PASTICHE OF CINDERELLA IN KIERA CASS’THE SELECTION: A
Submitted as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Sarjana Degree of English Department Faculty of Arts and Humanities State Islamic University Sunan
Lucia Dwi Wulandari Reg. Number: A33213064
FACULTY OF ARTS AND HUMANITIES
PASTICHE OF CINDERELLA IN KIERA CASS’THE SELECTION: A
Submitted as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Sarjana Degree of English Department Faculty of Letters and Humanities State Islamic
University Sunan Ampel Surabaya
Itsna Syahadatud Dinuriyah, M.A NIP: 197604122011012003
Lucia Dwi Wulandari Reg. Number: A33213064
FACULTY OF ARTS AND HUMANITIES
This thesis contains materials which have been accepted for the award of Sarjana degree of English Department Faculty of Letters and Humanities UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya. And to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by other person except where due reference is made in the text of the thesis.
Surabaya, July 5, 2017 Writer
THESIS ADVISOR’S APPROVAL PAGE
This thesis written by Lucia Dwi Wulandari, entitled Pastiche of Cinderella in Kiera Cass’ The Selection: A Postmodern Study has been approved by the
Advisor to fulfill the requirement of Strata 1 Degree of English Department, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, State Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya.
Surabaya, July 6, 2017 Thesis Advisor
Itsna Syahadatud Dinuriyah, M.A NIP: 197604122011012003
Dr. Mohammad Kurjum, M.Ag NIP: 196906152007011051
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY ARTS AND HUMANITIES
THESIS EXAMINER’S APPROVAL PAGE
This thesis has been approved and accepted by the Board of Examiners, English Department, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, State Islamic University
Sunan Ampel Surabaya, July 05, 2017.
The Dean of Faculty of Arts and Humanities
(Dr. H. Imam Ghazali, M.A) NIP. 196002121990031002
The Board of Examiners are:
Head of Examination Examiner II
(Itsna Syahadatud Dinuriyah, M.A) (Sufi Ikrima Sa’adah, M. Hum) NIP.197604122011012003 NUP: 201603318
Examiner III Examiner IV
Wulandari, Lucia Dwi. 2017. Pastiche of Cinderella in Kiera Cass’ The
Selection: A Postmodern Study. Thesis. English Department. Faculty of
Letters and Humanities. States Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya. 2017
The Advisor: Itsna Syahadatud Dinuriyah, M.A
This thesis aims to examine The Selection as a pastiche or imitation of Cinderella as the older work. It focuses on the narrative of The Selection novel as the object of the study. In analyzing the object of the study, this thesis uses Fredric Jameson’s pastiche of postmodernism. The result shows the evidences of The Selection as a postmodern literature, including the mixing genres, portrayal of consumer society, and depthlessness through the character. Besides, there are some repetition aspects which The Selection imitates from Cinderella’s story. They are the festival or competition of girls winning prince’s heart, female character as main character, and the story sets in monarch system. This research also shows some deviation elements
of The Selection by increasing the idea of the story such as different personality of
both main characters, the reality television show, war theme, fashion element, and the last is changing the form from short story to the novel. From the result mentioned, it can be concluded that The Selection is a pastiche of Cinderella in the way it emphasizes the postmodern characteristics in the novel, and also the repetition aspects that contains main ideas of the older work. And the last is this research also mentions some elements of deviation so it presents a new mode or new style of writing.
Wulandari, Lucia Dwi. 2017. Pastiche of Cinderella in Kiera Cass’ The
Selection: A Postmodern Study. Tesis. Program Studi Sastra Inggris.
Fakultas Sastra dan Humaniora. Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya. 2017
The Advisor: Itsna Syahadatud Dinuriyah, M.A
Tesis ini bertujuan untuk menguji bahwa novel The Selection adalah pastiche atau imitasi dari Cinderella sebagai karya sebelumnya. Tesis ini juga berfokus pada teks naratif dari novel sebagai objek penelitian. Dalam menganalisa objek studi, thesis ini menggunakan teori dari Fredric Jameson yaitu pastiche. Hasil analisa menunjukkan beberapa bukti dari novel The Selection sebagai karya sastra postmodern, seperti campuran beberapa genre, penggambaran masyarakat consumer, ketidak-dalaman dari sebuah karakter. Selain itu, terdapat beberapa aspek pengulangan yang The Selection ambil dari cerita di Cinderella, seperti festival atau kompetisi para wanita dalam memenangkan hati pangeran, pemeran utama yang diperankan oleh karakter wanita, dan setting cerita yang berlatar belakang kerajaan. Penelitian ini juga menunjukkan adanya elemen-elemen penyimpangan pada novel The Selection dengan megembangkan ide cerita seperti kepribadian yang berbeda antara dua karakter utama tersebut, pertunjukan televise, tema perang, elemen fashion atau mode berpakaian, dan yang terakhir adalah perubahan bentuk cerita pendek ke novel. Dari hasil tersebut, dapat disimpulkan bahwa novel The Selection adalah pastiche atau imitasi dari Cinderella dengan menekankan beberapa karakteristik dari karya posmodernisme yang ada pada novel dan juga aspek pengulangan yang mengandung ide utama dari karya sebelumnya. Dan yang terakhir, penelitian ini memasukkan beberapa elemen penyimpangan sehingga novel ini menyajikan mode dan gaya penulisan yang lebih baru.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Inside Cover Page ……….………...i
Inside Title Page ……….ii
Declaration Page ………....iii
Thesis Advisor’s Approval Page………….………iv
Thesis Examiner’s Approval Page……….………..v
Dedication Page ………vii
Table of Contents ……….………..ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of Study ………1
1.2. Statement of Problem ………...7
1.3. Objective of Study ………8
1.4. Significance of Study ………...…8
1.5. Scope and Limitation ………...9
1.6. Method of Study ………..9
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1.Theoretical Framework ………13
2.3. Review of Related Literature ………….…….……….22
CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS 3.1. Pastiche of Postmodernism of The Selection………...….26
3.1.1.Postmodern Characteristics of The Selection..………...………...26
3.1.2. Repetition Aspects ………..35
3.2.Elements of Deviation ……….……...………41
CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION ………..51
WORK CITED BOOKS CITED …….………..53
WEB CITED ………55 APPENDIX SYNOPSIS OF THE SELECTION (2012) ………...…56
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of Study
In literature, society has the important aspect in inspiring a literary work. Literature cannot be separated from the society because it is a reflection of the human life. According to Wellek and Warren, literature is a representation of life. It reflects the life itself, or, in other words, it is life, which literature imitates or mirrors; and it can say that the subject matter of literature is the manifold experiences of human beings and society (89). Moreover, literature is concerned with social life and circumstance. Thus, the depiction of social life can be seen from literary work itself. As Wellek and Warren states that literature is regarded as the expression or
representation of human life through the medium of social creation viz language (94). So, the literary work itself is a representation of human action and life through
On the one hand, the human life and condition can develop within the changing of time as same as literature. The literary work itself has its own characteristics depend on the age or era. Indeed, the social situation now has changed, it has been remarked that now is postmodern era. Here, postmodernism can be implied or
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what is allegedly happening to modernism. So, if modernism is a culture of modern age (or modernity), then postmodernism has something to do with the breaking apart of modernism (27). It is same with Fredric Jameson, he claims that the origins of
postmodernism are found in the confrontation of “The formerly oppositional modern
movement as a set of dead classics (4). Postmodernism believes in the new style and assume an earlier era, modernism, as an old era. So, postmodernism rejects the modern movement which reflects the old belief.
However, in order to comprehend the whole understanding of the concept of postmodernism, people have to understand everything from its history as well. As according to Roberts in his book Fredric Jameson, Jameson believes it is history that provides the basis of judging interpretation (50). Therefore, people will be aware of what is dominating in today’s culture, then they need to have a deep sense of past, by meant from the history. In the postmodern era, the historical past is represented, not through its content but through glossy stylistic means, conveying ‘pastness’ by the glossy qualities of the image (Jameson 75). Briefly, the past could be the benchmark of the emergence of a new style in the present.
Together with postmodernism, postmodern literature also rejects the idea of modern literature. Postmodern literature concerns on new concept of thought in reflection from its literary work based on nowadays social life and condition.
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universal truth or common experience are rejected by postmodern author. Despite the ideas of postmodern literature is quite different from modern literature, both of them are having same focus. As in journal titled Common Themes and Techniques of
Postmodern Literature of Shakespeare by Sharma and Chaudhary, both modern and
postmodern literature explore fragmentariness in narrative and character construction (190). Both of them focus on the text or narrative and how the character is
One of the literary works in postmodern era is Kiera Cass’ The Selection. Kiera Cass becomes a number one of New York Times bestselling author of The Selection (as cited from Amazon.com). The novel sets in the futuristic world soon after World War IV happened. The country is named Ilea where the world is divided up into eight castes based on one's social and economic status. Whereas a number represents their level of caste, One, Two, Three, and Four as the four highest levels of caste for the royal family, bourgeoisie people who own the factory, etc., and the Five, Six, Seven,
and Eight as the four lowest or bottom levels of caste represent the working class
based on their job or profession such entertainer, labour class, etc. This novel tells about America Singer as main character who enters the Selection to become a Prince
Maxon’s bride. Nevertheless, she already has her prohibited love with Aspen, a man
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In addition, The Selection combines many genres, from young-adult genre, romance, and also dystopian genre. Meanwhile, one of the genres in this novel is dystopia. Dystopia means anything which is bad, it is the depiction of messy world included the society. As in Julia Gerhard thesis, Walsh stated that if utopia is social planning that produces good results, dystopia is most often social planning that
backfires and slides into nightmare (14). It is same with the explanation of dystopia in
Wilson’s book, it describes that dystopia involves utopia’s opposite: a nightmare, the
ultimate flawed world, or “a society worse than the existing one,” such as Brave New
World and 1984 (1). Dystopia is the opposite of utopia where new world is created in bad condition or even the society is frightening. Furthermore, it reflects to the social
background in Kiera Cass’The Selection that the country uses the system of
monarchy where the king is the most powerful one in the country while some people there are dehumanized.
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not want to marry Prince Maxon, but she participates it only for her family. Then, she makes a deal with the Prince of Maxon to let her stay in Palace, because her families need to be provided with money.
From the story of The Selection (2012), it tends to be similar to the previous work in nineteenth century, Cinderella (1812). Hence, this research will use postmodern pastiche because pastiche is still connected with the postmodern literature. Another characteristic of postmodern literature is the questioning of distinctions between high and low culture through the use of pastiche, the
combination of subject and genre is not previously deemed fit for literature (Jameson, 112). So, pastiche presents the combination of previous work, or an imitation also.
Jameson stated that pastiche involves the imitation or the mimicry of other styles and particularly of the mannerisms and stylistic twitches of other styles. Pastiche is, like parody, the imitation of a peculiar or unique style, the wearing of a stylistic mask, speech in a dead language: but it is a neutral practice of such mimicry, without parody's ulterior motive, without the satirical impulse, without laughter (5). Jameson believes that pastiche is like a parody. In this case, parody tends to be more playful satire or irony.
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critique of them whether by irony or satire, whereas pastiche emphasizes distance and difference between work in past with the present whereas pastiche imitates a work in order to make use of its original style. According to Nicol, favors bricolage or
pastiche to original production, the mixing of styles and genres, and the juxtaposition
of ‘low’ with high culture. Where modernism is sincere or earnest, postmodernism is
playful and ironic (2). As the characteristic of pastiche, that it is a kind of combining work in past with the present style, and not only to combine, it also means to imitate.
Jameson notes, whereby instead of creating our own unique styles it looks to the past and imitate old, dead styles through pastiche (74). Pastiche refers to imitating from multiple elements of the previous literary work and make it into new style. In this case, same with Sharma and Chaudhary stated, pastiche can be a compositional techniques in mixing multiple genres to create a unique narrative or to comment the condition in postmodernity (194). It means postmodern pastiche still include the literary work in past, that works of literature still refer to each other.
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events. Unfortunately, Cinderella does not have any chance because her stepmother forbids her to attend to the party. Then, something magical happens, Cinderella turns into a pretty girl with nice dress and shoes. She can go to the kingdom, and the Prince chooses her to become his wife.
Based on the previous explanation, it can be suggested that The Selection can
be studied through Jameson’s postmodern pastiche. This research will determine to
what extent The Selection imitates Cinderella in order to make a new style. Thus, this research will focus on the narrative of the novel of Kierra Cass’The Selection, and also use Grimm’s Fairy Tale Cinderella as a benchmark in comparing and
understanding the people’s common experience in seeking both stories.
1.2. Statement of Problem
From the background, this research is conducted to answer some problems formulated as following questions:
1. To what extent does The Selection comply with pastiche theory of postmodernism by Fredric Jameson?
2. How does the The Selection deviate from the previous work, The Cinderella?
1.3. Objective of Study
Based on the previous research problems, this research is aimed:
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2. To examine the story of The Selection novel which is portrayed as a representation to the older work, Cinderella in Grimm’s Fairy Tale.
1.4. Significance of Study
The significance of this study are, firstly, this research, hopefully gives a significant knowledge about postmodernism, especially pastiche theory of
postmodernism by Fredric Jameson. Secondly, this research is hoped to all readers to understand how the ideas of The Selection novel by Kiera Cass is imitated from
Cinderella as older or the previous work. Thus, this research is conducted to show
that a text may be related with other past text, especially in nowadays literature which deals with ideas in past. Thirdly, this research is conducted to show that man’s idea is probably derived from history or past. So, history or past itself greatly affects us in discovery the ideas. The last, this research may use as reference to the next researcher who will conduct the similar research in the future by using different object.
1.5. Scope and Limitation
This research will deal with pastiche theory of postmodernism by Fredric Jameson which will be applied to the novel of The Selection by Kiera Cass. This research tends to focus on the novel, The Selection, and its narrative. It can be
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that represent new mode or style of Cinderella as main character in Cinderella or it can be analyzed from other aspects as long as how the work of The Selection imitates the original work of Cinderella in order to show the idea which is portrayed in the novel reflects to the original work.
Therefore, the research restricts to the interest of getting understanding from pastiche theory of postmodernism by Fredric Jameson by using Kiera Cass’The
Selection and Grimm’s Fairy Tale of Cinderella as new style of writing and as the
1.6. Method of The Study 1. Data Source
This research will use two sources of data: primary and secondary sources. The primary sources as the ordinary source are two novels. As according to Pugh, the
primary source comprises the artistic works that serve as the subject of one’s research
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The primary data will be taken from Kiera Cass novel, The Selection and
Cinderella. Whereas the secondary data will be contained from the text of certain
web, article, e-book, paperback or another sources which relate to the topic the researcher will deliver.
2. Type of Research
This research will use library-based. Books, journals, thesis, magazines, online resources are needed by researcher in collecting data. This research will use
qualitative method which according to Maxwel, it is the activity of collecting and analyzing data, developing and modifying theory, elaborating or refocusing the research questions, and identifying and addressing validity threats are usually all going on more or less simultaneously, each influencing all of the others (2). This research will describe for the analysis because it will use descriptive analysis also. 3. Data Collection
The data will be collected through following steps:
1) Reading the primary sources (Kiera Cass’ The Selection (2012) and Grimm’s
Cinderella (1812)) of the research.
2) Collecting the quotes from primary source which prove that The Selection is a postmodern literature and the imitation of previous writing, Cinderella, and also include the element of deviation, and then taking a note in order to increase the understanding from both novels.
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which relates to the researcher purpose of analysis. 4. Data Analysis
The data of the research will be analyzed through literary research. Data collected from the text of Kiera Cass’ The Selection (2012) and Grimm’s Cinderella
(1812) as the primary sources or other sources which relate to the novel as the
secondary source that will be determined as the main purpose of the analysis. Then, the data of the novels will be analyzed from the perspective of Jameson in
postmodern pastiche. The last, conclusion of the research will be arranged after applying the theory and data which get from the data sources.
1.7. Definition of Key Terms
This research will examine some related clues to help the readers to understand the topic and problem discussed in this thesis. The clues are formulated in the form of key term that will be defined clearly. Those related key terms would be in the
1. Cinderella : a folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression or triumphant reward (Zipes 444). In the Cinderella tale, the
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mother figure dominates the story until that time (Ulanov 40).
2. Narrative : a fundamental to communication and provide structure for human experience and influence people to share common explanations and understandings (Walter 58).
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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Theoretical Framework
In this chapter, this research aims to define more about the theory that is used to analyze the novels. Concerning to the previous explanation in the chapter I, as stated in background of study and statements of the problem, this research uses the theory of pastiche by Fredric Jameson. Whereas pastiche itself is one of postmodern study, so it tends to be viewed from the postmodern perspective in analyzing the novels.
Furthermore, this research uses two novels to analyze: The Selection by Kiera Cass and also Cinderella by Grimm’s brother. In addition, this research observes how The
Selection imitates the previous work, Cinderella, and how it complies with the
pastiche theory of postmodernism. 2.1.1.Postmodernism
As a movement, the term postmodern was firstly used in the late of nineteenth
century. Likewise O’Donnell stated, the term ‘postmodernism’ was first used by artist
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century, and postmodernity as after that (3). It indicates that modernism is used to denote the Enlightenment era, while postmodern comes after the modernism. Furthermore, Jameson believes that postmodernism merely means to cultural
dominant than just a style. “What has happened is that aesthetic production today, has
become integrated into commodity production generally,” and one must now “grasp
‘postmodernism’ not as a style, but rather as a cultural dominant” (4). It means that
the term ‘postmodernism’ is so widespread. Indeed, cultural dominant becomes
widespread when it is influential within a social or political entity. Together with this, Featherstone also states that Jameson uses postmodernism to refer to culture in the broader sense and talks about postmodernism as a cultural logic, or cultural dominant, which leads to the transformation of the cultural sphere in contemporary society (8).
On the other hand, postmodernism sometimes refers to the condition in certain era. Basically, postmodernism may be understood as the arts and theories that reflect and represent the condition of postmodernity (Fokkema 14). Here, postmodernism includes the condition that change people’s perspective and perception. Whereas the differences between postmodernism and postmodernity is that postmodernism refers to the idea and philosophical value, while postmodernity as the era or historical period when the social, cultural and new trend has created. Grenz states,
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living, the time when the postmodern outlook increasingly shapes our society. While postmodernity is the era in which postmodern ideas, attitudes, and values reign when postmodernism molds culture (12). Indeed, Jameson marks that postmodernism deals with new idea which has been emerged within the last few years. As Jameson stated that, the last few years have been marked by an inverted millenarianism, in which promotions of the future, catastrophic or redemptive, have been replaced by sense of
the end of this or that…taken together, all of these perhaps constitute what is
increasingly called ‘postmodernism’” (1). All these concepts are transformed and all
things now has changed, that a new theme is presented in our society now which is replaced by postmodernism. Thus, in this case, postmodernism directs to
postmodernity as time or era when all of nowadays concepts of idea and principle are emerged.
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historiography, theology, etc. Postmodernism believes nothing is based on logical reasoning. Foucault notes that postmodernity regards the changing world as a complex, confusing and unclear and disputes modern perspectives of objective universal truths (Arthur 17). Nothing is framed within an absolute or universal truth. It is believed that truth is created rather than discovered.
In addition, the postmodern literature denotes a skepticism associated with the belief of reason to identify the truth. Skepticism means doubt towards truth, belief or any idea that generally questioning. As in journal titled Samuel Beckett’sWaiting for
Godot: A Postmodernist Study by Hooti & Torkamaneh, it is mentioned that
postmodernism is a comprehensive concept which has been challenged and argued over in so many scientific, literary, philosophical, cultural fields. Some critics regard it as originating in architecture. Based on natural attributes, it cannot be defined as stable and fixed (41). Related with this, the paradox of the postmodern literature incredulity towards reality is, that it cannot deny the reality of its incredulity. The implied position is that it advocates an epistemic foundation of incredulity in its skepticism over reality (Ozumba 18). Here, in postmodern literature, skepticism shows the reaction toward the truth encompassing a broad range of ideas. So, postmodern literature is defined by attitude of skepticism and characterized by uncertainty.
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style has collapsed in postmodernism, and that “the producers of culture have
nowhere to turn but to the past: the imitation of dead styles, speech through all the masks and voices stored up in the imaginary museum of a now global culture” (17). It makes postmodern literature intentionally loss the previous idea by bringing a new imaginary of nowadays culture. Despite, a literary work should not only include past but also the relevance to the present. Hutcheon argues that postmodernism is a fundamentally contradictory enterprise: its art forms (and its theory) use and abuse, install and then subvert convention in parodic ways, self-consciously pointing both to their own inherent paradoxes and provisionality and, of course, to
their critical or ironic re-reading of the art of the past (180). In this case, postmodern literature asserts that text may be related with some other past texts.
In addition, postmodernism also emphasizes the diversity of new styles and also its irony. Jecnks asserts that postmodernism is fundamentally the eclectic mixture of any tradition with that of the immediate past; it is both the continuation of Modernism and its transcendence. Its best works are characteristically doubly-coded and ironic, making a feature of the wide choice, conflict and discontinuity of traditions, because the heterogeneity most clearly captures our pluralism (7). The concept of
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mentioned by Rezaei in his journal, that postmodern literary work does not pretend to be new and original, but uses the old literary forms, genres, and kinds of literature and art, kitsch, quotation, allusion and other means to recontextualize their meaning in a different linguistic and cultural contexts to show a difference between the past and present as well as between the past and present forms of representation (18). Here, the vision of past and present is presented in the work of postmodern literature when new work can be taken from the old form of past work. As Jameson has claimed that the historical novel can no longer represent the historical past; it can
only “represent” our ideas and stereotypes about the past (24). In this way, Jameson
believes that difference between work in past and the present is tends to represent the different concept of ideas, and present our stereotype about the past.
Despite of it, there are many features in postmodern criticism. Featherstone mentions some features such the effacement of the boundary between art and everyday life; the collapse of the hierarchal distinction between high and
mass/popular culture; a stylistic promiscuity favouring eclecticism and the mixing of codes; parody, pastiche, irony, playfulness and the celebration of the surface
‘depthlessness’ of culture; the decline of the originality/genius of the artistic
producer; and the assumption that art can only be repetition (7). So, one of
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of post-modernism” (10). It clearly stated that pastiche also one of the elements that we can see in the postmodern phenomenon.
One of the most significant features or practices in postmodernism today is pastiche (Jameson 4). Pastiche is one of the main features of postmodernism.
According to Jameson, pastiche has overtaken parody in the twentieth century. It has become a major characteristic of postmodernism and an eclectic culture of the
simulacrum and the copy (as cited from http://intertextuality.webs.com/pastiche.htm). By means, nowadays era is characterized by imitation and new style of the works.
Pastiche can be meant imitates, but not copy. As Hoesterey states, the word "pastiche" first occurred and defined in 1677, it means "ni originaux, ni copies" which means neither original, nor copy (5). As in journal of Common Themes and
Techniques of Postmodern Literature of Shakespeare byRamen Sharma and Dr.
Preety Chaudhary, pastiche can be a combination of multiple genres to create a unique narrative or to comment on situations in postmodernity (194). Pastiche means to combine, or paste multiple elements which means combine or mix different styles or genres in order to make a new writing. It implies that a similarity of postmodern literary works consist of different styles, genres in which having an important role in the composition of the book.
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unique, idiosyncratic style, the wearing of a linguistic mask, speech in a dead
language. But it is a neutral practice of such mimicry, without any of parody's ulterior motives, amputated of the satiric impulse, devoid of laughter" (17). Jameson
describes pastiche similar with parody in the case of its imitation. Both pastiche and parody involve the imitation or, better still, the mimicry of other styles and
particularly of the mannerisms and stylistic twitches of other (Jameson 4). Jameson adds that pastiche is blank parody, parody that has lost its sense of humor: pastiche is to parody what that curious thing, the modern practice of a kind of blank irony, is to what Wayne Booth calls the stable and comic ironies of, say, the 18th century (Jameson 657). It indicates that pastiche is merely less in the sense of humor, irony, satire or a mock.
However, parody and pastiche are key attribute of postmodern culture, whether in literature, film, fashion or design. A parody is a work created to mock or make fun of an original work and also as irony. As in A Theory of Parody, Linda Hutcheon defines parody as "imitation with critical ironic distance, whose irony can be cut both ways," ranging from "scornful ridicule to reverential homage" (37). Essentially, both of pastiche and parody are different. The differentiation is that parody gives critical irony, being humorous or satirical, merely fun or mock the previous work or even jocular, but it also presents the respectability to the previous work. Whereas pastiche tends to imitate the previous work and combine it with other genres or styles.
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Pastiche is prominent in popular culture. Indeed, the Star Wars films by George Lucas are pastiches of 1930s science fiction serials like Flash Gordon (as cited from https://fashion-trends.knoji.com/). As Jameson states in his discussion of nostalgia in postmodernism and pastiche, Fredric Jameson presents Star Wars (1977) as a
nostalgia film. Star Wars reinvents this experience in the form of pastiche: that is, there is no longer any point to a parody of such serials since they are long extinct (Barton & Lampley 54). Here, Jameson gives a sample that a popular work such as
Star Wars is often considered and described into a pastiche.
Pastiche is applied when the work is passing the previous work from its style or mode. Jameson, notes a shift in private styles, whereby instead of creating our own unique styles we look to the past and imitate old, dead styles through pastiche
(Jameson 74). Moreover, its style from the past is innovated in postmodern literature. As in thesis of David Leddy, titled The Corbicula Cycle: Postmodernism and Identity
in On The Edge, Through The Night And In The Shade, Jameson discusses
postmodern culture as being characterised by the cannibalisation of styles from the past and present, by the loss of authentic artistic style in favour of pastiche, and by the breakdown of firm distinctions between high and low culture. Because of that, pastiche would deal with the loss of personal identity, and it also makes a
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expand the past in the present" (172). In pastiche, one work may be categorized as high art, while another one is the low art.
So, pastiche tends to create the new form by combining some styles or genres in one work. Though pastiche imitates the previous form, it does not mean that
historical past is represented, indeed it can only represent the ideas about the past. Thus, in this one of the postmodern feature, pastiche does not pretend to be new or even original, but uses some old genres, or style in order to show the difference between the past and present as well.
From the previous explanation of Fredric Jameson theory of pastiche, it clearly describes how pastiche deals with a literary work itself. Whereas pastiche is on of features in postmodern study. While we know that postmodern tries to reject the old idea or belief. In other hand, pastiche is different from the parody by Linda Hutcheon. Pastiche gives a notion that it builds with combination of styles or even genres. This method tries to reveal that what author has written is an imitation of the previous work that firstly existed, even though when it is seen from the story line or the characters instead.
2.2. Review of Related Literature
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several studies which conducted using pastiche as its literary criticism and theory, but nothing in which used The Selection as a subject of its analysis. There are some similar studies about pastiche which is applied in different novel. Whereas, there are also studies which conducted using novel The Selection, but none of them which is using pastiche as a theory. These studies which relate to this research are conducted within the last few years.
The first is the study from Islamic Azad University wrote by Maedeh Zare’e (2016) with tittle: Pastiche in Paul Auster’s The New York Trilogy. This research described the three novels comprising the trilogy City of Glass, Ghosts, and The
Locked Room which retelling the same story. According to researcher, Quinn, Paul
Auster as the author of mystery novels does not have any tangible information about real crime. Therefore, his stories are not real detective ones but kinds of imitation of this genre on which he has no sufficient information. That an imitation in the
detective genre is used by Auster in writing of the whole novel The New York Trilogy
(2015). It was described as a postmodern detective story in which Auster borrows
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For the novel, The Selection also had been analyzed by I. A. Ika Sarita Dewi from Udayana University in 2016 titled Conflict and Psychological Aspects of
America Singer in the Novel The Selection. This research focused on the conflict and
psychological character of America Singer that applied the theories of Practical
Psychology by Karl S. Bernhart and the theory of conflict by Gail and Myers. This
present study showed that America Singer is introvert and phlegmatic one. It proved by how she can keep something that happens in her life secret and always resolves the problem by herself.
The next research is from Padjajaran University, by Nisa Faridah titled Kewajaran/Naturalness Terjemahan Novel The Selection Karya Kiera Cass
(Naturalness in the Translating Novel of The Selection by Kiera Cass). This study
aimed to determine the application of adjusment in the novel so that the translation remains acceptable and natural to the novel, The Selection. This study used the theory of naturalness proposed by Peter Newmark, that the levels of naturalness are
categorized. These categories include word order, collocation and cognate words in sentences with informal and colloquial styles affect the casual language that used in novel and translation. Based on this study, the research is concluded that the
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Whereas the translation of the novel achieve the natural translation because it follows the rule of grammatical in the target language.
Toward the explanation about the theory and previous studies that have
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PASTICHE OF CINDERELLA IN KIERA CASS’THE SELECTION: A
This section contains the analysis that explain the issue stated in the statements of problem in the first chapter. The analysis will be supported by the relevant data from primary and secondary sources as mentioned in method of the study. This analysis is divided into two issues: the first is that general review of both works, The Selection and Cinderella. Whereas second issue is postmodern pastiche of
The Selection including postmodernism of The Selection, repetition aspects and The
Selection as a new style of Cinderella.
3.1. Pastiche of Postmodernism of The Selection
3.1.1.Postmodern Characteristics of The Selection
The Selection is a popular novel which published in 2012. It is considered as a
postmodern literature that has some characteristics. The fact that The Selection is one of postmodern work is proved by some elements.
A. Portrayal of Consumer Society
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postmodernity people are inundated with information, technology has become a central focus in many lives, for example, Don DeLillo's White Noise presents characters who are bombarded with a "white noise" of television, product brand names, and clichés. In this case, The Selection also presents postmodern characteristic that portrays a consumer society in which they always watch the television show.
It was Friday, so the Ilea Capital Report would be on at eight. We weren’t exactly obligated to watch, but it was unwise to miss it. Even Eight─the homeless, the wandering─would find a store or a church where they could see
the Report. And with the Selection coming up, the Report was more than a
semi-requirement. Everyone wanted to know what was happening in that department (Cass 38).
Illea Capital Reportis a television show that focuses on Kingdom’s life that all
of the castes always watch. It shows that people of Illea is consumer society whose the media information is important for them. It indicates that The Selection is a representatives of postmodern work in term of society who live in headway of technology and media industry.
B. Depthlessness through Character
Other characteristic is depthlessness through the character. Postmodern works create characters who are not rebellious as modern ones, but they try to reach a certain level of awareness through multi-perspectivism (Kayhan 74). So they
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“But before we get to that, I’d like to announce a new project I am working on that is of great importance to me. Having met these ladies, I’ve been exposed to the wide world outside our palace, a world that I rarely get to see. I’ve been told
of its remarkable goodness and made aware of its unimaginable darkness.
Through speaking to these women, I’ve embraced the importance of the masses
outside these walls. I have been woken to the suffering of some of our lower castes, and I intend to do something about it.” (Cass 241)
It indicates that America has reached her level of awareness. That she tends to be a person who intolerant with caste system which the lower castes much feel suffer than upper castes. So, it makes America becomes person who is different. That at first time, she is totally does not care about the caste system, while then she is aware of that.
C. Mixing Genre
Other characteristic of postmodern literature is the blurring or mixing genres. According to Nicol, postmodernist art “favors bricolage or pastiche to original production, the mixing of styles and genres, and the juxtaposition of ‘low’ with high culture. Where modernism is sincere or earnest, postmodernism is playful and ironic” (2). Postmodern literature use the blurring or the mixing of genres as its narrative technique or as its systematic building.
In Cinderella, it presents the utopian fairy tale in its story. It is portrayed the
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Then the bird threw down a dress of gold and silver, and a pair of slippers embroidered with silk and silver. And in all haste she put on the dress and went to the festival. But her step-mother and sisters did not know her, and thought she must be a foreign Princess, she looked so beautiful in her golden dress. Of Cinderella they never thought at all, and supposed that she was sitting at home, and picking the lentils out of the ashes (Grimm 3)
Thus, utopia in Cinderella means any beautiful place or thing that can happen in the world of the characters live. This is supported by Claeys that claims, if
romance is Cinderella, then utopia is a fairy godmother not just to the heroine but to the whole world (154). Cinderella introduces its utopian world where the place she lives is so wonderful. She gets a beautiful dress by magic, so it can finish her
problem. In addition, she lives in happiness ever after with the prince that also proves the utopian fiction of the story.
And when her wedding with the Prince was appointed to be held the false sisters came, hoping to curry favor, and to take part in the festivities (Grimm 6)
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poorest people who do not have means of production or any land such as artist, servant, farmer, or factory worker.
It wasn’t that our situation was so precarious that we were living in fear of
survival or anything. We weren’t destitute. But I guess we weren’t that far off
Our caste was just three away from the bottom. We were artists. And artists and classical musicians were only three steps up from dirt. Literally. Our money was stretched as tight as a high wire, and our income was highly dependent on the changing seasons (Cass 2-3).
As quotation mentioned, the caste of main character is a Five, caste of the artists. Moreover, this caste is only three steps from the bottom and includes to the lower caste. Besides that, her secret love, Aspen, is a Six indicates a servant that must be live invinsible, means that he lives not to be seen and hard to marry with girl from upper caste. In addition the suffering is also portrayed when people in the lower castes like Sixes and Sevens get terrible education, indeed Eights do not get any education instead. Because Five, Six, Seven, Eight represent the lower class, therefore, The Selection portrays injustice of social condition in the country of Ilea.
We were quiet for a moment. I hoped he was taking my words to heart,
realizing that if he didn’t slow down, he’d wear himself out. It wasn’t anything new for a Six, Seven, or Eight to just die of exhaustion. I couldn’t bear that. I
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Different caste also has different profession because the people in lowest castes are often being suffered and hunger. As it is classified into the genre of dystopian fiction is supported by the quotation (as cited from www.medium.com) that the only aspect of Illea that fits the dystopia genre is taking suppression of women into law.
It’s quite obvious that women are valued for only how they can serve their families or
their marriage prospects. In that case, in Illea, a female who gets married, they will take the caste of their husband.
Aspen was a Six. Sixes were servants and only a step up from Sevens in that they were better educated and trained for indoor work. Aspen was smarter than anyone knew and devastatingly handsome, but it was atypical for a woman to marry down. A man from a lower caste could ask for your hand, but it was rare to get a yes. And when anyone married into a different caste, they had to fill out paperwork and wait for something like ninety days before any of the other legal
things you needed could be done. I’d heard more than one person say it was to
give people a chance to change their minds (Cass 15).
So if the caste of a man is lower than woman, the woman will move to the lower caste as the caste of her husband. That is the depiction of dystopian world which indicates The Selection as dystopian genre. The Selection deviates from the older work by adding a sense of awareness of the story around social message or its moral value. Moreover, the social condition in The Selection is clearly depicted and valued than Cinderella which focuses on only to the own self.
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young country rises, named Illea which is the United States several hundred years to the future.
“Yes. The American State of China had the appearance of its original country,
but was merely a facade. The Chinese were pulling strings behind the scenes, influencing any major political happenings, and steering legislation in their
Silvia nodded. “And that led to the founding of the country. The alliances the
ASC acquired had formed a united front, and the United States’s reputation was so damaged, no one wanted to readopt that name. So a new nation was formed
under Gregory Illéa’s name and leadership. He saved this country.” (Cass 209
It indicates that one of the genre of The Selection is speculative fiction. As Thomas notes from Atwood, that speculative fiction depicts "in another time, in another dimension, through a doorway into the spirit world, or on the other side of the threshold that divides the known form the unknown" (8). So, speculative fiction commonly sets in another dimension, means an alternate universe where the readers feel like it is really exist. Moreover, The Selection sets in the future of America in the world where the writer speculates between known to the unknown.
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A month ago, I had looked at the TV and seen a stiff, distant, boring person—
someone I couldn’t imagine anyone loving. And while hewasn’t anything close
to the person I did love, he was worthy of having someone to love in his life (Cass 248).
As from the quotation, America just realized that Maxon is worthy to be loved. Maxon is not like a guy she thought in th TV. Then, she is confused about her
decision in choosing Aspen or Maxon. As she realizes that she does not want to leave Aspen anyway and it is impossible to tell about Maxon that Aspen is in the palace being a guard.
So I couldn’t tell him. I wouldn’t tell him. Because as mad as I was, I loved
Aspen. And I couldn’t bear him being hurt.
Then should I leave? The ambivalence pulled at my heart. I could escape Aspen, get away from his face—a face that would torture me every day when I saw it and knew it was no longer mine. But if I left, I’d have to leave Maxon,
too. And Maxon was my closest friend, maybe even more. I couldn’t just go.
Besides, how would I explain it without telling him Aspen was here? (Cass 277-278).
The quotation showed when America is confused in choosing between Aspen, the one he loved firstly, or Maxon. The protagonist is often portrayed in love
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“’The recent census has confirmed that a single woman between the ages of
sixteen and twenty currently resides in your home. We would like to make
you aware of an upcoming opportunity to honor the great nation of Illéa.’”
It indicates that this novel is addressed to young adult reader that the problematic of life as presented in novel is categorized as that age. As according to Smith that another powerful spark in young adult literature is the drive to protect and provide for loved ones. America, the main character in Kiera Cass' The Selection, enters a competition. She competes to earn money for her family. The better she does, the more money her family receives. America's choices are driven by the needs of her loved ones (28). America is asked by her mother and her love, Aspen, to enter the selection, so she decides to try it.
“Wow, Mom.” I shook my head, still in shock. “Okay, I’ll fill out the form today. Are you serious about the money?”
“Of course. Sooner or later you’d go out on your own anyway. And being responsible for your own money will be good for you. Only, don’t forget your
family, please. We still need you” (27).
From the quotation, America’s family really need her. Her mother thinks that
the only way to solve the problem is by entering the selection. Thus, the only way she
can provide her family and comply with Aspen’s wish is by entering the selection.
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Due to the fact that despite The Selection has mixed those various genres so it includes to the postmodern literature. Therefore, postmodern work stresses to the characteristics such as the portrayal of consumer society through industrial media, the depthlessness through the character that centered attention is to certain level of awareness of the character, and the mixing genres that The Selection has. Those are the evident that The Selection can be classified as postmodern literature. Whereas The
Selection as pastiche of Cinderella is seen from its repetition aspects as further
analyze in the following section of the paper.
3.1.2.Repetition Aspects of The Selection
Pastiche involves the imitation or the mimicry of other styles and particularly of the mannerisms and stylistic twitches of other styles. As according to Hoesterey, although we tend to understand pastiche as a complex contemporary phenomenon, it is most simply defined as ―a literary, artistic, or musical work that closely and usually deliberately imitates the style of a previous work (ix). From that quotation, pastiche presents the repetition as new one imitates the older or previous one, and also how the new one represents a new style. In The Selection, theory of postmodern pastiche can be applied from the form and content of the story. Therefore, The
Selection demonstrates an imitation of Cinderella storywhich contains the repetition
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wants to be prince’s bride, the society who is led by king, and also perspective of the
novel which is written from the female character. A. The Festival
Cinderella is one of famous fairy tale in the world, so it is a familiar story for
many people. As according to Silvey, the story of Cinderella, in all its many
variations, is one of the world's best-known fairy tale. In its most familiar form, the story begins with a beloved daughter who suffers the death of her mother and,
through her father's remarriage (138). As a famous work, Cinderella is also known as a story of unfortunate girl who really wants to come to the royal ball or a festival of a prince who looks for a bride.
“What! You Cinderella!” said she, “in all your dust and dirt, you want to go to the festival! you that have no dress and no shoes! You want to dance!” But as she persisted in asking, at last the stepmother said, “I have strewed a dishful of
lentils in the ashes, and if you can pick them all up again in two hours you may
go with us.” (Grimm 2).
In this novel, Cinderella as the main character wants to join the festival. The festival is held for all girls who want to join the royal ball in the palace in order to
win prince’s heart. In this form, The Selection adopts the story of Cinderella by
repeating the story of an event that is held for girls who then compete to win the
prince’s heart and becomes his bride or princess. Yet, in The Selection, the name of
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“‘Our beloved prince, Maxon Schreave,’” Mom continued, “‘is coming of age
this month. As he ventures into this new part of his life, he hopes to move forward with a partner, to marry a true Daughter of Illéa. If your eligible
daughter, sister, or charge is interested in possibly becoming the bride of Prince Maxon and the adored princess of Illéa, please fill out the enclosed form and return it to your local Province Services Office. One woman from each province will be drawn at random to meet the prince (Cass 7).
This novel portrays the main character,America Singer, who decides to compete the selection. The selection is a contest to look for a girl who can win the
heart of Illéa’s prince, Maxon, and other reason is to keep the country is moral up by
being the next queen. As Seifert notes that The Selection is about America Singer, a young girl who is selected to compete in a highly publicized Bachelorette-style pageants in which teen girls try to win a chance at becoming Prince Maxon's bride (58). Illea is a country that is led by a king who searching for a bride for his son. It tells that America Singer, a sixteen-year-old girl, is confused to compete the selection firstly.
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It clearly describes that both of The Selection and Cinderella point the story to the competition for many girls who want to be the winner of become a princess even though the way of both works are different. In Cinderella, the competition is not as complicated as The Selection.The Selection has its own prerequisite in choosing a
girl, not only for the one who win prince’s heart, but she has to be a powerful girl
who then becomes a queen that also saves the country by her wisdom. As from the quotation, however, the complicated conflict is presented when it is mentioned that Ilea in critical situation. Whereas the way to solve this situation is by marriaging
Ilea’s princess with prince fom other country in order to get the allies. Unfortunately,
royal family hadn’t produced a princess in three generations. Thus, the prince has to
marry with selected girl in order to keep the country’s moral up who then being a
queen by holding this competition B. Female Character
Other repetition of the story is that both works focus on female character who becomes main character in the story. In Cinderella, it tells that she is an unfortunate
girl whom father marries with woman who has two daughters. Thus, Ciderella’s life
has changed, her step mother and her step daughters treat her bad and make her as a kitchenmaid. Moreover, the name of Cinderella is given by them because she always looks dirty and sleeps in the cinders.
In the evenings, when she was quite tired out with her hard day’s work, she has
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because she always looked dusty and dirty, as if she had slept in the cinders, they named her Cinderella. (Grimm 2)
Even though Cinderella is an unfortunate girl in the beginning of the story, but
in the last of the story she wins prince’s hearth and becomes a princess. So, this story
tends to be seen from the perspective of female character, Cinderella. On the other hand, The Selection also focuses to the female character who competes the selection,
a name of competition to win prince’s hearth. Unfortunately, America as the main
character does not have any sake to join that competition.
When we got the letter in the post, my mother was ecstatic. She had already decided that all our problems were solved, gone forever. The big hitch in her
brilliant plan was me. I didn’t think I was particularly disobedient daughter, but this was where I drew the line. I didn’t want to be royalty. And I didn’t want to be a one. I didn’t even want to try (Cass 1).
It tells that her family, especially her mother, really wants if America joins the opportunity to meet prince Maxon. If Cinderella wants to come to the festival by her wish, but America competes the selection as her family sake. In the beginning of the story, America is not really interested to join the selection because she already has her secret love with Aspen, and does not like the prince. So, the story describes about America who then decides to join the competition that at the first time she thinks it will help her family.
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America is not interested to join the selection, but her mother asks her to at least try it. It shows that both works offer a point of view of female character about to
join the festival or competition. Even though, between America and Cinderella’s
sakes are different. The both novels tend to point the fiction to a girl who unravels her problem or conflict. In The Selection, it is narrated that America faces more harder conflicts than Cinderella does.
C. Monarchy System
Other repetition is that the background of the society where the system of government is monarchy. As we know that monarchy is a system of goverment in which a family or called royal family to control the country. In Cinderella, beyond that, monarchy is portrayed as fantasy where the background of society is stable because there is a great power that can guard them. This power is represented when the kingdom is the only hope for Cinderella to change her life.
The King’s son came to meet her, and took her by the hand and danced with
her, and he refused to stand up with anyone else, so that he might not be obliged to let go her hand; and when any one came to claim it he answered,
“She is my partner.” (Grimm 4)
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interesting to make its story sets in monarchy where the king is the one who has the power in country.
The king was already talking, but I had to know.
“Mom?” I whispered, trying not to distract Dad. “Yes?”
“The queen … what was she? Her caste, I mean.” Mom smiled at my interest. “A Four.”
As from the quotation, it finds that The Selection also imitates the monarch system of Cinderella. However, he novel emphasizes the society who obedient to king who leads them, yet The Selection preserves a repressive class system under the monarchy by divided it into different castes. From here, the power is also represented when America is hanging on her hope on kingom that can change her family life.
3.2. Elements of Deviation
Besides pastiche is described of how The Selection imitates some elements of
Cinderella, the novel also combines other elements in order to make the novel into a
new style. This combination of other elements make The Selection deviates from the older work, Cinderella. The combination of many elements encourages the
complexity of The Selection.
A. Different Personality of Female Character
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to come to the festival or royal ball to meet a Prince, different with America who does not want to join the competition. Cinderella is so weak, she cannot fight for her sake. She just cries of what she cannot do and rely on a hope.
Then the maiden went to the back-door that led into the garden, and called out,
“O gentle doves, O turtle-doves, And all the birds that be, The lentils that in ashes lie Come and pick up for me! The good must be put in the dish, The bad
you may eat if you wish.” (Grimm 2).
It indicates that Cinderella is less in effort and cannot strive of what she wants. Cinderella only cries and cannot stand up for herself. Whereas America is an
initiative young-girl. It is proved by the reasons she joins to the selection. However, Kiera Cass frames America Singer as a girl who joining the competition as her
family’s sake not an individual sake like Cinderella. In this sense, America joins the
selection to get money in order to provide her family and also to comply with her
I didn’t see the sum, but it made her eyes well. I was miserable at the idea of
leaving, but I was sure if I went there only to be sent back the next day, this check alone would provide us with enough money for a very comfortable year. And when I got back, everyone would want me to sing. I’d have plenty of work. But would I be allowed to sing as a Three? If I had to pick one of the
career paths of a Three, I think I’d teach. Maybe I could at least help others
learn music (Cass 64).
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Singer is seen as someone with independence, ambition, and initiative to help her family. In addition, it is not merely America’s sake to be a princess or even falls in love with a prince, but she has her own reasons in joining the competition.
Her effort does not stop in only joining the selection, she also has her own way to survive on that competition. She makes a deal with prince Maxon, a
well-mannered boy who less experience with girls, a friendship. She explains how much the competition means to her family and she will help him to navigate through all the women who compete the selection.
“Wouldn’t it be much better for you if you had someone on the inside? Someone to help? Like, you know, a friend?”
“A friend?” he asked.
“Yes. Let me stay, and I’ll help you. I’ll be your friend.” He smiled at the
“You don’t have to worry about pursuing me. You already know that I don’t have feelings for you. But you can talk to me anytime you like, and I’ll try and
help. You said last night that you were looking for a confidante. Well, until you
find one for good, I could be that person. If you want.” (Cass 130)
The quotation proves that America is more initiative than Cinderella. She can stand up for herself with any other help. America is described as very different
personality to Cinderella who still needs other help. In addition, the new imaginary of Cinderella is presented through the treatment of nowadays image that is more
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anyone stops her, she will defense herself. It is different with the older one,
Cinderella that she is really weak in facing the problem.
“Shut up. Take off the dress. Now.”
I stood there, my face set, refusing to budge. Celeste was just going to have to get over not being the center of Illéa.
“I could take it off for you,” she offered coldly.
“I’m not afraid of you, Celeste,” I said as I crossed my arms. “This dress was made for me, and I’m going to wear it. Next time you pick out your clothes,
maybe you should try being yourself instead of me. Oh, wait, but maybe then
Maxon would see what a brat you are and send you home, huh?” (Cass 239)
America is a stronger girl who can defense on any situation. She will not let anyone stops her. If Cinderella depicts as a weak girl who hope magic thing happens, different with America who can handle anything by her way. Moreover, Kiera Cass images America as a unified individual subject who possesses the ability to express thoughts and ideas rather than a weak one who less in power like Cinderella.
“But before we get to that, I’d like to announce a new project I am working on that is of great importance to me.”
“It will be at least three months before we can set this up properly, but around
the new year, there will be public assistance for food in every Province Services Office. Any Five, Six, Seven, or Eight may go there any evening for a free, nutritious meal. Please know that these women before you have all sacrificed some or all of their compensation to help fund this important program. And while this assistance may not be able to last forever, we will keep it running as
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America proposes a project so that the lower castes such a Five, Six, Seven and Eight can get a nutritious meal as what upper castes get. The personality of America is quite different with Cinderella. Even like that, America Singer is still as other image of Cinderella as a character. So that the novel intends to complicate the prevailing image of America Singer that survives today through the complex problematic than Cinderella has. So that The Selection can be classified as a new trend of postmodern work because the novel serves nowadays problematic image of Cinderella that gives relativity for the readers that persist in more realist condition. B. Reality Television Show
Kiera Cass has a premise that involves reality television show in improving the idea of the novel. It develops the story by giving entertainment form in order to deviate from the original work. The Selection tries to give another feature in the content of the story, the reality television show during the competition.
Once we were all settled the TV was turned on, and we watched the Report. There were the same announcements as ever—budget updates for projects, progress of the war, and another rebel attack in the East—and then the last half hour was Gavril making commentary over footage of our day. (Cass 101)
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castes watch this program even they are homeless, means they have a thing to make them do not want to miss anything that happens in their country.
It was friday, so the Illéa Capital Report would be on at eight. We weren’t exactly obligated to watch, but it was unwise to miss it. Even Eights—the homeless, the wandering—would find a store or a church where they could see
the Report. And with the Selection coming up, the Report was more than a
Everyone wanted to know what was happening in that department (Cass 38).
From the quotation above, it is said that all people from all castes watch this television show and will be unwise to miss it. So, it indicates that the society need entertainment one or just the new updates in their country. In addition, television show is often appear in dystopian fiction, as Walter in his article titled When
Dystopian Fiction Became Reality TV, it has mentioned some other dystopian fictions
which show consumer society by giving this reality television show such as George
Orwell’s 1984, Huxley’s Brave New World, Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, Collins’s
Hunger Games, etc. (theguardian.com). However Kiera Cass puts this feature as same as another dystopian fiction to deviate her novel from the older work, Cinderella. C. War Theme