Exotic method effect on the readability of Hercule Poirot`s dialogues in three Agatha Christie`s Indonesian translated novels - USD Repository

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI EXOTIC METHOD EFFECT ON THE READABILITY OF HERCULE POIROT’S DIALOGUES IN THREE AGATHA CHRISTIE’S INDONESIAN TRANSLATED NOVELS AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By YOHANES PASKALIS PAE DALE Student Number: 104214057 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 i

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ii

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI iii

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis Yogyakarta, September 15, 2014 Yohanes Paskalis Pae Dale iv

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertandatangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma Nama Nomor Mahasiswa : Yohanes Paskalis Pae Dale : 104214057 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul EXOTIC METHOD EFFECT ON THE READABILITY OF HERCULE POIROT’S DIALOGUES IN THREE AGATHA CHRISTIE’S INDONESIAN TRANSLATED NOVELS beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Danata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan, dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikannya secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal 15 September 2014 Yang menyatakan, Yohanes Paskalis Pae Dale v

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI “One dies only if he's not anymore in the hearts and minds of those who know him.” -Eichiro Oda vi

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to thank my Jesus Christ for His blessing on me in the whole process of my undergraduate thesis writing. My grateful thanks are expressed to my great advisor, Harris Hermansyah S., S.S., M.Hum., who spent his time to help me finish this undergraduate thesis with his all bright suggestions. My grateful thanks are also expressed to Dr. B. Ria Lestari, M.Sc. as my co-advisor and the First Examiner, Adventina Putranti, S.S., M.Hum., during the second process of this thesis writing and my thesis defense. I also want to thank all lecturers of English Letters Department USD for multifarious knowledge they have given to me during my study period in Sanata Dharma University. This gratitude is also addressed to staff of Faculty of Letters for helping me during this process. Furthermore, I would like to give grateful thanks to my beloved parents for such great supports, prayers, care, and love; to my mother who always keeps me remember with this thesis, and to my father who patiently reminds me to pray for my success. I also want to thank both of my sisters for their time and supports to me, especially in teaching me how to deal with the MS. Word and other technical matters. Lastly, my great gratitude is addressed for all my perky friends, especially those from 2010 year for supporting me and becoming my discussions field during my thesis writing. May God bless and gives grace to us all. I can say we are the best in supporting each other. Inspired by a singer named Jason Mraz, I want to invite you to do what he says in one of his songs, to “live high, live mighty, live righteously.” vii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE .................................................................................................... i APPROVAL PAGE .......................................................................................... ii ACCEPTANCE PAGE ..................................................................................... iii STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ................................................................ iv LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ........ v MOTTO PAGE ................................................................................................. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................ vii TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................. viii ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................... x ABSTRAK........................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .................................................................... A. Background of the Study .......................................................................... B. Problem Formulation ................................................................................ C. Objectives of the Study ............................................................................ D. Definition of Terms .................................................................................. 1 1 5 5 6 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................................ 8 A. Review of Related Studies........................................................................ 8 1. The Accuracy and Readability of Domesticated and Foreignized Translation of Specific Words in Stephenie Meyer‟s Twilght into Indonesian Translation Twilight by Devita Sari ..................................... 8 2. “A Study on The Translation of The Christian-Related Term in The Constitution of The Sisters of Notre Dame” ........................................... 9 3. “Translation Quality Assessment on the Accuracy, Naturleness, and Acceptability of the Translation of Leo Tolstoy‟s „After the Dance‟ into „Setelah Pesta Dansa‟ by Anton Kurnia .................................................. 10 B. Review of Related Theories ..................................................................... 11 1. Theories of Translation............................................................................. 11 2. Translation Readability ............................................................................ 14 3. Translation Methods ................................................................................. 17 C. Theoretical Frameworks ........................................................................... 21 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ................................................................ A. Areas of Research ..................................................................................... B. Object of the Study ................................................................................... C. Method of the Study ................................................................................. D. Research Procedure .................................................................................. 1. Types of Data ........................................................................................... a. Objective Data ..................................................................................... b. Affective Data ...................................................................................... 2. Data Collection ......................................................................................... a. TL Text Analysis ................................................................................. b. Questionnaires ...................................................................................... viii 23 23 23 24 25 25 26 27 29 29 30

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3. Population and Sample ............................................................................. 33 4. Data Analysis............................................................................................ 35 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS ....................... A. The Readability of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa ................... 1. Exotic Method on Christie‟s TL Novels ............................................ 2. The Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Three Agatha Christie‟s TL Novels ......................................................................... a. The Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd ........................................................................ b. The Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Tirai .................. c. The Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa ................................................................ 40 B. The Effect of Exotic Method on the Readability of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Three Christie‟s TL Novels ................................................................ 1. The Effect of Exotic Method in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd ... 2. The Effect of Exotic Method in Tirai ................................................. 3. The Effect of Exotic Method in Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa .......................................................................................... 48 49 58 63 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ........................................................................ BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................. APPENDICES ................................................................................................... Appendix 1: Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd ........ Appendix 2: Poirot‟s Dialogues in Tirai ...................................................... Appendix 3: Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa 70 73 76 76 80 82 ix 38 39 39 41 43 44

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT DALE, YOHANES PASKALIS PAE. Exotic Method Effect on the Readability of Hercule Poirot’s Dialogues in Three Agatha Christie’s Indonesian Translated Novels. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. This undergraduate thesis focuses on the discussion of a translation method named exotic method which affects the readability of three Indonesian translated novels written by Agatha Christie, titled Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. These three novels are translated by three different translators, but it is indicated that exotic method of translation coined by Hervey and Higgins is applied in translating these three novels. By the application of that method, the French terms in the dialogues of a main character in those novels named Hercule Poirot are not translated. This exotic translation form brings effects on the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues part, especially for the target language reader who are Indonesian who do not speak in foreign language (in this case, the foreign language is French). There are two problem formulations in this undergraduate thesis. The first formulated problem is about the readability of Hercule Poirot‟s dialogues in three Christie‟s Indonesian translated novels. The second problem evaluates the effect of applying exotic method in translating three Christie‟s novels from English into Indonesian that are seen on the readers. These two problem formulations are also dealing with the examination of the selected data on target language readers to find out the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues and to analyze the effect of applying exotic method. The method used in this research is the qualitative method that mostly implicates empirical or field research, although the library research is also done in selecting data for analysis. The empirical research is done to find out the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues and to analyze the effect of applying exotic method. This empirical research includes the process of compiling affective data through questionnaires. There are two analysis results in this research. The first result of this research is the average scale 1.8 for the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues in three Christie‟s Indonesian translated novels. Based on readability-rating instrument, it means Poirot‟s dialogues are in level „quite readable‟. It is concluded in the field research on the readers using twenty three selected data. The second result reveals there are two effects seen on target language readers in reading Christie‟s Indonesian translated novels caused by applying exotic method in translating those novels. The first is the reader‟s misinterpretation in understanding Poirot‟s purpose, and the second is that the readers skip French terms in reading Poirot‟s dialogues. The result of data comparison in the analysis supports the form of exotic translation suggested by the researcher, that additional translation in exotic translation text can upgrade the readability of the target language text. x

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK DALE, YOHANES PASKALIS PAE. Exotic Method Effect on the Readability of Hercule Poirot’s Dialogues in Three Agatha Christie’s Indonesian Translated Novels. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2013. Skripsi ini membahas pengaruh penerapan metode penerjemahan bernama exotic method (metode eksotis) terhadap keterbacaan tiga novel karya Agatha Christie yang diterjemahkan ke dalam versi Indonesia, berjudul Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, dan Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. Ketiga novel itu diterjemahkan oleh tiga penerjemah yang berbeda, namun telah diindikasi bahwa metode penerjemahan eksotis yang dicetuskan Hervey dan Higgins telah diterapkan dalam penerjemahan ketiga novel itu. Karena penerapan metode itu, istilah Prancis dalam dialog tokoh bernama Hercule Poirot tidak diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia. Terjemahan eksotis seperti itu mempengaruhi keterbacaan dialog Poirot, khususnya bagi pembaca bahasa sasaran yang tidak memahami istilah asing yang muncul dalam dialog Poirot (yang dalam objek penelitian ini adalah istilah bahasa Prancis). Ada dua permasalahan yang dibahas dalam skripsi ini. Permasalahan pertama adalah seberapa terbacanya dialog Hercule Poirot dalam ketiga novel terjemahan karya Agatha Christie yang dibahas. Permasalah kedua membahas pengaruh yang ditimbulkan penerapan metode eksotis dalam penerjemahan ketiga novel karya Agatha Christie dari bahasa Inggris ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia yang merupakan bahasa sasaran. Kedua permasalahan ini juga melibatkan pengujian data utama kepada pembaca untuk menemukan tingkat keterbacaan dialog Poirot, serta untuk menganalisa pengaruh penerapan metode terjemahan eksotis. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode kualitatif yang menitikberatkan studi lapangan, walau studi pustaka juga dilakukan untuk menyaring data yang akan dianalisis. Studi lapangan ini juga dilakukan untuk menentukan keterbacaan dialog Poirot dan untuk menganalisis pengaruh penerapan metode eksotis. Studi lapangan ini meliputi pengumpulan data afektif melalui kuesioner. Terdapat dua hasil analisis dalam penelitian ini. Hasil pertama adalah skala rata-rata 1.8 untuk keterbacaan dialog Poirot dalam tiga novel terjemahan tersebut, yang berdasarkan tabel tingkat keterbacaan berada pada level „cukup terbaca‟. Hal ini disimpulkan dari analisis lapangan terhadap dua puluh tiga data yang diujikan pada para pembaca. Hasil kedua menunjukkan adanya dua pengaruh utama yang ditemukan pada para pembaca teks sasaran yang disebabkan penerapan metode eksotis dalam menerjemahkan ketiga novel tersebut. Pengaruh pertama adalah kesalahan pembaca dalam menafsirkan maksud pembicaraan Poirot. Pengaruh kedua adalah para pembaca melewatkan istilah-istilah Prancis yang muncul saat membaca dialog Poirot. Hasil perbandingan data dalam analisis mendukung bentuk terjemahan eksotis lain yang disarankan oleh penulis, yaitu bentuk penerjemahan eksotis dengan terjemahan tambahan yang dapat meningkatkan keterbacaan. xi

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Translation has been used commonly as one kind of communication media to bridge a gap between two different language and cultures. It means that one language in a text can be replaced by another language as the target so it can be understood by people who speak in the target language. Until now, translation has been used in many fields which include writing delivery message. Many kinds of text like journals, newspaper or magazines, bible, and literary works can be translated so they can be read not only in one language. Translation, if it seen from a translator‟s perspective, is not just noted as a result or product of a language transfer, but more as a process. In terms of translation as a process, it can cover the method, strategy, technique, procedure, ideology, and some other aspect of translating a language. It will be explained that translation method is the main point of this research, on how it relates with a kind of translation problem found in translated text. A text is explained as stretch or writing produced in a given language to make a coherent whole (Hervey & Higgins, 1992; 14). Any kinds of text can be translated into many languages. Usually it is done to help the particular texts go abroad. Literary works are one kind of text that always popular among people. Narrative literary works like novels are usually sold abroad to gain more popularity, and for that the novels have to be published in many languages. It 1

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 means they have to be translated first. But, literary works are one kind of text that has own complexity in its translation process. In translating a literary work like novels, the translator needs to deal not just with the grammatical aspects, but also the cultural aspect and the essence contained in each language expression on the source language text. This matter is also found in the process of translating bible, but this study discusses about the novels as one kind of narrative literary text. In some English-Indonesian translation novels written by a famous English crime writer, Agatha Christie (1890-1976), we can find out that some French terms in the dialogues of one main character named Hercule Poirot are not translated into TL (target language) which is Indonesian. The French terms are written as well as its original form in the SL (source language) version novels which are written in English. It is found in most of Christie‟s novels which involve Hercule Poirot as one of the characters in the related story of the novels. In addition, the French terms appeared in Hercule Poirot‟sdialogues are caused by the social background of this character. He is created as a former Belgian police and has problem with his English, it seen in many of his dialogues and it becomes his particularity that seen in each of his appearance. By how the French terms are delivered in TL novels, the researcher defines that a translation method named by Hervey and Higgins (1992) as exotic method is applied in translating the SL version novels. The following Poirot‟s dialogue found in Agatha Christie‟s novels can exemplify the exotic method applied in it:

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 Source Language (English): “Ah!” cried Poirot, “never will my English be quite perfect. A curious language. I should then have said disarranged, n’est-ce pas? “ Target Language (Indonesian): “Ah!” keluh Poirot, “bahasa Inggrisku tidak akan pernah beres. Bahasa yang ganjil. Seharusnya aku mengatakan mengacau, n’est-ce pas?” (from Agatha Christie‟s The Murder of Roger Ackroyd and Pembunuhan Atas Roger Ackroyd-translated by Maria Regina). By what are revealed above, the form of Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s TL novels have strong possibility to cause readability problem among readers who do not speak French and it may be difficult for them to understand the context and meaning of the dialogues. Like in the quotation above, the TL (Indonesian) readers who do not speak French will not understand the meaning of n‘est-ce pas, butit keeps written without any translation. In this research, that kind of translation is done with purpose by the translators of related novels. Hervey and Higgins, in Thinking French Translation, state that all texts are produced for a purpose, and so it becomes a thoughtful consideration and rational reason to choose the right methods and practices in translating the SL text (1992; 14). It is considered that the terms are not translated in order to keep the style of the character and also the story in the novel itself. The story essence is also main point needed to be delivered clearly, and as the foreign terms exotically appear in Poirot‟s dialogue, the TL readers will get the same nuance as what SL text delivers. The exotic translated Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s TL novels certainly can lead readability problem for TL readers, but instead of assuming that form as

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 the lack of the TT (target text) which has been translated from the SL text, this research considers it as a part of the translation process, furthermore as an effect of a translation. It can be seen that Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s TL novels are translated using the exotic method. The readability problem for the readers in reading the TL novels is caused by the application of this method, and it is the basic concern of this study. Based on the idea that the difficulty for TL readers in reading Christie‟s TL novels is to understand the context of Poirot‟s dialogues containing French terms (or what we can call Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues), this study is purposed to learn the impact of applying exotic method in translating text. In which, it is revealed by studying the readability of the translated text. In readeroriented scope, this study gathers affective data which will be used to support this thesis. Eventually, by this study, people can learn more about how observable the problems of readability that are found in TT as the result of applying exotic method in translating ST (source text). Translators can have more consideration on deciding a translation method to translate text, such as novels. The topic is not studied from all of Agatha Christie‟s novels. Hercule Poirot appears in more than thirty of Christie‟s novels, but this study is narrowed only on three of Christie‟s translated novels, which are; Pembunuhan atas Roger Akcroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. This study takes those three novels as objects by the consideration that the French terms in Poirot‟s dialogues in those three translated novels are appeared in various word forms like pronouns, phrases, expressions, and proverb. Concerning to the topic, it highly

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 leads readability problems among TL readers in understanding Poirot‟s dialogues. Besides, the data taken from those three novels are enough in order to answer the formulated problems and conclude this study. B. Problem Formulation From the background of the study, this study formulates the problems as follows: 1. How is the readability of Hercule Poirot‘s dialogues in TL (Indonesian) version of three Agatha Christie‟s novels? 2. What is the effect of applying exotic method in translating three Agatha Christie‟s novels on TL readers? C. Objectives of the Study As shown above, this study has two objectives. First is to find out the readability of Hercule Poirot‟s dialogues in three Agatha Christie‟s Indonesian translated novels. The result of the first objective is used to identify and recognize the readability problem on those novels, specifically for the TL readers in reading Poirot‟s dialogues, and so to measure the application of exotic methods in translating those three novels. The second objective is to evaluate what effect of applying exotic method in translating those three Agatha Christie‟s novels that are seen on the TL readers, relating to the application of the method of translation identified in the first problem formulation.

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 D. Definition of Terms The following explanations are the definition of some particular terms that used by the writer: Translation Method: Molina and Albir (2002: 507) described a translation method as the way of how a translation process can be done related to the purpose of the translation itself. Translation method affects the whole text. Exotic method: By Hervey and Higgins (1992), exotic method defined as the signaling cultural foreignness, where TT marked by exoticism is consistent to use grammatical and cultural features imported from ST with very minimal adaptation (1992: 34). It is also called exoticism. The method itself related to the way or system of how the defined exotic feature applied in a translation process on a text. Readability: By the definition stated by Richards (1985: 238) in Teori Menerjemah Bahasa Inggris by Nababan (1999: 62), readability is how easily written materials can be read and understood. Target Language (TL): Hervey and Higgins describe target language (TL) as the language into which the original text is to be translated (1992: 15). In this research, the Christie‟s translated novels as the target text are written in Indonesian, therefore the TL is Indonesian. Source Language (SL): In Dictionary of Translation Studies (Shuttleworth & Cowie, 1997: 157), source language (SL) is described as the standard term describing the language in which the text being translated is written.

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 The SL novels are the original version of TL novels used as the objects of this research. The original novels are written in English. Source text (ST): By Hervey & Higgins (1992: 15), it is described as the text requiring translation. In this research, the source text is not used as object of study because the readability problem is only found in non-foreigner readers, who are Indonesian as the TL readers, with no further translation aspect, like accuracy. The Murder of Roger Ackroyd, Curtain, and HickoryDickory Dock are the ST of TL novels used for the objects. Those three of Christie‟s novels as ST are used for supporting contents. Target text (TT): TT is the text which is a translation of the ST (Hervey & Higgins, 1992: 15). Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa are the TT taken to be studied in this research, which in them the readability problem is found

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies Some studies below support the analysis and methodology of this research, particularly in investigating translation methods applied in TT and also about its readability. 1. The Accuracy and Readability of Domesticated and Foreignized Translation of Specific Words in Stephenie Meyer‟s Twilight into Indonesian Translation Twilight by Devita Sari. In that thesis, Maria Agatha Rina Widiastuti discusses about the accuracy and readability of domesticated and foreignized translation of specific words found in Stephenie Meyer‟sTwilight in its original version and its Indonesian translation version (2011: xi). The related specific words are chosen based on the balance of the number of domesticated and foreignized words. Her thesis also reveals about two ideologies and strategies in translating cultural words that studied from Venuti‟s Translator Invisibility Theory (1995). The accuracy and readability of certain specific terms in the translation of Meyer‟s Twilight are displayed as the problem formulations of that thesis (2011: 3). Widiastuti‟s thesis is circumstantially related with this research by the point of the second problem formulation in her study discussing about how she learns the level of readability of the domesticated and foreignized of the 8

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 specific words in related novel and about the translation method that also being discussed in this research. The different focus between the this study and Widiastuti‟s is that this study focuses only on readability problem on TL readers and the translation method identified in certain TL novels, while Widiastuti‟s study focuses on accuracy and readability of translation ideologies, which by Widiastuti are learned as translation strategies (domestication and foreignization) on specific terms in her object of study (2011: 9). 2. A Study on The Translation of The Christian-Related Term in The Constitution of The Sisters of Notre Dame Fransisca Margareta Kuil, in her thesis, discusses about how the Christian terms in the Constitution of the Sisters of Notre Dame are translated into Indonesian according to the theory of SL-emphasis and TL-emphasis and how the methods of translation in the translation of Christian related terms according to Hervey and Higgins‟s theory. In her thesis, she uses the Christian terms in the Constitution as the object of study and data source of her qualitative research. She is also comparing the Christian terms with its translation in the Indonesian version of the Constitution to find out more about the types and how the translation methods are applied in the translation of Christian terms (2010: x). This research relates its theory with Kuil‟s thesis by the point of how her study discusses about the translation methods and in what way they are applied in a translation text (including the result of applied method on the

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 translation product). The translation theory, in its common and concerning to the method by Hervey and Higgins used in her study is also reviewed in this research. But somehow this research is different with Kuil‟s by the main point that this research focuses on the readability problem caused by the French expressions found in Poirot‟s TL dialogues, in three Agatha Christie‟s translated novels; Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa, while Kuil is studying the translation of Christian Terms in the Constitution of the Sisters of Notre Dame (2010: x). 3. Translation Quality Assessment on the Accuracy, Naturalness, and the Acceptability of the Translation of Leo Tolstoy‟s “After the Dance” Into “Setelah Pesta Dansa” by Anton Kurnia. Mostly in her study, Diah Puspitaratri reveals how her study assesses the quality of an Indonesian translation comparing to its English text. It is done to evaluate the accuracy, naturalness, and acceptability of Indonesian translation in the perspective of target language. The point is to find the quality assessment of Setelah Pesta Dansa by Anton Kurnia as the Indonesian translation text studied as the main object. What is adapted from Puspitaratri‟s study for this research is the method of collecting data and how Puspitaratri analyzed that affective data to assess the quality of the TL version of Tolystoy‟s After the Dance, which is translated into Setelah Pesta Dansa. But after all, this research is mostly focused for only the readability aspect of the TT, and it is not leaded to see the

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 translation quality assessment, but more about the analysis of applying translation method in translating ST and its effect on readers. B. Review of Related Theories The theories used to support the analysis of this study are divided into theories on translation, translation readability, and translation methods. This chapter is then also taking detail on exotic method of translation which is the main topic of this research. 1. Theories of Translation Along its history, translation itself has been variously defined. From all kinds of defined understanding on translation, one used to support this research is Roger T. Bell‟s definition of translation(1991: 23), which is related with the perspective on translation: Translation is the expression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences. As what is defined above, translation is purely defined by its common appearance. Once a SL text is translated, the expression and other semantic forms in it will have another form that is equivalent to the TL. This research takes one point by Hervey and Higgins (1992) in seeing translation as a process, which closely relates with the translation method discussed in this study. They state that what involve in translating are not just two different languages, but also a transfer of one whole culture into another (1992: 32).

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 Beside those main ideas, a translation text can possibly bring expressions in one language into another, with some impact on those expressions. Mona Baker gives some points about expressions and foreign words found in a TT which can be seen as a translation product. The points are used to support the main idea in defining what translation is. As what taken from In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation, Baker is discussing about cultural terms, state: Once a word of expression is borrowed into a language, we cannot predict or control its development or the additional meanings it might or might not take on (1992). It means some terms or expression in a text can possibly have additional meaning if it translated, or otherwise, some meanings or values of the terms probably are missed in the TT. It is about how an expression or cultural term is used in target language. This study sees the consistent use of French expressions on Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s novel as one of the translator‟s manner (in base of reader-oriented translation) to keep the essence of the messages and nuance that delivered in the expressions. Even though the idea is about translation strategies, we have more discussion on translation method. The strategy is put as supporting idea to learn a translation method. Strategy will refers to how the translator encounter the problems in translating process, but method stands on how the process itself will be, as what technically applied to translated ST (Molina & Albir: 2002: 507-508). By different point of view, the form seen in Poirot‟s dialogues has some similarities with what by Widiastuti in her thesis, called as foreignizing; a

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 translation strategy in which the translators will keep the cultural terms be untranslatable (2011: 4). This research agrees with one statement in Widiastuti‟s work that the consistent use of the foreign semantic form in TT is purposed to keep the sense of the literary style and bring the TL readers abroad to understand the idea of the expression. To understand more about the circumstances of foreign words in a translated text, this study reviews Andre Lefevere‟s translating studies (1992), which states: To „regularize‟ foreign words, to translate them as if they were not foreign words in the original, may therefore be to detract from the complexity of the original (1992:29). Some foreign words (and phrases) may no longer sound foreign for the readers of the target-language, in which case they will have lost the effect intended by the author (1992: 29). If the French terms are translated to the closest equivalence in TL, Poirot‟s dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Akcroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa, the word style and several effects of characterization created by the author of the novels (Agatha Christie) will somehow disappear. These three TL novels are translated by different persons, but by the form studied on them, the method in translating the novels is similar. To find the possible reason of why the foreign expressions are not translated is not the main focus of this research. That point is beyond the scope of this research which only learns the aspect of method use relating to the readability problem of TT by what seen on the TL readers. But indeed, the

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 translators have reasonable decision to put the French terms delivered in TL novels as well as its original form in the SL novels. By the theories above, the researcher finds out that the translation language in TL novel is a result of translator‟s consideration on the reader‟s understandings. If the foreign terms are translated into TL, it is highly possible that the readers will not get the effect intended by the novels author, the context, content, style, and nuance of the terms and so the related character speech will not be appeared as well as SL. 2. Translation Readability This research involves readability as one of three important aspects in assessing translation text, which is accuracy, readability, and acceptability. It means the researcher learns how the TT as a translation product can be readable for TL readers. Better translation product should be one which highly readable and understandable, and so the sense of the TL text can be highly similar with the original one (ST). To support the study of TL text readability related to the TL readers, this research uses points discussed in the theory and practice of translation by Nida and Taber, reviewed in the second chapter of their book, about reproducing the message (1972: 12): Translating must aim primarily at “reproducing the message”. A meaningful equivalent is “tender compassion”, and it is precisely in this manner that many translation attempts to reproduce the significance of this source-language expression. The nature of translating is what they discussed about. The text message is essentially needed to be delivered well to the reader as the audience of a

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 translation text. They stated that it is precisely that a meaningful equivalent is described as „tender compassion‟, that many translations attempt to reproduce the significance source-language expression. Nida and Taber are also conducting that style is secondary to the content of the text, but indeed, it is important (1972: 14). Novel is a written literary form. It has content on its narration. The style and essence of its characters‟ are seen from many points of views according how reader deal on it, but the strongest are seen on the dialogues. In Christie‟s novels involving Hercule Poirot as the character, the nuance of Poirot himself is alive by his dialogues in the story. It is more than just simply described in the narration. The dialogues identify the characterization of Hercule Poirot. That is one point considered as how the method applied on the TL novels, but it definitely also cause a lack in reading for the TL readers who are mostly familiar with local language. It is defined as readability problem. This research also uses this theory to support the study because it has strong connection with the focus of the study which discusses the understanding of the TL readers on Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues. Based on the theory used in this research, the primary aim of translation is „reproducing the message‟, to get the most equivalent content of the text (or specifically, of the conversations and dialogues in the text) in the translation result in TL novel the foreign expressions should be delivered as its original form. The understandings of the readers can be supported by the words that

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 reflected the same concept and context so the expressions can be understood well by the TL readers and TT (target text) can be readable. The first formulated problem discussed in this research examines the readability problem among TL readers of Christie‟s novels. We can assume that the TL readers who do not speak French will surely not understand about the French terms on Poirot‟s dialogues, but it is considered that the idea of Poirot‟s dialogues itself can still be understood even after exotic method is applied. This research reveals that there is weakness on using exotic method in translating three Christie‟s SL novels into the TL version. The application of this method affects the readability of TT, especially on reading Poirot‟s dialogues part. As to examine the readability of TL readers, this research uses „readability rating-instrument‟, one modification of Nababan‘s „accuracy rating-instrument‟. The researcher adapts the table form from one of this study‟s related studies, the one from Widiastuti‟s study (2011), which also learns about accuracy and readability on translation with modifications on it. This research uses the „readability rating-instrument‟ only, with the scale (1) up to (3), with indicator level; readable, quite readable, and not readable. The specific scale that then accumulates the readability rank of each data while studying the TL readers on the field will be displayed later in the next chapter.

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 The following table is the form of „readability-rating instrument that is formed by Nababan. It is adapted by Widiastuti (2011: 13) and then modified for this research. Table 1. „Readability Rating Instrument‟ Scale 1 readable 2 quite readable 3 not readable Indicator The TT term is easy to read. The whole terms of translation product can be understood by the TL readers. The TT term is somehow can be read. However, there are at least two terms that cannot be understood by the TL readers. The TT term is hard to read. All of the terms of translation cannot be understood by the TL readers. The „readable‟ rating refers to the text which is easy to read in terms of the meaning of the whole terms and also its context. The „quite readable‟ rating refers to the text that is still can be read with such condition, that there are at least two terms in the text that cannot be understood by the readers. The context of quite readable text can still be understood. The „not readable‟ rating refers to the text which is hard to read because all of terms in the text cannot be understood by readers. The context involved in the text is not understood 3. Translation Methods This research relates the exotic method of translation with the readability aspect on Christie‟s TL novels. While reviewing the methods of the translation, this research also takes some points of translation strategies because it has the closest relation with the method if we see it from the way it

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 done on a process of translation, besides the translation technique and procedures. In their journal, Molina and Albir put some points about literal translation, which occurs when there is an exact structural, lexical, and morphological equivalence between two languages. It is described that there are kinds of lead strategy of translating a text, which are: borrowing, calque and literal word- for-word translation (2002: 499). The „borrowing‟ is mentioned as one of the translation strategy, when a word taken directly from another language that is applied in translating ST. It somehow has same appearance like Hervey & Higgins‟ exotic method. But while the „borrowing‟ is applied on a text as result of finding suitable solution for the translation unit, the exotic method is more functioned as the technical manner to reach the aim of the translation itself, it affects the whole text. Logically, method and functions should function harmoniously in the text. For example, if the aim of a translation method is to produce a foreignizing version, then borrowing will be one of the most frequently used (Molina & Albir: 2002: 508). Foreignizing version there means how the ST filled by the foreign features in languages or illustration of the text is translated into the TT along with those foreign features, with less adaptation. The term itself is also reviewed in other studies with different name, like what called as Foreignization by Venuti (1995) which reviewed by Munday in Introducing Translation Studies (2001:146-148). In the review, Venuti discusses about the idea that the strategies concern both the choice of SL text and the method chosen in translating it.

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 Foreignization, as the review of Venuti in Munday‟s Introducing Translation Studies (2001: 147); Foreignization, on the other hand, „entails choosing a foreign text and developing a translation method along lines which are excluded by dominant cultural values in the target language‟. By what is seen on the text, the terms in TT brings the readers abroad with SL terms, which the cultural terms in SL will be left as what it formed in SL text without being translated. Mainly in this research, theories of translation methods are taken from Hervey and Higgins‘ Thinking Translation; A Course on Translation Methods: French to English (1992), in its third chapter, about cultural issues in translation. In that part, Hervey and Higgins mention some various type of cultural transposition to analyze SL which the writer defines it as the way chosen by the translator to transfer or to translate the SL text into TL text, the methods are explained as follows: a) Exoticism This type is what the researcher defines as exotic method. It is also simply one form of „borrowing‟, but specifically Hervey & Higgins (1992) name it exoticism, or exotic method. This is a kind of cultural transposition which has the extreme options in signaling cultural foreignness in a TT. An ST marked by exoticism is consistent in using grammatical and cultural features imported from ST with minimal adaptation. This method brings the ST‟s features exotically on TT. It constantly signals the exotic source culture and cultural strangeness found in ST.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 A TL text which exoticism applies has an impact on the TL public. The ST could have had on an SL public, from whom the text has fewer features of a different culture (1992: 34). b) Cultural Transplantation Cultural transplantation, whose extreme forms are hardly translations at all, but it is more like adaptation, that the wholesale transplanting of the ST setting, resulting in the entire text being rewritten in a target culture setting (1992: 34). c) Calque A calque is an expression which consists of TL words and is acceptable as TL syntax, but is unidiomatic in the TL because it is modeled on the structure of an SL expression. This lack of idiomaticity may be purely lexical and relatively harmless, or it may be more generally grammatical (1992: 34-35). d) Cultural borrowing Cultural borrowing is different with the other types because it does not involve adaptation of the SL expression into TL forms. Translators often turn to cultural borrowing when it is impossible to find a suitable indigenous TL expression. Cultural borrowing only presents the translator with a true choice in cases where previous translation practice has not already firmly established the ST expressions in the TL (1992: 35)

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 e) Communicative translation Simply explained, communicative translation is usually adopted for all cliches, idioms, proverbs, etc. which have readily identifiable communicative equivalents in the TL. Communicative translation is somehow appropriate in the context because it renders the situational impact with TL expressions (1992: 32, 36) C. Theoretical Framework All theories that are previously explained help the analysis of this research. They are also needed to answer the formulated problems before the researcher can conclude this study. Some theories in Hervey and Higgins‟ Thinking Translation; second edition, in its third chapter about cultural issues, show a clear point of how we see translation as a process, which then can be related with the methods and strategies of translation used in translating a SL text into TL text. Mostly, the discussion of exotic method is also strongly related to their theories (1992: 34). The researcher studies Foreignization from Venuti‟s theory (1995), in its relation with the exotic method as how they are involved in a translation process, but still Hervey and Higgins‟ exotic method is the main point in this study. Some points about foreign words by Mona Baker become a review of the appearance of foreign words such as expressions in TL text. Methodology reviewed in Widiastuti‟s thesis, in assessing translation aspects (accuracy and readability) of a translated text, helps the writer

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 answering the first problem formulation, especially in gathering the affective data. Hervey and Higgins‟s exotic method is also reviewed more to analyze the second formulated problems, as well as the other point about foreign words by Andre Lefevere in Translating Literature (1992) on how the foreign expression can be understood by TL readers.

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY D. Areas of Research The area of research in this study involves the analysis on a translation effect, oriented on the TL readers as the client of the translation product. Although it is still in the part of quality assessment, this research narrows the focus on translation readability, which relates with the study of translation effect caused by the application of certain translation method in translating text. The translation effect is evaluated by studying the TT and how it is read by TL readers, it is still seen as a part or at least a result of a translation process. A translation process, in overcoming the cultural equivalence between SL and TL, includes two types of activity, which are; understanding ST and formulating the TT (Hervey & Higgins: 1992: 15). The process itself lead translator to decide what method will be applied in translating ST into TT. Based on the specific problem discussed as the topic of this research, exotic method is the applied method which brings effect to the readability of related TT. This research is concerned on studying the TT (target text) and TT readers. E. Object of the Study Objects of the study used for this research are the specific dialogues of Hercule Poirot in three Agatha Christie‟s TL novels titled; Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan 23

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 Mahasiswa. The specific dialogues mentioned above are the Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogue (in which exotic method is applied) in those three Christie‟s translated novels. In which the French terms appear without any translation in those TL dialogues. The first formulated problem in this research is concerned with a readability study, so it mostly focuses on a text which has been translated from the ST to learn how readable it is. The ST (source text), which in this study are the three of Agatha Christie‟s SL novels; The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (ST of Pembunuhan atas Roger Akcroyd), Curtain (ST of Tirai), and Hickory Dickory Death (ST of Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa)were not used as the object of the study because they are not read by TL readers. Problem formulations are based on TT learning. F. Method of the Study In collecting theories and data in order to answer the problem formulations, two kinds of method are used in this research; library research and empirical research. On library research which in term of translation studies is defined as a method of collecting data in form of written materials, all supporting ideas and also the data were collected from the theory books, journals, articles, and academic papers that were relevant and can be used to support this research. The supporting information used for this research was also taken by reading both SL and TL version of related novels used as object of the study.

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 It gave more comprehension on the research object. However, the main data for analysis were taken only from the TL novels. Related to this study, the library research particularly used to gather the base theories of translation itself, theories of readability in translation, the theories of translation methods and strategies. Some academic papers from graduated students and printing sources were also used as the related studies for a help to consider the research method in collecting and delivering data, especially in analysis. The empirical or field research put more attention on how to collect data on the field to seek evidence, which include the direct observation on TT readers by distributing questionnaires. Affective data that has been collected were then also been studied to get readers‟ preferences to support the thesis in answering the formulated problems and conclude the study. By this field study, this research can get some responses from TL readers related to readability aspect of Christie‟s TL novels. The data which was collected by these methods are primary data because they are directly collected from the related sources and studied on the field by the researcher. It includes data selecting and processing. G. Research Procedure 1. Types of Data In the analysis process, the collected data were divided into two types according to how they were used for the analysis of this research. The

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 first one is called as objective data, that are taken from texts and the second is affective data taken from the field research. a. Objective Data The elaboration of the data source is defined as objective data. Objective data of this research were taken from three translated novels written by a famous English crime writer, Agatha Christie, and each of the novels was translated into Bahasa Indonesia by different translators. These three novels titled; Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa were all published by PT Gramedia Pustaka in Jakarta Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd was translated from Murder of Roger Ackroyd by Maria Regina. It has been published by PT Gramedia Pustaka for three times. Firstly it published in July 1979, secondly in February 1984, thirdly in November 1990. The novel was divided into 27 chapters and consists of 447 pages. It was famously told as the most controversial Christie‟s masterpiece which includes Hercule Poirot by its story twist. Hercule Poirot character was mostly appeared in the whole part of the story, so his dialogue quantity were high, with the result on what seen in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, French terms were plentiful found in his dialogues. Tirai was translated from Curtain by Dra. Gianny Buditjahja. It was published in 1982, divided into 20 chapters and consists of 320 pages. Tirai or Curtain was the last novel of Agatha Christie appearing Hercule Poirot, one of the famous Christie‟s detective characters in her works. Poirot

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 was dead in the end of the story of this novel. It was told as the last case for Hercule Poirot. Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa was translated from Hickory Dickory Dock by Julanda Tantani. It was published in 1993 by PT Gramedia Pustaka, consists of 23 chapters and 312 pages. The title of its ST novel; Hickory Dickory Dock was also titled as Hickory Dickory Death by other publishers. The words „Hickory Dickory Dock‟ itself was adapted from a popular English nursery rhyme. b. Affective Data As mentioned in the method of the study,this study is described as a qualitative study. Miles and Huberman in Qualitative Data Analysis: an expended sourcebook stated that qualitative data is mostly performed in the form of words, not in form of number (1994:1). So, as a qualitative study, the data and result of the study are performed as explanations and descriptive review. The data used for this study were taken from the related TL novels (as known as TT), they are three of Agatha Christie‟s Indonesian translated novels involving Hercule Poirot character, titled Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. The analysis unit taken from TL novels as the data are Poirot‟s dialogues which contain French terms, it is then be used to identify the translation method in TL texts. To study the readability aspect, the researcher did a survey on TL readers. It would be resulted as affective data used for the analysis. Main

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 foundation of this research was based on the observation on the readability aspect of TT (Christie‟s TL novels). Qualitative approach was done on the TT to study its readability. This research involves TL readers as one of the fields and areas to gather data. The readability rank of Pembunuhan Atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa was examined by distributing the questionnaires to twenty five respondents who were selected after considering the reader‟s profile of translated fiction readers. The reader‟s profile was used as qualification in selecting proper respondents for this research. The proper respondent for this research are described as follows; the respondents were 18-25 aged university students (from any study programs), men and women are allowed. They should at least have read more than three different fiction stories in any genres and forms (such as short stories, novels, or texts from internet source which officially published), whether those are the popular reading or not. That point was needed for the qualification to reach the right respondent with good capability on reading narrative reading, like novels, whether in understanding the language aspect and also the story content. The respondents were those who do not speak French. This last point was aimed at fitting the respondent as the right TL readers who were the field of this study. It has been considered that the readability problem in reading TL novels is only possibly happen among the TL readers who do not speak French. Furthermore, the result of those distributed questionnaires

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 became affective data. The function of the data for this study itself was explained in data collection. 2. Data Collection It has been revealed in method of the study that all the data were collected through the library research and the empirical research which focus on the field of data colleting process. This part explains more detailed form of data collecting itself. The data collection was conducted through the TL text analysis and the survey on TL readers by the questionnaire. a. TL Texts Analysis Before constructing the questionnaire to collect the affective data, TL novels (Pembunuhan Atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa) have been read and analyzed to get better understanding on the background language used in Hercule Poirot‘s dialogues. It then helped the researcher identifying what translation method and strategy applied in the TL texts (TL novels). Understanding on the whole story of TL texts was also needed. It was very useful to find the foreign cultural terms (which in this research is French) that become one main aspect of readability problem found in related TL texts. Reading the TL novels was also done to split the specific part in the novels which then used as data. They are Poirot‟s dialogues containing French terms. The dialogues were then split again according to the research needs, then they were used as samples or we can call it the main data, which were examined to the TL readers.

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 b. Questionnaire To examine the readability of TT, especially for Hercule Poirot‘s dialogues which include French terms, this research used questionnaire in gathering data. The main data were taken from specific Poirot‟s dialogues which then were listed in then questionnaires and distributed to the respondents. Some direct interviews with the respondents were also done to get preferences which then helped this study to answer the second problem formulation. In terms of readability, the questionnaires were functionalized to measure the TL readers understanding on Poirot‟s dialogues that contain French terms related to the topic of this study, also to affirm the readability problem of the text itself. In the questionnaire, the scoring system was adapted from Nababan‟s ‗readability rating-instrument‘. Scale (1) up to (3) is given to score the readability rank of Poirot‟s dialogues in related novels; Pembunuhan Atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa with indicator (1) for readable, (2) for quite readable, (3) for not readable. The related dialogues need to be learned as it is called TL text analysis. It then resulted as the list of quotations of TL text in questionnaires which the respondents give score on. By the questionnaires, this study found out the readability scale of the TT which exotic method is applied. As to answer the second problem formulation, in the questionnaires, another list of quotations of TL texts, with certain additional

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 translation in each French term was given. It named as table 2, while Table 1 was the list of original quotations of Poirot‘s dialogues in the TL novels where the French terms are not translated at all. The TT quality as a translation text and the applying method were analyzed by its readability to help analyzing the effect of the applying exotic method on the readability of the text. The additional translations of French terms given on Poirot‟s dialogues in table 2 were obtained from some credible sources, including dictionaries and French speakers. The questionnaires used Indonesian because they were distributed among the TL readers who are Indonesian, and this research analyzes the applied exotic method on TL novels which the TL itself is Indonesia. The example below shows how the data was placed on the questionnaires. Example (1.1) delivers the data view of table 1 of the questionnaire, while example (1.2) delivers the data view of table 2. Example 1.1 Data View on Questionnaire (table 1) No Tsa1 1. “Voila ce qui est curieux,” gumam Poirot. “Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.” (A/7) No : Data Number Tsa : „Teks Sasaran‟, it refers to TT (Target Text) Skala : Scale (A/7) : (Novel/Chapter) 1 Skala 2 3

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 Example 1.2 Data View on Questionnaire (table 2) No Tsa2 1. “Voila ce qui est curieux—itulah yang janggal,” gumam Poirot. “Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.” (A/7) 1 Skala 2 3 The data is in form of Poirot‟s dialogue in Christie‟s TL novels. Its readability is then be examined by the respondents by giving scale on that quotation‟s readability. The readability rating indicator for each of the scale was also displayed in the questionnaires to supply better understanding for the respondents on how to do the questionnaires. Data code was not displayed on the questionnaire to make it simpler for the respondents. It was displayed on data elaboration in the next chapter. The information of the data in the questionnaire was showed in simpler code, which was Novel/Chapter (see on example 1.1: A/7) and it has also been explained in the questionnaire. The alphabet indicates from what novel the data was taken. A represents Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, B represents Tirai, C represents Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. The number indicates the chapter where the data was taken from. Data code was mentioned in the analysis result. The view of data result was different with data view on questionnaires, it had completed with data code and scale result.

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 Example 1.3 Data Result No 1. Code 05/TT/A/7/132 TT “Voilá ce qui est curieux,” gumam Poirot. “Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.” Scale 1.8 In which, Code : Data code TT : Target Text Scale : Score/Scale result (based on readability-rating indicator) 05 : Data number in Appendix A : Indicator code; to show the data source. In which, A represents Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd B represents Tirai C represents Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa 7 : Novel Chapter 132 : Novel Page 3. Population and Sample By reading and collecting data from TL novels as the objects, the researcher concluded the population and sample of data that then were used in the analysis. All Poirot‟s dialogues appearing French terms in all part of Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa are the population, the wider field to be narrowed then as the main data. There are a hundred and thirty six (136) data in the population The data population of this research were the Poirot‟s dialogues in three Christie‟s TL novels only, in spite of the fact that French terms are also found on several other parts of the novels, such as on the other‟s character dialogues or on the

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 narrator speech, but in very slight number. The samples were the twenty three (23) data selected out of the population. It was then used as the main data for the analysis. For further information, all Poirot‟s dialogues with French terms in it were counted in population, whether the terms are pronouns, phrases, idioms, expressions. The twenty three samples were taken from whole data population found from three Christie‟s TL novels. This research only took twenty three data because the number of whole data would be too much to be analyzed. The small number of data would simplify the questionnaires building and analysis process. In selecting the main data, random sampling was used, but it was used by these considerations; First, exotic translation form in Poirot‟s dialogues were not appeared in the whole chapters in the novels that if the sample is taken by kind of category like part of speech, the number of each would be far different from each other, and so main data were better to be taken randomly. Second point is that many of the data have the same form, which means many of the French terms in that Poirot‟s dialogues were exactly similar and repeatedly appeared in Poirot‟s dialogues. So then the researcher only took one of them that were similar to be part of the main data. Beside those points, in sampling the main data from population, the researcher selected out Poirot‟s dialogues with most rarely-heard French terms for TL readers (Indonesian), especially for the dialogues appearing French expressions, and the rest were the dialogues appearing simple French terms (taken from those repeatedly appeared which has been explain in the second

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 point above). Some discussions with French speakers were also done to help the researcher selected twenty three main data to ensure that those selected data have certain quality to be analyzed. 4. Data Analysis In analyzing the data, some steps were done. First of all, the researcher read the related TL novels to find the specific problems (in terms of topic of this research) and selected out certain parts that were then used as data. The next step, to analyze the related data in the field, it is needed to form questionnaire which then was assessed by respondents to collect affective data. In analyzing the affective data that has been collected, the scale scores given by the respondents were then been calculated. The affective data (as the result of respondents‟ assessment) were analyzed as follows: the researcher calculated the scale assessed by respondents of each related data (Poirot‟s certain dialogues) given in the questionnaire, it was used to find the scale of each data and average scale of entire twenty three main data. That scale was rated as the readability rank of Poirot‟s dialogues in TL novels which then affirmed the answer of the first problems formulation. For example, if the final scale of the whole data is (1), it means the specific dialogues in TT are „readable‟. And so the other possibilities as what we can evaluate based on readability-rating instrument.

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 Table 2. Readability-rating Scale 1 - 1.6 1.7 - 2.3 2.4 - 3 Readability Rating Readable Quite Readable Not Readable By the assessment on the result of collected data, this research had an understanding on the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues on the TL novels. The effect of applying exotic method on a translation text discussed as the second formulation was also confirmed by the result of questionnaires‟ TT-2 as supporting data. It was compared with the result of the TT-1. The final results were analyzed and observed then to draw the answer of second problem formulation. The discussions of the effect caused by the application of exotic method in translating Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s novels were included in data elaboration. The conclusion of this research was revealed after all phases above been done. Below are the examples of analyzed data view. Example 2.1TT-1 Data Result No Code TT-1 1.1 05/TT/A/7/132 “Voilá ce qui est curieux,” gumam Poirot. “Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.” Scale 1.8

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 Example 2.2TT-2 Data Result No Code TT-2 1.2 05/TT/A/7/132 “Voilá ce qui est curieux—itulah yang janggal,” gumam Poirot. “Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.” Scale 1.2 It has been explained that ST are not analyzed because this research focuses only on the readability aspect of translation. The scale result was the result of accumulated scale on the data in questionnaires assessed by the respondents. TT-2 was only made for the twenty three main data to be analyzed then, not for the whole 136found data.

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter contains analysis of the data taken from three of Agatha Christie‟s translated novels as the objects of this research, which are; Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. These three novels are translated into Indonesian. They are originally written in English. To be more precise, the analysis aims to answer the problem formulations which ask about the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues on those novels, and also to evaluate the effect of applying exotic method on TL readers. The readability of Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s TL novels is examined by distributing the questionnaires to the selected TL readers. It is done to find out the readability of each data and the whole data. The result of the collected data is discussed and analyzed in this chapter. The analysis is arranged in two main parts that are arranged for each problem formulation. The first part consists of the analysis on the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues in three Agatha Christie‟s TL novel. It includes the discussion of the applied exotic method on three Christie‟s novels as the focus of this research, and also the display of readability scale for the data that has been tested on TL readers. The second part consists of analysis on the effect of applied exotic method seen on TL readers by elaborating the data result. 38

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 A. The Readability of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa In this first subchapter, analysis on the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues in three Agatha Christie‟s TL novels is divided into two sections. The first part reviews more about the focus of this research, which is the application of exotic method seen in the Indonesian translation of three Christie‟s novels. The second part reveals the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues that are exotically translated in three Christie‟s TL novels, along with the review of readability-rating instrument‟s indicator and the result of the analyzed data. 1. Exotic Method on Christie‟s TL Novels Studying the effect of applying exotic method in translating three Agatha Christie‟s novels is the focus of this research. It is strongly related with the quality of the exotic method itself. The effect which is being mentioned is seen by studying the readers of the TL novels who have been determined as the field of data collecting. Based on the curiosity and interest of studying the quality of exotic method that is considered by the researcher as one translation method used in translating three of Christie‟s novels; Murder of Roger Ackroyd, Curtain, and Hickory Dickory Dock into Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa, the use of the method indeed indicates certain effects on its readability. The impact is analyzed as the weakness of the exotic method itself, and it is seen on TL readers in understanding Poirot‟s dialogues in Christie‟s TL novels. It also has been mentioned that the readability

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 of the TT is a main point for researcher in analyzing quality of the translation product applying exotic method in its translation process. The application of exotic method in translating Christie‟s novels is confirmed by the form of Poirot‟s dialogues as seen in TL novels. The French appearing in his dialogues which are translated into TL (Indonesian) shows that those dialogues are translated exotically. 2. Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Three Agatha Christie‟s TL Novels To display the result of analysis on the readability, firstly each main data is shown with its accumulated scale, which then reveals the readability of every single dialogue itself. Secondly, the scale of the whole data is also accumulated, which reveals the readability of all Poirot‟s dialogues in the three TL novels. As for note, the certain dialogues that were analyzed are those which exotically translated (Poirot‟s dialogues appearing French terms with no translation). The readability-scale result given by the 25 selected respondents are analyzed in order to answer the first problem formulation. Before displaying the data, the researcher delivers readability rating instrument with its specific score and indicator. The instrument is a modification of Nababan‟s (in Widiastuti, 2011: 63). The evaluation of TT‟s readability is based on this following instrument.

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 Table 3. Readability Indicator Scale Indicator 1 - 1.6 readable The TT part is easy to read. The whole terms of translation product can be fully understood by the TL readers. The TT part is somehow easy to read. However, there are at least two terms that cannot be fully understood by the TL readers. 1.7 - 2.3 quite readable 2.4 - 3 not readable The TT part is hard to read. Most of the terms of translation cannot be understood by the TL readers There are twenty three data for the analysis. The analyzed data are in the form of Poirot‟s dialogues part in three Christie‟s TL novels. The twenty three main data are not displayed randomly. They are organized sequentially as from which novel the data are taken. This part contains the result of readability scoring by the respondents. The data are then elaborated in the next subchapter. a. Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd Data number (1) until (10) are taken from the novel Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd translated from Murder of Roger Akcroyd. The score indicates the readability scale of the data. The indicator of each scale is also displayed as follows, it based on the readability indicator. No 1. Code 049/TT/A/19/325 Data 1: Readable Data Poirot mengangkat tangannya memprotes. “Mais oui, mais oui. Saya mendengarnya Saya tidak tuli maupun tolol..” Scale 1.6

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI “Une belle proprété,” akhirnya ia berkata penuh penghargaan. “Siapa yang mewarisi semua ini?” 1.8 “Oh, tidak,” ketika aku baru saja hendak mengatakan sesuatu. “Inutile! Anda tidak akan mau mengatakan apa yang sebenarnya anda pikirkan.” 2.0 ―Bien en tendu” jawab Poirot mengangguk-angguk. “Nah, saya telah mengambil sidik jari tiap anggota keluarga dalam rumah ini yaitu mulai dari nyonya tua itu sampai kepada pembantu dapur. 2.0 “Précisément,” seru Poirot dengan berseri-seri. “Apakah kau banyak pengalaman dalam soal pemerasan? 1.8 “Ah!” keluh Poirot, “bahasa Inggrisku tidak akan pernah beres. Bahasa yang ganjil. Seharusnya aku mengatakan mengacau, n‘est-ce pas?” 2.1 “Voilá ce qui est curieux,” gumam Poirot. “Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.” 1.8 053/TT/A/19339 “Mon ami,” Poirot menyatakan penyesalannya, “seperti yang telah kukatakan padamu, seseorang toh harus mengatakan sesuatu”. Data 8: Quite Readable 1.8 2. 08/TT/A/9/156 Data 2: Quite Readable 3. 09/TT/A/9/156 Data 3: Quite Readable 4. 015/TT/A/12/222 Data 4: Quite Readable 5. 036/TT/A/17/300 Data 5: Quite Readable 6. 039/TT/A/17/310 Data 6: Quite Readable 7. 05/TT/A/7/132 Data 7: Quite Readable 8. 42

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 062/TT/A/20/353 “Ah, pour ca, oui! Laki-laki yang malang itu harus mengatur kembali semua teorinya. Aku menarik keuntungan dari keadaan jiwanya yang sedang bingung..” Data 9: Quite Readable 1.8 “Epatant!” seru Poirot. “Biarkan aku melihatnya-sekarang juga.” 1.9 9. 10. 071/TT/A/23/395 43 Data 10: Quite Readable From ten data taken from Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, only one data is readable for the TL readers, the rest are quite readable. The averaged readability score for Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues in this novel is 1.8, which is quite readable. b. The Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Tirai Data (11) until (16) in the analysis are taken from the second TT used as object in this research; Tirai, which is translated from Curtain. As explained in the population and sample, the number of selected data from each novel is different based on the frequency of Poirot‟s dialogues in each of those three TL novels. There are only six data taken from Tirai, it has less number than those found in the first novel, but indeed it has been analyzed that the Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues in this novel still can lead readability problem among TL readers. The display of these six data is still same with the previous part. 11. 081/TT/B/2/18 Data 11: Readable “Perawakan yang agak tegap dan lurus, bahu yang lebar, rambut yang agak kelabu-tres distingue. Kau tahu, sobat, kau masih punya daya tarik,” 1.6

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 097/TT/B/14/203 “Enfin, kau sendiri mendengar juga perkataan itu terlontar dari bibirnya.” Data 12: Readable 12. 1.6 “..tapi memang selalu begitu. The mauvais sujet- lelaki bajingan memang selalu menarik perhatian wanitawanita,” 1.8 “..tapi kau Hastings-kau masih kelihatan awet muda. Vous étes encore jeune. Buatmu masih ada kesempatan cukup..” 2.0 0114/TT/B/17/242 “Cher ami!” Poirot berkata begitu padaku waktu aku beranjak meninggalkan kamarku. Data 15: Quite Readable 1.9 0106/TT/B/20/266 “Kau lihat, anjuran yang paling kuat justru tidak berasal dari Norton. Mon Dieu, non!” Data 16: Quite Readable 1.8 13. 088/TT/B/5/60 44 Data 13: Quite Readable 14. 082/TT/B/2/18 Data 14: Quite Readable 15. 16. The result shows that two data from Tirai are readable. But by its averaged score, the readability of Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues in Tirai is also 1.8, which means it is still quite readable for TL readers. c. The Readability Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa Data (17) until (23) are taken from Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa which is translated from Hickory Dickory Dock. The frequency of Poirot‟s dialogues in this novel is approximately similar with Poirot‟s appearance in Tirai. There are seven selected data from Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa.

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 0136/TT/C/23/31 “Trés bien,” katanya memuji. “Tak ada kesalahan satu pun.” Data 17: Readable 1.6 18. 0119/TT/C/5/74 “Tidak mempunyai daya tarik, bon Dieu,” kata Poirot dalam hati, prihatin. Data 18: Quite Readable 1.8 “..compang-camping, seperti habis tersangkut tanaman. Ma foi, betapa tepat istilah itu untuknya!” 1.7 “..saya kira dia tak punya rasa bersalah sedikitpun. Dia itu sejenis enfant terrible dewasa.” 1.9 “Ecoutez, mon cher,” katanya. „Saya hanya ingin tahu dua hal.” 2.0 “Mais vous étes trés bien ici,” ujar Poirot, menyapanya. “Kamar ini hebat dan mempunyai kesan tersendiri.” 2.1 “Autres temps, autres moeurs,” gumam Poirot. “Waktu saya muda dulu, para pemuda meminjami para gadis buku-buku tentang..” 2.2 17. 19. 0120/TT/C/5/74 45 Data 19: Quite Readable 20. 0123/TT/C/8/118 Data 20: Quite Readable 21. 0129/TT/C/14/212 Data 21: Quite Readable 22. 0130/TT/C/14/216 Data 22: Quite Readable 23. 0117/TT/C/5/71 Data 23: Quite Readable From these seven data only one data is readable for TL readers. The average readability scale for Poirot‟s dialogues in Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa is 1.9. The same with the other two novels, it is quite readable.

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 From the scale of each data group (data in each TL novel), the readability result of the whole examined data is arranged as follows: Table 3 Readability of Poirot‟s Dialogues in Three Chritie‟s TL Novels No. Data Group 1 Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd (Data no.1-10) 2 Tirai (Data no.11-16) 3 Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa (Data no.17-23) Average Scale Scale 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8 The result of the whole twenty three examined data shows that Poirot‟s dialogues in three Chritie‟s TL novels (Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa) applying exotic method are quite readable for TL readers. Final score 1.8 proves it (see table 3: readability-rating instrument‟s scale). Poirot‟s dialogues which are seen as TT in this research are somehow read, but some foreign terms cannot be understood well by TL readers. Poirot‟s dialogues in those three Christie‟s Indonesian translated novels are in the same readability rating, which is „quite readable‟. However, due to the findings of analysis on the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa, there are four data from the whole twenty three data get „readable‟ rating and no data indicates „not readable‟ rating. This following chart illustrates the data result from each of three Christie‟s TL novels. It shows the high quantity of „quite readable‟ data found in those novels.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 Chart 1. Data Result of Poirot‟s Dialogues Readability In Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, only one data is readable, the rest are quite readable. In Tirai, there are two data gets „readable‟ score, the rest are quite readable. In Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa, one data is readable while the six other are quite readable. This first result shows that the exotic translated text is indeed causing certain effect on TL readers because there we find shortage on TT readability. No data indicates „not readable‟ rating. It means the exotic method is normally useful in translating narrative text like Christie‟s novels, the TL readers still can read the translation. However, the result „quite readable‟ rating on Poirot‟s dialogues in those novels indicates certain effect on reader‟s readability caused by applying exotic method. The next subchapter discusses that point.

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI B. 48 The Effect of Exotic Method on the Readability of Poirot‟s Dialogues In this research, the effect of applying exotic method in translating Poirot‟s dialogues is firstly observed by comparing the readability result of twenty three main data with the readability result of the same twenty three data added by some additional translation. For a little review, it has been explained in methodology that in order to analyze the second formulated problem, there are two kinds of data examined through the questionnaires to TL readers. Those two kinds of data are called TT-1 and TT-2. TT-1 is the twenty three selected data that is also used in analyzing the readability of Poirot‟s exotic translated dialog, which is the concern of the first formulated problem. Those twenty three selected data are modified by adding some additional translations on each of its French terms and become TT-2. It is done to reveal the effect of applying exotic method in translating Poirot‟s dialogues, by observing it on TL readers. The result also supports this research‟s suggestion on detracting readability problem in translating text using exotic method. TT-2 is identified as the same data, but technically it is added by the translation of related French terms and also being examined in the questionnaires. In data elaboration, number or code of data is not given to TT-2. It is still observed as the same data used for the analysis. For simpler description, TT-1 data are the original parts of Poirot‟s dialogues in related TL novels applying exotic method, while TT-2 are those with additional translation made for this

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 research to be compared with TT-1. It has been mentioned before that whole analyzed data are elaborated in this subchapter. This subchapter places the data elaboration into three smaller parts to simplify the result view because whole twenty three main analyzed data are taken from three different Christie‟s TL novels. Data elaboration is grouped based on data sources, from which novels the data are taken. The first part elaborates data number (1) up to (10) taken from Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd (translated from The Murder of Roger Ackroyd by Maria Regina). The second part elaborates data (11) up to (16) taken from Tirai (translated from Curtain by Gianny Buditjahja). The third part elaborates data (17) up to (23) taken from Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa (translated from Hickory Dickory Dock by Julanda Tantani. The discussions of certain effect on reader‟s readability caused by applying exotic method are involved in data elaboration. 1. The Effect of Applying Exotic Method in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd Data number (1) until (10) are taken from the novel Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd translated from Murder of Roger Akcroyd. No. Code TT-1 Scale 1.1 049/TT/A/19/325 Poirot mengangkat tangannya 1.6 memprotes. “Mais oui, mais oui. Saya mendengarnya Saya tidak tuli maupun tolol..” 1.6: Readable

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 No. Code TT-2 Scale 1.2 049/TT/A/19/325 Poirot mengangkat tangannya 1.1 memprotes. “Mais oui, mais oui— iya, iya. Saya mendengarnya Saya tidak tuli maupun tolol..” 1.1: Readable Data no. 1 delivers some terms which affect what is meant in related Poirot‟s dialogues. „Mais, oui‟, in bahasa Indonesia is closely translated as ‗iya‘ or „benar‟, it shows affirmation. In the dialogues, it somehow can lead readability problems because the fore part of the dialogue, which is „Poirot mengangkat tangannya memprotes‟, more relates to negative context. It is quite hard to understand the part that exotically translated. However, the readability scale is 1.6. It means the foreign terms are mostly ignored by the readers, the part is only received more attention on the Indonesian words. By adding the translation on the term, the part becomes more readable. Poirot‟s purpose to show that he indeed know what are talked by the other characters in the story is more revealed. If it is seen as Indonesian dialogue, the word „iya, iya.‟ is usually found when the speaker has quite been annoying. In exotic method translation, the French terms can make this part of Poirot‟s dialogue less readable. 2.1 08/TT/A/9/156 “Une belle proprété,” akhirnya ia 1.8 berkata penuh penghargaan. “Siapa yang mewarisi semua ini?” 1.8: Quite Readable 2.2 08/TT/A/9/156 “Une belle propriété—barang-barang 1.1 yang indah,” akhirnya ia berkata penuh penghargaan. “Siapa yang mewarisi semua ini?” 1.1: Readable

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 Data no. 2 is also performing Poirot‟s expression, on his amazement when he comes to one house appeared in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd. It still can somehow be readable by TL readers. The score of TT-1 data is 1.8. It is different with TT-2 that gets higher readable scale (based on readability rating indicator), which is 1.1. ‘Barang-barang yang indah‘ is defined as the appropriate translation in bahasa Indonesia or at least the meaning intended in the expression „Une belle propriété‘. In Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, the researcher concludes that this part can be still readable by the words used as additional information in it, which is „akhirnya ia berkata penuh penghargaan‟. It gives supporting image on readers‟ mind of what Poirot means in his foreign expression. But the part is also taken as the data in this research because we can learn one other feature in translating ST is the additional information outside the dialogue which helps performing the meaning of the dialogue. But still, the French terms in that dialogue lower its readability, the terms somehow lead readers to guess Poirot‟s meaning. By the result of TT-2, we see that the additional translation on the foreign terms in the part can be more readable than just exotically translated. 3.1 09/TT/A/9/156 “Oh, tidak,” ketika aku baru saja 2.0 hendak mengatakan sesuatu. “Inutile! Anda tidak akan mau mengatakan apa yang sebenarnya anda pikirkan.” 2.0: Quite Readable 3.2 09/TT/A/9/156 “Oh, tidak,” ketika aku baru saja hendak 1.1 mengatakan sesuatu. “Inutile—tidak perlu! Anda tidak akan mau mengatakan apa yang sebenarnya anda pikirkan.” 1.1: Readable

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 In data no. 3, the French terms appeared in TT is just in a one single term. „Inutile‟ means unnecessary or pointless, in bahasa Indonesia is defined as „tidak perlu‘. Poirot refuses something offered by his interlocutor in that dialogue. Though additional words in the part is not really arguing what meant in the French term, it is still somehow readable, with scale 2, by its exotic translation in TT the meaning of the part can still cause problem to read. The additional translation on the term makes it more readable, it is proved on the scale 1.1. The application of exotic method in the dialogue part shows lack. 4.1 015/TT/A/12/222 4.2 015/TT/A/12/222 ―Bien en tendu” jawab Poirot 2.0 mengangguk-angguk. “Nah, saya telah mengambil sidik jari tiap anggota keluarga dalam rumah ini yaitu mulai dari nyonya tua itu sampai kepada pembantu dapur. 2.0: Quite Readable ―Bien en tendu—tentu saja” jawab 1.1 Poirot mengangguk-angguk. “Nah, saya telah mengambil sidik jari tiap anggota keluarga dalam rumah ini yaitu mulai dari nyonya tua itu sampai kepada pembantu dapur. 1.1: Readable The term shows Poirot‟s affirmation. The additional words after the first dialogue can also help readers understand what is meant by Poirot. But it somehow cause readability problem by what is then appeared in the next dialogue, when he explains something other. The scale is 2, it shows that TL readers can still understand the context of Poirot‟s speech. But to avoid different understanding the content of Poirot‟s dialogues, it is needed to add translation on the term, rather than perform it exotically.

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 „Bien entendu‟ in English means „of course‟. Like what mentioned before, additional following information in the part is related with the term. Readers are helped to understand the part by the word „jawab Poirot mengangguk-angguk‘, though it indicates that TL readers are guessing. 5.1 036/TT/A/17/300 “Précisément,” seru Poirot dengan 1.8 berseri-seri. “Apakah kau banyak pengalaman dalam soal pemerasan? 1.8: Quite Readable 5.2 036/TT/A/17/300 “Précisément—tepat,” seru Poirot 1.1 dengan berseri-seri. “Apakah kau banyak pengalaman dalam soal pemerasan? 1.1: Readable Data no.5 also performs French term in dialogues, 1.8 as the scale proves that it can somehow be readable though the term „Précisément‟ is not understood by TL readers. In bahasa Indonesia translated as „tepat‟ or it can be „benar sekali‟. As what seen above, translation on term is more readable, with the scale 1.1. This research includes this part as one of the sample or the main data after considering that the term is spontaneously spoken by Poirot in this part. „Apakah kau banyak pengalaman dalam soal pemerasan‘ has another context than what is meant in Précisément, so it might cause wrong understanding among TL readers while reading it. But it is reduced by additional information of the exotic form of the French terms in that part. There is „seru Poirot dengan berseri-seri‟. 6.1 039/TT/A/17/310 “Ah!” keluh Poirot, “bahasa 2.1 Inggrisku tidak akan pernah beres. Bahasa yang ganjil. Seharusnya aku mengatakan mengacau, n‘est-ce pas?” 2.1: Quite Readable

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 6.2 039/TT/A/17/310 “Ah!” keluh Poirot, “bahasa 1.4 Inggrisku tidak akan pernah beres. Bahasa yang ganjil. Seharusnya aku mengatakan mengacau, n‘est-ce pas—benar bukan?” 1.4: Readable This data is also delivered as example of exotic form of translation defined by Hervey and Higgins (1992) in background of the study. As how it is translated in form of interrogative terms in Poirot‟s dialogues, it is hard to be understood as single term by TT readers, but as the part of dialogue, the scale is 2.1. It is still quite readable. In the TT part ‗‖Ah!‖ keluh Poirot‟, the following content in that Poirot‟s dialogue reveals his dissatisfaction on his English speech. With „n‘est-ce pas?‟, the readability of the part of dialogue will be reduced. It is seen by the scale 2.1 for TT-1, which is the original, and if it is added by „benar bukan?‟ as the appropriate translation of „n‘est-ce pas?‟, it can be more readable, the scale is 1.4. 7.1 05/TT/A/7/132 “Voilá ce qui est curieux,” gumam Poirot. 1.8 “Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.” 1.8: Quite Readable 7.2 05/TT/A/7/132 “Voilá ce qui est curieux—itulah yang 1.2 janggal,” gumam Poirot. “Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu.” 1.2: Readable The French terms in data no. 7 are in the form of expression. Hercule Poirot expresses his curiosity. This Poirot‟s expression is not translated into Bahasa Indonesia and exotically performed, but the scale for this data is 1.8, means it is somehow readable and understandable by readers though some terms

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 are not understood. Poirot‟s continuance words in that dialogue „Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu‟ is asserting well what point intended in the French terms. For TT-2 in data no. 7, the scale is 1.2. It is more readable than TT-1 which performs Poirot‟s dialogue exotically without adding any translation. The dialogue part would be more readable if it is added by the translation of the terms. The appropriate translation for „Voilá ce qui est curieux‘ is „itulah yang janggal‘. It expresses how something is odd or has unusual look. This term is delivered in Poirot‟s dialogues. It leads TL readers to skip the term while reading Poirot‟s dialogues, because the term is foreign and hard to be understood for them who are Indonesian. The content of the exotic translated dialogue in TT-1 is understandable by reading the context of the next part, which is ‗saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisi seperti itu‘, but even by that pattern, the idea intended in Poirot‟s speech itself comes out as guesses and it can possibly wrong. 8.1 053/TT/A/19339 “Mon ami,” Poirot menyatakan 1.8 penyesalannya, “seperti yang telah kukatakan padamu, seseorang toh harus mengatakan sesuatu”. 1.8: Quite Readable 8.2 053/TT/A/19/339 “Mon ami—temanku,” Poirot 1.2 menyatakan penyesalannya, “seperti yang telah kukatakan padamu, seseorang toh harus mengatakan sesuatu”. 1.2: Readable TT-1 of data no.8 gets the scale 1.8. It is somehow readable by laying aside the term „Mon ami‟ on that part. This research analyzes that the term, by TL

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 readers, is even defined as regretful term by Poirot. It is caused by the additional „Poirot menyatakannya penyesalannya. Wrong interpretation on this part is found while the researcher examined the data on the field, on the TL readers who are being the areas of collecting data for this study. In terms of meaning, „Mon ami‟ is not defined as regretful words. The term „Mon ami‘ is a pronoun. The appropriate translation for the term is „my friend‘, or „temanku‟ in bahasa Indonesia. The meaning of the term is realized in TT-2, makes the part more readable than the original text (TT-1). One point of exotic method‟s effect on TT readability is approximately seen in this data. Poirot‟s dialogues including French terms are used as data in this research, and the terms can be in the form of expressions, idioms, simple terms, or also pronoun. The term „Mon ami‟ is appeared many times in the novels. This research takes one as the main data to be examined. 9.1 062/TT/A/20/353 “Ah, pour ca, oui! Laki-laki yang 1.8 malang itu harus mengatur kembali semua teorinya. Aku menarik keuntungan dari keadaan jiwanya yang sedang bingung..” 1.8: Quite Readable 9.2 062/TT/A/20/353 “Ah, pour ca, oui!—kenapa, ya! 1.2 Laki-laki yang malang itu harus mengatur kembali semua teorinya. Aku menarik keuntungan dari keadaan jiwanya yang sedang bingung..” 1.2: Readable Data no.9 gets scale 1.8 for its exotic translation form and 1.2 for the TT-2 form. In the process, the researcher found difficulties to find the right word in Indonesian with the same equivalent of what expresses in the term, but this

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 57 research does not discuss about accuracy aspect of translation, it is not described more in the analysis part. „pour ca, oui!‟ is an expression of how Poirot has a questioning idea about one other character in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd. It is hard to read if it is performed in exotic form, but even with additional translation, the scale shows it still cannot be readable well. This research finds out that the background reason (of the translator) might be involved so the part is needed to be translated exotically. But indeed it is seen that the exotic translated form affect that dialogue‟s readability. 10.1 071/TT/A/23/395 “Epatant!” seru Poirot. “Biarkan 1.9 aku melihatnya-sekarang juga.” 1.9: Quite Readable 10.2 071/TT/A/23/395 “Epatant!—bagus!” seru Poirot. 1.0 “Biarkan aku melihatnya-sekarang juga.” 1.0: Readable In the last data taken from Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Poirot‟s dialogue is involving the term „épatant‟, which can be translated as „excellent‟. By what is proved on the data, the scale is 1.9. The addition words „biarkan aku melihatnya sekarang juga‟ the readers can still understand the context of that Poirot‟s dialogue, that Poirot really wants to see one matter related to the case he is dealing with. It seems so important for Poirot, and so the context is seen in his followed dialogue. The term „épatant‟, by TL readers is seen as one specific reaction from Poirot. But it is still seen as the untranslated parts for TL readers, so the scale is on quite readable.

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2. The Effect 58 of Applying Exotic Method in Tirai Data (11) up to (16) are taken from the second TT novel used as object of this research; Tirai, translated from Curtain. The amount of selected data is less than those found in the first novel because the frequency of Poirot‟s dialogues appearance in each novel is different each other. 11.1 081/TT/B/2/18 “Perawakan yang agak tegap dan lurus, 1.6 bahu yang lebar, rambut yang agak kelabutres distingue. Kau tahu, sobat, kau masih punya daya tarik,” 1.6: Readable 11.2 081/TT/B/2/18 “Perawakan yang agak tegap dan lurus, 1.2 bahu yang lebar, rambut yang agak kelabutres distingue—sangat berbeda. Kau tahu, sobat, kau masih punya daya tarik,” 1.2: Readable In data no. 11, one expression is found in Poirot dialogue while he is describing the appearance of other character named Arthur Hastings. Hastings is Poirot‟s best friend appeared in almost all of Christie‟s novels which involve Poirot as main character. For additional information, Hastings for Hercule Poirot is much like Dr. James Watson for Sherlock Holmes, so it is usual for Poirot to speak in his national language with his old friend. The term „mon ami‟ which is explained in data no.8 by Poirot is usually addressed to Hastings. The word „tres distingue‟ is appropriately translated as „sangat berbeda‟, it somehow can still be well readable by TL readers. The scale is 1.6. Full context of the part is still can be defined from the other words in the dialogue, besides, the term is placed among the other Poirot‟s speak while describing certain person

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 there. It is analyzed that the translated is still be needed to bring TL readers better understanding on that part. The TT-2 scale proves the translation can make the part more readable. 12.1 097/TT/B/14/203 “Enfin, kau sendiri mendengar juga 1.6 perkataan itu terlontar dari bibirnya.” 1.6: Readable 12.2 097/TT/B/14/203 “Enfin—akhirnya, kau sendiri 1.1 mendengar juga perkataan itu terlontar dari bibirnya.” 1.1: Readable This research put attention on the readability problem in reading Christie‟s TL novels, and it has been studied that the problem is found among the TL readers who do not speak French. Those selected TL readers are taken to help this research studying the data. But most of those selected TL readers for this research are them who speak English well. The French term „enfin‟ is not too difficult to be understood by most TL readers. The French word „fin‟ is the one familiar word that always found in the end title of most movies. With scale 1.6, the part is proved quite readable. Some related background knowledge about the word anyhow helps the TL readers understand that part of dialogue. In the part Poirot shows his relief after something finally said after it is long awaited. But it is analyzed that it is not a part of how the translator decides to translate the part exotically. The scale 1.6 for this part is then analyzed as one readability phenomenon on TL readers when they have bit additional background knowledge in understanding some untranslated

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 60 part in Christie‟s TL novel; Tirai. It is still considered that the additional translation for the term is appropriate to give better readability. 13.1 088/TT/B/5/60 “..tapi memang selalu begitu. The 1.8 mauvais sujet- lelaki bajingan memang selalu menarik perhatian wanita-wanita,” 1.8: Quite Readable 13.2 088/TT/B/5/60 “..tapi memang selalu begitu. The 1.2 mauvais sujet—hal buruknya- lelaki bajingan memang selalu menarik perhatian wanita-wanita,” 1.2: Readable The foreign terms in data no. 13 also cause difficulty in understanding Poirot‟s speech in the part. If it is translated in words, the terms „the mauvais sujet‟ closely means „the bad thing is..‟. It is added on how Poirot explain the content of his dialogues, about bad usual things around people, that bad man who always interested for women, as a negative matter. Without any translation on the term, or when it performed exotically in TT, it is hard to define what is Poirot‟s talking about. The readability of the part is on 1.8, means it is somehow readable, but it is done after TL readers ignoring the certain terms. With some translation added for the terms, it would be better readable, the scale becomes 1.2, it means the part becomes readable if it the exotic terms are translated. 14.1 082/TT/B/2/18 “..tapi kau Hastings-kau masih 2.0 kelihatan awet muda. Vous étes encore jeune. Buatmu masih ada kesempatan cukup..” 2.0: Quite Readable 14.2 082/TT/B/2/18 “..tapi kau Hastings-kau masih kelihatan awet muda. Vous étes encore jeune—kau masih muda. Buatmu masih ada kesempatan 1.3

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 61 cukup..” 1.3: Readable TT-1 of data no.12 is still quite readable with scale 2.0. The terms which is untranslated is purely written in French every single word. It means „you still young‟ and not appeared as one form of expression or idiom. The part is translated exotically by the translator, even though the meaning has at least already spoken in the dialogue, we find „kau masih kelihatan awet muda‟, but the term is still given to make the same speech nuance as well as the ST novel. By the scale, the part is somehow readable, but it examined that in terms of semantics or context of the dialogue in TL readers‟ scope, the translation of the terms is still needed to draw image on the reader about what Poirot said. We can clearly see that TL readers get better understanding on the content of that Poirot‟s speech if it is added by the translation of the terms. It is seen by scale 1.3 for the second TT, or the modified one. 15.1 0114/TT/B/17/242 “Cher ami!” Poirot berkata begitu 1.9 padaku waktu aku beranjak meninggalkan kamarku. 1.9: Quite Readable 15.2 0114/TT/B/17/242 “Cher ami—sahabatku!” Poirot 1.2 berkata begitu padaku waktu aku beranjak meninggalkan kamarku. 1.2: Readable Data no.15 is selected out from the population which appearing pronoun in the Poirot‟s dialogues. The scale of TT-1, the original part of Tirai is 1.9. It is somehow readable by TL readers. The problem of understanding this part is quite similar with data no.8, which highly leads the reader to wrong perception on what Poirot said. The addition „Poirot berkata begitu padaku waktu aku beranjak

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 62 meninggalkan kamarku‟ can be defined as one certain message from Poirot to the narrator (who described as „aku‟, means „me‟), whereas the term itself is actually a pronoun, in English is translated as „my friends‟. In Indonesia, it actually can be translated as „temanku‟, but it is analyzed that „cher ami‟ expresses more intimate relation it addresses „friend‟, it is more proper to be defined as „best friend‟. The researcher put „sahabatku‟ as the translation of the term in TT-2, and as it is examined for TL readers, the scale becomes 1.2. The part is more readable with additional translation in it. The additional translation will avoid reader‟s wrong understanding of what Poirot said. 16.1 0106/TT/B/20/266 “Kau lihat, anjuran yang paling 1.8 kuat justru tidak berasal dari Norton. Mon Dieu, non!” 1.8: Quite Readable 16.2 0106/TT/B/20/266 “Kau lihat, anjuran yang paling 1.2 kuat justru tidak berasal dari Norton. Mon Dieu, non!—ya Tuhan, tidak!” 1.2: Readable In exotic translated form, the scale of the part in data no.16 is 1.8, it is quite readable. Appropriate translation for „Mon Dieu, non!‟ is „ya Tuhan, tidak!‟ It expresses how Poirot realizes something that he does not know before. As what seen in the data, with the additional translation, the part can be more readable. One lack of applying exotic method in Tirai is that the foreign terms which exotically appears are just meant to give same nuance as well as what are given in the SL novel; Curtain, so the meaning is quite ignored by TL readers.

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3. The Effect 63 of Applying Exotic Method in Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa Data (17) until (23) are taken from Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa, the Indonesian translation version of Hickory Dickory Dock. The title itself is translated into Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiwa because there is no appropriate translation for Hickory Dickory Dock in Indonesian. One strong reason is that Hickory Dickory Dock is a proper name of famous English nursery rhyme. It inspires Agatha Christie to use it as one of her novel‟s title. One of the main data analyzed from Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa performs a kind of proverb, and though it is French, the researcher can still find the appropriate Indonesian translation of it. It is exotically performed in TT (Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa), and it has been explained before that the exotic method is applied so the French is performed without any translation of it. It is analyzed along as the data no17 until 23. 17.1 0136/TT/C/23/31 “Trés bien,” katanya memuji. “Tak 1.6 ada kesalahan satu pun.” 1.6: Readable 17.2 0136/TT/C/23/31 “Trés bien—bagus sekali,” katanya 1.0 memuji. “Tak ada kesalahan satu pun.” 1.0: Readable Data no.17 is well readable, with the scale 1.6. The addition „katanya memuji‟ helps readers to catch what meant by Poirot‟s in his foreign terms. The appropriate translation for „trés bien‟ is „very well‟ and it still performed exotically by the translator. But the difference scale between TT-1 and TT-2 is

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 64 quite close. The exotic method on that part is not so disturbing for TL readers to understand the dialogues part. 18.1 0119/TT/C/5/74 “Tidak mempunyai daya tarik, bon 1.8 Dieu,” kata Poirot dalam hati, prihatin. 1.8: Quite Readable 18.2 0119/TT/C/5/74 “Tidak mempunyai daya tarik, bon 1.2 Dieu—ya Tuhan,” kata Poirot dalam hati, prihatin. 1.2: Readable In data no. 18, the part somehow leads readability problem because the French terms in it can be defined as a pronoun, whereas it is not. The scale of the part with exotic method is 1.8, it is still readable but certain foreign terms in it are not understood by the readers. In that dialogue, Poirot shows how he deplores someone who is addressed in the story. Actually the word „bon Dieu‟, which means „my God‟, is an additional term to support Poirot‟s words, but as what is analyzed from the data, the context of that part can be more readable by Indonesian readers if additional translation is added, rather that exotically translated. 19.1 0120/TT/C/5/74 “..compang-camping, seperti habis 1.7 tersangkut tanaman. Ma foi, betapa tepat istilah itu untuknya!” 1.7: Quite Readable 19.2 0120/TT/C/5/74 “..compang-camping, seperti habis 1.2 tersangkut tanaman. Ma foi— sungguh, betapa tepat istilah itu untuknya!” 1.2: Readable The certain term found in data no.19 shows how Poirot asserts his opinion. The readability scale is 1.7, this research analyzed that it still fair to be quite

(76) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 65 readable because of the additional words in the dialogue itself, which is „betapa tepat istilah itu untuknya‟, means „how worthy that word for him‟. The part is better understood by additional translation on the term, though the term itself does not has big effect for the TL readers in understanding the whole context of Poirot‟s speech in this part. 20.1 0123/TT/C/8/118 “..saya kira dia tak punya rasa bersalah 1.9 sedikitpun. Dia itu sejenis enfant terrible dewasa.” 1.9: Quite Readable 20.2 0123/TT/C/8/118 “Saya kira dia tak punya rasa bersalah 1.5 sedikitpun. Dia itu sejenis enfant terrible — anak nakal dewasa.” 1.5: Readable After being analyzed, this part is hard to read, the scale 1.9 shows TL readers get difficulty not in understanding what Poirot says, but on the certain term included in his dialogue. The certain term in the part that lead readability problem is the part „Dia itu sejenis enfant terrible dewasa‟. Without any understanding on what is „enfant terrible‟, surely the part is hard to be understood. „Enfant terrible‟ is one French idiom for a bad person, or at least on how to describe a demonic attitude person. The term is defined as a noun. The researcher finds out that the closest Indonesian translation for the idiom is „anak nakal‟. The addition word „dewasa‟, or ‗adult‘ in English, in TT-1 can lead TL readers to think that the certain term would not something adult because it is added by the word „dewasa‟ itself, but the readability is still less if we compare it with the one with the additional translation (TT-2).

(77) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 66 21.1 0129/TT/C/14/212 “Ecoutez, mon cher,” katanya. 2.0 „Saya hanya ingin tahu dua hal.” 2.0: Quite Readable 21.2 0129/TT/C/14/212 “Ecoutez, mon cher—dengar, 1.0 sayangku,” katanya. „Saya hanya ingin tahu dua hal.” 1.0: Readable In data no.21, the scale is 2, means the part is somehow readable for TL readers. Poirot‟s first words is in French „Ecoutez, mon cher‘, the terms is a form of pronoun and verb. „Mon cher‟ is the same word type like „mon ami‟ or „cher ami‟, it is a pronoun, the meaning is close but different with those other pronouns found in the previous data. „mon cher‟ is appropriately translated as „my dear‟, or „sayangku‟ in Indonesian. „Ecoutez‟ means ‗listen‘. Poirot asks his interlocutors in that dialogue to listen to his request. It is somehow readable by how TL readers interpret it from the followed words „saya hanya ingin tahu dua hal‟, they learn that the French terms is containing such a request. It can be more readable if it is added by additional translation. The exotic form makes the part is half readable, though the Poirot‟s speech style is clearly shown. 22.1 0130/TT/C/14/216 “Mais vous étes trés bien ici,” ujar 2.1 Poirot, menyapanya. “Kamar ini hebat dan mempunyai kesan tersendiri.” 2.1: Quite Readable 22.2 0130/TT/C/14/216 “Mais vous étes trés bien ici—tapi 1.2 kau baik-baik saja di sini,” ujar Poirot, menyapanya. “Kamar ini hebat dan mempunyai kesan tersendiri.” 1.2: Readable

(78) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 67 When it is examined on the field of study, most of TL readers assumed that the foreign terms in data no.22 as a form of maxim or idiom. In fact, the terms are obviously French sentence spoken by Poirot in ST (Hickory Dickory Dock). It is hard for TL readers to understand the full meaning of the part, they can only understand the next part of the dialogue „Kamar ini hebat dan mempunyai kesan tersendiri‟. By applying exotic method in translating this part, the characterization of Poirot in speaking is clearly seen, but the content of what Poirot says in the part is half understood, proved by the scale 2.1. The difference from the one with additional translation is quite far. 23.1 0117/TT/C/5/71 “Autres temps, autres moeurs,” 2.2 gumam Poirot. “Waktu saya muda dulu, para pemuda meminjami para gadis buku-buku tentang..” 2.2: Quite Readable 23.2 0117/TT/C/5/71 “Autres temps, autres moeurs—lain 1.1 waktu lain caranya,” gumam Poirot. “Waktu saya muda dulu, para pemuda meminjami para gadis bukubuku tentang..” 1.1: Readable Certain French proverb is also found in Poirot‟s dialogues which exotically translated. „Autres temps, autres moeurs‟ means „different times, different ways‘, it is about how Poirot draws how different the things he finds there in that certain time with what he finds in his past. The French terms in that part is clearly a proverb, but it is exotically performed although there is right translation of the proverb in Indonesian. The quantity of French words in that part, furthermore the terms is in form of proverb, it is hard to be understood by readers. The readability scale is 2.2, and it becomes 1.1 when the translation is added. The

(79) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 68 weakness of exotic method can be seen on how the translator tries to perform the maxim exotically, in Poirot‟s style as what seen in the ST (Hickory Dickory Dock). Poirot‟s speech the beginning point of this part is hard to be understood and read. That foreign proverb is actually relates with what Poirot says after then, which is „waktu saya muda dulu, para pemuda meminjami para gadis buku-buku tentang…‟, in English it means „when I was young, the guys lend the girls some books about..‟. Poirot shows the image of the proverb he says before. The part becomes more understandable after the additional translated of the French terms is added. The scale 1.1 proves it. After averaging the entire scores, the result shows us that readability scale for Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues in Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai, and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa is 1.8. Based on the indicator, it means the TT-1 is quite readable. The scale result for whole TT-2 data is 1.2, which means TT-2 is readable. The score result is displayed as follows; Table 4. Readability Scale Result (TT-1 & TT-2) No. 1 2 3 Data Group Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd (Data 1-10) Tirai (Data 11-16) Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa (Data 17-23) Data Score Scale TT-1 TT-2 1.8 1.1 1.8 1.2 1.9 1.2 1.8 1.2

(80) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 69 To make it clearer and briefly shows the difference between TT-1 and TT2, the researcher illustrates the result as follows: Chart 2. Readability Result of TT-1 and TT-2 If we compare the result between TT-1 and TT-2, we find the difference of the readability between Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues with the additional translation and Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues without any additional translation. TT-2 is readable while TT-1 is quite readable. TT-2 is the group of Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues with additional translation. It proves that additional translation on the exotic translated part in Poirot‟s dialogues can reduce the readability problem caused by exotic method.

(81) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Through the analysis, it is proven that the application of exotic method in translating three Agatha Christie‟s SL novels; Murder of Roger Ackroyd, Curtain, and Hickory Dickory Dock intoPembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd, Tirai and Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa affects each of its readability. The certain effects of applying exotic method on TL novels are seen on the TL readers.In those Christie‟s TL novels, the part of Hercule Poirot‟sexotic translated dialogues are defined as quite readable TT (Target Text). The application of exotic method causes the related parts in those three translated novels become quite readable. In answering the formulated problems, the readability and effect of applied exotic method are seen by analyzing Poirot‟s dialogues on those three novels, where in many parts of them, the French terms still appear without being translated into TL (Target Language). Due to the findings, the readability of Poirot‟s dialogues in three Christie‟s Indonesian translated novels is 1.8. Adjusting the scale with the indicator of readability rating, the texts are quite readable for the readers. But it indicates that the quality of TL texts after applying exotic method is still showing some weaknesses, especially on readability aspect. The use of the exotic method in translating narrative literary text like those three Christie‟s novels can bring effect to the readability of the text itself. The weakness on the readability is also defined as the deficiency of translation quality. In this 70

(82) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 71 research, we see the effectof applying exotic method on the readability of three Christie‟s TL novels as part of a translation process. Poirot‟s dialogues in those three TL novels are exotically translated. This kind of method which is aimed to maintain the cultural nuance and characterization of HerculePoirot in the novels is normally done, but these following effects are then seen on the TL readers. First, there is lack in interpreting the actual point spoken by Poirot because of the French terms appearing in his dialogues. The French terms in Poirot‟s dialogues are not understood by TL readers, and it makes the context spoken by Poirot is somehow misinterpreted. The examples can be seen in the analysis result and discussion on data no. 8, no. 15. Among the analyzed data of this research, this effect mostly occurs in Poirot‟s dialogues appearing French pronoun, like the word „monami‘ or „moncher‘. To find the meaning of exotic terms appeared in Poirot‟s dialogues, the readers are also guessing and it makes the dialogue itself misunderstood. This is what conceived as the misinterpretation in reading Poirot‟s dialogues. Second effect caused by the appearing of French terms in Poirot‟s dialogues as the form of exotic translation is that the TL readers skip the French terms while reading Poirots‟s dialogues. By the application of exotic method, Poirot‟s dialogues are translated exotically with no translation on French terms in those dialogues. It leads the readers to ignore the terms and read the Indonesian words only, and so the intention of Poirot‟s dialogues cannot be understood well and the dialogues become „quite readable‟. The final result of TT-2 in the analysis proves that without additional translation on the foreign terms in Poirot‟s

(83) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 72 dialogues, the exotic translation becomes less readable than the one with additional translation. One other form of exotic translation is suggested by this research to overcome the weakness of the exotic translation of Poirot‟s dialogues. The inclusion of additional translation for each foreign term in Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues can make the text more readable. It is proved in analysis by comparingfinal result of TT-1 and TT-2.Besides, the findings of research analysis on TL readers show that additional translations on Poirot‟s exotic translated dialogues does not interfere the nuance and characterization in those Christie‟s novels. We can see that the quality of translation texts, especially on the readability aspect, can be improved by resolving certain effects that are caused by the application of exotic method.

(84) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Baker, Mona. In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. London: Routledge, 1992. Bell, Roger T. Translation and Translating; theory and practice. London: Longman, 1991. Bigueret, John and Rainer Schulte.The Craft of Translation. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1989. Christie, Agatha. Curtain. New York: Dodd Mead and Company, 1975. Christie, Agatha. Hickory Dickory Dock.New York: Pocket BooksInc, 1955. Christie, Agatha. Pembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd. Translator. Maria Regina. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka, 1990. Christie, Agatha. Pembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa. Translator. Julanda Tantani. Jakarta: GramediaPustaka, 1993. Christie, Agatha. The Murder of Roger Ackroyd.New York: Dodd Mead and Company, 1926. Christie, Agatha. Tirai. Translator. Dra. Gianny Buditjahja. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka, 1982. Hervey, Sandor & Ian Higgins. Thinking Translation. London: Routledge, 1992. Hervey, Sandor & Ian Higgins. Thinking Translation (second edition); A Course on Translation Method: French to English. London & New York: Routledge, 1992. Kamus Saku Prancis-Indonesia Indonesia-Prancis. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2010. Kuil, FransiscaMargaretha. A Study on the Translation of Christian Related Terms in the Constitution of the Sisters of Notre Dame.Undergraduate Thesis.Yogyakarta: SanataDharma University, 2010. Lefevere, Andre. Translating Literature; Practice and Theory in a Comparative Literature Context. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1992. Miles, Matthew B. and A. Michael Huberman.Qualitative Data Analysis. New York: SAGE, 1994. 73

(85) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Miles, 74 Matthew B. and A. Michael Huberman.Analisis Data Kualitatif.Translator.TjetjepRohendiRohidi. Jakarta: UI Press, 1992 Molina, Lucia and AmparoHurtadoAlbir.―Translation Techniques Revisited: A Dynamic and Functionalist Approach‖. Barcelona: UniversitatAutònoma de Barcelona, 2002: pp 498-512.(www.uv.es/tronch/TradEspII/TransTechn-Molina-Hurtado.pdf) June 11, 2014. Munday, Jeremy. Introducing Translation Studies. London: Routledge, 2001. Nababan, M. Rudolf. Teori Menerjemah Bahasa Inggris. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar Offset, 1999. Newmark, Peter. Approaches to Translation. London: Pergamon Press, 1981. Nida, Eugene A. and Charles Taber. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1972. Puspitaratri, Diah. Translation Quality Assessment on the Accuracy, Naturalness, and the Acceptability of the Translation of Leo Tolstoy‘s ―After the Dance‖ into ―Setelah Pesta Dansa‖ by Anton Kurnia. Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2010. Richards, Jack. Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. London: Longman Group Limited, 1985. Shuttleworth, Mark and Moira Cowie. Dictionary of Translation Studies. Manchester: St. Jerome, 1997. Venuti, Lawrence. The Translator‘s Invisibility: a History of Translation. London: Routledge, 1995. Widiastuti, Maria Agatha R. The Accuracy and Readability of Domesticated and Foreignized Translation of Specific Words InStephenie Meyer‘s Twilight into Indonesian Translation Twilight by Devita Sari. Undergraduate Thesis.Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2011.

(86) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDICES Hercule Poirot‟s Exotic Translated Dialogues A. Poirot‟s Dialogues inPembunuhan atas Roger Ackroyd No Data Code 1. 01/TT/A/7/118 TT (Target Text) "Monsieur le docteur," sapanya sambil tersenyum."Mademoiselle." Ia membungkuk di depan Flora. 2. 02/TT/A/7/121 "Jadi bukan untuk katakanlah—meyakinkan diri anda sendiri mengenai ce jeune homme?" 3. 03/TT/A/7/121 “Saya kira, Tuan le docteur, Anda tahu betul apayang saya maksudkan, walaupun Anda berpura-puratidak mengerti.” 4. 04/TT/A/7/127 “Terima kasih. Sekarang Tuan le docteur, maukah menunjukkan pada saya posisi pisau belatiitu dengan tepat?" 5. 05/TT/A/7/132 ―Voila ce qui est cuneux," gumam Poirot. "Saya rasa tidak ada orang yang duduk di kursi dengan posisiseperti itu. 6. 06/TT/A/7/133 “Tuan le docteur, Anda akan berkesimpulan bahwa tiap perkara menyerupai yang lain dalam satu hal." 7. 07/TT/A/8/138 8. 08/TT/A/9/156 anda "Ous tous les deux," saran Poirot sambil tersenyum "Une belle propri été," akhirnya ia berkata penuh penghargaan. "Siapa yang mewarisi semua ini?" "Oh! tidak,"ketika aku baru saja mau mengatakan sesuatu. "Inutile! Anda tidak akan mau mengingat akan apa yang sebenarnya anda pikirkan.” 9. 09/TT/A/9/156 10. 010/TT/A/9/172 Laki-taki kecil itu membungkuk."Dengan segala senang hati, mademoselle." 11. 011/TT/A/10/176 "Sama sekali tidak," bantah Poirot dengan bersemangat."Anda dan saya, Tuan le docteur, kita menyelidiki perkara ini bersama-sama.” 12. 012/TT/A/10/180 “Dan selagi ia menjawab, awasilah wajahnya tanpa menimbulkan kecurigaanhya.C'est compris?" 13. 013/TT/A/10/183 Tidak lama kemudian gong berbunyi dan kami semua masuk ke kamar makan. Poirot menarik diriku ke belakang sedikit."Eh! bien?" 14. 014/TT/A/11/220 "Tuan l'inspecteur," ujarnya, "ingatkah Anda akan jalan kecil— comment dire?—Jalan kecil yang-tidak ada ujung itu?" 76

(87) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15. 015/TT/A/12/222 77 "Bien entendu," jawab Poirot sambil mengangguk."Nah, saya telah mengambil sidik jari dari setiap anggota keluarga dalam rumah ini. Yaitu mulai dari nyonya tua itu sampai kepada pembantu dapur." 16. 016/TT/A/12/222 "Yang mati, Tuan l'Inspecteur." Inspektur Raglan masih membutuhkan satu dua menit untuk memahami ucapan Poirot. 17. 017/TT/A/12/224 "Lain kali," ia menyatakan, "aku harus lebih berhati-hati menghadapi amour propre-nya.” 18. 018/TT/A/12/224 "Messieurs, mesdames, saya telah mengundang Anda sekalian ke mari untuk suatu maksud tertentu." Poirot berhenti sejenak. 19. 019/TT/A/12/224 "Mademoselle, Anda telah bertunangan dengan Kapten Ralph Paton.” 20. 020/TT/A/12/225 ―Mademosselle, kalau Anda benar-benar yakin bahwa ia tidak bersalah, bujuklah dia untuk keluar,sebelum terlambat." 21. 021/TT/A/12/226 "Bien. Begitulah," keluhnya. "Mademoiselle," ujar Poirot,"sudikah Anda membiarkan seorang tua memberi selamat-pada Anda atas keberanian dan kesetiaan Anda terhadap kawan?” 22. 022/TT/A/12/230 23. 023/TT/A/12/230 ―Pas de blaques. Anda menyerahkan perkara ini kepada saya— sekarang, Anda tidak boleh menghalangisaya." 24. 024/TT/A/12/231 "Dan sekarang, messieurs et mesdames," kata Poirot dengan cepat, "saya akan meneruakan apa yang hendak saya katakan tadi.” 25. 025/TT/A/12/231 “Tetapi Hercule Poirot tidak akan menutup perkara ini dengan suatu kegagalan. Messieurs et mesdames, saya katakan.” 26. 026/TT/A/12/232 Sekali lagi Poirot tertawa pendek."C'est dommage," ujarnya, lalu keluar. 027/TT/A/13/235 "Bukankah kakakku sudah meneruskannya kepadamu kemarin sore?"C'est possible." 27. 28. 028/TT/A/13/236 29. 029/TT/A/13/237 30. 030/TT/A/13/238 "Les femmes," Poirot menyamaratakan. "Mereka hebat sekali! Mereka menebak secara sembarangan—dan anehnya tebakan mereka seringkali benar. ―Eh bien, kau tidak mengkhayal mengenai orang asing yang misterius itu.” "Precisement. Dan ada satu soal lagi. Kau ingat barang yang kujumput di pondok kecil itu?"

(88) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 78 "Mais oui Adakah kau menyadari bahwa kita menghadapi tiga macam alasan yang berlainan” 31. 031/TT/A/13/244 32. 032/TT/A/15/271 33. 033/TT/A/15/275 "Mademoiselle Flora," kata Poirot, "saya harus memberitahukan anda suatu rahasia kecil.” 34. 034/TT/A/15/277 “Kau datang dari gang luar—begitu, Mademoiselle sedang—di mana?" 35. 035/TT/A/15/277 "Kalau begitu, allez,"ujar Poirot."Mainkanlah sandiwara kecil ini untukku." 36. 036/TT/A/17/300 "Précisément," seru Poirot dengan berseri-seri. "Apakahkau banyak pengalaman dalam soal pemerasan?" 37 037/TT/A/17/307 "Précisément! Siapa? Tetapi dengan mengunjungiTuan Hammond, satu tujuan kita akan tercapai. 38. 038/TT/A/17/307 "En verite?"tanya Poirot sopan dan dengan penuh perhatian. "Monsieur, saya membutuhkan keterangan dari anda. "Ah!" keluh Poirot, "bahasa Inggrisku tidak akan pernah beres. Bahasa yang ganjil. Seharusnya aku mengatakan mengacau, n'est-ce pas?" 39. 039/TT/A/17/310 40. 040/TT/A/17/310 “Ehbien, sekarang bagaimana dengan teman kita, Parker?” 41. 041/TT/A/17/310 ―Jene pense pas. Tentu saja ada kemungkinan ia menyimpan uang itu di bank atas nama lain.” 42. 042/TT/A/17/311 “Aku melakukannya. Eh bien— warisan yang dikatakannya itu.” 43. 043/TT/A/17/313 44 044/TT/A/17/313 45. 045/TT/A/17/314 46. 046/TT/A/17/315 47. 047/TT/A/18/321 48. 048/TT/A/18/329 "Di mana saya dapat menemukannya, mademoselle?" "Ah, begitu! Saya hanya berkunjung ke dokter gigi sebentar, c'est tout. Gigi saya sakit.” "Saya tidak akan menduganya, mademosselle," jawab Poirot sambil membungkuk dengan sopan. "Saya tidak mau membuat kesalahan," sahut Poirot."Itu bukan— bagaimana ya, mengatakannya—métier saya?" "Saya sangka anda sudah mengundurkan diri, monsior?" Akhimya dengan hati-hati aku menanyakannya kepada Poirot. Jawabannya diberikan dengan langsung."Mon ami aku rasa, aku tidak tahu."

(89) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 79 49. 049/TT/A/19/335 Poirot mengangkat tangannya memprotes. “Mais oui, mai oui. Saya mendengamya. Saya tidak tuli,—maupun tolol,” 50. 050/TT/A/19/338 "keadaan menjadi agak sulit bagi Mademoiselle Flora.” 51. 051/TT/A/19/338 ―Eh bien! Begitulah duduk perkaranya.” 52. 052/TT/A/19/338 "Saya yakin sekali selama ini, bahwa Mademoiselle Flora menyembunyikan sesuatu terhadap kita.” "Mon ami," Poirot menyatakan penyesalannya, "seperti telah kukatakan padamu saat itu, seseorang toh harus mengatakan sesuatu." 53. 053/TT/A/19/339 54. 054/TT/A/19/343 "Monsieur—sebentar, saya mohon, tunggulah sebentar.” 55. 055/TT/A/19/345 "Anda menyangka bahwa ia mencintai Capitaine Ralph Paton.” 56. 056/TT/A/19/345 “Bukan Kapten Paton yang dicintai mademoiselle Flora." 57. 057/TT/A/19/345 "Selama ini Anda buta, monsieur. Buta! Gadis itu seorang yang setia.” 58. 058/TT/A/19/346 "Jika Anda meragukan ucapan saya, tanyakanlah sendiri padanya, monsieur.” 59. 059/TT/A/20/351 "Ah, bukan aku, bien entendu. Aku, kesehatanku baik sekali. Tidak, sesungguhnya hal ini merupakan suatu complot dari pihakku.” 60. 060/TT/A/20/352 "Precisement. Aku ingin sekali berbicara padanya.” 61. 061/TT/A/20/353 "Kau menertawakanku. Ambil saja persoalan mademoiselle Flora.” 62. 062/TT/A/20/353 63. 063/TT/A/20/355 64. 064/TT/A/20/360 65. 66. 065/TT/A/21/374 066/TT/A/22/380 "Ah! pour ça, oui! Laki-laki yang malang itu harus mengatur kembali seluruh teorinya.Aku menarik keuntungan dari keadaan jiwanya yang sedang bingung.” "Selamat pagi, mademoiselle, " tegur Poirot. "Mademoiselle," sela Poirot, "saya harus mendapatkan seluruh kebenaran dalam soal ini.” Tuan Raymond bersitegang bahwa semua ini merupakan suatu kesalahan — bagaimana mereka menamakannya?—canard, dari pihak Koran.” "Berita-berita di koran tidak selalu benar, mademoiselle," gumam Poirot.

(90) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 67. 68. 067/TT/A/22/391 068/TT/A/22/391 69. 069/TT/A/23/394 70. 071/TT/A/23/395 71. 071/TT/A/23/397 72. 072/TT/A/23/406 80 "Ah! Itu," keluh Poirot.dengan malu, "suatu bagatelle, mademoielle. Suatu rien du tout. Sesaat pun saya tidak percaya bahwa Ralph Paton telah ditangkap." Sekarang, madame," senyumnya kepada Ursula dengan kepala dimiringkan dan telunjuk diacungkan, Karena orang itu mempunyai kemampuan untuk menemukan kebenaran di luar pengetahuannya—tanpa menyadarinya, bien entendu. "Epatant!" seru Poirot. "Biarkan aku melihatnya—sekarang juga." "Eh bien," pujinya, "aku mengucapkan selamat padamu—karena kerendahan hatimu." "Anda tidak boleh pulang, madame," tegur Poirot dengan keras. 73. 073/TT/A/23/406 ―Eh bien, tatkala saya mencoba mencari keterangan mengenai dugaan ini, saya menemukan beberapa fakta yang berarti.” 74. 074/TT/A/24/418 Poirot berpaling kepadaku."Kau selalu menanyakan itu. Pikiran tentang Cranchester sudah menjadi suatu idée fixé bagimu. Ruangan sunyi senyap. Poirot bangkit berdiri dan membungkuk kepada hadirin."Messieurs et mesdames, reuni kecil saya ini sudah selesai. 75. 075/TT/A/24/420 76. 076/TT/A/25/423 "Sebuah jebakan dengan diriku sendiri sebagai umpannya! Merci, mon ami, tetapi aku kurang mempunyai keberanian untuk itu." 77. 077/TT/A/25/425 "Trés bien? Perkara ini berjalan dengan baik, bukan? Tetapi ada beberapa soal yang masih kurang jelas.” 78. 078/TT/A/25/426 “Tidak, mon ami, tetapi ingat, tepat di depan jendela ada meja kecil, dengan buku-buku dan majalah-majalah di atasnya.” 79. 079/TT/A/26/436 “Tetapi nama Kapten Ralph Paton harus dibersihkan—ça va san dire.” B. Poirot‟s Dialogues inTirai 80. 080/TT/B/2/18 81. 081/TT/B/2/18 82. 082/TT/B/2/18 “Ah, mon ami Hastings—mon ami Hastings..,” “Perawakan yang agak tegap dan lurus, bahu yang lebar, rambut yang agak kelabu-tres distingue. Kau tahu, sobat, kau masih punya daya tarik. “..tapi kau Hastings—kau masih kelihatan awet muda. Vous étes encore jeune. Buatmu masih ada kesempatan cukup..”

(91) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 81 83. 083/TT/B/2/19 “..Otak, mon cher, itulah yang kumaksudkan dengan inti tadi. Otakku masih berfungsi dengan baik. 84 084/TT/B/2/28 “Nah, mon ami? Aku masih ingat perkara Bradley itu,” jawabnya lambat-lambat. 85. 085/TT/B/3/31 “Terimakasih banyak atas kepercayaanmu padaku. Tout dé meme, aku tidak yakin apa hal itu berlaku pula untuk perkara yang sedang kita hadapi ini.” 86. 086/TT/B/3/35 “Karena, mon cher, kaumasih Hastings yang dulu. Air mukamu gampang dibaca orang.” 87. 087/TT/B/3/38 “Nah di sini, mon enfant,” sela Poirot lagi seolah tak mau kalah, “aku tak setuju denganmu.” 088/TT/B/5/60 “tapi memang selalu begitu. The mauvais sujet-lelaki bajingan memang selalu menarik perhatian wanita-wanita,” 88. “Itu baru pertanyaan, mon vieux, bukan sekedar main tebaktebakan seperti yang sedang kau lakukan, tapi usaha untuk mencegah kematian seseorang.” 89. 089/TT/B/8/94 90. 090/TT/B/8/94 “Bien! Nah, coba sekarang katakan padaku, hastings, siapa orangnya yang akan mati itu?” 91. 091/TT/B/8/95 “Ah, ma foi, berapa kalikah aku mesti mengulang-ulang lagi hal ini?” 92. 092/TT/B/8/98 “Enfin! Aku letih sekali.Tolong Panggilkan Curtis kemari.” 93. 093/TT/B/8/98 94. 094/TT/B/13/173 “…kehormatanmu itu lebih penting daripada nyawa orang. Bien! Bisa dimengerti.” “Tapi kuberi tahu kau, mon ami, sebetulnya kau ini tidak secerdik yang kaupikir.” 95. 095/TT/B/13/174 “Apakah dia menelannya karena tidak sengaja ataukah dengan sengaja? Tiens, sidik jarinya tidak ada dalam botol.” 96. 096/TT/B/14/203 “Tapi mungkin kau juga tidak memperhatikan, hein?” 97. 097/TT/B/14/203 “Enfin, kau sendiri mendengar juga perkataan itu terlontar dari bibirnya.” 98. 098/TT/B/14/209 “…sebegitu jauh, mon cher, si X ini sudah beroperasi dengan kesanggupan yang sedemikian mengagumkan..” 99. 099/TT/B/14/210 “Eh bien, aku setuju. Aku akan memeriksakan diri ke Franklin.”

(92) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 82 100. 0100/TT/B/15/223 “Hubungi dia, mon ami, supaya bisa datang ke atas dan menemuiku malam ini juga.” 101 0101/TT/B/17/237 “Eh bien, non. Bukan Judith dan Allerton.” 102. 0102/TT/B/17/240 “..bukan baju tidurnya. Ma foi! Siapa saja bisa mengenakan baju tidur.” 103. 0103/TT/B/17/241 “tout de meme, seperti tipuan tukang sulap, ya?” 104. 0114/TT/B/17/242 “Cher ami!” Poirot berkata begitu padaku waktu aku beranjak meninggalkan kamarku. 105. 0105/TT/B/19/261 “memang epidemic semacam itu sudah mulai berjangkit-jangkit di dunia tahun-tahun terakhir ini – L‘appétit vient en mangeant.” 106. 0106/TT/B/19/266 “Kau lihat anjuran yang paling kuat justru tidak berasal dari Norton. Mon Dieu, non! 107. 0107/TT/B/19/272 “….Hasting, kaulah yang membunuh Barbara Franklin. Mais oui, memang benar!” 108. 0108/TT/B/19/274 “Tahukan kau, mon ami, aku memang menghargai kacang Calabar.” 109. 0109/TT/B/19/276 “Jadi, mon ami, kuputuskan apa yang harus dikerjakan harus segera dikerjakan.” 110. 0110/TT/B/19/277 “Tidak, mon ami, ia hanya bersandar pada kursinya dan menyeringai. Mais oui, tak ada lagi kata untuk itu..” 111. 011/TT/B/19/279 “Mereka kan mengatakan si tua Poirot tidak menyadari bahwa pistolnya berisi – ce pauvre vieux.” 112. 0112/TT/B/19/279 “Mais oui, risiko ketahuan! Aku melakukan segala sesuatu yang membuatmu sering mencelaku..” 113. 0113/TT/B/19/282 “Selamat tinggal, cher ami. Aku sudah menyingkirkan botol berisi amyl nitrite itu dari sisi tempat tidurku.” C. Poirot‟s Dialogues inPembunuhan di Pondokan Mahasiswa 114. 0114/TT/C/4/56 115. 0115/TT/C/4/57 Dengan gaya seorang pesulap ia mengeluarkan sepasang sepatu pesta dan memberikannya kepada Sally Finch. “Sepatu anda, mademoiselle?” “Ya, Bateson-telah meminta saya untuk mengemukakan pendapat saya tentang permasalahan ini.”

(93) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 116. 117. 0116/TT/C/4/64 0117/TT/C/5/71 83 “Yang asli Prancis-mais oui.” “Autres temps, autres moeurs,” gumam Poirot. “Waktu saya muda dulu, para pemuda meminjami para gadis buku-buku tentang..” 118. 0118/TT/C/5/74 “..compang-camping, seperti habis tersangkut tanaman. Ma foi, betapa tepat istilah itu untuknya!” 119. 0119/TT/C/5/74 “Tidak mempunyai daya tarik, bon Dieu,” kata Poirot dalam hati, prihatin.” 120. 0120/TT/C/5/74 “..compang-camping, seperti habis tersangkut tanaman. Ma foi, betapa tepat istilah itu untuknya!” 121. 0121/TT/C/5/75 “Mon Dieu, satu lagi!” “Maaf?” “Tak apa-apa. Anda tadi berkata..” 122. 0122/TT/C/ 8/112 “Anda mengira saya ini penilai orang asing yang baik? Tapi, mon cher, tak ada yang berkebangsaan Belgia di antara mereka.” 123. 0123/TT/C/8/118 “..saya kira dia tak punya rasa bersalah sedikitpun. Dia itu sejenis enfant terrible dewasa.” 124. 0124/TT/C/8/120 “Bicaralah dengan orang-orang itu, Mon cher. Jangan batasi diri anda dengan dengan interogasi yang sederhana saja.” 125. 0125/TT/C/8/120 “tapi Bon dieu! Saya tak perlu mengajari anda apa yang sudah anda ketahui.” 126. 0126/TT/C/13/191 “Scusi? Mereka berusaha untuk menemukannya?” “..dia suka le camping, Anda tahu,” kata Poirot dengan aksen 127. 0127/TT/C/ 13/199 asing yang kentara sekali. “Anda tentunya tidak membayangkan bahwa barang-barang seperti paspor-paspor palsu digeletakkan begitu saja supaya gampang dilihat orang bukan, mon ami?” 128. 0128/TT/C/14/205 129. 0129/TT/C/14/212 “Ecoutez, mon cher,” katanya. “Saya hanya ingin tahu dua hal.” 130. 0130/TT/C/14/216 “Mais vous étes trés bien ici,” ujar Poirot, menyapanya. “Kamar ini hebat dan mempunyai kesan tersendiri.” 131. 0131/TT/C/14/226 “..tampaknya gampang dan Anda mengambilnya. Tapi anda membuat kesalahan besar, mademoiselle.” 132. 0132/TT/C/14/227 Poirot berkata lembut. “Anda menyukainya, mademoiselle?”

(94) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 84 133. 0133/TT/C/15/235 “Tepat,” kata Hercule Poirot. “Alors! Tas-tas ransel itu dibuat, diangkut ke pasaran, dijual mungkin lebih dari satu toko” 134. 0134/TT/C/15/241 “Ah, mon dieu!” kata Hercule Poirot jengkel. “Menebak! Menebak! Hanya menebak! Kita harus tahu lebih banyak.” 135. 0135/TT/C/21/297 “Bon dieu!” katanya tiba-tiba. “Kau belum menghancurkan…” 136. 0136/TT/C/23/311 “Tres bien,“ katanya memuji. “Tak ada kesalahan satupun.”

(95)

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