TUDY PRO ENGLISH L F LETTER MA UNIVER KARTA R OF THE

Gratis

0
0
67
9 months ago
Preview
Full text
(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI AN NTISOCIA AL PERSON NALITY DISORDER D R OF THE JOKER IN CHRISTOPHER NOLA AN’S THE DARK D KNIIGHT MOV VIE SCRIP PT AN UND DERGRADU UATE THE ESIS ment of the Requiremeents Preseented as Parrtial Fulfillm for thee Degree off Sarjana Sa astra iin English Letters L By ADIT TYA KRISN NA RENDY Y 6 Studennt Number: 084214056 ENGLISH LE ETTERS ST TUDY PRO OGRAMM ME DEPARTM D MENT OF ENGLISH E LETTERS L FAC CULTY OF F LETTER RS SANATA A DHARM MA UNIVER RSITY YOGYAK KARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER OF THE JOKER IN CHRISTOPHER NOLAN’S THE DARK KNIGHT MOVIE SCRIPT AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By ADITYA KRISNA RENDY Student Number: 084214056 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 ii

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI “Yesterday, today, and tomorrow, we are not the same person.” - Dr. P. HarySusanto, S.J. “Why so serious?” - The Joker “Religion keeps us away from sins, but how many sins do we commit in the name of religion?” - RadenAjengKartini (My Translation) vii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI This undergraduate thesis is dedicated to my beloved parents viii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Praise to Jesus Christ, the merciful, the compassionate, and the most beneficent who has given His remarkable blessing without which I would never have accomplished this thesis. This research project would not have been possible without the support of many people. First and foremost I must acknowledge my indebtedness to my advisor Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M. Hum and my co-advisor Dr. FX. Siswadi M.A., who had been so kindly and carefully reading, correcting, giving me advices and guidance during the process of writing this thesis. My sincere thanks go to my beloved family, especially my parent, Eko Wijaya and Tintin Susanti for their love, care, support, patience, prayer, and understanding during my study. My gratitude also goes to all my lecturers in English Letters Department, Sanata Dharma University who have been willing to share their valuable knowledge, lessons, and experiences. I also thank all staff in the secretariat of English Letters Department in Sanata Dharma University, especially Mbak Ninik, for her help in the administrative matter. My special thanks go to Dewi Agustina (Chacha) and Ayu Rhema for giving me their knowledge and their time for reading, criticizing, and assisting in writing this thesis. I also thank Ubaid, Rendy “Selat” Lancerianda, Okky “The Jawn”, Ucca, Rohman “My Man”, Adit “Tip Top” for being my lads. Thank you for our togetherness, laughter, and bittersweet memories we had. YOU GUYS ROCK! ix

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI I would like to thank my friends who were my team in PORDA DIY 2013 Cabang Olah Raga Gulat Kontingen Kota Yogyakarta, Synergy Viper MMA, and Synergy HAN Academy: Coach Anton, Coach Adit, Coach Febry, Coach Johan Mulia Legowo, Pipin, and Surya. My deepest love goes to my lovely partner, Dian Pratiwi Andini Saputri. I thank for her love and her support during my writing process. The last but not least, I would like to thank all my friends; I really do appreciate their contribution of help, idea, energy, prayer and support. Aditya Krisna Rendy x

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE ............................................................................................. i APPROVAL PAGE ................................................................................... iii ACCEPTANCE PAGE .............................................................................. iv STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ........................................ v LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ........................................................................................................ vi MOTTO PAGE .............................................................................................. vii DEDICATION PAGE ................................................................................... viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................... ix TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................... xi ABSTRACT ................................................................................................... xiii ABSTRAK ....................................................................................................... xiv CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ................................................ B. Problem Formulation ...................................................... C. Objectives of the Study ................................................... D. Definition of Terms ........................................................ CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies ............................................. B. Review of Related Theories ........................................... 1. Theory of Character .................................................... 2. Theory of Characterization .......................................... 3. Theory of Relation between Psychology and Literature ................................................................... 4. Theory of Antisocial Personality Disorder ................ C. Theoretical Framework .................................................. 1 4 4 4 6 8 8 9 12 13 17 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study ......................................................... B. Approach of the Study .................................................... C. Method of the Study ........................................................ 18 19 20 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS A. The Joker’s Characteristics............................................... 23 xi

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 1. Physical ........................................................................ 2. Social ............................................................................ 3. Psychological .............................................................. 4. Moral ............................................................................ B. The Joker’s Antisocial Personality Disorder ................... 1. Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behavior ............................................................ 2. Deceitfulness ................................................................ 3. Impulsivity ................................................................... 4. Irritability and aggressiveness ..................................... 5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others ............. 6. Lack of remorse ........................................................... 23 23 25 33 33 34 35 37 38 40 41 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ................................................................... 43 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................... 46 APPENDIX ...................................................................................................... 50 xii

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT Rendy, Aditya K. Antisocial Personality Disorder of the Joker in Christopher Nolan’s the Dark Knight Movie Script. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University. 2014 This study is based on the movie script of Christopher Nolan, The Dark Knight. In this study, the researcher relates the literature and psychology, which are two subjects that explore human’s life. This study focuses on the Joker, one of the characters in The Dark Knight. There are two problems in this thesis. The first problem is aimed at finding out the Joker’s characteristics. The second problem is aimed at identifying the Joker’s antisocial personality disorder based on the psychological theories. In analyzing the Dark Knight movie script, the researcher applied the psychological approach to help the writer reveal the issue that the Joker suffered from Antisocial Personality Disorder. The researcher used library research in order to collect the data which were divided into two, primary and secondary data. The findings showed that based on the personal description, the Joker is described as someone who wears sweaty clown makeup with scars which widen his mouth permanently. From the social point of view, the Joker is an antisocial person. He is mysterious and he also has poor relationship with his family. From the psychological point of view, the Joker is smart, dishonest, fearless, dangerous and also trouble maker. From the moral point of view, the Joker lacks moral values. After analyzing the Joker’s characteristics, it can be concluded that the Joker suffers from personality disorder. The Joker’s pattern of behavior and thought are typical as a person who experiences personality disorder. He lacks of regard of the rights of others. The Joker’s behavior is characterized by apparent violence and destructiveness. He is not aware that he is in danger after committing his action. Moreover, he feels no guilt of his antisocial behavior. xiii

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK Rendy, Aditya K. Antisocial Personality Disorder of the Joker’s Character in Christopher Nolan’s the Dark Knight. Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas sastra, Universitas Sanata Darma. 2014 Penelitian ini berdasarkan pada naskah film Christopher Nolan, The Dark Knight. Dalam hal ini, peneliti mengaitkan antara sastra dengan psikologi yang merupakan dua bidang yang mengeksplorasi kehidupan manusia. Penelitian ini berpusat pada Joker, salah satu karakter dalam The Dark Knight. Terdapat dua permasalahan di skripsi ini. Permasalahan pertama adalah bertujuan untuk mencari apa saja karakteristik dari the Joker. Permasalahan kedua bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi gangguan kepribadian antisocial yang diderita the Joker berdasarkan teori-teori psikologi. Dalam menganalisis naskah film The Dark Knight, peneliti menggunakan pendekatan psikologis yang digunakan untuk membantu penulis dalam mengungkapkan permasalahan bahwa Joker menderita perilaku antisosial. Penulis menggunakan studi pustaka untuk mengumpulkan data yang dibagi menjadi dua yaitu, data primer dan sekunder . Hasil menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan uraian personal, Joker digambarkan sebagai seseorang yang memakai riasan badut dengan bekas luka yang melebarkan mulutnya secara permanen. Dari sudut pandang sosial, Joker adalah seseorang yang anti sosial. Dia misterius dan dia juga memiliki hubungan yang buruk dengan keluarganya. Dari sudut pandang psikologis, Joker adalah seseorang yang cerdas, jujur, tidak mengenal takut, berbahaya dan juga pembuat masalah. Dari sudut pandang moral, Joker adalah seseorang yang kurang akan nilai-nilai moral. Setelah menganalisa karakter Joker, dapat disimpulkan bahwa Joker menderita gangguan kepribadian. Pola perilaku dan pemikiran Joker yang khas sebagai seseorang yang mengalami gangguan kepribadian adalah sangat tidak memperhatikan hak orang lain. Perilaku Joker ini ditandai dengan adanya kekerasan dan pengrusakan. Dia tidak peduli dan menyadari bahwa dia berada dalam bahaya setelah melakukan aksinya. Selain itu, dia merasa tidak bersalah atas perilaku antisosialnya. xiv

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study A film is a visualization of a drama. It is considered as one form of literary works. There is a story which is going to be presented either in a film or literature. They only have a different way to do it. This is in line with Alexander Astruc (1972: 165), who states “A filmmaker/an author writes with his camera as a writer writes with his pen”. In making film, there are many visual effects used to illustrate the story and the characters which are difficult to be expressed into written way, for instance the details of the situation and the expression of the characters. However, it does not mean that a film cannot be analyzed. “The fact that we do not generally “read” films does not mean we should ignore the principle of literary or dramatic analysis when we see a film.” (Boggs, 1978:19-20). The analysis of a film can be done like literary analysis. It is obvious because of the aesthetic value that films have also existed in literature. As Joseph M. Boggs states, “Perceptive film analysis is built on the same elements used in literary analysis and if we apply what we have learned in the study of literature to our analysis of films, we are far ahead of those who do not.” (1978: 20). The relationship between a film and literature is the movie script. It is supported by Gianetti who says that a movie script is rarely an autonomous literary product (1987: 256). As in literature, a movie script is related to stories 1

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 and characters. Therefore, a movie script can be analyzed as what is done toward a literary work. In a movie script, the character can be seen through their speech, thought, and actions described in the script. It is in line with what Abrams says that the character can be judged by the readers from what they expressed in what they say, the dialogue, and in what they do in action. (1981: 21-22). This study is based on the movie script by Christopher Nolan, The Dark Knight. This study focuses on the Joker, one of the characters in The Dark Knight. In this study, the researcher relates the literature and psychology, which are two subjects that explore human’s life, because this study analyses a movie script, which is a literature work, and characteristics which belong to anti-social personality disorder, which is best described using psychology theory. March H. Bornstein in his book Psychology and its Allied Disciplines vol I states that literature is best at describing the human condition in a dramatic form, while psychology has the strength to investigate human character or behavior in systematic ways (1984: 144). The Joker is a super-villain and the archenemy of Batman. The Joker is a master criminal with a clown-like appearance. Initially portrayed as a violent sociopath who murders people for his own amusement, the Joker later in the 1940s began to be written as a goofy trickster-thief. That characterization continued through the late-1950s and 1960s before the character became again depicted as a vicious, calculating, psychopathic killer. The Joker has been responsible for numerous tragedies in Batman's life, including the paralysis of

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 Barbara Gordon (Batgirl/Oracle) and the murders of Jason Todd (the second Robin) and Jim Gordon’s second wife Sarah Essen. According to DC comics database, the Joker has been referred to as the Clown Prince of Crime, the Harlequin of Hate, and the Ace of Knaves. The Joker's physical appearance is a polar opposite of Batman. Batman uses dark colors such as gray and black to intimidate criminals, while the Joker relies on bright colors, such as purple, green, and sometimes orange to do his bidding. The Joker also has a melted cliché clown face, the origins of which differ depending on the continuity he is used in. Some incarnations of The Joker see him wearing actual make up, such as in the film The Dark Knight, while others show his skin actually having been bleached as in the 1989 Batman. Throughout the evolution of the DC universe, interpretations and incarnations of the Joker have taken two forms. The original and currently dominant image of the Joker is a sadistic, fiendishly intelligent lunatic with a warped sense of humor, deriving pleasure from inflicting twisted, morbid death and terror upon innocent people. The other version, popular in comic books from the late 1940s to the 1960s and in the 1960s television series, is an eccentric, harmless prankster and thief. The Joker is typically seen in a purple suit with a long-tailed, padded-shoulder jacket, a string tie, gloves, striped pants and spats on pointed-toe shoes. This appearance is such a fundamental aspect of the character that when the 2004 animated series The Batman placed the Joker in a straitjacket, it quickly redesigned him in his familiar suit.

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 Based on that data, the researcher is interested in identifying the characteristics of the Joker and Antisocial Personality Disorder had by him in The Dark Knight movie script based on psychological theories. It can be revealed through studying the Joker’s personality, in terms of his reactions intimidating Batman by threatening citizen and in the way he behaves. B. Problem Formulation This research is going to analyze Joker’s personality and psychological condition. Therefore, the following problems are formulated: 1. What are the Joker’s characteristics in The Dark Knight movie script? 2. How do the Joker’s characteristics reveal anti-social personality disorder symptoms? C. Objectives of the Study The objective of the study is to discuss the Joker, the villain in Christopher Nolan’s movie script The Dark Knight. First is to find out the Joker’s characteristics as the villain character in the story. After describing the characteristics, the next objective is to prove that the Joker suffers from anti-social personality disorder by classifying the Joker’s characteristics which belong to anti-social personality disorder characteristics. D. Definition of Terms There are three terms in this study that need to be explained in order to avoid misunderstanding. They are:

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 Character Abrams in A Glossary of Literature says that characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in their dialogue and their action. (1981: 20). Characterization Rohrberger and Woods in their book Reading and Writing about Literature define characterization as the process by which the author creating the character, the devices by which making the reader believes that a character is the particular type of person he is. (1971: 20) Antisocial Personality Disorder Robert A. Baron in his book Psychology defines Antisocial Personality Disorder as a personality disorder involving a lack of conscience and sense of responsibility, impulsive behavior, irritability, and aggressiveness. (1995: 569)

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies The Joker as a fictional character is one of the most heinous of the villains that has ever existed in any comic book. It was hinted in one that he has over 2,000 kills to his name. His evil truly knows no bounds. But he is also an example of what humanity could indeed become. Mental madness means one thing, but when people are taught that mass killing is worthy of being canonized, then it may just be what happens to society at large. The origins of the Joker are left deliberately ambiguous in The Dark Knight. Christopher Nolan and his co-writer Jonathan Nolan suggested the Joker's first two appearances in 1940's issues of Batman as crucial influences. Just as in these issues of the Batman comic, the Joker's back-story is expanded upon little. Instead, the Joker is portrayed as an "absolute". "The Joker we meet in The Dark Knight is fully formed...To me, the Joker is an absolute. There are no shades of gray to him - maybe shades of purple. He's unbelievably dark. He bursts in just as he did in the comics." Nolan later reiterated, "We never wanted to do an origin story for the Joker in this film", because "the arc of the story is much more Harvey Dent's; the Joker is presented as an absolute. It's a very thrilling element in the film, and a very important element, but we wanted to deal with the rise of the Joker, not the origin of the Joker." (http://batman.wikia.com/wiki/The_Joker_ (Heath_Ledger)) 6

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 The Joker’s history, according to Lucient Maverick (retrieved from http:// lucien0maverick.wordpress.com/character-analysis-the-joker/) there is a bit of argument as to where the Joker actually came from. There is no definite backstory for his character. Different comics and movies have had different points of view, but “he has always had a long-standing history of crime, which is a constant.” At first he appears in the comics, he is just a homicidal maniac, but his character quickly evolves over time. Even how he is disfigured is often contested. There is no definite story at all about him. “Sometimes, he is dumped into a vat of chemicals, other times he is the victim of self-mutilation, or in the case of The Dark Knight, the stories contradict one-another.” According to Lucient Maverick the Joker also has contradiction in physical prowess. “Some comics show the Joker is a very capable combatant. Others have him as being a very weak character, almost too frail for his own good.” This contradiction is meaningless in the broad scheme of things, because it is not about his physic that attack Batman. It is more about a war of brains between the Joker and Batman who have mental problems. Sandra J. Lowe in Character Analysis of Batman and Joker explains the character of the Joker. The Joker had a personality of a rabid dog that needed to be put to sleep. He is the epitome of what we called domestic terrorist. This sadistic homicidal maniac witnessed the mutilation of his wife by loan shark. This event resulted PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) for him because he was helpless to save her from perpetrator. The end of this episode drove him to the point where he developed the mentality of a psychopath with self-injurious behavior (2009:2).

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 The previous quotation shows only a reason why the Joker got his face scar. In fact, the Joker told two separate stories of how he got his face scar in The Dark Knight. He seems eager to tell traumatizing stories to some people, though. He has one for Rachel about a wife who abandons him, and has one for Gambol about a violent father. The Dark Knight showed the way the Joker was meant to be portrayed. It really captured him in the best way possible. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theory of Character According to M. H. Abrams in A glossary of Literary Terms, character is a person presented in a work and the person is interpreted by the reader through his speech and action. Characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expressed in what they say and what they do (1981: 21). Barnet (1988:712) describes character by using three ways. First is with what the character says. What and how the character says can help the reader to interpret. Second is with what the character does. Some section that the character does in the story can be the representative of the character. The third is with what other characters say about the character. Furthermore, a character can be either static or dynamic. A static character is one who changes little or not at all. Although there is a change in the plot, this kind of character will not have any changes. A dynamic character, on

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 the other hand, undergoes a permanent change in some aspects of his character, personality, or outlook (Perrine, 1978:71). Perrine also adds based on their psychological behavior that characters are divided into flat and round character. The flat character is not described as fully as a major in the story is. It is simple, no changing happens and it is a static kind of character in the story. Round character, on the other hand, often appears as the center of the story; they look like a real human being, who is complex, dynamic, and less predictable. 2. Theory of Characterization According to Rohrberger, characterization is the process by which the author creates the character, the devices by which he makes us believe that a character is the particular type of person he is. Characterization is the way author creates characters; therefore characterization should be conveyed into good way so as to create a clear image to the reader perception (1971: 20). Furthermore, Murphy (1972: 161-173) describes nine ways that the author can do to make his character understandable and become alive for the reader. Those nine ways are: a. Personal Description It means that the author describes the characters through a person’s appearance, such as face, skin, eyes, body, and clothes directly in the story.

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 b. Character as Seen by Others The author describes the character through the eyes and others’ opinion. The characterization lies on the way the others thinking about him. c. Speech The characterization of a person can be seen from the way he says about something, whenever he speaks in conversation with the others and the way he gives an idea or opinion. d. Person’s Past Life The author gives us a clue to events that has happened in the past and helped to shape a person’s character. The past life is presented by the author’s direct comment, through the character’s conversation about the other. e. Conversation with Others The author gives a clue through the conversations of other people and the things they say about the character. People talk about other people and the things they say often give the readers a clue to the character of the person spoken about. f. Reaction The author gives a clue to a person’s character by letting the readers know how the character reacts to various situation and events. g. Direct Comment The author describes or comments on a person’s character directly.

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI h. 11 Thoughts The author describes what the character thinks and the readers can use the character’s thinking as a tool to get a better understanding upon the character. i. Mannerism The description about a person’s mannerism and habits may tell us something about characterization. Those are nine ways in which the author makes the reader understand the personality and the characters that the author developed in his work. Understanding the nine ways can help the reader to get better understanding and appreciation to the work of literary world. Not all of those elements are found when observing a character, but the reader can use one or more of that elements to observe the character. According to Oscar G. Brockett (1974: 39-40), there are four levels of characterization in drama plays. They are: a. Physical It concerned only with such basic facts as sex, age and color. It presents when the play is produced because actors necessarily give concrete form to the characters. b. Social It includes a character’s economic status, profession, religion, family relationship and all those factors that place the character in his environment.

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 c. Psychological It reveals a character’s habitual responses, attitudes, desires, motivations, likes and dislikes, the inner workings of the mind, both emotional and intellectual which precede action because habits of feeing, thought, and behaviour define characters more fully that do physical and social traits, and because drama is the most essential level of characterization. d. Moral Although implied in al plays, it is not always emphasized. It is most appropriate to be used in serious plays especially tragedies. Although almost all human action suggest some ethical standard, in many plays, the moral implications are ignored, and decisions are made on grounds of expediency. The movie script itself is closely related to plays. Murphy’s theory of characterization refers to novel, but some of the methods to analyze character are relevant to be used. It is applied in order to gain an accurate analysis on the character of the Joker. c. Theory of Relation between Psychology and Literature Literature and psychology are two different fields. However, these two fields are closely related. Wellek and Warren (1949:81) in Theory of Literature describe that psychology and literature have a very close relation in which some of literary works talk about psychological cases. Through psychology, people will learn about human condition in systematic way, meanwhile people will learn about psychological value in the art of writing through literature.

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 It is supported by March H. Bornstein in Psychology and its Allied Disciplines who states that literature is the best at describing the human condition in a dramatic form, while psychology has the strength to investigate human character or behavior in systematic ways (1984: 144). Both literature and psychology have one common purpose that is to describe the human condition. Literature tries to depict human condition into drama while psychology studies human characteristics systematically and scientifically. In addition, Richard A. Kalish in The Psychology of Human Behavior states that Literature also “holds the mirror up to the man”. A good novelist can communicate the feeling of his functional characters and make them seem more life-like than the real people whose behavior attempted to describe by the psychologist. Writers can use the understanding provided by psychologists to enrich their stories and psychologists can gain their understanding of human behavior by drawing from the deep sensitivity of good authors (Kalish, 1972: 8). d. Theory of Antisocial Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder comes from personality disorder as one of the categories in psychological disorders. According to the book Abnormal Psychology by Davison and Neale, personality disorder can be defined as extreme personality variation associated with the failure to achieve the universal tasks of establishing a personal identity, forming attachments to others, experiencing intimacy with them, and seeking affiliation. Personality disorder involves traits

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 that are inflexible and maladaptive and cause either significant impairment in social and occupational functioning or subjective distress (1986: 230). Robert A. Baron in Psychology says, Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is one type of personality disorders. Psychological disorder can be defined as “pattern of behavior and thought that are typical, that are viewed as undesirable or unacceptable within a given culture, that are maladaptive, and that usually (although not always) cause the person who experience them considerable distress” (1995: 544). It is supported by Gary Chapman (1997: 483) in Psychology and Principles who says that there are categories in psychological disorders and one of them is personality disorder which includes antisocial behaviors or psychopath as its symptom. Development of ASPD should be seen as a “multifactorial process involving neurobiological, genetic, epidemiological, and sociobiographical factors” (Weber, et al., 2008: 2). Structural brain abnormalities have been isolated in the emotional and learning parts of the brains of psychopaths (Weber et al., 2008: 2). Neuroimaging and neuropsychological testing have found support for prefrontal dysfunction associated with psychopathic personality traits (Dinn and Harris, 2000). These abnormalities may predispose a person to develop ASPD (Weber et al., 2008: 3). Other biological concerns are the depletion of the serotonegenic system and evidence for deficits in their processing of emotional stimuli (Kernberg & Caligor, 2005). Environmental factors, like trauma, child abuse and neglect have also been linked to ASPD and psychopathic (Kernberg & Caligor; Luntz & Widom, 1994). It is important to note that psychopaths are not

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 crazy, they are aware of right and wrong, they just do not feel it applies to them, or if they do they scoff at it as irrelevant (N. Smith, personal communication, November 2, 2007; Warner Bros., 2008) Ililienfeld and Arkowitz (2008: 90) claim that psychopaths are superficially charming, self-centered, dishonest, reckless, outrageous, rarely learn from their mistakes, lack impulse control, are causal and callous in relationships, are devoid of guilt, empathy and love, and disturb the peace solely for the fun of it. It would seem that ASPD and psychopathic are closely related. Davidson and Neale in Abnormal Psychology state that Antisocial Personality Disorder and psychopath are often used interchangeably. They demonstrate several characteristics that make individuals with this disorder dangerous to others. Rules and regulations are not for them, so they often have a history of antisocial behavior. They are often irritable and aggressive, highly impulsive, seemingly fearless in the face of danger, and highly deceitful-they will lie to anyone (1986: 233). The key point for Antisocial Personality Disorder is that a person with Antisocial Personality Disorder shows total disregard for the rights of others, coupled with reckless behavior, fearlessness, and inability to form close relationships with others (Coleman, 1986: 363). These are the symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) which are taken from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fourth Edition, Text Revision by Allen Frances as editor (2000: 706):

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 1. Failure to Conform to Social Norms with Respect to Lawful Behaviors Persons with ASPD often break the social norms and as a result, they are frequently arrested. 2. Deceitfulness Persons with ASPD lie to others for particular intention, which basically only they get the benefit. 3. Impulsivity or Failure to Plan Ahead Persons with ASPD often act spontaneously without considering the risks and they are not able to think about something to do in the future. 4. Irritability and Aggressiveness Persons with ASPD often attack people physically or emotionally. 5. Reckless Disregard for Safety of Self or Others. Since persons with ASPD are not aware that they are in danger after committing their action, they barely worries to think about their own safety. 6. Consistent Irresponsibility Persons with ASPD are usually unemployment for long period, and do not have a realistic plan for getting another job. 7. Lack of Remorse It can be said that persons with ASPD have lost their compassion. They rarely feel regret to what they have done, either having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI C. 17 Theoretical Framework In this research, the researcher applies some theories. They are the theory of character, the theory of characterization, the theory of the relation of literature and psychology, and the theory of Antisocial Personality Disorder. The theory of character and characterization used to answer problem number one because the researcher is going to analyze the main villain character. Theory of the relation of literature and psychology is used to give deeper comprehension that literature is correlated with another field. Since the aim of this study is to reveal that the main character suffers from anti-social personality disorder, psychology is the most suitable field to be included. Theory of Antisocial Personality Disorder is applied to know what the criteria of being antisocial and the explanation from the experts are. The explanation helps the researcher to know whether the main character has antisocial behavior or not by analyzing his characteristics. Those characteristics should fulfill the requirement of having antisocial behavior.

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of the research was a movie script entitled the Dark Knight. It was a second sequel of Batman story created by Christopher Nolan. The script of the storyline was written by Christopher Nolan and David S. Goyer, while the film was directed by Christopher and Jonathan Nolan. The film of the Dark Knight achieved the best film in 2009, wins 2 Oscars awards, and another 93 wins and 68 nominations awards This movie script was about Batman’s struggle against crime in Gotham City. With the help of Lieutenant Jim Gordon and District Attorney Harvey Dent, Batman set out to destroy organized crime in Gotham for good. The partnerships proved to be effective, but soon, they found themselves prey to a reign of chaos unleashed by a criminal mastermind known as the Joker who terrified citizens of Gotham. This research focused on the Joker’s character. The Joker, although fictional, is a brilliant creation. As one of the Producers of The Dark Knight (Nolan et al., 2008) expresses, “The Joker is one of the great villains in comic book lore – psychopathic, enigmatic, clever, diabolical, charming, funny, and completely enjoyable to watch” (Warner Bros., 2008: 8). The Joker’s characteristics were interested to be analyzed and different from others. It could be seen through his action and reaction, conversations, and 18

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 the way he thought. They showed him as an antisocial person. This was the main purpose of the researcher to analyze the character of the Joker, and identify his antisocial personality through the psychological theories B. Approach of the Study In analyzing the Dark Knight, the researcher used the psychological approach. Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases. For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist, and can be classified as a social scientist, behavioral scientist, or cognitive scientist. Psychology as a theory that learn about humans’ personality had a unique manner of looking at the world. This was the theory that was reflecting the personal backgrounds, childhood experiences, philosophy of life, and personal relationship. Personality theories grew from theorist’ own personalities, a study of those personality was appropriate. In recent years a sub discipline of psychology called psychology of science had begun to look at personal traits of scientist. It was undeniable that literature and psychology were two different fields that had a close relationship. Literature, in some dramas or novels, created characters that could be analyzed through the theory of psychology. The researcher could use this approach to deal with someone’s emotions and even

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 such an illness that they suffer. In this case, this approach used psychological theories to explain “human motivation, personality, and behavior pattern” written in a literary object (Rohrberger and Woods, 1971:20). Psychological approach was used to help the researcher to reveal the issue that the Joker was suffering from antisocial personality disorder. Since the psychological approach was used, the theories in this study concern about psychology. The researcher used theory of antisocial personality disorder to analyze the symptoms that the Joker shows within his attitude, his way of thinking, and his feeling toward people. The symptoms then should complete three or more of the seven criteria of being antisocial personality disorder. C. Method of the Study In conducting a research, it is important for a researcher to determine the research method to use. A method is a kind of systematical work plan in order to make the research work become easier, so that it can achieve its main purpose (Sudaryanto, 1993:9). Arranging the research method is the initial step before doing the process of collecting data and analyzing them. The method in research is selected by considering its appropriateness with the research object. In this case, the object determinates the method, not in the other hand. This research method is arranged based on the problem analyzed and the main purpose of the research.

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 The researcher used library research in order to collect the data. This data was divided into two, primary and secondary data. The primary data were taken from the movie and movie script entitled the Dark Knight. The secondary data were taken from some books, journals, and internet about the Joker, psychological approach, antisocial personality disorder, and everything related to the topic. Those written and internet sources were used to support and complete the data of this research. Having a better understanding in analyzing the movie script, there were some ways to take. The first step was watching the movie and trying to understand the content of the movie. it needed several times to watch the movie in order to have better understanding on the subject of the study. The focus, while watching the movie was on the Joker’s character, actions, and reactions. Next, the researcher read and reread the entire text to find deeper understanding and detail of the conversation. After that, the researcher uses the theory of character and characterization in order to get clear description and understood the personality of the Joker. The researcher made a list of the characteristics of the Joker. After finding the characteristics of the Joker, the researcher began to analyze the psychological problem of the Joker and used theory of antisocial personality disorder. By focusing on the criteria that had been listed, it was able to match the characteristics of the main character with those symptoms. The last step, the researcher drew a conclusion based on the analysis that the main character was suffering from antisocial personality disorder by

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 examining his characteristics which fulfilled the characteristic of being antisocial. Through the way he behaves, thought, and what other characters talked about him, the researcher knows the Joker is suffering antisocial personality disorder.

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS This part will answer the problem formulation mentioned in the previous chapter and systematically divided into two main parts. The first part covers the character and characterization of the Joker, the main villain character in this movie script. By identifying and analyzing the character, the researcher is able to go further to the next problem which is discussing the way the characteristics of the Joker reveal the anti-social personality disorder symptom. A. The Joker’s Characteristics The investigation of the main villain character is the primary step to reach the aim of this study. The researcher will discuss first the character and the characterization of the Joker since the goal of this study is to reveal the personality disorder that is suffered by the main villain character. The following is the characteristics of the Joker: 1. Physical Characteristics Looking from the physical characteristics, the Joker is different with other normal people. He has style which is extremely different and it proves that the Joker does not care with others’ thought of his style which can be strange and scary for other people. 23

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 a. Scary As Murphy mentioned in his book Understanding Unseen (1972: 161173), he said, “The author can describe a person’s appearance and clothes”. The author Christopher Nolan and David S. Goyer describe the Joker’s appearance. He is a man who wears a sweaty clown makeup with scars which widen his mouth permanently to scare people. He appears disheveled, unkempt, and scary. Here is the description of the Joker’s appearance: The Joker. Sweaty clown makeup obscuring the AWFUL SCARS which widen his mouth into a PERMANENT. GHOULISH SMILE. (p. 32) 2. Social Characteristics The Joker is a person who has negative social characteristics. He does not have good relation with all of the people, including his family. a. Mysterious The Joker is a mysterious person, he is brilliant at concealing his identity. No one really knows who he is. Little can be confirmed regarding his early life before he turned to a life of crime. Despite his capture, no traces can be found on his fingerprints, dental records, or DNA matches against the Gotham City Police Department's databases. Even the police commissioner Gordon cannot find the Joker true identity. GORDON Nothing. No matches on prints, DNA, dental. Clothing is custom, no labels. Nothing in his pockets but knives and lint. No name, no other alias... nothing. (p. 100)

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 b. Having Poor Relationship with His Family The Joker's own testimony, while normally quite true when it comes to carrying out threats, seems at times contradictory, and he is known to lie at times when describing past events in his life, more specifically how he gets his scars. One of his anecdotes tells of an extremely abusive and alcoholic father, stating that after attacking his mother with a knife, the blade is next turned on the young Joker, creating his mutilated smile. Another story he told stated that he once had a wife who had her face cut by enforcers of loan sharks. In a desperate effort to assure his wife that he did not care about the damage to her appearance, he took a razor to his cheeks to produce his Glasgow smile. But the disturbing image instead caused his wife to leave him, damaging his psyche. The fact that the Joker later references his father and his hatred of him to a party guest while crashing Harvey Dent's party implies that at the very least, he has an extremely poor relationship with his father. THE JOKER You know, you remind me of my father. (GRABS him) I hated my father. (p. 64) 3. Psychological Characteristics a. Smart The Joker is an evil genius, a master manipulator and master of strategy. He knows exactly what to say to get the people that he is trying to manipulate. He also knows his enemies’ weaknesses. His intelligent and his abilities make him always staying one step ahead of everyone else, including Batman, cops, and the

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 mobs. His unique world view, as well as the complete mystery surrounding his identity also gives him something of an edge. Having no connections, friends, former identities or family to be traced back to makes him very difficult to predict, track down, or even understand. He is also shown to be a skilled, fearless and unpredictable fighter, taking on mob henchmen and cops with ease, and showing how he can be lethal with many forms of weaponry; and was even capable of holding his own against Batman and trapping him. The Joker is smart through his speeches, actions, and what other character say about the Joker. He is able to force batman to reveal his identity though later Harvey Dent must pretend to be the true Batman. THE JOKER This is how crazy Batman’s made Gotham. You want order in Gotham? Batman has to go. So . . . Batman must take off his mask, and turn himself in. Every day he doesn’t. . .people will die. Starting tonight. I’m a man of my word. (p. 55) BATMAN No one else will die because of me. Gotham is in your hands, now. (p. 83) The Joker also succeeds in bank robberies and in the last bank robbery; He manages to escape safely from the bank. He is able to calculate the timing to escape from the bank using school bus as a disguise, right before the cops arrive. Moreover, he can fool the Gambol and kills him. GAMBOL So. Dead you get five hundred. Behind Gambol, the Joker SITS UP – THRUSTS knives into the bodyguards’ chests. Gambol spins to see a crazy grin on the Joker’s spit-dribbled face-

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 THE JOKER How about alive? The Joker TUGS Gambol’s cheek with the blade. (p. 40) The Joker takes revenge to Gambol at night by having his men come to Gambol, claiming to have killed the Joker. The Joker's 'dead' body is brought inside in a garbage bag before attacking Gambol and proceeding to tell him the origin of his mouth scars, then when Gambol is most terrified and shaken, the Joker proceeds to kill him with the knife. b. Dishonest Another characteristic of the Joker is dishonest. Throughout the story, he lies several times. As it has been explained before, we know that the Joker uses alias and a clown make up in order to hide his identity. From the previous discussion, in order to kill Gambol, we know that the Joker is pretending to be dead to fool his enemy. Furthermore, he also tells different stories to others about how he gets his scars. The first one, he tells a story to Gambol the mobs boss right in front of Gambol’s bodyguards. He claims that his father who he describes as “a drinker and a fiend” was the one who cut his mouth. THE JOKER Wanna know how I got these scars? My father was a drinker and a fiend. He’d beat mommy right in front of me. Of night he goes off crazier than usual, mommy gets the kitchen knife to defend herself. He doesn’t like that. Not. One. Beat. So, me watching, he takes the knife to her, laughing while he does it. Turns to me and says “why so serious?’ Comes at me with the knife- ‘Why so serious?’ Sticks the blade in mouth- ‘Let’s put a smile on that face’ and why so serious?” (p. 41)

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 He tells a different story about how he gets his face scars to Rachel Dawes in front of Bruce Wayne’s friend. He tells that he has a wife and she gambles so much then she loses all their money and then the sharks carve up her face. In order to make her feels better, he carves a smile into his own face to show that he does not care about her appearance. THE JOKER Hello beautiful. You must be Harvey’s squeeze. (runs his knife across her cheek) And you are beautiful. You look nervous- it’s the scars isn’t it? Wanna know how I got them? I had a wife, beautiful like you. Who tells me I worry too much. Who says I need to smile more. Who gambles. And gets in deep with the sharks. One day they carve her face, and we’ve got no money for surgeries. She can’t take it. (presses knife into her cheek) I just want to see her smile again. I just want her to know I don’t care about the scars. So I put a razor in my mouth and do this to myself… and you know what? (starts laughing) She can’t stand the sight of me… (or crying) she leaves! See, now I see the funny side. Now I’m always smiling.” (pp 64-65) c. Fearless The Joker is a man with no fear of anything and has very little care for his own safety. He is seemingly fearless, even in the face of danger. In the case when the Joker tells Batman to run him over with Bat-pod, he even challenges Batman to smash him. The Joker walks towards the Bat-pod, which SPEEDS towards him. He is FIRING his gun RANDOMLY at the oncoming traffic. THE JOKER Hit me. Come on. Hit me. (p. 98)

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 Another instance is when Batman threw the Joker off a skyscraper building, the Joker did nothing and he even laughs as he enjoys it. The Joker GIGGLES as he FALLS, enjoying the ride. Something SLAMS into his leg, and he JERKS to a stop-BATMAN’S GRAPPLE. THE Joker HOLLERS in pain as Batman HAULS him up. (p. 153) The most notable act of the Joker’s fearless characteristic is when in the hospital, he gives Harvey, after disfiguring him, and killing his girlfriend Rachel, a gun, and forcibly points it at his own head, gambling his lfe on the chance that Dent would adopt his philosophy of anarcy. He persuades the disfigured Dent and later, Dent picks up his coin and explains the rules: shiny side means that Harvey will let the Joker lives; burnt side means that the Joker dies. DENT Looks down at the coin in his hands. Turns it over, feels it’s comforting weight. Shows the Joker the good side. You live! He turns the coin over. The flip side is deeply SCARRED You die! The Joker looks at the coin into the air. Looks at Dent, admiringly. Dent FLICKS the coin into the air. Catches it. Looks. (pp. 127-130) Those proofs show that the Joker is fearless and has very little care for his own safety. His reactions toward danger show that he is not afraid to die. d. Dangerous The Joker’s actions show that the Joker is dangerous. He is involved in some criminal activities such as theft, kidnapping, threats, vandalism, assault, and murder. He has many victims of his criminal actions.

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 The Joker gives terrors Gotham citizens. He threats that he will explode a hospital. The Joker threatens that if someone does not kill Coleman Reese in sixty minutes he will blow up a hospital. THE JOKER If Coleman Reese isn’t dead in sixty minutes, then I blow up a hospital. Of course, you could always kill yourself, Mr. Reese. But that would be the noble thing to do. And you’re a lawyer. (p 123) Stephen the police officer strengthens the Joker’s dangerous characteristics; he says that the Joker kills 6 of his friends. THE JOKER How many of your friends have I killed STEPHEN I’m a twenty year man. I can tell the difference between punks who need a little lesson in manners, and the freaks like you who would just enjoy it. (quiet) And you killed six of my friends. (p. 108) From those proofs, it can be seen that the Joker is a dangerous person. e. Trouble Maker The Joker is also a brilliant criminal mind who gets bored with doing what normal criminals do. His boredom leads him to seek out Batman. He spends that whole movie just trying to make a point that Batman is just as corruptible as the rest of them. Even after his apparent defeat, the Joker remarks to Batman that "You won't kill me out of some misplaced sense of self-righteousness. And I won't kill you, because you're just too much fun. I think you and I are destined to do this forever." The Joker also speaks to Batman during the interrogation "I don't

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 want to kill you! What would I do without you? Go back to ripping off mob dealers? No, no...no you complete me." (p. 103) He nearly destroys half of Gotham to in the process, but that is the extent of what he wants to do. He does not care about anything, other than chaos. Murder, theft, and terrorism, no crime is beyond the Joker, and his exploits are a theatrical performance that are funny to him alone. "I'm a man of simple tastes: I enjoy dynamite, gunpowder, and gasoline...and you know the thing they have in common? They're cheap… All you care about is money. This town deserves a better class of criminal, and I'm gonna give it to them. Tell your men they work for me now. This is my city." The Joker to The Chechen while burning a pile of money. (p. 121) f. Unpredictable The Joker’s methods to make chaos in Gotham city are unpredictable and incalculable. Throughout the story, he changes his plans several times. For instance, in the beginning of the story, the Joker robs the fifth bank that owned by mobs bosses. After that he comes to the mobs bosses and offers to kill batman for their half money. CHECHEN What you propose? THE JOKER It’s simple. Kill the Batman. (p. 33) But in the process, the Joker kill all of the mobs bosses and when he meet Batman in the interrogation room, he says that he does not want to kill the Batman anymore.

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 THE JOKER Kill you? I don't want to kill you. What would I do without you? Go back to ripping off mob dealers? No you . . . (points) You. Complete. Me. (p. 103) Another instance of his unpredictable characteristic is about revealing Batman’s identity. To start his plan, the Joker threatens to kill Gotham citizen every day until the Batman is arrested and reveal his identity. THE JOKER Batman must take off his mask, and Turn himself in. Every day he doesn’t . . . People will die. Starting tonight. I’m a man of my word. (p. 55) After the Joker killed some people, an accountant named Coleman Reese appears on TV. He claims knowing the real identity of Batman and about to reveal it to end the Joker’s insanity. But then, the Joker does not want it anymore. He does not want Coleman Reese to reveal Batman’s identity. He even wants Coleman Reese to be killed in one hour before he explodes a hospital. THE JOKER I had a vision. Of a world without Batman. The mob ground out a little profit and the police tried to shut them down, one block at a time . . . and it was so . . . boring. I’ve had a change of heart. I don’t want Mr. Reese spoiling everything, but why should I have all the fun? Let’s give someone else a chance . . . If Coleman Reese isn’t dead in sixty minutes, then I blow up a hospital. Of course, you could always kill yourself, Mr. Reese. But that would be the noble thing to do. And you’re a lawyer. (p. 123)

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 4. Moral Characteristics The Joker is an antisocial person. He operates on the pleasure principle of doing what he wants whenever he wants. He is a man who does not live by order, structure, or even morality. THE JOKER The only sensible way to live in this world is without rules (p.105) The Joker’s characteristics allow him to stand out in direct opposition to the strict moral code. The Joker prizes his ability to frustrate and block Batman’s attempts to restore order and structure to Gotham City, and claims that his only motivation is to point out the absurdity of humans and the world in general. THE JOKER Don’t talk like one of them- You’re not, even if you’d like to be. To them you’re a freak like me… they just need you right now. But as soon as they don’t, they’ll cast you out like a leper. You see, their morals, their code, it’s a bad joke. Dropped at the first sign of trouble. They’re only as good as the world allows them to be. I’ll show you. When the chips are down, these… these civilized people, they’ll eat each other. See, I’m not a monster. I’m just ahead of the curve. (p.104) B. The Joker’s Antisocial Personality Disorder This part of analysis consists of the Joker’s antisocial personality disorder. This antisocial personality disorder can be revealed by matching the symptom of this disorder with the Joker’s characteristics which have been mentioned earlier. Based on the theory by Allen Frances as an editor, someone can be defined as suffering from antisocial personality disorder under condition if she or he is at least at the age of 18 years, and has shown pervasive pattern of disregard for and

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years as indicated by three or more of the some indications. Therefore, the rest of the indications which does not meet the characteristics are not included. The foregoing part has discussed the characteristics that the Joker has. He is scary, analyzed from his physical characteristic. From his social characteristics, he is mysterious and also having a bad relationship with his family. After analyzing the Joker’s psychological characteristics, we know that the Joker is smart, his intelligent and his abilities make him always staying one step ahead of everyone else. He is also dishonest, he lies for particular intention. His reaction toward danger is fearless, he has very little care for his own safety. Moreover, the Joker is also dangerous, he has many victims of his violence and criminal actions. He is a trouble maker, he does not care about anything, other than chaos. Murder, theft, and terrorism, no crime is beyond the Joker. The Joker is also unpredictable, throughout the story, he abruptly changes his plan several times. From his moral characteristic, the Joker is a man who does not live by order, structure, or even morality. He stands out in direct opposition to the strict moral code. The discussion below will analyze the Joker’s antisocial personality disorder and also answer the last problem formulation. 1. Failure to Conform to Social Norms with Respect to Lawful Behavior The person who has Antisocial Personality Disorder symptoms often breaks the social norms and as a result, he is frequently arrested. Coleman also

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 says that the key point for Antisocial Personality Disorder is that a person with Antisocial Personality Disorder shows total disregard for the rights of others (1986: 363). It is in line with the Joker’s characteristic. The Joker’s behavior is characterized by apparently violence and destructiveness: shooting, setting fires, and creating lethal explosions. The Joker is dangerous and a trouble maker, he chronically breaks the law. THE JOKER The only sensible way to live in this world is without rules. (p. 105) His moral characteristic shows that the Joker stands out in direct opposition to the strict moral code. He does what he wants; he disagrees and does not care about the existence of rules and social norms. He breaks the norms conventions of society, mocks the mobs’ code of honor and respect, mocks the law, and defies moral principles, for instance the principle that one should not harm innocents. Conversation of others proofs that he does not believe in any rule. MARONI No one’s gonna tell you anything- they’re wise to your actyou got rules… the Joker, he’s got no rules. No one’s gonna cross him for you. You want this guy, you got one way. And you already know what that is. Just take off that mask and let him come find you (p. 81) 2. Deceitfulness This is one of the Antisocial Personality Disorder symptoms that matches to the characteristic of the Joker. As it has been explained before in his physical and social characteristics, the Joker is mysterious; he is brilliant at concealing his identity. He does not use his real name and only known as the Joker. He also

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 wears a clown make up to cover his face. The uses of alias and makeup to cover his face in order to hide his identity show that the Joker is a kind of a deceitful person. From the previous discussion, we know that the Joker is dishonest. Based on his speeches, he shows that he cannot be trusted. He tells different stories to others about how he gets his scars. The first one, he tells a story to Gambol, the mobs boss right in front of Gambol’s bodyguards. The Joker claims that his father who he describes as “a drinker and a fiend” was the one who cut his mouth. He tells a different story about how he gets his face scars to Rachel Dawes in front of Bruce Wayne’s friends. This time, the Joker claims that he carves a smile into his own face in order to make his wife feels better after sharks carve up her face. In this case, he wants to let his enemies know that they are not just what a dangerous person they are dealing with. To make his capable are understood, the Joker undoubtedly will kill his victim right away in front of everyone. The Joker will lie to anyone if he perceives this as advantageous. In the interrogation room, the Joker tells Batman that both Harvey and Rachel are in separate buildings filled with explosives which are about to explode and he let Batman chooses whom he wants to save. Batman moves to Rachel’s location as the Joker informed while the cops go to save Harvey Dent. However, the Joker lies about the location information; Batman finds Harvey just before the buildings explode, with the result of Rachel’s death and half of Dent’s face is defected Batman STARES at DENT. The Joker Lied. The counter hits 5 second. Batman DRAGS Dent out- Dent FIGHTS to stay (p. 112)

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 From the quotation above, it can be seen that the Joker deceives Batman because he knows that Rachel’s death would bring negative impacts to his enemies. Batman would feel guilty because he could not save the one that he loves. 3. Impulsivity The persons who have Antisocial Personality Disorder symptoms often act spontaneously without considering the risk and are not able to think about something to do in the future. This criterion is identified by the characteristics that the Joker has which are unpredictable and fearless. In the beginning of the story, the Joker robs the fifth bank that owned by mobs bosses. After that he comes to the mobs bosses and offers to kill batman for their half money. But in the process, the Joker kills all of the mobs bosses and when he meet Batman in the interrogation room, he says that he does not want to kill the Batman anymore. Another instance of his unpredictable characteristic is about revealing Batman’s identity. To start his plan, the Joker threatens to kill Gotham citizen every day until the Batman is arrested and reveal his identity. After the Joker killed some people, an accountant named Coleman Reese appears on TV. He claims knowing the real identity of Batman and about to reveal it to end the Joker’s insanity. But then, the Joker does not want it anymore. He does not want Coleman Reese to reveal Batman’s identity. He even wants Coleman Reese to be killed in one hour before he explodes a hospital. As it has been explained before in the Joker’s fearless characteristics, after disfiguring Harvey and kill Rachel, the Joker visits Harvey in the hospital and put

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 a loaded pistol in Harvey’s hand, a man who he knew well had a strong desire to kill him, put the gun to his own forehead and allowed his fate to be judged by the flip of a coin. DENT Looks down at the coin in his hands. Turns it over, feels it’s comforting weight. Shows the Joker the good side. You live! He turns the coin over. The flip side is deeply SCARRED You die! The Joker looks at the coin into the air. Looks at Dent, admiringly. Dent FLICKS the coin into the air. Catches it. Looks. (pp. 127130) From this point, it can be seen that the Joker is impulsive. He is not able to think about something to do in the future because he is inconsistent with his plans by suddenly changes it in the middle of the story. And he is unable to considering the risk of his actions because his plans provide no consideration of his own safety. 4. Irritability and Aggressiveness Aggressive behavior is common for a person who is suffering Antisocial Personality Disorder. These people often attack people physically or emotionally. It is in line with the Joker’s dangerous characteristic. He attacks and kills people. He has many victims of his violence and criminal actions. Stephen the police officer states that the Joker kills 6 of his friends. THE JOKER How many of your friends have I killed

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 STEPHEN I’m a twenty year man. I can tell the difference between punks who need a little lesson in manners, and the freaks like you who would just enjoy it. (quiet) And you killed six of my friends. (p. 108) The Joker also declares that he will rule the streets and that anyone leaves in Gotham will be subjected to his rule. He tells people they can leave now but that he will have a surprise for them in the tunnel and on the bridge which people then avoid, using instead two ferries, one ship full of ordinary civilians and one of the ferries full of criminals. However, the Joker has loaded each of the ferries with explosives. In hopes of showing everyone how evil and corrupt they can be, the Joker gives the passenger of each ship the detonator to the bombs to the other hand and offers both survival if they detonate the other ferry. If they do not choose by midnight, the Joker would blow up both ships. THE JOKER At midnight, I blow you all up. If, however, one of you presses the button, I’ll let that boat live. You choose. So who’s it going to be- Harvey Dent’s most wanted scumbag collection . . . or the sweet innocent civilians? (beat) Oh, and you might want to decide quickly, because the people on the other boat may not be quite so noble. (p 145) Those proofs show that the Joker is a person who can easily harm others. He will threat, attack or kill anybody only to get what he wants. He does not care about whom or how many people that he should kill, as long as he thinks that it is necessary for him to kill, he will kill.

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5. 40 Reckless Disregard for Safety of Self or Others Since the persons who have Antisocial Personality Disorder symptoms do not care to aware that they are in danger after committing their action, they are barely worries to think about their own safety. It is in line with the Joker characteristic and it also makes the Joker fearless and dangerous. As Davidson and Neale state that one of the symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder is fearless in the face of danger, his fearless reaction also meets the requirement of the Antisocial Personality Disorder. The Joker walks towards the Bat-pod, which SPEEDS towards him. He is FIRING his gun RANDOMLY at the oncoming traffic. THE JOKER Hit me. Come on. Hit me. (p. 98) For instance, when Batman riding the Bat-pod with high speed runs toward him, the Joker’s action shows no fear at all, he dare challenges the Batman to smash him. Another instance is when the Joker falls off from the building after having physical fight with Batman. As he falls, he giggles as he enjoys it. The Joker also gives Dent his gun and points it at his own head while telling Dent to "introduce a little anarchy". Later, Dent picks up his coin and explains the rules: shiny side, which means that the Joker lives; burnt side, which means that the Joker dies. Moreover, he is a person who undoubtedly will threat, attack or kill anybody only to get what he wants. He does not care about whom or how many people that he should kill, as long as he thinks that it is necessary for him to kill,

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 he will kill. All of those actions prove that the Joker does not worry to think about his own and others safety. 6. Lack of Remorse It can be said that these people has lost their compassion. They rarely feel regret to what they have done, either having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another and it can be seen from the Joker’s dangerous characteristic. He was arrested once for his violence actions but there is no difference before and after the arrest. GORDON We got you, you son of a bitch. (p. 96) A small army of cops have sealed off the roadway. Gordon pulls away in the quad car containing the Joker The Joker sits in a holding cage. His makeup has run, his clothes a mess – but his calm lends him an odd dignity. COPS SMASH their night sticks against the bars near the Joker’s head. The Joker does not flinch. (p. 97) He even threats a cop while inside the police office before he explodes it and still chronically attacks and kills people. The Joker feels no guilt of his antisocial behavior. Indeed, he enjoys to kill by a knife. It can be proven by his statement. THE JOKER You know why I use a knife, Detective? Guns are too quick. You don’t get to savor all the little emotions. See, in their last moments, people show who they really are… (p. 110) Based on the long explanation above about the Joker, and after analyzing his characteristics based on psychological study, those are symptoms of Antisocial

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 Personality Disorder which fulfill some of the criteria from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder 4th edition by Allen Frances, and they are: Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure. Impulsivity as indicated by often acts spontaneously without considering the risk and are not able to think about something to do in the future. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others. Lack of remorse.

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In this chapter, the researcher comes to the conclusion after analyzing the formulated problems. In accordance to the title “Antisocial Personality Disorder of the Joker’s Character in Christopher Nolan’s the Dark Knight”, the researcher analyzes the character of Joker in Christopher Nolan’s the Dark Knight based on the psychological approach. The first problem is what are the Joker’s characteristics in Christopher Nolan’s the Dark Knight movie script. Based on the personal description, the Joker is described as someone who wears sweaty clown make up with scars which widen his mouth permanently to scare people. From the social point of view, the Joker is an antisocial person. He is a mysterious person. No one really knows who he is. Little can be confirmed regarding his early life before he turned to a life of crime. Despite his capture, no traces can be found on his fingerprints, dental records, or DNA matches against the Gotham City Police Department's databases. He also has poor relationship with his family. The fact that the Joker references his father and his hatred of him to a party guest while crashing Harvey Dent's party implies that at the very least, he has an extremely poor relationship with his father. Besides, he is also a trouble maker. He is a brilliant criminal mind who gets bored with doing what normal criminals do. He does not care about anything, other than chaos. 43

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 From the psychological point of view, it can be concluded that the Joker is smart. He is brilliant at concealing his identity. He is smart through his speeches, actions, and what other character say about the Joker. Another characteristic of the Joker is dishonest. He lies to Gambol in order to kill him, he twists the addresses of Harvey Dent and Rachel Dawes, he also tells different stories to others about how he gets his scars. The Joker is also fearless. His action toward danger is considered fearless. For instance, when Batman is riding the Bat-pod with high speed runs toward him, the Joker’s action shows no fear at all, he dare challenges the Batman to smash him. Another instance is when the Joker falls off from the building after having physical fight with Batman. As he falls, he giggles as he enjoys it. The Joker’s actions also show that the Joker is dangerous and trouble maker. He has many victims of his violence acts. He attacks and kills people for instance, Rachel Dawes, the Batman, cops, and the previous discussion – Gambol the mob boss. The Joker also terrors Gotham citizens. He threats that he will explode a hospital and blow two ferries. The Joker is also unpredictable. his methods to make chaos in Gotham city are unpredictable and incalculable. Throughout the story, he changes his plans several times. From the moral point of view, it can be concluded that the Joker lacks moral values. He is an antisocial person. He always does what he wants whenever he wants without any rules. He does not live by order, structure, or even morality. The Joker’s characteristics allow him to stand out in direct opposition to the strict

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 moral code. The Joker prizes his ability to frustrate and block Batman’s attempts to restore order and structure to Gotham City, and claims that his only motivation is to point out the absurdity of humans and the world in general. After analyzing the Joker’s characteristics, it can be concluded that the Joker suffers from personality disorder. The Joker’s pattern of behavior and thought that are typical as a person who experiences personality disorder is his total lack of regard for the rights of others. This typical characteristic brings him into an ASPD. There are some symptoms of ASPD, had by the Joker, as in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision by Allen Frances as editor (2000: 706). The Joker has more than three symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder and it can be concluded that the Joker suffers Antisocial Personality Disorder as in the DSM-IV-TR (2000). The Joker’s behavior is characterized by apparently violence and destructiveness: shooting, setting fires, and creating lethal explosions. He chronically breaks the law. He often attacks and kills people. He does not care with the risks of his actions and he does not like plan. He does not care to aware that he is in danger after committing his action. He also lies and deceives if he perceives this as advantageous. Moreover, he feels no guilt of his antisocial behavior. Finally, it comes to the conclusion that the Joker’s characteristics fulfill the criteria as a person who suffers from an antisocial personality disorder.

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Term (3rd edition). New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston. 1981 All Time Box Office Domestic Grosses. Available at www.boxofficemojo.com/ alltime/domestic.htm Astruc, Alexandre. The Birth of a New Avant-Garde: La Camera-Stylo. 1972. Barnet, et all. Literary for Composition: Essay, Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Illinois: Scott, Forrestman. 1988 Baron, Robert A. Psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 1995 Boggs, Joseph M. The Art of Watching Films: A Guidance to Film Analysis. California: The Benjamin Cunnings. 1978 Bornstein March, H. Psychology and Its Allied Disciplines Vol. 1. Englewood Cliff: Publishers Hisdale. 1984 Brockett, Oscar G. The Theater, an Introduction. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston. 1974 Byrne, C. The Dark Knight Featuring Production Art and Full Shooting Script. New York, Universe. 2008 Chapman, Gary. Psychology and Principles. Gifted Psychology Press. 1997 Cloininger, Susan. Theories of Personality: Understanding Person (4th edition). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. 2004 Cohen A: The Joker: Torn Between Good and Evil. National Public Radio, July 16, 2008. Available at www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId_ 9257247 Coleman, James C. Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life, (3rd edition). Glenview: Scott, Foresman, and Company. 1986 46

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 Corsini, Raymond J. Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1987 Davison, Gerald and John, Neale. Abnormal Psychology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1986 Dinn, W. & Harris, C. L. . Neurocognitive Function in Antisocial Personality Disorder. Psychiatry Research. 2000; 97(2-3), 173-190. Frances, Allen. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, (4th edition). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. 2000 Gianneti, Louis. Understanding Movies. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 1987 Hyler S. E., Gabbard GO, Schneider I: Homicidal Maniacs and Narcissistic Parasites: Stigmatization of Mentally Ill Persons in the Movies. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1991; 42:1044–1048 Lilienfeld, Scott and Arkowitz, Hal. What “Psychopath” Means. (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-psychopath-means/) Accessed 19 Jan, 2013. 22.00 Kalish, Richard A. The Psychology of Human Behavior. California: Wadswoth Publishing Company, Inc. 1972 Kernberg, O. F., & Caligor, E.. Psychoanalytic theory of personality disorders. 2005. In Lenzenweger & Clarkin (Eds.), Major theories of personality disorder (pp. 114-155). New York: Guilford Press. Lahey, Benyamin & Ciminero, Anthony. Maladaptive Behavior; An Introduction to Abnormal Psychology. Illinois: Scott, Foresman & Co. 1980 Leary, Lewis. A Study and Research Guide. 1976 Lowe, Sandra J. Character Analysis of Batman and Joker. (http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2005155) Accessed 18 Jan, 2013. 13.00

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 Luntz, B. K., & Widom, C. S. Antisocial Personality Disorder in Abused and Neglected Children Grown Up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1994; 151(5), 670-674. Mast, Gerald. “Literature and Film” in Interrelations of Literature. eds. JeanPierre Barricelli. New York: MLA. 1982 Maverick, Lucien. Character Analysis: The Joker (http://lucien0maverick.wordpress.com/character-analysis-the-joker/)Accessed 20 Jan, 2013. 22.00 Murphy, MJ. Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and English Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. 1972 Nolan, C. (Producer/Director/Screenwriter), Roven, C. (Producer), & Thomas, E. (Producer/Screenwriter). The Dark Knight [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Bros. 2008 Perrine, Lawrence. Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. New York: Harcourt Brance Jovanovick, Inc. 1978 Rohrberger, M. and Woods, S. Reading and Writing about Literature. New York: Random House. 1971 Roven C, Thomas E, Nolan C, et al. (2008). The Dark Knight. Warner Pictures. 2008 Stanfron, Robert. An Introduction to Fiction, New York: Holt Reinhart and Winston, Inc. 1965 Sudaryanto. Metode Dan Aneka Teknik Analisis Bahasa: Pengantar Penelitian Wahana Kebudayaan Secara Linguistis. Yogyakarta: Duta Wacana University Press. 1993. Sullivan, Harry S. Theories of Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1956

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 The Dark Knight part 4 (http://www.toddalcott.com/the-dark-knight-part-4.html) Accessed 20 Jan, 2013. 15.00 The Joker (The Dark Knight) (http://batman.wikia.com/wiki/The_Joker_ (Heath_Ledger)) Accessed 20 Jan, 2013. 21.00 Tylor, Theodore. People Who Makes Movie. New York: Mc. Faden-Bartel. 1970 Watson, David L. Et al. Social Psychology: Science and Application. Glenview: Scott Foresman and Company. 1984 Webber, S. Et al. Behavioral Sciences & the Law Vol. 26: Structural Brain Abnormalities in Psychopath-A Review. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. 2008 Wellek, Rene and Austen, Warren. Theory of Literature, Third Edition. New York: Harcourt Brace, & World, Inc, 1949. Wilson C, Nairn R, Coverdale J, et al: Constructing Mental Illness as Dangerous: A Pilot Study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1999; 33:240–247

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Appendix 50

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 SUMMARY OF THE STORY In Gotham City, the Joker and his men rob a bank which owned by mobs. After sets their deaths, he escapes alone. Batman and police’s lieutenant Jim Gordon decide to recruit the new district attorney, Harvey Dent, who is dating Rachel Dawes, in their plan to take on the Mafia. Mob bosses Sal Maroni, Gambol, and The Chechen are informed by Lau, a Chinese accountant, that he has hidden their funds and fled to Hong Kong. The Joker interrupts the meeting, and offers to kill Batman for half of their money. The mob bosses refuse, and Gambol puts a bounty on the Joker because he is upset. Later, with his cleverness the Joker kills Gambol and takes control of his gang, while Batman captures Lau from Hong Kong and delivers him back to Gotham, where he can be prosecuted. Finally, Lau agrees to testify. Later, the Joker broadcast an ultimatum that people will die each day unless Batman reveals his identity; he makes good on the threat by killing Commissioner Gillian B. Loeb and the judge presiding over the mob trials. Bruce Wayne sets a fundraiser for Harvey Dent because he is impressed with his idealism. The Joker targets Dent at the fundraiser but Bruce hides him, while intimidating civilians, Batman shows him up and fight against Joker. Joker throws Rachel from the window and flees. Joker tries to assassinate Mayor Garcia during Loeb's memorial service, but Gordon foils Joker’s attempt by sacrificing himself in the process. As a result, Bruce plans to reveal his identity, but Dent protects the truth, he admits himself as the Batman. Dent is taken into protective custody and pursued by the Joker across the city as Batman comes to help. Gordon, who faked his death, helps arrested the Joker is promoted to Commissioner.

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 However, Dent and Rachel disappear. Batman comes and interrogates the Joker and plays his first game. He tells Batman that both Dent and Rachel are in separate buildings filled with explosives and let Batman chooses whom he wants to save. Batman moves to Rachel’s location as Joker informed. However, Joker lies about the location information; Batman finds Dent just before the buildings explode, with the result of Rachel’s death and half of Dent's face is defected. The Joker then uses a bomb to escape from the police department with Lau. It’s his plan to get arrested. The Joker kills Lau and The Chechen after get the money, but ironically, he burns all of the money. Later, Coleman Reese, an accountant at Wayne Enterprises, deduces Batman's secret identity and plans to blackmail him. Joker threatens to bomb a hospital unless Reese is killed. Gordon rescues Reese, while the Joker visits Dent in the hospital, provoke him to get revenge. Then, Dent kills those whom responsible for Rachel's death, kills Maroni and two corrupt cops who had helped kidnap Rachel. After blowing up the, the Joker plays his second games, he gives two explosives rigged ferries, one ferries full of citizens and the other full of prisoners, Joker gives detonator in each ferries in order to gives options to each ferries passengers to blow each other up until midnight, otherwise, both will explode if they do not blow the bombs. Finally, Batman finds the Joker location. Batman rescues the hostages, who are disguised as Joker's gang, by fighting off the Joker's real men and Gordon's SWAT team. The ferry passengers refuse to kill each other, and are saved as Batman arrests the Joker. Nevertheless, the Joker tells that he has won, as the citizens of Gotham will lose hope after knowing Dent's madness. Batman leaves to find Dent as the Joker is taken into custody.

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 Dent holds Gordon’s family as hostages, and then Batman confronts him. As a result Batman tackles the former D.A. off the building. Batman convinces Gordon to hold him publicly responsible for the murders so that Dent will remain a symbol of hope for the city.

(68)

Dokumen baru

Tags

Dokumen yang terkait

HEDGES USED BY THE WRITERS IN READERS’ LETTER OF THE JAKARTA POST.
0
4
77
HEDGES USED BY THE WRITERS IN READERS` LETTER OF THE JAKARTA POST.
0
5
14
ANALYSIS OF READING COMPREHENSION OF ENGLISH NARRATION OF THE ENGLISH STUDENTS OF MUHAMMADIYAH ANALYSIS OF READING COMPREHENSION OF ENGLISH NARRATION OF THE ENGLISH STUDENTS OF MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA IN THE ACADEMIC YEARS 2006/2007.
0
2
14
LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION
0
0
1
885 TURIS PLASMA VAPORIZATION OF THE PRO
0
0
1
RESEARCH REPORT THE ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT OF LBA MA NU TBS KUDUS
0
0
16
THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE MOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH AND THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ENGLISH SUBJECT OF THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF MA MATHOLI’UL HUDA BUGEL JEPARA IN ACADEMIC YEAR 20132014
0
0
14
THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING READING FACED BY THE ENGLISH TEACHERS OF MA NU GEMBONG IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 20132014
0
1
15
J OU R NA L O F N AT U RA L R E ME D IE S
0
0
7
MA III KEB SEHATAN RTA MIA PADA KARTA N
0
0
8
MUHAMMADIYAH O F UNTVERSITYPALEMBANG F A C U L T Y O F T E A C H E R TRAINING AND EDUCATION ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM F E B R U A R Y 2017
0
1
101
LETTER OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS OF THE INTERVIEW PROCESS
0
0
31
CRIME IN THE FIELD OF BANKING BY USING THE WEAKNESS OF LETTER OF CREDIT
0
0
7
OGRAM D DEPARTM MENT OF L LANGUAG GE AND A ARTS EDUCATION F FACULTY Y OF TEAC CHERS TR RAINING A AND EDUC CATION SANATA A DHARM MA UNIVER RSITY YOGYAK KARTA 20007
0
0
190
E L P I T L U M S R E D A R G T S R I F E H T R O F Y R O E H T S E C N E G I L E T N I F O
0
0
278
Show more