SCHIZOPRENIA AS REFLECTED IN THE MAIN CHARACTER IN PATRICK SUSKIND’S PERFUME
AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of Requirements
For the Degree of Sarjana Sastra
In English Letters
ANDRE HONJI HASCARYO Student Number : 044214052
ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
Love Yourself and Others will Follow”
LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN
PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS
Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma :
Nama : Andre Honji Hascaryo Nomor Mahasiswa : 044214052
Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul :
SCHIZOPRENIA AS REFLECTED IN THE MAIN CHARACTER IN PATRICK SUSKIND’S PERFUME
Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di Internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis.
Demikian pernyataan ini yang saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta
Pada tanggal : 30 September 2011
I would like say the greatest thanks to my Lord Jesus Christ and the universe for their greatest love for me that I can finish this thesis and for making me as I am right now. Without their love, I am nothing in this world.
Furthermore, it is very impossible to finish this thesis without the help of others. Therefore, I would like to thank my lecturer, my advisor, my idol and my role model, Tatang Iskarna, S.S., M.Hum for his patience and guidance. For Ni Luh Putu for her willingness to be my co-advisor and to all the people in Sanata Dharma University
My very special gratitude goes to my inspiration, my guru, my best friend, my father, M.A Pratomo Putra who always support me when I’m down and my mother, Istiari Yuniati who always forces me to finish this thesis. Their love for me will never end till the world ends.
The last person I want to thank is Dwi Ayu Mustika Wati, my lovely fiancée who always helps me to edit this thesis, support me and always be my side every time I work on this thesis.
LEMBAR PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI... vi
CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW.... 5
A.Review of Related Studies ... 5
B.Review of Related Theories ... 8
1. Theories on Character and Characterization ... 9
2. Theory on Schizophrenia ... 10
3. The Relation Between Psychology and Literature ... 19
C.Theoretical Framework ... 20
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY……… 21
A.Object of the Study ... 21
B.Approach of the Study ... 21
C.Method of the Study ... 22
CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS………... 24
A.The Characteristics of Main Character ... 24
B.Schizophrenia as Reflected in the Main Character... 30
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION……….. 49
BIBLIOGRAPHY ………...……… 51
ANDRE HONJI HASCARYO (2011). Schizophrenia as Reflected in the Main Character in Patrick Suskind’s Perfume. Yogyakarta : Departement of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University.
There are a lot of types of literature in this world, one of them is novel. This undergraduate thesis will discuss a novel written by a remarkable French author named Patrick Suskind. Perfume tells about a person who suffered from Schizophrenia named Jean Baptiste Grenouille. Unwanted birth, unhealthy environment, and unhappy childhood make this person grow into an introvert person and have abnormal and radical paradigm.
Even though he has a mental disorder, Grenouille has an amazing ability which can not be owned by any other persons in the world, a remarkable sense of smell. He is able to differentiate all scents that he smells and this ability makes him a genius perfumer. Because of this reason, he is obsessed to create a perfect perfume made by 25 virgins’ essence at that time. In this thesis, I tried to analyze the characteristic of the main character how the characteristics represents the mental disorder that he suffered from.
In this thesis, I analyzed some of main character’s characteristic and how his characteristic reflects Schizophrenia. Living as a person who suffers Schizophrenia is not very delightful. There are few people who can follow and understand his way of thinking. A person who suffers this mental disorder will have some symptoms such as delusion, social withdrawal and extreme reaction
In the analysis I used psychological approach since this approach is the most compatible with the main character’s problem. I also used couple of theories that help my analysis, that are theory of characterization and theory of Schizophrenia.
ANDRE HONJI HASCARYO (2011). Schizophrenia as Reflected in the Main Character in Patrick Suskind’s Perfume. Yogyakarta : Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma.
Ada banyak jenis karya sastra di dunia ini, dan salah satunya adalah novel. Skripsi ini akan membahas sebuah novel karya penulis luar biasa dari Perancis bernama Patrick Suskind. Di karyanya yang berjudul Perfume ini diceritakan seorang penderita Skizofrenia yang bernama Jean Baptiste Grenouille. Kelahiran yang tidak diinginkan, lingkungan yang tidak sehat, masa kecil yang sangat tidak bahagia, membuatnya tumbuh menjadi sosok yang tertutup dan mempunyai pola pikir yang kurang normal dan radikal.
Walaupun mempunyai kelainan jiwa, Grenouille mempunyai keahlian yang sangat amat luar biasa dan jarang dimiliki oleh siapapun di dunia ini. Daya penciuman yang sangat luar biasa. Dia dapat membedakan seluruh aroma yang pernah dia cium dan ini membuatnya menjadi seorang jenius dibidang pembuatan parfum dan karenanya, dia terobsesi membuat parfum yang sempurna yang dibuat dari esens 25 perawan di jamannya. Di dalam skripsi ini saya mencoba menganalisa karakteistik sang tokoh utama dan bagaimana karakteristik tersebut mencerminkan gangguan mental yang dialaminya.
Dalam skripsi ini, saya menganalisa beberapa karakteristik yang dimiliki oleh tokoh utamanya dan bagaimana karakteristik tersebut mencerminkan Skizofrenia.Hidup seorang yang mempunyai gangguan jiwa berupa Skizofrenia sangatlah tidak menyenangkan. Hampir tidak ada orang yang bisa mengikuti atau mengerti apa yang dia pikirkan. Seorang yang menderita gangguan jiwa ini akan mengalamai beberapa gejala seperti mempunyai delusi, penarikan diri dari dunia sosial dan reaksi yang ekstrim.
Di dalam analisa tersebut saya menggunakan pendekatan secara psikologis karena pendekatan ini memang yang paling sesuai dengan masalah yang dialami oleh si tokoh utama. Selain pendekatan psikologi, saya juga menggunakan beberapa teori untuk membantu analisa saya, yaitu teori karakterisasi dan teori Skizofrenia.
1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
Literature, as a tool to express ideas or opinions, tries to help readers to understand the history of a society in particular time. By reading literary works, the readers are expected to know the history of a society in particular time in which the readers learn the life style, the norms, the customs, and the difficulties that people deal with in the society.
There are several types of literature. One type of literature is a novel. A novel is able to open the readers understanding of truth and life as the characters do in it. The author also has many influences to develop the character and plays them in the story. The author shares his or her intuition, inspiration, and creative imagination to the reader through his or her work. By reading a novel, someone can arouse his or her imagination, feeling, emotion, and it can cause blurrily the border between reality and fiction or non-reality.
One of the authors in the twentieth century that was considered famous with his works in German as well as in international areas is Patrick Suskind.
The writer takes literature and novel as the topic and the specification of his study. For this, the writer has chosen Perfume, a novel written by Patrick Suskind. Patrick Suskind was a German writer that became famous because of his works; one of his phenomenal novels was his first work, entitled Perfume.
It is very interesting novel because it has a strong and powerful main character. Generally, a character will get a large attention from people in a literature discussion because people can more understand the story by observing the character in a novel. It means that the character is able to lead or guide people to know the events and the problems that happen in the story. In other words, the character is important element on literary works.
This novel has one main character named Jean-Baptiste Grenouille, a period serial-killer who was born in Paris in 1738 and born without a personal odor. His motivation of being serial killer is interesting thing that enriches this novel. He killed twenty five virgins just to fulfill his obsession over scents. This action is absolutely extraordinary and will not be done by a normal person. It is very obvious that the main character has a mental disorder.
In some cases, people who suffer Schizophrenia are dangerous. People who suffers this mental disorder tend to harm them self and people around him. Jean-Baptiste Grenouille as the main character of this novel is a dangerous yet a genius person. He kills twenty five virgin to fulfill his mission to make a perfect perfume and he does not even feel guilty about it. Besides, he is not afraid of the punishments that already wait for him.
Besides the reason mentioned, the uniqueness of this novel also lies on the detail description of the scents. Hundreds of scents are described in Patrick Suskind's novel, the smell of a blossoming woman, the metallic tang of a doorknob, the soft creamy sheep wool, oaky warmth of wood pulp, oranges ripening with juice, the moonlight cape of magnolias, the fresh windy smell of a puppy and finally, Grenouille's perfect perfume composed of twenty five virgin girls.
B. Problem Formulation
In order to guide the subjects under discussion, the writer limits the analysis into two problems formulated as follows:
1. How is the main character described?
C. Objective of the Study
The purpose of this study is to describe and give the answers of the two problems formulation that stated above.
First is to find out the characteristic of main character, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille. Second, this thesis is aimed at exploring the mental disorder, in this case Schizophrenia which is reflected in Grenouille’s character.
D. Definition of Terms Schizophrenia
5 CHAPTER II
This chapter consists of three parts. The first part is the review of related studies. The second part is review of related theories and the last is the theoretical framework. Review of related studies is to review the related studies, the review from the other reader and critiques that help the writer to find out the point of view. Second, the review of related theories consists of the theory of character and characterization. This theory is used to describe the character of the main characters. After that the writer uses theory of Schizophrenia to find the answer from problem formulation. The last is theoretical framework, this part uses to show the main supporting idea with deals to the theory in analyze the problem formulation.
A. Review of Related Studies
Jean-Baptiste Grenouille, born in Paris in the year of 1738, is the main a character in Perfume. Born without a personal odor, Grenouille is obsessed with creating a perfect smell for himself, an olfactory mission who impels him to murder virgins for their scent. Süskind's descriptions dwell on the stench of the fish market and pungent Parisian alleys. Jean Baptiste Grenouille suffered Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, emotion, and behavior-disorder thinking, in which ideas are not logically related.
Patrick Suskind’s Perfume was an acclaimed international bestseller and sold out up to 15 million copies. Some comments and criticisms come from The New York Times: "Mesmerizing from first page to last”, the Plain Dealer “A highly sophisticated horror tale", the San Francisco Chronicle: "A supremely accomplished work of art, marvelously crafted and enjoyable and rich in historical detail", People: "An original and astonishing novel", Los Angeles Times: "An ingenious story...about a most exotic monster. Suspense builds up steadily” and The Kansas City Star: "Immensely seductive. Storytelling at its best" (amazon.com)
In 1986 Steven H Silver said that Perfume is a great work that the main character has an important role toward the whole story.
While it is clear that Grenouille is obsessed and insane, he performs within the confines of eighteenth century French society in a perfectly lucid manner. Süskind's book is sui generis. Part horror, part mystery, part historical fiction, it offers insight into the mind of the criminally insane while speculating on the role the sense of smell plays in our lives. Perfume can't be compared to anything written before it because its premise is so different in many ways than what has come before. While Süskind's later books are relatively common (The Pigeon and
Mister Summer's Story), Perfume quite definitely remains his fictional masterpiece.”
In his essay, Steven H Silver is focus on the background and the atmosphere of the novel. He said the power of main character can bring the readers to feel the darkness and the loneliness inside his heart. It is different with this thesis since this thesis is more focus on the mental disorder, in this case, Schizophrenia, that be suffered by the main character.
There is also someone who writes an essay about Perfume beside Steven H Silver. In 1987 Beth Farrell said that Perfume is a thoroughly captivating production.
“Suskind's demented protagonist, Jean-Baptist Grenouille, is a "gifted abomination" whose highly developed sense of smell could easily make him the greatest perfumer of all time. Given the general stench of 18th-century cities, good perfumers were held in high regard. However, Grenouille the misfit, scorned by society throughout his life, hasn't the heart to create pretty perfumes for society's elite. When he finally does earn the adoration of the masses through his twisted genius, he decides that he would much prefer to "exterminate all these stupid, stinking people from the earth." Reader Sean Barrett does not overdramatize the often sensational events here but instead relates them with a measured, detached air that perfectly captures Suskind's cool tone. Also, his reserved narrative style allows listeners to appreciate Suskind's expert use of language (passages from this novel can be found in dictionaries of similes). This extraordinary production is highly recommended for all serious fiction collections?” (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/
This essay is focus on the ability of the main character. He has an incredible sense of smell and it can make him a very great perfumer even at the beginning people hates him instead of love him because of this ability.
Resemble to this thesis which is also study on the ability of the main character that unintentionally lead him to be a murderer who kills more than twenty virgin. In this thesis the writer will analyze deeper about the character of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille in Perfume. According to Webster’s Dictionary (1995: 687) novel is an imaginative prose narrative of some length, usually concerned with human experience and social behaviors, and normally cast in the form of a connected story the novel this genre of literature. From novel, we also can learn about sociality, morality, and psychological aspect.
B. Review of Related Theories
Here the writer would like to apply some theories of literature. They are the theory of character and characterization, and theory of schizophrenia.
1. Theory of Character and Characterization
Like us, who exist in this world, there are characters that ‘live’ and ‘act’
in the novel. According to Abrams (1981:20), characters are ”the persons
presented in a dramatic or narrative work who are interpreted by the readers as
being endowed with moral and disposition qualities that are expressed in what
they say (the dialogues) and by what they do (the actions)”. This quotation
implies that there is a relation between the presentations of a character as well as
That is why the characters must be credible, or in other words, the reader
must accept them as believable people.
According to M.J. Murphy (1972:161-173) there are nine ways in which
an author attempts to make his characters understandable to, and come alive for,
his readers, those are:
a. Personal description. The author can describe a character’s physical
appearance like the face, body and clothes of the characters.
b. Character as seen by another. The author can describe a character through the
eyes and opinions of another instead of describing a character directly.
c. Speech. The author can give us an insight into the character of one of the
persons in the book through what that person says. Whenever a person
speaks, whenever he is in conversation with another, whenever he puts
forward an opinion, he is giving us some clues to his character.
d. Past life. The author guides the readers to learn something about the person’s
past life. The author can give us a clue to events that have helped to shape a
person’s character. This can be done by direct comment by the author,
through the person’s thoughts, through his conversation or trough the medium
of another person.
e. Conversation of others. The authors can also give us clue to a person’s
character through the conversation of other people and the things they say
f. Reactions. The author can give us a clue to a person’s character by letting us
g. Direct comment. The author can describe or comments on a person’s
h. Thoughts. The author can give us direct knowledge of what person is thinking
i. Mannerisms. The author can describe a person’s mannerisms, habits or
idiosyncrasies, which tell us something about his character.
Character is one of internal aspects in a novel. The term character is used
in two ways: (1) it designated the individual who appear in the story and (2) it
refers to the mixture of interests, desires, emotions, and principle that makes up
each of these individuals (Stanton, 1965:17).
It is similar to what Barnet says that the terms character refers to: (1)
figure in literary works, figure here refers to the story performer such as in
Perfume, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille; and (2) personality, that is, the mental and moral qualities of a figure, as one says that A’s character is strong, weak, or
immoral, or whatever (1988:71).
2. Theory of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder most often encountered. Most people with schizophrenia experiencing psychosis for only a small part of their lives. (Ginette Aubin, 2009:313-318)
The causes of schizophrenia are not fully known. However, it appears that schizophrenia usually results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Some specific factors that cause schizophrenia are: (Warrick et al, 1996:1021-1031).
a. Genetic causes of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia has a strong hereditary component. Individuals with a first-degree relative (parent or sibling) who has schizophrenia have a 10 percent chance of developing the disorder, as opposed to the 1 percent chance of the general population.
c. Abnormal brain structure. In addition to abnormal brain chemistry, abnormalities in brain structure may also play a role in schizophrenia. Enlarged brain ventricles are seen in some schizophrenics, indicating a deficit in the volume of brain tissue. There is also evidence of abnormally low activity in the frontal lobe, the area of the brain responsible for planning, reasoning, and decision-making.
In some people, schizophrenia appears suddenly and without warning. But for most, it comes on slowly, with subtle warning signs and a gradual decline in functioning long before the first severe episode. Many friends and family members of people with schizophrenia report knowing early on that something was wrong with their loved one, but they just do not know it.
In this early phase, people with schizophrenia often seem eccentric, unmotivated, emotionless, and reclusive. They isolate themselves, start neglecting their appearance, say peculiar things, and show a general indifference to life. They may abandon hobbies and activities, and their performance at work or school deteriorates. (P.W. Robert, www.helpguide.org)
However, the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia vary dramatically from person to person, both in pattern and severity. Not every person with schizophrenia will have all symptoms, and the symptoms of schizophrenia may also change over time. There are also significant symptoms that can be found on a person who suffers Schizophrenia, called delusion and hallucination.
A delusion is a firmly-held idea that a person has despite clear and obvious evidence that it isn’t true. Delusions are extremely common in schizophrenia, occurring in more than 90% of those who have the disorder. Often, these delusions involve illogical or bizarre ideas or fantasies. Common schizophrenic delusions include:
a. Delusions of persecution – Belief that others, often a vague “they,” are out to get him or her. These persecutory delusions often involve bizarre ideas and plots (e.g. “Martians are trying to poison me with radioactive particles delivered through my tap water”).
b. Delusions of reference – A neutral environmental event is believed to have a special and personal meaning. For example, a person with schizophrenia might believe a billboard or a person on TV is sending a message meant specifically for them.
d. Delusions of control – Belief that one’s thoughts or actions are being controlled by outside, alien forces. Common delusions of control include thought broadcasting (“My private thoughts are being transmitted to others”), thought insertion (“Someone is planting thoughts in my head”), and thought withdrawal (“The CIA is robbing me of my thoughts”).
Hallucinations are sounds or other sensations experienced as real when they exist only in the person's mind. While hallucinations can involve any of the five senses, auditory hallucinations (e.g. hearing voices or some other sound) are most common in schizophrenia. Visual hallucinations are also relatively common. Research suggests that auditory hallucinations occur when people misinterpret their own inner self-talk as coming from an outside source.
Schizophrenic hallucinations are usually meaningful to the person experiencing them. Many times, the voices are those of someone they know. Most commonly, the voices are critical, vulgar, or abusive. Hallucinations also tend to be worse when the person is alone.
The symptoms of schizophrenia tend to overlap, but in the end the clinical presentation in many patients, tend to be narrowed into a general description such as withdrawal from interpersonal relationships, affective flat, idiosyncrasy mind, and disruption of social and personal function.
(Ginette Aubin, 2009:313-318). Given these symptoms indicate that the patient schizophrenia require the attention and empathy.
Usually most patients with schizophrenia experience a mixture of two kinds of positive and negative symptoms. Patients and their families often do not realize and do not pay attention to negative symptoms that arise because not considered annoying. (Dimitri, 2004:307-316).
When the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia are ignored or improperly treated, the effects can be devastating both to the individual with the disorder and those around him or her. Some of the possible effects of schizophrenia are:
a. Relationship problems. Relationships suffer because people with schizophrenia often withdraw and isolate themselves. Paranoia can also cause a person with schizophrenia to be suspicious of friends and family.
c. Alcohol and drug abuse. People with schizophrenia frequently develop problems with alcohol or drugs, which are often used in an attempt to self-medicate, or relieve symptoms. In addition, they may also be heavy smokers, a complicating situation as cigarette smoke can interfere with the effectiveness of medications prescribed for the disorder.
d. Increased suicide risk. People with schizophrenia have a high risk of attempting suicide. Any suicidal talk, threats, or gestures should be taken very seriously. People with schizophrenia are especially likely to commit suicide during psychotic episodes, during periods of depression, and in the first six months after they’ve started treatment. (P.W. Robert, www.helpguide.org)
3. The Relation Between Literature and Psychology
In certain cases, knowledge of psychology is important to add artistic values because the knowledge supports the coherency and complexity of the work itself. For some artists, a knowledge of psychology helps their sense about reality, improve their ability in observation, and gives chance to explore new plans which have not been explored before.
The literary approach which used in analyzing the literary work according to Guerin (1979:19-286) divided to some approaches, which one of them is psychological approach.
Psychological interpretation can afford many profound clues toward solving a work’s thematic and symbolic mysteries, but it can seldom account for the symmetry of a well wrought poem or a fictional masterpiece. The psychological approach concerns with the motives that underlying human behavior. It is close to biological science.
C. Theoretical Framework
Theory of character is used to know how the character is described by the author. In the Perfume, the writer will find out the depiction of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille as the major character in the writer’s discussion. Here, the theory of characterization is also needed to reveal what kinds of character are presented in the novel.
To get deeper understanding to the personality of the characters discussed, the writer applies schizophrenia’s theory
19 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY
A. Object of the Study
The novel that the writer analyzes in this thesis is Patrick Süskind’s
Perfume, a psychological behavior novel, reflects upon the will to overcome an unspeakable tragedy. Süskind lives reclusively in Munich, Paris, and Montolieu, France. He has refused awards for his writing, and he is known to never grant interviews.
The book quickly attracted favorable attention, but no one could have predicted the success in the store for it, moreover the six publishers had had originally rejected it.
B. Approach of the Study
To evaluate the novel, the writer took the psychological approach. The writer used the psychological approach since the thesis dealt with the character personality needs. According to Rohrberger and woods, Jr. in their book, reading and writing about literature, psychological approach involves the effort to locate and demonstrate certain recurrent patterns. It draws on a different body of knowledge that is psychology (1971:13).
Psychological approach is applied when the attention is focused on psychological interpretation for enhancing the understanding and appreciation of literature. It analyzes the psychological side of the character’s personality to find the characteristic of the main character. This approach helps the writer to explain personality side of the characters needs in the novel.
C. Method of the Study
To compose the thesis, the writer applied some necessary research procedures, which were divided into some steps. The first step was reading the novel itself, Perfume, which was created by Patrick Süskind as the primary source. By reading and re-reading the novel, the writer came into formulated problems into questions. The second step was collecting in the data resources from the library. In this way, the writer collected the books that could support the analysis.
The third step was answering the questions in problem formulation by applying the psychological approach, mainly about intrinsic elements in general. The writer analyzed how the main characters behavior was affect much with his past experiences which is his family background.
22 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS
In this chapter will be analyzed and discussed the character and mental disorder of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille and the ways he deals with issues of his life as told in novels written by Patrick Süskind Perfume. In this case, it would identify the problems of characteristics of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille and the relation of his characteristics with the Schizophrenia. After that, the cause and the symptoms of Schizophrenia will be used to analyze how the Schizophrenia can be reflected on the characteristics of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille.
A. The Characteristic of Main Character
1. Anti Social
When human has some differences with others, it can make them feel alienated. This is also happened to Jean-Baptiste Grenouille. Because of his lack of body odor and the ability in his sense of smell, people around him are rejecting him as a normal human.
Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is realizing that the society will reject and hate him because of his unique ability and his lack of body odor. Jean-Baptiste Grenouille pull himself from the social life because he assumes that if he pull him self, he will not get hurt by others. It can be seen from the quotation below.
“The young Grenouille was such a tick. He lived encapsulated in himself and waited for better times. He gave the world nothing but his dung--no smile, no cry, no glimmer in the eye, not even his own scent. Every other woman would have kicked this monstrous child out” (p.11)
Once again, his character that is anti social is making him suffers Schizophrenia deeper and his characteristic is caused by the society who reject him as a normal person.
Grenouille is not only has a very good sense of smell, but also is a very good perfumer. There are some people who want him to be their partner because of his ability. Grenouille is a very ambitious person who will do anything to achieve his goal, no matter what the consequences are. In order to achieve its objectives, namely to become well-known perfumes and capable of making their own perfume, Grenouille becomes an apprentice to Madame Arnulfi a famous perfume in Grasse unconditionally at all.
“In short (as Grenouille had of course smelled for some time already): Madame Arnulfi was a woman of solid prosperity and sound business sense. And since he was not concerned about money and declared himself satisfied with a salary of two francs a week with the other niggardly provisions, they quickly came to an agreement.” (p.79-80).
From the quotation above, it is clear that to achieve his objectives, which are to be a great perfumer and make the perfect perfume, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille will do everything. He knew that he meant nothing to the people around him, but to get some respect and knowledge in complementary, he was apprenticed himself without pay at all.
“With a quick snips of his scissors, he cut open her nightgown, pulled it off, grabbed the oiled linen, and tossed it over her naked body, Then he lifted her up, tugged the overhanging cloth under her, rolled her up in it as a baker rolls strudel, tucking in the corners, enveloping her from toes up to brow. Only her hair still stuck out from the mummy cloths. He cut it off close to her scalp and packed it inside her nightgown, which he then tied up into a bundle. Finally, he took a piece of cloth still dangling free and flapped it over the shaved skull, smoothed down the overlapping ends, gently pressed it tight with a finger.
He examined the whole package. Not a slit, not a hole, not one bulging pleat was left through which the girl's scent could have escaped. She was perfectly packed. There was nothing to do but wait, for six hours, until the grey of dawn.” (p. 95).
Therefore, from the quote, it is clear that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille commits crimes, kill the victim and wrap them with oiled linen cloth to pick up scent in the same way he does for another twenty four victims. Looks like he knew exactly how to create a perfume made of human odor although the process takes hours, but he continued to wait patiently because he knew that his plan will not end in vain.
3. Cruel and Dangerous
It is no doubt that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is a cruel person. He kills more than twenty virgin in Paris only to take their body essence to be made for the perfect perfume. He treats his victim inhumanly. It is showed when he kills and then picks up their scent by a cruel way.
“He pushed up the casement, slipped into the room, and laid down his cloth. Then he turned to the bed. The dominant scent came from her hair, for she was lying on her stomach with her head pressed into the pillow and framed by the crook of her arm--presenting the back of her head in an almost ideal position for the blow by the club.
The sound of the blow was a dull, grinding thud. He hated it. He hated it solely because it was a sound, a sound in the midst of his otherwise soundless procedure. He could bear that gruesome sound only by clenching his teeth, and, after it was all over, standing off to one side stiff and implacable, as if he feared the sound would return from somewhere as a resounding echo. But it did not return, instead stillness returned to the room, an increased stillness in fact, for now even the shuffle of the girl's breathing had ceased. And at once Grenouille's tenseness dissolved (one might have interpreted it more as a posture of reverence or some sort of crabbed moment of silence) and his body fell back to a pliable ease.” (p.94)
Therefore, from the quote, it is clear that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille commits crimes, kill the victim and wrap them with oiled linen cloth to pick up scent in the same way he does for another twenty four victims. He kill them all and pick up their merely for fulfill his goal to make a perfect perfume, not for raping them.
Beside his ability to differentiate thousands kind of scent, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille actually is a genius in mixing scent. He can mixing the scent entirely from the evidence of his fractional smelling. It shows that he is not only a lover of scents, but actually a genius at identifying and understanding them.
There is one very good perfume named Amor and Psyche, which Jean-Baptiste Grenouille replicates, that is the most popular scent in Paris at the moment, and Baldini, the teacher of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille who has been making perfumes for a lifetime, cannot replicate it. Jean-Baptiste Grenouille who never had any training of making a perfume, can perform this impressive act.
"Hmm, hmm, hmm," said Baldini and nodded. Not in consent, but because he was in such a helplessly apathetic condition that he would have said "hmm, hmm, hmm," and nodded to anything. And he went on nodding and murmuring "hmm, hmm, hmm," and made no effort to interfere as Grenouille began to mix away a second time, pouring the alcohol from the demijohn into the mixing bottle a second time (right on top of the perfume already in it), tipping the contents of flacons a second time in apparently random order and quantity into the funnel. Only at the end of the procedure-- Grenouille did not shake the bottle this time, but swirled it about gently like a brandy glass, perhaps in deference to Baldini's delicacy, perhaps because the contents seemed more precious to him this time-- only then, as the liquid whirled about in the bottle, did Baldini awaken from his numbed state and stand up, the handkerchief still pressed to his nose, of course, as if he were arming himself against yet another attack upon his most private self. "It's all done, maitre," Grenouille said. "Now it's a really good scent." (p.37)
People who suffer Schizophrenia are not always brainless. He can be a genius person. It is can be seen on Jean-Baptiste Grenouille personality. Even he is a man who suffers mental disorder, he is still a genius person, especially in making perfume. So, it can be concluded that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is still a genius person even he suffers this kind of mental disorder.
B. Schizophrenia as Reflected in the Main Character
During the life of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille, as recounted in the novel's Perfume Patrick Süskind mentioned that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille experiencing psychological problems as very severe. He was worried because many people afraid of him and also consider him as a child who is quite dangerous for other children. Jean-Baptiste Grenouille realized if the outside world does not want his presence. But he felt sure, if he should live and dare to navigate the harsh life of this world. With so many problems he faced as a child to adolescence provide a sense of schizophrenia and restlessness which so deeply for him.
1. Causes of Schizophrenia of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille a. Genetic Factor
One of significant factor that can cause Schizophrenia to people is genetic factor. So when the parents of a baby suffer this mental disorder, the possibility the baby suffers Schizophrenia also become higher. It is no doubt that the mother of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is a cruel and irresponsible person. She does not care at all with all of her babies, especially Jean-Baptiste Grenouille. When Jean-Baptiste Grenouille was born, she hates him and has an intention to kill him at the first place since Jean-Baptiste Grenouille was unwanted child. He becomes unwanted child because he has no father and his mother doing free sex with a man which is not her husband.
“And since she confesses, openly admitting that she would definitely have let the thing perish, just as she had with those other four by the way, she is tried, found guilty of multiple infanticide, and a few weeks later decapitated at the place de Greve.”(p. 4)
b. Traumatic Childhood
Jean-Baptiste Grenouille experienced schizophrenia as a result of the fear, caused by his traumatic childhood that always haunt because he used to be a baby who is being dumped by his mother. His mother gave birth to the child of shame-free sex.
“He was as tough as a resistant bacterium and as content as a tick sitting quietly on a tree and living off a tiny drop of blood plundered years before. He required a minimum ration of food and clothing for his body.
For his soul he required nothing. Security, attention, tenderness, love--or whatever all those things are called that children are said to require--were totally dispensable for the young Grenouille. Or rather, so it seems to us, he had totally dispensed with them just to go on living--from the very start. The cry that followed his birth, the cry with which he had brought himself to people's attention and his mother to the gallows, was not an instinctive cry for sympathy and love. That cry, emitted upon careful consideration, one might almost say upon mature consideration, was the newborn's decision against love and nevertheless for life.” (p.11)
Mother's refusal to accept the birth of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille and his mother's lack of affection toward him as he obtained other kids causing schizophrenia for Jean-Baptiste Grenouille. This shows the failure of his mother to become a good mother to Jean-Baptiste Grenouille.
Furthermore, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille poor by the public about foster mother cared for from one to another foster mother, who are generally from the foster mother had objected to baby-Jean-Baptiste Grenouille, and eventually he was taken to an orphanage house owned by a woman named Madame Gaillard.
At the orphanage Madame Gaillard, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille experienced hard times and nearly killed by his friends. Starting at the first moment he was taken to an orphanage home, and went through a rough treatment by children in there. It is because they feel there is something wrong and feels there is an oddity with infant Jean-Baptiste Grenouille.
“Every other woman would have kicked this monstrous child out. But not Madame Gaillard, she could not smell that he did not smell, and she expected no stirrings from his soul, because her own was sealed tight. The other children, however, sensed at once what Grenouille was about. From the first day, the new arrival gave them the creeps. They avoided the box in which he lay and edged closer together in their beds as if it had grown colder in the room. The younger ones would sometimes cry out in the night; they felt a draught sweep through the room. Others dreamed something was taking their breath away. One day the older ones conspired to suffocate him. They piled rags and blankets and straw over his face and weighed it all down with bricks. (p.11)
In relation to the cause of schizophrenia Jean-Baptiste Grenouille came from outside, namely her mother, who makes opposition to its presence in the world, is a source of unhappiness for Jean-Baptiste Grenouille.
c. Lack of Love from Other People
At the orphanage, Jean Baptiste Grenouille was not happy; the other kids did not like him. Harsh environment orphanage with discipline, there was no love straight from Madame Gaillard, causing Schizophrenia for Jean Baptiste Grenouille.
In short, this kid is not happy at home orphanage is another reason that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is said to have experienced schizophrenia because, once again , the main impetus of the schizophrenia that comes from Jean-Baptiste Grenouille’s condition and environment which was so traumatic for him (unhappy childhood), this makes these characters end up having state of helplessness.
“A few weeks later, the wet nurse Jeanne Bussie stood, market basket in hand, at the gates of the cloister of Saint--Merri, and the minute they were opened by a bald monk of about fifty with a light odor of vinegar about him--Father Terrier--she said "There!" and set her market basket down on the threshold.
"What's that?" asked Terrier, bending down over the basket and sniffing at it, in the hope that it was something edible.
"The bastard of that woman from the rue aux Fers who killed her babies!"
The monk poked about in the basket with his finger till he had exposed the face of the sleeping infant.
"He looks good. Rosy pink and well nourished."
"Because he's stuffed himself on me. Because he's pumped me dry down to the bones. But I've put a stop to that. Now you can feed him yourselves with goat's milk, with pap, with beet juice. He'll gobble up anything, that bastard will." (p.5)
Here, the writer can see that how Jeanne Bussie really hates Jean-Baptiste Grenouille because of greed in sucking all the milk that can be used for three to four babies. It also shows how he is worried about baby Jean-Baptiste Grenouille rarity compared with other infants. The same action performed by Reverend Terrier head of the church and Madame Gaillard homeowners’ orphanage. Both told not so willingly accept the infant Jean-Baptiste Grenouille and tend to want to get rid of the baby Jean-Baptiste Grenouille out of their lives.
Reverend Terrier who is a qualified pastor realizes that the baby was not attractive, has no smell as the smell of normal infants, and infant Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is truly weird and wonderful. Reverend Terrier immediately send the baby to an orphanage Jean-Baptiste Grenouille Madame Gaillard, and with compulsion Madame Gaillard accept these strange baby although later Madame Gaillard Jean-Baptiste Grenouille felt that babies have some sort of sixth sense when he reached the age of eight years.
“Of course, he could not see any of these things with his eyes, but rather caught their scents with a nose that from day to day smelled such things more keenly and precisely: the worm in the cauliflower, the money behind a beam, and people on the other side of a wall or several blocks away. But Madame Gaillard would not have guessed that fact in her wildest dream, even if that blow with the poker had left her olfactory organ intact. She was convinced that, feebleminded or not, the lad had second sight. And since she also knew that people with second sight bring misfortune and death with them, he made her increasingly nervous. What made her more nervous still was the unbearable thought of living under the same roof with someone who had the gift of spotting hidden money behind walls and beams; and once she had discovered that Grenouille possessed this dreadful ability, she set about getting rid of him.” (p. 14)
Jean-Baptiste Grenouille was unhappy, feeling scared, feeling alienated, and feels neglected.
Overall, it is clear from the above description that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille has experienced bad life and it became one factor that cause Jean-Baptiste Grenouille suffers Schizophrenia.
2. Symptoms of Schizophrenia of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille
a. Inability to cry or express joy
As a normal person, a human should have any emotion, such as anger, sad, happy and others. Jean-Baptiste Grenouille as a person who suffers Schizophrenia, is unable to cry because of any emotion. In the novel, he is only show a very few emotion and he is very hardly to show his emotion.
“He could produce tears that welled up in the corners of his eyes and suddenly streamed down both sides of his nose.” (p. 59)
In life, Grenouille was never cried before, but this time he cries and it is caused by his anger when he realizes that the body odor of the girl he killed was gone. It is show that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is unable or hard to express his emotion, as the Schizophrenic person do. He only cries one time and this is the only time when he shows his emotion. It is clear that what Jean-Baptiste Grenouille does is one of symptoms of Schizophrenia, that is unable to cry and lack of emotion.
b. Extreme Reaction
When he would miss the smell of this valuable offering, he got panic and behaves irrationally.
“With his very first breath, he knew something was wrong. The atmosphere was not as it should be. In the city's aromatic garb, that veil of many thousands of woven threads, the golden thread was missing. During the last few weeks the fragrance of that thread had grown so strong that Grenouille had clearly discerned it from his cabin on the far side of the town. Now it was gone, vanished, and untraceable despite the most intensive sniffing Grenouille was almost paralyzed with fright. She is dead, he thought. Then, more terrifying still someone else has got to her before me. Someone else has plucked my flower and taken its odor for himself! He could not so much as scream, the shock was too great for that, but he could produce tears that welled up in the corners of his eyes and suddenly streamed down both sides of his nose.” (p.48-49)
It is clear from the quotation above that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille really gets panic knowing that the main goal was gone. As a result of panic reactions, he is crying. In this case, he cries not because he killed the girl, but because he lost the scent of the girl. This extreme reaction is done by abnormal person, in this case, a person who suffers Schizophrenia.
c. Social withdrawal
“As he began to withdraw from them, it became clear to Grenouille for the first time that for eighteen years their compacted human effluvium had oppressed him like air heavy with an imminent thunderstorm. Until now he had thought that it was the world in general he wanted to squirm away from. But it was not the world; it was the people in it. You could live, so it seemed, in this world, in this world devoid from humanity.” (p. 120)
Although people around him did not threaten him, but because of his delusion, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille always feel threatened. He worried about the people around will threaten and endanger himself. He feared that they would do something bad to him and actually interfere with life itself.
Thus, bad thoughts of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille, that the fear of someone doing something harmful to him has become a pressure on his mind and to feel safe, he took a long trip far out of Paris, so he avoid the people that he considers to be threatened himself.
Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is also pull out him self out of the society by living in the cave for seven years and live in his own. Jean-Baptiste Grenouille found his own world and life in itself that is in the cave as stated in the novel.
It is undeniable that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is feeling comfortable to escape from the outside world and live in the cave itself as the world itself is far from its outside environment. In addition to closing himself in the cave, another indicator of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille’s social withdrawal is in the form of dreaming. In some parts of the novel, Grenouille is found that, when sleeping in the cave, always have a dream that pleases him who can be seen in the quotation below.
“Yes! This was his empire! The incomparable Empire of Grenouille! Created and ruled over by him, the incomparable Grenouille, laid waste by him if he so chose and then rose up again, made boundless by him and defended with a flaming sword against every intruder. Her; there was naught but his will, the will of the great, splendid, incomparable Grenouille.
And now that the evil stench of the past had been swept away, he desired that his empire be fragrant. And with mighty strides he passed across the fallow fields and sowed fragrance of all kinds, wastefully here, sparingly there, in plantations of endless dimension and in small, intimate parcels, strewing seeds by the fistful or tucking them...To the furthermost regions of his empire, Grenouille the great, the frantic gardener, hurried, and soon there was not a cranny left into which he had not thrown a seed of fragrance.” (p. 80)
d. Hostility or suspiciousness
In the mind of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille, he thinks that people hate him. Actually, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille himself who is builds the feeling which can be seen in the quotation below.
“As he began to withdraw from them, it became clear to Grenouille for the first time that for eighteen years their compacted human effluvium had oppressed him like air heavy with an imminent thunderstorm. Until now he had thought that it was the world in general he wanted to squirm away from. But it was not the world; it was the people in it. You could live, so it seemed, in this world, in this world devoid from humanity.” (p. 90)
From these quotations, it is clear that although the people around not really a threat to him, massive fear that they will do something bad to him. s
Other evidence that show how Jean-Baptiste Grenouille tries to reduce schizophrenia is to build the idea that the number of persons responsible for bothering to be seen when the dialogue was having flashbacks of reciprocity in the cave.
The quotation above shows the things that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille meets in his life. Although the event seems to have an important role in his life, but he thinks that they all end up with hatred against him. This has been formed in his mind that people hate him, even it was he himself who built the feeling that as a defense in his face the outside world. It also become one of the symptoms of Schizophrenia where the Schizophrenic is full of hate in his mind since he thinks that no one is good to him.
A feeling of fear that grows in the soul of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is a schizophrenia that grows worse than thought in his obsession. Feelings of fear have been increased with the intensity of fear itself, which appear just in his mind, create delusion in his mind. It can be dangerous because the people who have delusion will believe that everything he does or thinks are correct. According to Jean-Baptiste Grenouille belief, there is great danger threatens that the intensity of fear will be great.
The girl has a fragrant smell, so balanced, and so miraculous than any perfume that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille has ever known before. With trembling Jean-Baptiste Grenouille wants to have the odor of perfume-making next.
“Grenouille knew for certain that unless he possessed this scent, his life would have no meaning. She was so frozen with terror at the sight of him that he had plenty of time to put his hands to her throat. She did not attempt to cry out, did not budge, did not make the least motion to defend herself, He, in turn, did not look at her, did not see her delicate, freckled face, her red lips, her large sparkling green eyes, keeping his eyes closed tight as he strangled her, for he had only one concern - not to lose the least trace of her scent.” (p.44)
From the quotation above, it is immediately obvious that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is really worried about losing her wonderful scent. This is because Jean-Baptiste Grenouille realizes that he has no personal scent, so he must kill the girl and the girl's body odor is always borne in mind. Jean-Baptiste Grenouille fear not for murder but he fear that he could make a perfume with the scent of the body of the girl.
Other evidence that shows delusion of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is when he sniffed himself in the cave to keep his distance from human scent which he considers as a disgusting smell that he should avoid. This is the place where he built his own world.
Fear arises when he went out to look for food. He felt as if he was haunted by the smell of humans, so that daily life must be done quickly and accurately.
“He went to his watering spot, licked the moisture from the wall, for an hour, for two; it was pure torture. Time would not end, time in which the real world scorched his skin. He ripped a few scraps of moss from the stones, choked them down, squatted, shitting as he ate - it must all be done quickly, quickly, quickly. He ran back to his cave, to the end of the tunnel where his horse blanket was spread. There he was safe at last.” (p.36)
The above quote shows that he cannot be separated for a long time from a safe place himself because he felt that it was dangerous to be out there in the real world for the world will harm him. This fear made him act irrationally when he must make a quick meal.
Still another evidence of the delusion is when he had nightmares in the seven-year retreat in a cave. This dream is really a sign that he has no smell.
“And the awful thing was that Grenouille, although he knew that this odor was his odor, could not smell it. Virtually drown in himself; he could not for the life of him smell himself!
down the winding tunnel, out into the world, and far across the high plains of Saint-Flour - as if the mountain itself was screaming. And Grenouille awoke at his own scream. In waking, he trashed about as if he had to drive off the odorless fog trying to suffocate him. He was deathly afraid, his whole body shook with the raw fear of death.” (p.38-39)
From these quotations, we see that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is really worried after knowing that he has no personal scent. This fear causes him to act irrationally, like he wanted to shout loud and torn from the fog only to ensure that it does not really happen.
It is clear from these examples that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille has experienced great delusion since he wants to have beautiful scenery which is owned by the girl in the rue des Marais. In addition, the experience of nightmares in the cave is also a sign that he really has no smell. Accordingly, his consciousness and fear of more attacks he gets so irrational that he finally committed a crime.
There is also an example of schizophrenia that appears in the character of Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is schizophrenia due to delusion of persecution (bad thought).
Without realizing it, and without deliberate, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille hates every man whom he met, hate the environment, and also hate to other things. Jean-Baptiste Grenouille’s character is revealed in the paragraph below:
“For his soul he required nothing. Security, attention, tenderness, love--or whatever all those things are called that children are said to require--were totally dispensable for the young Grenouille. Or rather, so it seems to us, he had totally dispensed with them just to go on living--from the very start. The cry that followed his birth, the cry with which he had brought himself to people's attention and his mother to the gallows, was not an instinctive cry for sympathy and love. That cry, emitted upon careful consideration, one might almost say upon mature consideration, was the newborn's decision against love and nevertheless for life. Under the circumstances, the latter was possible only without the former, and had the child demanded both, it would doubtless have abruptly come to a grisly end. Of course, it could have grabbed the other possibility open to it and held its peace and thus have chosen the path from birth to death without a detour by way of life, sparing itself and the world a great deal of mischief. But to have made such a modest exit would have demanded a modicum of native civility, and that Grenouille did not possess. He was an abomination from the start.” (p.122)
This indicates that from childhood Jean Baptiste Grenouille was not liked by those around him, feeling will always be removed by anyone. Everyone is a danger for him, and his life is always threatened. He also realizes that his body does not smell as other children. And everyone always says that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille is not human.
But, all of the things that actually can heal him are undone. He keeps out himself of the society, no one understand him and he get no any medical treatment.
Actually, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille has done some things to make the society to validate his presence as a normal human. He realizes that he has no role in society. So he tries to recover and secure conditions with convincing himself that he was capable of making his own perfume. This can be seen when he was apprenticed at the famous first perfumer in Paris, namely Giuseppe Baldini, to equip them with good social status and knowledge as Giuseppe Baldini had.
Because this scents is going to make people love him and consider him as a normal person. He does not care about how long the fragrance will last and he also does not care about any way he takes to make it happen, even if he has to kill a lot of people. What he thinks as the most important thing is that he has a personal odor so that people in the world will confess him as a normal person who has a normal body odor.
In short, Jean-Baptiste Grenouille has experienced tough times during his life. From the beginning of his life, he has to feel harsh life caused by the people around him and unhappy life caused by his delusion. He feels that this world does not need him.
This thesis is associated with psychological problems that Jean-Baptiste Grenouille has as a person who suffers Schizophrenia. His Schizophrenia is caused by external cause and internal cause. He also has some symptoms that clearly show him as a person with Schizophrenia. These symptoms combination is only can be found on the people who suffer Schizophrenia.
49 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION
This thesis analyzes one of the best-selling novels written by Patrick Süskind entitled Perfume. This novel tells the story of Jean Baptiste Grenouille, a person who was born without personal odor and a person who has a unique ability to smell and remember the every scent in the world. Besides, he has a great obsession of his desire to have the perfect perfume and this lead him to become a serial murderer.
Born in a chaos family, has no father, unwanted birth, unhealthy environment, and unhappy childhood make this person grow into an introvert person and has abnormal and radical paradigm. His character is formed by his strong and cruel environment. After years live in that kind of environment, he became a person who are ambitious, strong, and cruel and dare to do anything to fulfill his obsession.
From the whole analysis, the writer concluded that the character of main character which are genius in making perfume, ambitious in legalize everything to get what he wants, and other things that show him suffers mental disorder. This kind of mental disorder is caused by some things, like childhood traumatic, less attention form the parent, unsupported social environment, unhealthy life environment, and many more.
Through analysis also, the writer can conclude that a person who suffers Schizophrenia can be seen from his character, the way he thinks, and the way he acts during his life. A person with Schizophrenia actually can be healed as long as long as his family or the society around him help and support him, beside the medical treatment that should be given.
The writer thinks that it is important to protect children from condition that could cause traumatic. It is observed in the novel that the trauma may bring a major influence on child development. Moreover, people who do not support and surroundings can carry significant influence toward the children’s personality. Someone could be so scared and tense with the society because of bad treatment he got from the society.
Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Holt, Richard and Winston Inc. 1981.
Baldick, Christ. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Barnard, Robert. A Short History of English Literature. Great Britain: Basil Blackwell Publisher Ltd., 1984.
Beth Farrell, Portage Cty. Dist. Lib., Ohio. Copyright 1997 Reed Business Information, Inc.
David A. Curson, Peter J. Duke, Carol A. Harvey, Christos Pantelis, and Thomas R.E. Barnes. 1999. Four behavioral syndromes of schizophrenia: a replication in a second inner-London epidemiological sample. Schizophrenia Research, Vol 37, pp. 165-176.
Dimitri Perivoliotis, Eric Granholm, and Thomas L. Patterson. 2004.
Psychosocial functioning on the Independent Living Skills Survey in older outpatients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, Vol 69, pp. 307-316.
E.M. Macdonald, H.J. Jackson, R.L. Hayes, A.J. Baglioni, Jr, and C. Madden. 1998. Social skill as a determinant of social networks and perceived social support in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, Vol 29, pp. 275-286.
Ginette Aubin, Emmanuel Stip, Isabelle Gelinas, Constant Rainville, Christine Chapparo. 2009. Daily activities, cognition and community functioning in persons with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, Vol 107, pp. 313-318.
Guerin, Wilfred, et al. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. New York: Harper and Row Publisher, Inc, 1979.
Guerin, Wilfred L. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. Oxford University Press, 1992.
Holman, Hugh and Harmon, William. A Handbook to Literature. New York: the Macmillan Press, Ltd., 1986.
Nirmal Saraswat, Kiran Rao, D.K. Subbakrishna, B.N. Gangadhar. 2006. The
Social Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFS): A brief measure of functional status in persons with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, Vol 81, pp. 301-309.
Peggy El-Mallakh. 2006. Evolving Self-Care in Individuals with Schizophrenia and Diabetes Mellitus. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, Vol 20, pp. 55-56.
Samekto, S.S. Ikhtisar Sejarah Kesusasteraan Inggris. Jakarta: Daya Widya. Silver, Steven H. Reviewed of Perfume by Patrick Süskind Translated by John E.
Woods Washington Square Books 0-671-749609-9. 1986.
Murphy, M. J., Phd. Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Literature and the English Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1972.
Stanton Robert. An Introduction to Fiction. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, inc, 1965.
Warrick J. Brewer, Jane Edwards, Vicki Anderson, Tim Robinson, and Christos Pantelis. 1996. Neuropsychological, Olfactory, and Hygiene Deficits in Men with Negative Symptom Schizophrenia. Society of Biological Psychiatry, Vol 40, pp.1021-1031
Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren. Theory of Literature. London: Penguins Books, Ltd 1963.
Summary of the novel
Grenouille is born to a fishwife mother in Paris in the early eighteenth century. He is delivered behind his mother's fish stall and is immediately abandoned to die. The baby, who strangely has no scent, cries out and is saved by onlookers. His mother is executed for this attempt and for her previously successful infanticides, leaving Grenouille, a bastard, alone in the world. He is brought up in a sort of home orphanage, tended together with several other orphans by an emotionally damaged woman named Madame Gaillard. At the age of eight he is given in apprenticeship to a tanner, Grimal, where he is almost worked to death. After having survived anthrax, and thus becoming more useful in a tannery, he is treated marginally better and is given some slight freedom. Grenouille roams the city of Paris, searching for new scents, because he has the most gifted nose in the world.
On one of his olfactory jaunts around the city, Grenouille finds the most delicious scent he has ever encountered, that of a adolescent girl. He finds her scent from a long distance, and he follows it until he is very near her in the dark. She senses him, and as she turns around to see him he strangles her. He then takes the opportunity to smell her scent to his heart's content. It is the happiest he has ever been. He leaves the body and feels no remorse.
One night he delivers some goatskins to Baldini the perfumer. He begs the old man to let him work for him, after showing the master that he has a wonderful nose and a great memory for mixing perfumes. Baldini is so impressed with the scent that Grenouille creates that he buys his apprenticeship from Grimal. While working for Baldini, Grenouille makes the best scents Paris has ever smelled, and Baldini becomes very rich. Grenouille falls ill again, but he survives once Baldini tells him there are other ways to distill and preserve scents to be learned in the south of France. This news revives Grenouille, and he lives. Eventually he leaves Baldini to go learn distillation methods in Grasse.
On the way to Grasse, Grenouille makes a detour for seven years to a mountain cave, where he ponders the scents he has known in his life thus far. Descending from the mountain looking like a wild man, he is rehabilitated by a slightly mad pseudo-scientist nobleman who believes that he is a prime example of a vicitm of fluidum letale. After a farce of a scientific "proof" is enacted, Grenouille slips away and goes to Grasse.