing the test, the writer used both multiple choice test and short-answer test by scale of 10-100.
Furthermore, the writer will calculate the data to find out the percentage of students’ mastery on gerund phrase by using the
P= the percentage F= the frequency
N= the number of students
1. The total number of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase that having excellent qualification are 14 students. The percentage is as follow:
x 100% = 35%
2. The total number of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase that having good qualification are 12 students. The percentage is as follow:
x 100% = 30%
3. The total number of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase that having fair qualification are 5 students. The percentage is as follow:
4. The total number of the students’ mastery on gerund phrase that having poor qualification are 9 students. The percentage is as follow:
x 100% =22.5%
From the result of students’ mastery on gerund phrase
above, it can be seen the four level of mastery as follow: 80%- 100% = excellent
60%-79% = good 50%- 59% = fair
0- 49% = poor (Harris,1969:134)
Based on the result above, the highest percentage of students’ mastery on gerund phrase is 35% in excellent
qualification. It means that the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic year 2014/2015 have an excellent level in mastering the gerund phrase.
2. Students’ Writing Performance
Next step the writer will calculate the data to find out the percentage of students’ writing performance by using the formula:
P X 100%
P= the percentage F= the frequency
N= the number of students
1. The total number of the students’ writing performance that having excellent qualification are 0 students. The percentage is as follow:
x 100% = 0%
2. The total number of the students’ writing performance that having good qualification are 24 students. The percentage is as follow:
x 100% = 60%
3. The total number of the students’ writing performance that having fair qualification are 11 students. The percentage is as follow:
x 100% = 27.5%
4. The total number of the students’ writing performance that having poor qualification are 5 students. The percentage is as follow:
Based on the result above, the highest percentage of students’ writing performance is 60% in good qualification. It
means that the fifth semester students of English Department of STAIN Salatiga in the Academic year 2014/2015 have a good level in their writing performance.
3. Correlation between Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase and their Writing Performance
In this research, the writer uses program SPSS 16.0 windows to calculate the correlation between students’ mastery on gerund
phrase and their writing performance. As it have explained in chapter III, the writer uses this program because it is faster, accurately, and
The Accumulation Data of the Students’ Mastery on Gerund Phrase (variable X) and Their Writing
The result data correlation
Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Notes:
Person correlation : the score of coefficient correlation between variable
Sig. (2-tailed) : the significance test of coefficient correlation N : the number of sample
To analyze the significance correlation between students mastery on gerund phrase toward their writing performance, the writer uses the hypothesis formula as follow:
Ho = there is no a significant correlation between variable x (gerund phrase) and variable y (writing performance) Hi = there is a significant correlation between variable x (gerund
phrase) and variable y (writing performance) Correlations
Variable x Pearson Correlation 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .035
N 40 40
Variable y Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .035
To analyze the statistical hypothesis of the research, the writer puts criteria as follow:
If r-calculation ≥ r- table, Ho is rejected If r-calculation ≤ r- table, Ho is accepted
From the result on the SPSS 16.0 windows program above, the score correlation is 0.334 and the level of coefficient significance correlation is 0.35. Where r- calculation= 0.334 ≥ r table=0.312. It means that the correlation between students’ mastery on gerund
phrase toward their writing performance is significant by significance correlation is 0.05 or 5%.
From the explanation above, the writer conclude that there is significant correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase toward students’ writing performance but the level significance is low.
Besides using SPSS 16.0 windows program the writer uses as well as conventional calculation to show the validity of deviation. The data will be calculated by using correlation product moment formula. The formula as follow:
rxy = ( )( )
√* ( ) +* ( ) +
∑ = is the total score of variable X (students’ mastery on gerund
∑ = is the score of variable Y (students’ writing performance)
∑ =is the total score of variable X and Y (students’ mastery on
gerund phrase and students’ writing performance) N = is the number of students
From the tabulation above, indicate the value: ∑ =2651
∑ =2496 ∑ =192339
∑ =162746 ∑ =169028
Then, those data is calculated as follows:
61 product moment correlation have similar score that are 0,334.
From the interpretation of r value, 0,334 is existing between 0, 20 – 0, 40. It indicates that there is correlation between students’ mastery on gerund phrase and the students’ writing performance, but the correlations are weak. The interpretation of r
62 B. Discussion
Gerund phrase is verb adds –ing form and a complement that have functioned as noun in the sentence. We know the course of gerund phrase is not only in the structure subject, but also can be applied in the writing subject. It can be applied in writing skill to write some article, an essay, short story, etc, that related with students’ writing performance. As we know that one of
the indicator of students writing performance is student can apply Standard English conventions in their writing process. However, some students are rarely applied on gerund phrase in their writing process. This is caused by some students who lack on mastering gerund phrase in combining gerund+ noun, gerund+ prepositional phrase, or gerund+ noun+ prepositional phrase.
For the reason above, mastery on gerund phrase is one important thing for the students, especially for university students. By mastery on gerund phrase, the students are more creative in applying gerund phrase in their writing; it can make their writing will be better and more varied than they do not mastery on gerund phrase.
From the table of students’ mastery on gerund phrase score, it is
shown that the highest score is 94 and the lowest score is 24 by interval 10-100. Beside that, the score of students writing performance, the highest score is 79 and the lowest score is 24.
The first discussion in this graduating paper is how far is students’