TIME SERIES CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL, LAND USE AND FLOOD DISCHARGE BASED ON ARIMA BOX-JENKINS MODEL Abror

Gratis

0
0
8
11 months ago
Preview
Full text

  Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXIII/1 - January 2014

  

TIME SERIES CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL, LAND USE AND FLOOD

DISCHARGE BASED ON ARIMA BOX-JENKINS MODEL

Abror

  Public Works Office of Tegal Regency Email: abrormaskuri@ymail.com

ABSTRACT

  Indonesia located in tropic area consists of wet season and dry season. However, in last few years, in river discharge in dry season is very little, but in contrary, in wet season, frequency of flood increases with sharp peak and increasingly great water elevation. The increased flood discharge may occur due to change in land use or change in rainfall characteristic. Both matters should get clarity. Therefore, a research should be done to analyze rainfall characteristic, land use and flood discharge in some watershed area (DAS) quantitatively from time series data. The research was conducted in DAS Gintung in Parakankidang, DAS Gung in Danawarih, DAS Rambut in Cipero, DAS Kemiri in Sidapurna and DAS Comal in Nambo, located in Tegal Regency and Pemalang Regency in Central Java Province. This research activity consisted of three main steps: input, DAS system and output. Input is DAS determination and selection and searching secondary data. DAS system is early secondary data processing consisting of rainfall analysis, HSS GAMA I parameter, land type analysis and DAS land use. Output is final processing step that consisting of calculation of Tadashi Tanimoto, USSCS effective rainfall, flood discharge, ARIMA analysis, result analysis and conclusion. Analytical calculation of ARIMA Box-Jenkins time series used software Number Cruncher Statistical Systems and Power Analysis Sample Size (NCSS- PASS) version 2000, which result in time series characteristic in form of time series pattern, mean square errors (MSE), root mean square ( RMS), autocorrelation of residual and trend. Result of this research indicates that composite CN and flood discharge is proportional that means when composite CN trend increase then flood discharge trend also increase and vice versa. Meanwhile, decrease of rainfall trend is not always followed with decrease in flood discharge trend. The main cause of flood discharge characteristic is DAS management characteristic, not change in rainfall characteristic.

  Keywords

  : rainfall, land use, flood discharge, time series, main cause

  1 INTRODUCTION During recent few years, when rainy season comes, flood occurs in almost whole area of Indonesia. Flood occurs in Java Island, Bali Island, Kalimantan Island, Sulawesi Island, Nusa Tenggara Island, Maluku Island, and Irian Jaya Island. High discrepancies of people and the area of each region cause flood in Java Island tend to have bigger impact than the other islands (Kodoatie and Syarief, 2006). Flood is usually related to the critical watershed having unworthy land for water management (Ministry of Forestry Regulation, 2005). In 1984, approximately 22 watersheds were critical and it was increased up to 39 watersheds in 1992. The number increased about 62 critical watersheds in 2005 in which spread a whole region of Indonesia, i.e. Java, Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, and Irian Island (Ministry of Public Works, 2006). Several criteria used to define critical watersheds are based on percentage of land cover, slope erosion, and management (Ministry of Forestry Regulation, 2005).

  However, the main cause of flooding has not been determined yet, whether poor management or rainfall character changes. It is important to study both flood causes in order to gain clear view in term of the main cause of flooding.

  The aims of this research are to know the characteristic of rainfall time series, land use, and watershed flood discharge quantitatively including time series pattern, autocorrelation of residual, mean square error (MSE), root mean square (RMS), and data trend so that the main cause of flooding can be determine. The result is expected to give useful information to local government, particularly some relevant institutions.

  2 LITERATURE REVIEW There are several methods which can be used for time series analysis. One of the methods is ARIMA model (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) introduced Box-Jenkins in 1970 (Makridakis et al., 1983). ARIMA time series model has been applied in several fields of study. In econometric study, Junaidi (2004) revealed that profit forecasting by ARIMA model has more accurate result than naive or regression model. ARIMA model has been applied in hydrological analysis. It can estimate inflow discharge during more Volume XXIII/1 - January 2014 Civil Engineering Forum than one month period, either in normal or dry

  a. Daily rainfall data based on rainfall station of each condition (Loebis et al., 2003). Time series approached watershed recorded from 1987 until 2007. by ARIMA Box-Jenkins model was in accordance with

  b. Land use area of Tegal and Pemalang Regency flow discharge of Zayandehrud River in Istafahan, Iran from 1987 to 2007 based on BPS (Central Agency (Modarres et al., 2006). Recorded data of flow on Statistics) Tegal, BPS Pemalang, and BPS discharge in South of German which was approached Central Java Province by ARIMA model can predict the seasonal, fractional, c. Digital map of Pemali Comal River Basin in 2003. and seasonal-fractional data (Rust et al., 2004).

  d. RBI digital map of Tegal and Pemalang Regency in 2001.

  3 RESEARCH METHODS

  3.3 Research Steps

  3.1 Location In general, the research was conducted through several

  The research is carried out in five watersheds (DAS) steps as follow: included DAS Kemiri at Sidapurna, DAS Gintung at Parakankidang, DAS Gung at Danawarih, DAS

  a. Input. This step includes determining and selecting Rambut at Cipero, and DAS Comal at Nambo. Those the referred watershed and its secondary data. watersheds belong to Pemali Comal River Basin which

  b. Watershed system. It is an initial processing of were spread in Tegal and Pemalang Regency, Central secondary data included rainfall analysis, Synthetic

  Java Province. The areas of each watershed are 51.56 2 2 2 2 2 Unit Hydrograph (SUH) of GAMA I, soil km , 18.17 km , 94.29 km , 84.18 km , and 233.89 km , characteristic and land use analysis. respectively. The research location is presented in

  c. Output. It is the final processing comprising rainfall distribution obtained by Tadashi Tanimoto method, SUH of GAMA I, SCS CN, flood

  3.2 The Availability Data hydrograph, time series analysis (rainfall, CN The research used several data as listed below: composite, flood discharge), the results of analysis and conclusion.

  Research Site Information Central Java Map Figure 1. Research location map. Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXIII/1 - January 2014

  3.4 Analysis Approach The analysis was applied the following approach:

  79.64

  82.41 2001

  77.70

  79.14

  79.60

  84.72

  82.41 2000

  77.57

  79.92

  79.64

  84.73

  82.41 1999

  77.72

  79.87

  84.72

  79.65

  82.41 1998

  77.72

  79.87

  79.64

  84.72

  82.41 1997

  77.72

  79.87

  79.64

  84.72

  82.41 1996

  77.72

  79.87

  79.64

  84.67

  79.69

  82.41 1995

  82.42 2005

   ( 250 200 150 50 100 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 Tahun m a k s im u m m m /h a ri ) Kemiri Gung Gintung Rambut Comal Ma xi m u m o f t he m ea n rai n fa ll ( m m /day )

  Hujan Rerata DAS Maksimum

  I SUH.

  4.4 Synthetic Unit Hydrograph (SUH) Differences between calculated and corrected SUH of GAMA I can be seen at DAS Kemiri, DAS Gung, DAS Rambut, and DAS Comal, while calculated GAMA I SUH of DAS Gintung was in accordance with the corrected one (se. The higher ratio between area (A) and slope (S) parameter, the higher discrepancy between calculated and corrected GAMA

  82.42

  72.48

  79.68

  79.59

  84.89

  82.42 2006

  72.48

  79.68

  79.59

  84.89

  73.68

  79.86

  79.65

  79.66

  84.73

  82.42 2004

  73.68

  79.62

  79.64

  84.76

  82.42 2003

  73.49

  79.63

  79.59

  84.74

  84.82 2002

  84.72

  77.72

  a. Hydrology analysis. It consists of arithmetic mean rainfall, rainfall distribution using Tadashi Tanimoto method, SUH of GAMA I, effective rainfall from SCS-CN analysis, and flood hydrograph analysis.

  8 Distribution (%) 26 24 17 13 7

  79.30

  79.75

  84.43

  1987

  DAS Comal

  DAS Rambut

  DAS Gintung

  DAS Gung

  CN Composite DAS Kemiri

  Table 2. CN composite Year

  4.3 Soil Characteristic and Curve Number (CN) Value of CN composite within given year is calculated by totalize multiplication between land use CN and converted area. Conversion factor was estimated by comparing the watershed area based on RBI 2001 to the watershed area based on Regency in Figures 2001. By calculating CN composite during 1987-2006, time series of CN composite can be obtained. Each watershed has difference time series motion as shown i

  3.5 Cumulative (%) 26 50 67 80 87 9.5 96.5 100

  4

  5.5

  7

  81.97 1988

  6

  5

  4

  3

  2

  1

  Table 1. Distribution rainfall using Tadashi Tanimoto method Hour

  On Tadashi Tanimoto distribution, rainfall distribution within 8 hours with rainfall depth for every hour has been determined as shown i

  4.2 Rainfall Distribution All of the watersheds do not have both rainfall station (Automatic Rainfall Recorder) and water level station (Automatic Water Level Recorder) so that rainfall distribution was created by synthetic rainfall distribution approach. Tadashi Tanimoto method was chosen since those watersheds were located in Java Island. Furthermore this method has smaller error that ABM distribution (Sukoso, 2004).

  Figure 2. Maximum of mean rainfall during 1987-2006.

  4.1 Watershed Rainfall Mean rainfall of the watershed causing flood within one year was assumed to have the maximum value of the mean rainfall as illustrated i

  4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  c. The used software was Microsoft Office, ArcView, MapInfo, and NCSS-PASS.

  b. Time series analysis by using ARIMA Box- Jenkins. Time series characteristic, such as time series pattern, mean square error (MSE), root mean square (RMS), autocorrelation of residual, and data trend can be obtained from the result of data processing which includes mean of maximum rainfall, CN composite of the watershed, flood discharge within 20 years.

  79.83

  84.55

  79.87

  79.16

  79.64

  84.71

  82.41 1994

  79.26

  79.18

  79.64

  84.71

  82.41 1993

  79.43

  79.16

  79.64

  84.55

  82.41 1992

  79.43

  79.75

  79.75

  84.55

  81.97 1991

  80.05

  79.16

  79.75

  84.55

  81.97 1990

  80.05

  79.16

  79.75

  84.55

  81.97 1989

  80.05

  79.16

  Year Volume XXIII/1 - January 2014 Civil Engineering Forum

  Figure 3. SUH GAMA I of each watershed (DAS).

  8

  Q (m 20 t (jam ) 3 /s ) UH (m3/s) UH KOREKSI HSS GAM A I DAS COM AL DI NAM BO 0,00 2,00 4,00 6,00 8,00 10,00 12,00 14,00 16,00 18,00

  18

  16

  14

  12

  10

  6

  4

  4

  2

  Q (m 20 t (jam) 3 /s) UH (m3/s) UH KOREKSI HSS GAM A I DAS RAM BUT DI CIPERO 0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 6,00 7,00

  18

  16

  14

  2

  6

  10

  GAMA I SUH of DAS Kemiri in Sidapurna

  Cipero GAMA I SUH of DAS Comal in

  Parakandang GAMA I SUH of DAS Rambut in

  Danawarih GAMA I SUH of DAS Gintung in

  Year GAMA I SUH of DAS Gung in

  )

  D isc ha rge (m 3 /s

  1200 1000 800 600 200 400 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 Tahun Kemiri Gung Gintung Rambut Comal

  8

  Q (m 20 t (jam) 3 /s) UH (m3/s) UH KOREKSI Debit Banjir DAS

  18

  16

  14

  12

  10

  12

  8

  4.5 Flood Hydrograph and Flood Discharge After obtaining maximum rainfall value, rainfall distribution, SUH GAMA I, and CN composite, effective rainfall was analyzed using SCS-CN method. Polynomial method was used for creating flood hydrograph. Referring to the flood hydrograph, flood hydrograph peak for each year can be obtained as presented i

  4

  16

  14

  12

  10

  8

  6

  2

  20

  A trend line created from time series of CN composite and maximum flood discharge at DAS Kemiri tends to increase. It indicates the effect of CN composite towards the increase of flood discharge as shown in HSS GAM A I DAS KEM IRI DI SIDAPURNA 0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50 2,00 2,50 3,00 3,50 4,00

  4.8 Correlation between Land Use and Flood Discharge

  4.7 Correlation between Rainfall and Flood Discharge A trend line created from time series of maximum mean rainfall at DAS Kemiri tends to decrease, while it is increased on a trend line created from maximum flood discharge. Thus, rainfall apparently does not affect the increase of flood discharge, in the case of DAS Kemiri (see i

  Time series characteristic can be determined from quantity analysis of time series using ARIMA Box- Jenkins method with NCSS-PASS 2000 version help (NCSS Statistical and Power Analysis Software., 2007). The analysis was carried out through trial and error until the suitable time series model was resulted in which ARIMA model was accepted from the Portmanteau Test with probability level for every time lag was more than 0.05. Detail of the time series model was explained in

  4.6 Time Series of Maximum Mean Rainfall, CN Composite, and Flood Discharge

  Figure 4. Flood discharge during 1987-2006.

  18

  22

  6

  14

  4

  2

  Q (m 22 t (jam) 3 /s) UH (m3/s) UH KOREKSI HSS GAM A I DAS GINTUNG DI PARAKANKIDANG 0,00 0,20 0,40 0,60 0,80 1,00 1,20 1,40

  20

  18

  16

  12

  24

  10

  8

  6

  4

  2

  Q (m 28 t (jam) 3 /s) UH (m3/s) UH KOREKSI HSS GAM A I DAS GUNG DI DANAWARIH 0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 6,00 7,00

  26

  Nambo Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXIII/1 - January 2014

  Table 3. Time series model for maximum of mean rainfall Watershed Stationary Pattern Unstationary Pattern Information DAS Kemiri (2,0,4) AR order 2, MA order 4 (0,1,1) AR order 1 Approved DAS Gung (1,0,1) Random (2,1,0) AR order 2 Approved DAS Gintung (1,0,2) AR order 1, MA order 2 (0,1,2) MA order 2 Approved DAS Rambut (1,0,2) AR order 1, MA order 2 (0,1,1) MA order 1 Approved DAS Comal (2,0,1) AR order 2, MA order 1 (0,1,1) MA order 1 Approved

  Table 4. Time series model for CN composite Watershed Stationary Pattern Unstationary Pattern Information DAS Kemiri (1,0,0) AR order 1 (0,1,0) Random Approved DAS Gung (1,0,0) AR order 1 (0,1,0) Random Approved DAS Gintung (1,0,0) AR order 1 (0,1,0) Random Approved DAS Rambut (1,0,0) AR order 1 (0,1,0) Random Approved DAS Comal (1,0,1) AR order 1, MA order 1 (1,1,0) AR order 1 Approved

  Table 5. Time series model for flood discharge Watershed Stationary Pattern Unstationary Pattern Information DAS Kemiri (1,0,1) AR order 1, MA order 1 (0,1,1) MA order 1 Approved DAS Gung (1,0,1) AR order 1, MA order 1 (0,1,1) MA order 1 Approved DAS Gintung (2,0,2) AR order 2, MA order 2 (0,1,2) MA order 2 Approved DAS Rambut (1,0,2) AR order 1, MA order 2 (0,1,2) MA order 2 Approved DAS Comal (2,0,1) AR order 2, MA order 1 (0,1,1) MA order 1 Approved

  Time Series Model for Maximum Mean Rainfall by ARIMA Model (2,0,4)

  Time Series Model for Flood Discharge by ARIMA Model (1,0,1) Figure 5. Comparison between trend of rainfall time series and maximum mean rainfall.

  • T R E N D

  Time Series Model for CN Composite by ARIMA Model (1,0,1)

  Time Series Model for Flood Discarge by ARIMA Model (1,0,1) 0.0 62.5 125.0 187.5 250.0 1986.9 1996.9 2006.9 2016.9 2026.9

  Time 0.0

200.0

400.0

600.0

800.0

1986.9 1996.9 2006.9 2016.9 2026.9 Time LO G 10( C 2)

  > 95% Limit > 95% Limit < 95% Limit < 95% Limit

  Forecast Forecast Volume XXIII/1 - January 2014 Civil Engineering Forum

  Figure 6. Comparison between trend of CN composite time series and flood discharge at DAS Kemiri

  Kodoatie, R.J., and Sjarief R. (2006). Pengelolaan

  > 95% Limit < 95% Limit Forecast Forecast

  Time 0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1986.9 1996.9 2006.9 2016.9 2026.9 Time > 95% Limit < 95% Limit

  Ministry of Public Works. (2006). Buku Pintar [Smart Book], Public Communication Center, Ministry of Public Works. 0.0 25.0 50.0 75.0 100.0 1986.9 1996.9 2006.9 2016.9 2026.9

  Regulation about Technical Procedures for Forest and Land Rehabilitation Plan over Watershed]. Decree, Ministry of Forestry.

  Kehutanan tentang Tata Cara Penyusunan Rencana Teknik Rehabilitasi Hutan dan Lahan

  21, 2009 from http:/ Makridakis, S., McGee, V.E., and Wheelwright, S.C. (1983). Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons Inc., U.K. Ministry of Forestry. (2009). “Peraturan Menteri

  Management for Three Series Reservoir Operation on Citarum River Basin West Java Indonesia, Research Institute of Water Resources, Bandung [online]. Retrieved January

  Flood, Landslide, Drought, and Tsunami]. Yarsif Watampone, Jakarta. Loebis, J., and Syariman, P. (2000). Water Resources

  Bencana Terpadu: Banjir, Longsor, Kekeringan, dan Tsunami [Integrated Disaster Management:

  Thesis Report, UGM, Yogyakarta.

  4.9 Flood Main Cause Parameter Based on the results, characteristic of maximum mean rainfall does not always affect flood discharge characteristic (referring to the transformed discharge, not the measured one) as presented inLand use characteristic affects flood discharge characteristic dominantly (referring to the transformed discharge, not the measured one) as presented ience, the main factor causing flood discharge changes (referring to the transformed discharge, not the measured one) is watershed land use, or bad watershed management.

  Box-Jenkins pada Karakteristik Laba Tahunan ”.

  REFERENCES Junaidi. (2004). ”Evaluasi Kemampuan Prediksi Model

  b) Since CN composite tends to increase, RTRW (Spatial Plan) and RDTRK (Detailed Spatial Plan of District) issued by local government should be in accordance with watershed characteristic and follows the regulations, and also concern to the environmental aspect.

  a) Local government should have sufficient data including rainfall, AWLR/ARR recording, land use, and soil characteristic in order to get the result which is close to the real condition.

  6 RECOMMENDATIONS The results of research may give recommendation for further study in order to obtain the better result. The recommendations are summarized below:

  d) Changes in flood characteristic is mainly caused by land use characteristic, or bad watershed management, while rainfall characteristic does not always affect flood characteristic (referring to the transformed discharge, not the measured one).

  c) Autocorrelation of residual from ARIMA model resulted positive and negative value for different time lag. It shows non-stationary time series characteristic.

  b) AR, MA, ARMA, or ARIMA trend for time series rainfall, CN composite, and flood discharge (referring to the transformed discharge, not the measured one) is not random.

  a) Difference watershed location makes different time series of maximum rainfall as resulted by ARIMA model.

  5 CONCLUSIONS Some conclusions can be summarized below:

Daerah Aliran Sungai” [Ministry of Forestry

  Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXIII/1 - January 2014

  Modarres, R., and Eslamian., S. (2006).

  “Stream flow Time Series Modeling of Zayandehrud River ”.

  Iranian Journal of Science & Technology ,

  Transaction B, Engineering, Vol. 30, No. B4, Shiraz University, Iran. NCSS Statistical and Power Analysis Software. (2007).

  Forecasting and Time Series Analysis , [online].

  Retrieved February 9, 2009 from Rust, H., Kallache, M., and Kropp, J. (2004).

  “Comparison of Different Fractional ARIMA Type Models Applied to River Discharge Records from Southern Germany with Respect to Long Memory

  ”. Geophysical Research Abstracts , Vol. 6, 03744, European Geosciences

  Union, Germany.

Sukoso, E. (2004). “Perbandingan Tingkat Ketelitian

  Pemakaian Persamaan Hujan Jam-Jaman dan Agihan Jam-Jaman Terukur Terhadap Hidrograf De bit Banjir Rancangan” [Comparison of Accuracy between Hourly Rainfall Equation and Measured Rainfall towards Designed Flood Discharge Hydrograph]. Thesis Report, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Volume XXIII/1 - January 2014 Civil Engineering Forum

  [this page intentionally left blank]

Dokumen baru

Dokumen yang terkait

EFFICIENCY OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE IN PEMALANG REGENCY USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS Wahyudi1 , Lutfan Lazuardi2 , Mubasysyir Hasanbasri2
0
0
9
FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH INSURANCE OWNERSHIP - DATA ANALYSIS OF SUSENAS 2013 Wan Aisyiah Baros BPJS Kesehatan, Jakarta
0
0
6
ANALYSIS OF WEST BORNEO BETHESDA GENERAL HOSPITAL AS A BASIC STRATEGIC APPROACH TOWARD UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE Theresia Tatie Marksriri1 , Laksono Trisnantoro2 , Niluh P E Andayani3
0
0
6
AN ANALYSIS ON THE READINESS TO APPLY LOCAL PUBLIC SERVICE AGENCY IN THE COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTERS IN KULON PROGO (A Case Study at Wates and Girimulyo II Health Centers, Kulon Progo Regency) Albertus Sunuwata Triprasetya1 , Laksono Trisnantoro2 , Ni Luh Pu
0
0
14
DECENTRALIZATION AND POLICY DECISION MAKING FOR U5 NUTRITIONAL IMPROVEMENT IN DEPOK CITY AND BOGOR CITY IN WEST JAVA Candra Dewi Purnamasari1 , Dumilah Ayuningtyas1 , Riastuti Kusumawhardani2
0
0
11
EVALUATION OF SPECIFIC ALLOCATION FUND IN HEALTH FOR PHARMACEUTICAL SERVICES 2011 – 2012 Risca Ardhyaningtyas1 , Laksono Trisnantoro2 , Retna Siwi Padmawati2
0
0
7
THE IMPACT OF POLICY IMPLEMENTATION OF “THE CLOSING OF THE TRANSITION SOCIAL SERVICES PLACE OF THE COMMERCIAL SEX WORKER AND PROSTITUTION CLOSURE” TO THE HIVAIDS COUNTERMEASURES PROGRAM IN JEMBER REGENCY Dewi Rokhmah1 , Khoiron
0
0
7
KEBIJAKAN INSENTIF DOKTER UMUM DAN DOKTER GIGI BERDASARKAN BEBAN KERJA DI KABUPATEN ALOR TAHUN 2011: TIME DAN MOTION STUDY
0
0
9
SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS AND PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS AT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES IN A BANGKA BARAT DISTRICT OF INDONESIA Achmad Nursyandi1 , Mustofa2 Mubasysyir Hasanbasri3
0
0
9
EVALUATION OF POLICY IMPLEMENTATION HEALTH OPERATIONAL ASSISTANCE (BOK) IN DISTRICT HEALTH OFFICE (CASE STUDIES IN BANTUL DISTRICT HEALTH OFFICE AND LEBONG DISTRICT HEALTH OFFICE IN THE YEAR 2011) Handry Mulyawan1 , Laksono Trisnantoro2 , Siti Noor Zaenab
0
0
10
CIGARETTE CONSUMPTION OF POOR FAMILY AND POLICY AGENDA IN INDONESIA Chriswardani Suryawati1 , Lucia Ratna Kartikawulan1 , Ki Hariyadi2
0
0
8
THE EVALUATION OF COMMUNITY HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME PROGRAM BENEFIT IN YOGYAKARTA MUNICIPALITY Rohadanti1 , Sigit Riyarto2 , Retna Siwi Padmawati3
0
0
7
THE EFFICACY OF MOTORCYCLE TRAINING TO REDUCE SELF-REPORTED NEGATIVE BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE (CASE STUDY IN UK AND INDONESIA) Winna Justiana Sirait
0
0
6
TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION STUDY ON MULTI-AIRPORT SYSTEMS IN THE GREATER JAKARTA METROPOLITAN AREA (GJMA) AND ASSOCIATED IMPLICATIONS Faiz Agung Perdana
0
0
6
EVALUATION OF SOIL EMBANKMENT MASS MOVEMENT BY USING SUBDRAIN SYSTEM AND REINFORCEMENT BASED ON THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SEMARANG-SOLO TOLL ROAD Syahbudin Dayanun
0
0
8
Show more