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(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawahi ni, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma Nama : Scolastica Presti Nataya Nomor Mahasiswa : 074214023 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul KIM’S HYBRID IDENTITY AS SEEN IN RUDYARD KIPLING’S KIM Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta izin dari saya atau pun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal 13 Agustus 2014 Yang menyatakan, Scolastica Presti Nataya iv

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis. Yogyakarta, August 29, 2014 Scolastica Presti Nataya v

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI There are no happy endings. Endings are the saddest part. So just give me a happy middle and a very happy start. - Shel Silverstein Parents. Can’t live with them, wouldn’t exist without them. - Nick Burd vi


(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to express my gratefulness to Jesus Christ for the love, care and blessing since the day I was born. It is because of Him that I have the strength and hope to finish this thesis. I would like to give my deepest gratitude to my advisor, Ni Luh Putu Rosiandani, S.S., M.Hum., for the time, guidance, care, and mostly for never losing patience with me although I abandoned this thesis for two years. I also want to express my gratitude to my co-advisor, Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum., for the time spent reading and correcting my thesis. Special thanks goes to Anna Fitriati, S.Pd., M.Hum., for being very attentive and observant during the very long writing process. I would like to thanks all the lectures in Faculty of Letters for all the knowledge they shared and to the administrative staffs in Faculty of Letters, especially Mbak Ninik, who have been very helpful during my study. I would like to sincerely thank my parents, Fa and Ibuk, for the chance to live and all the forms of love they show. I thank Yudha for being the most annoyingly caring little brother. I also would like to thank Kertosentono family and HadiSumarto family for all the supports and love. This thesis is done with the support of my beloved friends Pinky, Tubby, Iut, Pibzter, Uun, Iyin, Zee, Hai, Moci, Ander, Dulski, Kampret, Charlie, and Aryo. Many thanks to Mbak Widie for the constant reminder to do my thesis and the grammar checking. I also would like to thank LENS CLUB, all committee of ‘JAKSA 2007-2011’, Pecis, and Poyeng for the experiences. I also thank all of viii

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI friends in Sanata Dharma University, Boental, Mojo, Iren, Hyp-hyp, Kenan, Victor, Herman, Audy, Sony, Samson, Mas Doni, Tije, Tian, Alwi, Acong, Adith, Damar, Tombro, Asya, Sakha, Mbak Yas, Ucik, and Wowok. Thank you for every time well-spent, you are my chosen family. Scolastica Presti Nataya ix

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ....................................................................................................... i APPROVAL PAGE ............................................................................................. ii ACCEPTANCE PAGE ...................................................................................... iii LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ......................... iv STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ................................................................... v MOTTO PAGE .................................................................................................. vi DEDICATION PAGE ....................................................................................... vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................ viii TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... x ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... xi ABSTRAK............................................................................................................ xii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ...................................................................... 1 A. B. C. D. Background of the study....................................................................... 1 Problem Formulation ............................................................................ 4 Objectives of the Study ........................................................................ 4 Definition of Terms ............................................................................... 5 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW ..................................................... 6 A. Review of Related Studies.................................................................... 6 B. Review of Related Theories .................................................................. 8 C. Theoretical Framework ....................................................................... 15 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ................................................................. 16 A. Object of the Study .............................................................................. 16 B. Approach of the Study ......................................................................... 19 C. Method of the Study ............................................................................ 20 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ............................................................................. 21 A. The Depiction of Kim .......................................................................... 21 B. Hybrid Identity in Kim ........................................................................ 35 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ......................................................................... 46 BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................. 49 x

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT SCOLASTICA PRESTI NATAYA. Kim’s Hybrid Identity in Rudyard Kipling’s Kim. Yogyakarta: English Letters Department, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. Imperialism is the action of claiming and exploiting territories outside the boundaries of one own country for various kinds of motives. British imperialism spreads to many areas around the world and India is one of them. India holds an important position in British imperialism due to its strategic location in the trade traffic. This undergraduate thesis discusses Kim’s hybrid identity in the novel entitled Kim by Rudyard Kipling. The subject of the research is Kim, the major character in the novel who lives in India during British imperialism. Therefore, theory of character, theory of characterization, theory of post-colonialism, and theory of hybrid identity are applied in this thesis. Post-colonialism approach is used to support the analysis. The writer formulates 2 problems in order to reach the conclusion of this study. The first problem discusses the depiction of Kim through his experiences and the characteristics as the major character in the story. The second problem discusses his hybrid identity and how it shows. The writer uses library research method to complete the data. The data consist of primary data and secondary data. The primary data is the novel Kim by Rudyard Kipling, while the secondary data is the supporting sources taken from dictionary, essays, articles, internet, and several other books. There are several steps taken to analyze the novel. The first is reading the novel Kim thoroughly and identifying the problems. The second step is getting the references related to topic of imperialism, Rudyard Kipling, theories of literature about character and characterization, and also the post-colonialism theory. The third step is applying those theories to get the answer of the problem formulation. The last step is drawing a conclusion. The result of the study shows that Kim who is a white boy living in the way of the native of India turns out to have hybrid identity. His parents die and he is left to be brought up by a native Indian woman who sells secondhand furniture in the market. Kim knows that he is a white boy of Irish descendant, but still he loves India very much that he cannot separate himself from it. He cannot choose which one is his true identity, thus his identity is torn between Britain and India. xi

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK SCOLASTICA PRESTI NATAYA. Kim’s Hybrid Identity in Rudyard Kipling’s Kim. Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. Imperialisme adalah tindakan menguasai dan mengeksploitasi wilayah yang berada diluar batas Negara mereka sendiri dengan berbagai macam alas an dan latar belakang. Imperialisme Inggris menyebar ke banyak Negara di seluruh dunia dan India hanyalah salah satu dari negara-negara tersebut. India mempunyai posisi penting dalam imperialism Inggris karena berada di lokasi strategis jalur perdagangan. Skripsi ini membahas tentang efek dari imperialism Inggris dalam novel berjudul Kim karangan Rudyard Kipling dilihat dari sudut pandang Kim. Subjek dari penelitian ini adalah Kim, tokoh utama dalam novel, yang hidup di India pada masa imperialism Inggris. Oleh karena itu,skripsi ini mengaplikasikan teori karakter, teori karakterisasi, teori poskolonialisme dan teori identitas hibrid. Sementara pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan poskolonialisme. Penulis merumuskan dua pertanyaan agar nantinya bias mendapat kesimpulan. Pertanyaan pertama membahas tentang perjalanan hidup dan karakterisasi tokoh utama dalam novel, yaitu Kim. Pertanyaan kedua membahas tentang identitas hibrid yang dialami tokoh utama dan bagaimana itu tercermin dalam dirinya. Penulis menggunakan metode studi pustaka untuk melengkapi data. Data tersebut terdiri dari data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer adalah novel Kim karangan Rudyard Kipling, sementara data sekunder adalah data pelengkap yang diambil dari kamus, esai, artikel, internet, dan beberapa buku lainnya. Ada beberapa langkah yang diambil untuk menganalisa novel. Yang pertama adalah membaca secara seksama dan mengidentifikasi masalah dalam novel Kim. Langkah yang kedua adalah mencari referensi yang berhubungan dengan topic imperialisme, Rudyard Kipling, teori sastra tentang karakter dan karakterisasi, dan juga teori poskolonial. Yang ketiga adalah mengaplikasikan semua teori tersebut untuk mendapatkan jawaban dari rumusan masalah. Langkah yang terakhir adalah menarik kesimpulan. Hasil dari studi menunjukkan bahwa Kim, yang adalah seorang anak laki-laki keturunan kulit putih yang dibesarkan dengan adat-adat lokal India membuatnya memiliki identitas hibrid. Setelah orangtuanya meninggal dia dititipkan pada seorang wanita yang menjual furniture bekas di pasar. Kim sadar bahwa dia adalah anak kulit putih keturunan Irlandia, namun dia sangat mencintai India dan membuatnya tak bisa lepas darinya. Kim tidak bias memilih mana yang merupakan identitas sejatinya, oleh karena itu identitasnya terbelah diantara dua budaya, Inggris dan India. x ii

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study The novel Kim by Rudyard Kipling is hugely debated by many critics due to its topic on imperialism. Some critics deplored the way Rudyard Kipling presented the story in such a way which made imperialism looks innocent, while some others agreed that imperialism actually gave benefits to the country. Edward Said, in his book Culture and Imperialism, described imperialism as “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory”. It has different meaning from colonialism which he described as “the implanting of settlements on distant territory” and is almost always a result from imperialism (1994:9). Furthermore, Ania Loomba in her book Colonialism/Postcolonialism stated that “imperialism can function without formal colonies (as in U. S. imperialism today) but colonialism cannot.” (2000:7) British imperialism has spread to many areas all around the world, from South Asia, Africa, to the Middle East. The need of human resources as trade participants and labors make the British set eyes on these countries to become their expansion. ‘In 1900, the British had already covered one-fifth of the world with 400 millions subjects’ (Johnson, 2003:1). These vast coverage of 1

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 the expansions enabled the British to establish a trade system, military power, communications, and migratory patterns. India played important role for the British. It became the crowning jewel of the British Empire because it secured the British trade in Indian Ocean after the East Indies was won-over by the Dutch (Johnson, 2003:23). For decades, they had cooperated with India to establish trading post in the coasts without military or governmental involvement. The British rules there relied fully on the willing participants of Indians, whether as allies or as traders. When people heard about British imperialism in India (ca. 1600 – 1947), they automatically think about how Britain ruled over India in order to gain advantages for their own country, and forgot the needs of the dominated country. The strategy to rule India is by making some reforms in the country which wiould benefit Britain rather than India (Hutchinson, 2010: 1). It is not about how India needed them, but how they needed India for their own sole benefit. British imperialism in India had caused several positive and negative effects. The positive effects are the banning of inhumane traditional practices like child marriage and the dowry system which forces the bride’s family to pay for all the marriage necessities, the development of transportation and communication, the improvement of technology, education, and public health. The negative effects include the increase of poverty as the British officials’ salaries were paid from India’s assets, and the crash of traditional industries which made India totally dependent to British.

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 Hybrid identity as one of the effects of British imperialism is a unique occurrence; it comes as one of the effects of imperialism. People inside the colony experience a mixture when their own culture meets another culture. Leela Gandhi said that it is common to find hybridity in the context of a colonized culture that has been destabilized (Smith, 2008: 4). The novel Kim shows how a boy of an Irish descent could be confused by his own identity in India. His identity as a white crashed with the native Indian culture which was taught to him as his own culture. Kim’s ancestry is the only thing that defines him as a white boy while he grew up as a part of Indian’s society. Rudyard Kipling is a popular figure of not only English literature and language but also in politics. Itil Asmon in his book Discover Kipling: An Annotated Selection of Rudyard Kipling’s Verse stated that “His poems and stories were enormously popular with many different audiences – political and military readers, soldiers and sailors, middle classes and workers, engineers and settlers, adult and children.” (2013:2) The wide range of audiences means that Kipling’s works are beautiful and give influence toward the readers. Mark Twain makes this statement stronger by saying that: He was the only living person not head of a nation, whose voice is heard around the world the moment it drops a remark, the only such voice in existence that does not go by slow ship and rail but always travels first class by cable (Gilmour, 2002). Rudyard Kipling always wrote about things that are closely related to every day’s life. One of the themes he wrote is the adventure of a boy during the British imperialism era in India. India is important as a setting, it offers what England cannot give. As M. Daphne Kutzer said:

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 England, Kipling’s novel suggests, is full of rules and dullness and stodginess and known quantities. Setting Kim’s story in India gives Kim opportunities he could not possibly have in civilized England. The exotic setting is essential to the story of a boy who grows to be a man but still somehow manages to stay as a boy (Kutzer, 2002: 23). Literature, in relation to imperialism, lends itself as a tool to express opinion and to criticize the government. It presents one’s belief to persuade the mass majority to open their eyes toward the ongoing events. From literature, people will learn about the events and act accordingly to their interest. Kim is a unique novel to display the effects of British imperialism because the major character, Kim, has a duality of character. He was white but he had always felt that he belonged to India; further he would be called White Indian. This peculiarity of his character is something which will be interesting to be investigated further. Rudyard Kipling, who was born and spent his childhood in India, is the first English writer who received the Nobel Prize in literature. Through Kim he shows that hybrid identity is a unique effect of imperialism because it affects those who are involved in it and it is different one from another. B. Problem Formulation In order to make the study organized, the research questions below are formulated as the guide and limitation of the subject that will be discussed: 1. How is Kim depicted in the story? 2. How is hybrid identity portrayed in Kim?

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 C. Objectives of the Study There are two objectives in this study to make the study development well organized. The first is to find out the depiction of Kim in the story and the second is to find out Kim’s hybrid identity due to the mixture of two cultures, India and British. D. Definition of Terms There are several terms which need to be defined in order to gain a better understanding of this writing. The first term is “imperialism”. The Norton Anthology of English Literature defines imperialism as taking over and taking advantages of the territories outside the boundaries of their own country for various kind of motives. According to George Lichtheim, in his book Imperialism (1971: 8), empire or imperialism is the act of dominating a country or peoples and place them under its control. The second term is character. According to M. H. Abrams in his book A Glossary of Literary Terms 6th Edition, characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are perceived by the reader as having moral, attitudes, and feelings which are displayed in their conversations and their actions (Abrams, 1999: 32-34). The third term is hybrid identity. Georg Simmel describes it as a person who is in an indeterminate state of who he is. This person has a new identity which is the result of the combination of two identities, the identity which he is born with and the identity which develops as he grows (Smith and Leavy, 2008: 4).

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies There are several studies that will be discussed here. These studies are needed in order to understand the novel from various point of views and later on will complete the understanding of the novel. The first is taken from the study done by Allison Crowe. She stated that: Most Britons as well as Rudyard Kipling held view that as rulers the British did not do everything correctly, but they felt they were the people who had the knowledge, power, capability, and therefore responsibility to help those they saw that could not help or protect themselves (Crowe, 2008:2). As a dedicated citizen, Kipling encouraged the domination of Britain as a developed country to “civilize” them. Their lack of developments compared to the modern Britain had made India seems to be left behind and people tend to look down on them. The domination of Britain owed to the fact that they once was conquered by the Norman. “Kipling regarded the Norman Conquest as a major event in the history of translation imperii et studii: where once the English were conquered, now they conquer: where once the English were educated, now they educate.” (Williams, 2008: 108). Kipling felt that they, the British, owed something which they must repay in some ways to balance the world. Thus, ruling over India is one of the ways to pay the debt to the Norman. 6

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 The second study is taken from Catur Utami Dewi’s undergraduate thesis entitled “Parents Role, Its Contribution in Kim’s Indentifying Self in Rudyard Kipling’s Kim”. In her writing, she said that The deprivation of parents bring negative effects on the child’s development of personality. For Kim, it affected his identity because he could not identify himself completely as a British. The factor of identity that could not be covered by Kim was in the factor of nationality because the parental role was played by people from different nationality (1997: vii). In her thesis, Catur wanted to emphasize on the parental role that Kim had received from several people whom he encountered in his life. Those people come from different nationalities and backgrounds, thus giving different values of life base on their nationality. There are various themes which can be used to study Kim. Besides the parental role theme, imperialism is also popular theme which can be found in this novel. Edward Said in his Introduction to Kim challenged the reader on how to read Kim. He said, “How then do we read Kim, if we are to remember always that the book is, after all, a novel, that there is more than one history in it to be remembered, that the imperial experience, while often regarded as exclusively political, was also an experience that entered into cultural and aesthetic life as well?” (1989) Furthermore, Said pointed out one thing that “will strike every reader, regardless of politics and history”: It is an overwhelmingly male novel, with two wonderfully attractive men – a boy who grows into early manhood, and an old ascetic priest – at its centre.. the women in the novel are remarkably few in number by comparison, and all are somehow debased or unsuitable for male attention; prostitutes, elderly widows, or importunate and lusty women. (1998: 12)

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 The theme of gender is also prominent in the novel, which has tickled the critics to study Kim in a deeper ground. Somehow, the theme of gender is always related to imperialism because it is one of the impacts of imperialism. Those studies above are related to the same literary work but they discuss different issues. In this analysis, the main issue is the hybrid identity of Kim as the main character of Rudyard Kipling’s novel Kim. None of the studies above discuss hybrid identity. B. Review of Related Theories In this study, the writer uses several theories to develop the analysis. Those theories are: 1. Theory of Character Character refers to “a reasonable facsimile of a human being, with all the good and bad traits of being human” (Roberts and Jacobs, 1989: 56). A character is a human being in a literary work who also has speech, thought and behavior like the real human being. According to M. H. Abrams in his book A Glossary of Literary Terms, character is a person presented in a work and is interpreted by the reader through his speech and action. Characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expressed in what they say and what they do (1993: 23). The quotation above also explain that a character in a work is usually interpreted by the reader through his dialogue, action, and motivation. Motivation means the character’s temperament, desires, and moral nature for

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 their speech and actions. Moreover, based on the role, character can be categorized into two parts, a. Major Character A major character is the most important or central person within a story. Usually, the story is always focused on this character from the beginning to the end of the story. b. Minor Character A minor character appears in certain setting to support and become the background of major character because they are not fully developed and just help the major character to reveal his characterization to the readers (Abrams, 1981: 20). 2. Theory of Characterization Murtagh J. Murphy in his book Understanding Unseens: an Introduction to English Poetry and English Novels for Overseas Students, stated that there are nine ways which the author usually uses to understand the characters easily. Those nine ways are explained as follow: a. Personal Description The author can explain a character from his physical appearance such as his body and his clothes (1972: 161). The reader will be able to visualize the appearance of the character better through the personal description given by the author in the novel, such as how fat or thin the character is or how tall or short.

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI10 b. Character as Seen by Another The author can describe a character by using the perspective of other characters (1972: 162). The reader will assume this as the reflected image of the character. Other characters give comment or thought for another character and through these the reader will understand more of the character. c. Speech The author gives an insight into the character of one of the persons in the book through what the persons says. Whenever a person speaks, convers with another character, stating an opinion or a thought, he is giving the reader some clues to his character (1972: 164). The reader will be able to figure out the character’s point of view or opinion on things through his speech. d. Past Life Letting the reader learn something about a person’s past life can give the reader a clue to events that have helped to shape a person’s character. This can be done by a direct comment by the author, through the person’s thoughts, through his conversation or through the medium of another person (1972: 166). The character’s past experience will give an additional background about him. e. Conversation of Others The readers can understand a character by noticing conversations of other characters and things they say about him or her (1972: 167). The character’s interaction with other will help the reader to see some of his characteristics.

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI11 f. Reactions The author can give the reader a clue to a person‘s character by letting the reader know how that person reacts to various situations and events (1972: 168). The character’s reaction toward the situations and events around him may also give an insight about his characteristics. g. Direct Comment The author can describe or comment on a person‘s character directly (1972: 171). This is perhaps the best way to understand the character’s characteristics because the author himself describes him that way. h. Thoughts The author can give the reader direct knowledge of what a person is thinking about. It can be seen by the readers but cannot be seen by other characters in the story (1972: 171). It is the advantage of a literature because in real life people cannot really read what other people is thinking. i. Mannerism The author can describe a person‘s mannerisms and habits, which may also tell us something about his character (1972: 173). Having a knowledge about the character’s manners and habits also help in figuring out his characteristics. It is important for the reader to pay attention on those ways of presentation provided in the novel in order to get the whole picture of the

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI12 character. The author rarely describes the character in one opening paragraph but spreads the traits little by little along the story. 3. Theory of Postcolonialism Edward Said is a significant figure in post-colonial theory. He is of Palestinian origin who grew up in Jerusalem which is under British mandate. Edward Said moved to America and become one of the most celebrated writer and professor. His book entitled Orientalism has come to be one important source of post-colonial study. He used the term orient because it has unique place in the Western experience. Edward Said stated that, The Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of Europe’s greatest and richest and oldest colonies, the source of its deepest and most recurring images of the Other. In addition, the Orient has helped to define Europe (or the West) as its contrasting image, idea, personality, experience (1979:1). Based on the theory above, the Orient describes the people and the countries subject to Western colonialism. They are considered as different from the West that the image of the Orient often associated with the term “exotic”. The literatures which were written in this era often romanticized them which resulted in the increasing number of the Western to come to the land and take part in it. The relaxed atmosphere, friendly people, and somehow bizarre culture attract the Western people to go there. It may be for vacation to escape from their routines or for a chance to change their fate. Coming to the Orient and work for the government regarded as a respectable position at that time.

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI13 Orientalism can be seen as a formal Western establishment to justify the act of dominating, settling, and having authority over the Orient. They regarded themselves to have higher position than the Orient to teach them the way of the West because the Orient does not share the same knowledge with them. Gayatri Spivak, one of the first generation of Indian intellectuals after independence and a renowned post-colonial theorist, also notice this kind of prejudice. She questions Immanuel Kant argument which says that it is primarily cultivated and educated men who can make judgments about taste and sublimity (Morton, 2004: 115). She inquires to know what about the other groups or societies who do not have contact to the culture that Kant describes. Every culture is different, each has its own distinctive point which cannot be measured as higher or lower. The West is obsessed with development and modernity, while the Orient preserve their culture in a more secluded way. Gayatri Spivak emphasizes that “production and reception of nineteenthcentury English literature was bound up with the history of imperialism” (Morton, 2004: 111). She also argues that “literature provided a cultural representation of England as civilized and progressive: and idea which served to justify the economic and political project of imperialism” (Morton, 2004: 111-112). Every novel which is born in this era has a theme on British imperialism in one way or another that it sets people opinion on the matter.

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI14 People thought that British imperialism has done the right gesture toward the Orient and they support their government for that. 4. Theory of Hybrid Identity Hybridity occurs when two different things combine and resulted in another form of thing. Keri E. Iyall Smith in her essay Hybrid Identities: Theorical Examinations stated that “a reflexive relationship between the local and the global produces the hybrid.” When two cultures meet, they blend and cannot be inferred alone without the other. Each of the culture influences the other to create something new that is distinct compared to the original two (2008: 4). Hybridity is one of the impacts of colonialism. In the colonial world, the colonizer and the colonized interact with each other that their culture mixed. Those individuals who inhabit the colonial world will experience a duality and mixture. The duality and mixture they experience is what hybridity is all about. The mixture of two culture into one person caused a confusion inside him/herself. William Edward Burghardt DuBois described this hybridity as follows: Resulting in a double consciousness. Double consciousness is distinct because it explicitly embodies multiple identities instead of closing identity group boundaries. Groups or individuals that occupy this space experience a kind of “two-ness”, as two identities trying to exist within one person (Smith, 2008: 7). An individual can be called a hybrid when that individual experience this “two-ness”. That person struggles to intermediate the two cultures that

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI15 reside in him/her. The outcome of his/her validating act is that there will be a new identity which is completely different. Hybridity does not come as risk-free thing. There is always a side effect of hybridity. The society in which hybridity happens may see it as a contradiction due to its rare occurrence. C. Theoretical Framework The four theories above are used in analyzing the topic of the study and answering the problems formulated in the first chapter. Theory of character and characterization is used to answer problem number one. It provides the information to understand the meaning of character, the types of character, and any other indication to understand them including their characteristics. Post-colonialism and hybrid identity theory are used to answer the second question. It provides the understanding of British imperialism and how it causes hybrid identity.

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of this study is a novel by Rudyard Kipling entitled Kim. The work first published as a serial in McClure’s Magazine in December 1900, then, in October 1901 it appeared as a book form published by Macmillan & Co. In this undergraduate thesis, the writer use the Reader’s Digest Edition published in 1990 with an afterword by John L. Cobbs and illustrations by Gary Aagaard. John L. Cobbs is known for his works in Owen Wister’s biography, some criticism essays and commentaries. Due to its popular achievement by the readers, the novel was made into a movie by MGM in 1950 and London Films television film was made in 1984. It has been released in DVD version. Phillip Mallet in his book Rudyard Kipling: A Literary Life said that this book was to be Kipling’s last significant story about India (2003: 118). Henry James, who previously hated the latest book by Kipling, rejoiced at Kim, and wrote urging Kipling to “chuck public affairs, which are an ignoble scene, and stick to your canvas and your paint-box” (2003: 117). Edward Said has argued that Kim’s easy identification with different castes and creeds allowed Kipling to ‘have and enjoy India in a way that even imperialism never dreamed of’. 16

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 Rudyard Kipling was one of the most popular writers in England in the late 19th and early 20th century. He was the first Englishman to receive Nobel Prize in Literature (1907) and to this day he remained the youngest recipient. Kipling was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and for a knighthood, but he declined them all. Douglas Kerr, a literary critic, wrote, “He is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled. But as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognized as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, and an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with. (Kerr, 2006) The novel tells a story about a boy named Kim during British imperialism in India. He made a journey with a Tibetan Lama he met in front of the museum, who was looking for the River of the Arrow. This River of the Arrow was supposed to be the place where the arrow that Buddha threw fell to, it could wash away all sins and free the humans from the Wheel of Life. Kim was fascinated by the Lama’s story because they shared a similar magical quest. There was also a prophecy about him which said that he would meet a red bull in a green field, and he felt connected to the Old Lama. Kim learned that the Lama had just lost his chela (pupil), and since he seemed to be unable to fulfill his own needs by himself, Kim volunteered himself to become the substitute.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 Kim was an orphan, thus he thought that accompanying a Lama through a pilgrimage around the land would bring him some new knowledge and experiences. Besides paying some services for the Lama, Kim who also acted as a spy under the guidance of a horse trader, Mahbub Ali, could use the pilgrimage as a disguise. Kim could easily go to places without attracting many suspicions. At that time, it is common that people do pilgrimage all across the land to find enlightenment. Together, Kim and the Lama, started their journey to find their individual quest. Kim promised to assist the Lama to find his River, and in return the Lama assisted Kim to find the red bull in the green field. Although Kim respected and started to grow fond of the lama, Kim never told the Lama that he worked as a spy or where he sometimes disappeared during their rest time in the journey. Kim sometimes left the Lama when he had a spying job to do. Before he left, he made sure that the Lama was well taken care of. The Lama usually left to meditate or sleep after he took his meal, which made him unaware of Kim’s absence. Once Kim’s prophecy about the red bull was fulfilled, Kim was sent to a school to pursue his education as a white man. He had to be parted with the Lama during his school time. Although it was hard for the Lama to be separated from his chela, he insisted that Kim get the best education provided for a white man in India. For the best education for his beloved chela, he thought that it was appropriate that he paid for all the fees.

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 This action shows that the relationship between the Lama and Kim is beneficial for each other. Not only Kim acted as the chela and served the lama, but the Lama also took care of his disciple. Mutually taking care of each other is a relationship which rarely happens between a Lama and his disciple. B. Approach of the Study To get a better understanding in analyzing this work, an approach is needed in this writing. As the topic of the study is about British imperialism, the appropriate approach to analyze this work is the post-colonial approach. As a theoretical approach, post-colonialism probes the reader to think through the way the colonial messages are presented in literary texts. Aniaa Loomba states that postcolonial studies have been preoccupied with the issues of hybridity, creolisation, mestizaje, in-betweenness, diasporas and liminality, with the mobility and cross-overs of ideas and identities generated by colonialism (1998: 173). Hybrid identity as the main issue in this writing is included in the postcolonial studies. Kim as the main character of the novel is confused by the two cultures he is facing everyday which makes him experience a feeling of inbetweenness or hybrid. Sometimes he is Indian and sometimes he is British. . As a British who grows up in Indian culture, Kim struggles to keep himself balance in every cultures. People under colonial authority can mimic everything from other culture, thus colonial ‘hybridity’ in this particular sense is a strategy premised on cultural purity, and aimed at stabilizing the status quo (1998: 173-174).

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 In order to maintain the status quo, the authority must understand the subject of authority through the blending of cultures. The postcolonial approach is the best approach to be applied in the analysis because it connects hybrid identity and its background. C. Method of the Study This study uses library research method and internet research method. The writer takes the data from the library and the internet, then combine them to get the necessary information. The primary source is the novel Kim by Rudyard Kipling (Reader’s Digest Edition, 1990) with an afterword by John L. Cobbs and illustrations by Gary Aagaard. The secondary sources are articles, reference books, undergraduate thesis discussing Kipling’s novel and the theories needed to analyze it. The procedure taken in analyzing the work is by first reading and re-reading Kim in order to get a better understanding on the content of the novel. After the writer understands the novel, the second step to take is to formulate the problems, and the third step is to collect the data related to this research, while the fourth is to analyze it. The next step is to apply the theories and the approach to answer the problems formulation. The first is by using the theory of character and characterization to determine the characteristics of the character. The second is by applying the theory of post-colonialism and theory of hybrid identity to find out the hybrid identity in Kim.

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS Kim as the main character becomes the main discussion in this chapter. First, the writer gives the information of Kim’s depiction, the general description such as the physical appearance, the social settings in which he lived, his life experiences, and his characteristics. After the general image of Kim is displayed, the writer gives the details of the hybrid identity as revealed by Kim. A. The Depiction Of Kim The character of Kim is unique. This boy had a life which was extraordinary as compared to other kids who lived in those days and at that age. As a boy, Kim saw many things and traveled to many places which were uncommon for a boy at his age. These things marked him as interesting and special. Kim lived in India. The beauty of the land captivated his heart, and he could not imagine any other place to live except this land. India is an exotic place which holds the tradition as a part of its enchantment to attract people and make them stay. The diamond-bright dawn woke men and crows and bullocks together. Kim sat up and yawned, shook himself, and thrilled with delight. This was seeing the world in real truth; this was life as he would have it – bustling and shouting, the buckling of belts, and beating of bullocks and creaking of wheels, lighting of fires and cooking of food, and new sights at every turn of the approving eye. The morning mist swept off in a whorl silver, the parrots shot away to some distant river in shrieking green hosts: all the well-wheels within earshot went to work. India was awake, and Kim was in the middle 21

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 of it, more awake and more excited than anyone, chewing on a twig that he would presently use as a toothbrush; for he borrowed right- and lefthandedly from all the customs of the country he knew and loved (Kipling, 1990: 78). India is a multicultural land. During the British settlement, there are various kind, of people coming across the country. Besides the local people of India and the British men, other people from the neighboring countries also come to visit India. This is because India had many sacred places which attracted people to do pilgrimage, such as the Gunga River which was said to be able to wash away the sins or sickness, and Kapilavastu, the birth place of Buddha. Kim was an Irish boy who grew up in India. The Europeans who lived in India are called “sahib”. His parents were all dead, and they left him alone in the care of a woman who kept a secondhand furniture shop in the market. Kim loved to go around places in the city. Thus, his complexion was not really white but burnt black as any local people of India. There was some justification for Kim – he had kicked Lala Dinanath’s boy off the trunnions – since the English held Punjab and Kim was English. Though he was burned black as any native; though he spoke the vernacular by preference, and his mother tongue in a clipped uncertain singsong; though he consorted on terms of perfect equality with the small boys of the bazaar; Kim was white – a poor white of the very poorest. (Kipling, 1990: 9). As a poor kid, Kim used to beg for food in the market stalls. The woman who took care of him is addicted to smoking opium which sometimes caused her to forget to provide food in the house, so Kim would ask for food to the people who were charitable, and ate with his friends on the street.

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 This woman, Kim’s guardian was the one who told Kim of his ancestry. The woman also told Kim about the prophecy his father said that one day Kim would meet a red bull in a green field, and which would help him identify himself. It would, he said, all come right some day, and Kim’s horn would be exalted between pillars – monstrous pillars – of beauty and strength. The colonel himself, riding a horse, at the head of the finest regiment in the world, would attend Kim – little Kim that should have been better off than his father. Nine hundred first-class devils, whose god was a red bull on a green field, would attend to Kim, if they had not forgotten O’Hara – poor O’Hara that was gang foreman on the Ferozepore line (Kipling, 1990: 10). Kim knew everybody in the town and everybody knew him. One of his acquaintance was a notable horse dealer called Mahbub Ali. The horse dealer was a middle-aged man who did not like his grey hair to show, so he dyed them red with lime. Kim respected Mahbub Ali as he always gave Kim something to do and gave food and money as the payment. Kim had had many dealings with Mahbub in his little life, especially between his tent and his thirteenth year, and the big burly Afghan, his beard dyed scarlet with lime (for he was elderly and did not wish his gray hairs to show), knew the boy’s value as a gossip. Sometimes he would tell Kim to watch a man who had nothing whatever to do with horses: to follow him for one whole day and report every soul with whom he talked. Kim would deliver himself of his tale at evening, and Mahbub would listen without a word or gesture. It was intrigue of some kind, Kim knew; but its worth lay in saying nothing whatever to anyone except Mahbub, who gave him beautiful meals all hot from the cook-shop at head of the serai, and once as much as eight annas in money (Kipling, 1990: 25). Mahbub Ali acted as a guardian to Kim. He saw that the boy had a talent that he needed to carry out the job as a spy for the British government. His task was to make sure that the borders of India was secure from the attacks of other countries and to gather information from people who looked suspicious. This

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 spying task was coded The Great Game. Kim was considered perfect to act as his subordinate due to his ability to go to places without drawing suspicions. Kim was natural when it goes to disguise and concealing. His nickname through the wards was “Little Friend of all the World”; and very often, being lithe and inconspicuous, he executed commissions by night on the crowded housetops for sleek and shiny young men of fashion. It was intrigue, of course – he knew that much, as he had known all evil since he could speak – but what he loved was the game for its own sake – the stealthy prowl through the dark gullies and lanes, the crawl up a water pipe, the sights and sounds of the women’s world on the flat roofs, and the headlong flight from housetop to housetop under cover of the hot dark (Kipling, 1990: 11). Kim preferred to dress as any other natives did. He disliked the bind of European clothes which were uncomfortable. Kim was fully aware that he is not an Indian but a white man of Irish descent. However, he loved to wear the native clothes, not the typical western clothes which would differ him from his fellow natives. The woman who looked after him insisted with tears that he should wear European clothes – trousers, a shirt, and a battered hat. Kim found it easier to slip into Hindu or Mohammedan garb when engaged on certain business (Kipling, 1990: 11). Wearing the European clothes would obviously make Kim stand out among other kids and it would make him easier to be identified by British people, as well as separating him from the street where he grew up in. As he grew older, he got accustomed to avoiding other white men or missionaries. Every one of them who met him always asked about his true identity and encouraged him to go to the

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 orphanage for white kids which held him captive. Those white men did not see India the way Kim saw it. True, he knew the wonderful walled city of Lahore from the Delhi Gate to the outer Fort Ditch; was hand in glove with men who led lives stranger than anything Haround al Raschid dreamed of; and he lived in a life wild as that of the Arabian Nights, but missionaries and secretaries of charitable societies could not see the beauty of it (Kipling, 1990: 11). The story started, Kim was in his early teen, around thirteen or fourteen years old and ended when he was around seventeen years old. That is the age when curiosity about identity matters, and it takes over a person. He often said his name repeatedly as if to find out about his identity. “No; I am Kim. This is the great world, and I am only Kim. Who is Kim?” He considered his own identity, a thing he had never done before, till his head swam. He was one insignificant person in all this roaring whirl of India, going southward to he knew not what fate (Kipling, 1990: 121). As a boy in his teen, Kim was small in appearance. Although Kim had never skipped meals at school or elsewhere, his body remained lean, and somehow this shape suited him well. When Kim picked up his Lama (monk) in the temple his hungry-for-meat stomach could not be satisfied with rice and tea, and so he felt hungry all the time. The pallor of hunger suited Kim very well as he stood, tall and slim, his sadcoloured, sweeping robes, one hand on the rosary and the other in the attitude of benediction, faithfully copied from the lama. An English observer might have said that he looked rather like the young saint of a stained-glass window, whereas he was but a growing lad faint with emptiness (Kipling, 1990: 200-201). Kim was used to all foods he could find in the bazaar; the rice and tea provided in the temple were not food for Kim. His hunger could only be pleased

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 by eating meat, thus Kim asked the man whose son he cured in front of the temple to bring him all the delicious foods which were not provided in the temple as the payment of the cure. After he had eaten the meat, his hunger disappeared. The Lama whom Kim followed was a spiritual man from Tibet. The lama was on a journey to find the “River of Revelation”. Kim found the Lama interesting and seeing that the Lama was incapable of taking care of himself, Kim offered himself as a chela (disciple) to assist during the journey. Before they start their journey, Kim took the Lama to take shelter under Mahbub Ali’s roof. Mahbub Ali gave shelter and money as long as Kim would be willing to deliver a cryptic message to a British colonel in Umbala. Kim traveled with the Lama and acted as an agent along the way until he was found by his father’s regiment. The regiment wanted Kim to be sent to a school for white children and be a soldier just like his father. The Lama, who grew fond of Kim because he thought that Kim was destined to help him find his revelation, disagreed with the regiment and insisted that Kim be sent to the best school only. He wished to pay for the tuition as long as Kim is sent to the best school there is in India. Kim then attended St. Xavier in Lucknow to learn things which would be useful should he wanted to involve in the government or spying. Kim studied the language and how to write in English, mathematics, and other things. It turned out that Kim had a brilliant mind for he got an award for his excellent study.

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 It is further recorded in the same books that he showed a great aptitude for mathematical studies as well as mapmaking, and carried away a prize (The Life of Lord Lawrence, tree calf, two vols., nine rupees eight annas) for proficiency therein; and the same term played in St. Xavier’s eleven against the Allyghur Mohammedan College, his age being fourteen years and ten months (Kipling, 1990: 169). After Kim is out of school, his future was then discussed by the player of The Great Game. Kim was to serve the government as a scribe whose job woukd be to make maps and report all things that happening in the land. This job would also enable him to act as an undercover agent. At the age of seventeen, Kim was new to the game. So he assisted the other agents to get the necessary information for the government. Kim was a boy with peculiar life and action. He did not lead a life like other ordinary child at his age. He was childish, but sometimes he could act wisely, depending on his interest. Here are some of his traits as a white boy lives in India. 1. An Opportunist Kim grew up as a poor boy. Sometimes the house he lived in did not provide food, forcing Kim to go out to eat with his friends. This economic condition sets Kim to manipulate every chance he gets when it comes to deal with money. Like when he was in charge to buy train tickets for him and the Lama, he took some of the Lama’s money for himself. He return the money, keeping only one anna in each rupee of the price of the Umballa ticket as his commission – the immemorial commission of Asia (Kipling, 1990: 33).

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 Kim was raised in the street of Lahore; he spent his childhood in the festivities of a bazaar. All his life he had met many kind of people, the good and the bad, and he learned very well to adapt and to captivate their heart. His life as a common Hindi boy had taught him to see and take the opportunity whenever available. “And his disciple is like him?” “Nay, Mother,” said Kim most promptly. “Not when the woman is welllooking and above all charitable to the hungry.” “A beggar’s answer,” said the Sikh, laughing. “Thou hast brought it on thyself, sister!” Kim’s hands were crooked in supplication (Kipling, 1990: 34). Women are more likely to feel pity on other’s misfortune, and Kim understood this trait very well so he exploited their weakness. Along the way of his journey with the Lama, he met several women who fell for the drama he played in front of them. When Kim and the Lama were on the train, there was a problem with Kim’s ticket. It seemed that Kim had not have the right ticket to go to their destination, and he was threatened to be thrown out in the next station. Kim begged for mercy and money for his ticket to the people in the same wagon to give him some charity. The Lama offered to pay for the ticket but Kim forbade him to pay for anything they could get for free. “Oh, be silent,” whispered Kim; “are we rajahs to throw away good silver when the world is so charitable?” The Amritzar girl stepped out with her bundles, and it was on her that Kim kept his watchful eye. Ladies of that persuasion, he knew, were generous. “A ticket – a little tikkut to Umballa – O Breaker of Hearts!” She laughed. “Hast thou no charity?” (Kipling, 1990: 36)

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 Kim is a great actor. He mastered the vocabularies and expressions to attract the sympathy of other. Kim could easily pretend to be so miserable that people would fall to pity him and give him what he need. Kim was also stubborn when he had already set his eyes to get what he wanted. This is probably something he had learned from people’s talks in the bazaar, where he could roam around freely. Kim used his charms not only to the common women he met at the train. The Woman of Kulu, who was a widow of a respectable rich family, also fell to his sweet talks. Kim noticed that there was a group of pilgrimage resting at the side of the road. He knew that only old woman of a high status who would do a pilgrimage in a cart with several men to guard and lift it. This particular kind of woman usually has a very sharp tongue and desires many grandsons in her family line. Kim played these traits to his advantage to get his and the Lama’s dinner guaranteed, at least for the night. “I am but the Holy One’s disciple. When he has eaten perhaps he will come.” “Oh, villain and shameless rogue!” The jeweled forefinger shook itself at him reprovingly; but he could hear the old lady’s chuckle. “Nay, what is it?” he said, dropping into his most caressing and confidential tone – the one, he well knew, that few could resist. “Is – is there any need of a son in thy family? Speak freely, for we priests–” (Kipling, 1990: 74) He pointed directly at what the woman’s desires most. No woman can deny another male descendant in the family. It is considered an honor to be blessed by many males in the family tree. Becoming a Lama’ chela has its advantages. Kim knew that he had done his job right, and he was grateful for it. Although it was hard to endure the talkative

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 speech of the Woman of Kulu, he realized that everything will be provided for as long as he and the Lama accompanied her in the journey. There was no need to worry about food – no need to spend a cowrie at the crowded stalls. He was the disciple of a holy man annexed by a strongwilled old lady. All things would be prepared for them, and when they were respectfully invited so to do they would sit and eat (Kipling, 1990: 78). Kim was the apprentice of a spy who worked for the British government. Mahbub Ali, in daily life, was a well-known horse trader who was respected by people. Although Mahbub Ali was a senior while Kim was a junior, Kim still took advantage over him. Kim states that he would always tell the truth, but he asked for a compensation for the news he was to convey. “Eight annas, and I will tell,” said Kim, grinning. “It touches thy peace.” And then Mahbub answered, “O Shaitan!” Mahbub gave the money (Kipling, 1990: 149). When opportunity comes, Kim promptly grasped it. He showed no fear to Mahbub Ali because they have close relationship. Mahbub Ali had been like a father to Kim, and thus formality between them was not necessary. Kim could take advantage over him without any hard feeling as Mahbub Ali had understood that Kim loved to play game. 2. Superior Being white in India during British invasion made Kim feel that he had a superiority compared to the natives. Kim thought that being white means a higher social status since the British has power over of India. He did not see it as a case of different race.

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 He sat, in defiance of municipal orders, astride the gun Zam-Zammah on her brick platform opposite the old Ajaib-Gher – the Wonder House, as the natives call the Lahore Museum. Who hold Zam-Zammah, that “firebreathing dragon,” hold the Punjab, for the great green-bronze piece is always first of the conqueror’s loot (Kipling, 1990: 9). Kim thought that he alone was suitable to sit above the canon in front of the museum. He was white and his fellow friends who played with him were of different caste. Kicking the small boy off the cannon to make a space for himself showed that Kim valued higher position. The cannon was simply higher than the ground they were standing on so Kim wanted to take that position for himself. Kim regarded the small boy as inferior and not worthy of a space above the weapon, which may symbolizes power. “Off! Off! Let me up!” cried Abdullah, climbing up Zam-Zammah’s wheel. “Thy father was a pastry cook, Thy mother stole the ghi,” sang Kim. “All Mussalmans fell off Zam-Zammah long ago!” “Let me up!” shrilled little Chota Lal in his gilt-embroidered cap. His father was worth perhaps half a million sterling, but India is the only democratic land in the world. “The Hindus fell off Zam-Zammah too. The Mussalmans pushed them off. Thy father was a pastry cook –” (Kipling, 1990: 12) The small boy’s father was rich and Kim was very poor, but he still considered that his friend was not equal with him. Kim’s skin was burnt black as any other native, just the same shades of color as Chota Lal’s. However, the blood running through their veins differentiated them. The Irish blood, in Kim’s opinion, was worth more than money or possessions. The people of India had been thrown off the domination of power by the coming of British traders. The British made its way in India by trading in the

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 coastal area. Kim sang about how the British take over the land and sent away the Indian from their own land. He used the song as an answer to the cry of plea from his friends. 3. Heroic Kim grew up in the streets of India. Since the woman who took care of him worked as a seller in the market, she did not have much time to spend with Kim. She let Kim wandering around the city as long as he could take care of himself. This habit of travelling from one place to another made Kim familiar with all kind of people. He knew how to distinguish people, whether they were good or evil, so he could protect himself from trouble. The Lama, being old and innocent, would be an easy target for bad people to take advantage from. While travelling with the Lama, he became more protective because he also had to protect the Lama besides himself. “Was there ever such a disciple as I?” he cried merrily to the lama. “All earth would have picked thy bones within ten mile of Lahore city if I had not guarded thee” (Kipling, 1990: 67). There was one time when Kim and the Lama spent the night at a village, where an old soldier offered a lodging in his house but the priest insisted that the Lama should spend the night at the temple. Kim became aware that the priest wanted to steal their money. So, Kim let the Lama to sleep in the temple, but he firstly had hand over the money for safe keeping. “Where is the money?” he whispered, beckoning the old man off into the darkness. “In my bosom. Where else?”

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 “Give it me. Quietly and swiftly give it me.” “But why? Here is no ticket to buy.” “Am I thy chela, or am I not? Do I not safeguard thy old feet about the ways? Give me the money and at dawn I will return it.” He slipped his hand above the lama’s girdle and brought away the purse. “Be it so – be it so.” The old lama nodded his head. “This is a great and terrible world. I never knew there were so many men alive in it” (Kipling, 1990: 56). The angry priest became the evidence that he indeed set his eyes toward the lama’s money. Kim detected the behavior early and thus he guarded the Lama from being robbed. The Lama sensed the purpose of Kim’s action and he trusted Kim that he let Kim do it. Even a spiritual person such as a priest still cannot resist the temptation of money. Being a disciple of a lama is a job of service. It means that the disciple must assist and serve the lama wholeheartedly. Kim understood the role which he applied to voluntarily, and he knew that he should be capable of anticipating what the Lama might need. While the Lama was sleeping due to the fatigue of the journey, Kim stayed awake and did his duty to beg for food for both of them so when the Lama woke up, the foods would have been ready. “Is this also thy work?” The lama dipped deep into his snuff gourd. “Who else watched over thee since our wonderful journey began?” (Kipling, 1990: 75) After Kim was out of school, he could finally enter the spying crew officially. He was torn between entering the game or rejoined his lama to continue their journey. Due to his love to the Lama, he decided to be a double agent as

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 before. He could be the lama’s chela and also a spy at the same time. His position as the spiritual man’s disciple would become his disguise. His first task as a spy was to assist his fellow senior Indian spy, Huree Babu, to get the Russian spies’ documents. They met the Russian spies at the top of a hill. Those spies act as common tourists, they show a great interests in the Lama’s drawing and want to buy it from him. The Lama refuses politely because that drawing is important in the initiation of a novice. The spies turn angry and violent at this point that one of them attacks the lama. Kim wants to prevent the Lama from being hurt but he is not fast enough. He then fights the spies as revenge. It was too late. Before Kim could ward him off, the Russian struck the old man full on the face. Next instant he was rolling over and over downhill with Kim at his throat. The blow had waked every unknown Irish devil in the boy’s blood, and the sudden fall of his enemy did the rest (Kipling, 1990: 250). Although Kim tried so hard to protect the Lama, he had to admit that this time he failed to do so. The Lama seemed to be unhurt from the punch of the Russian spy, but his old age took the best of him that he fell ill. The Lama indicated that he had only short time which makes Kim felt guilty of his failure. He wanted to show his devotion for the Lama and if he could, he wanted to take away his pains. “But, Holy One, thou art innocent of all evil. May I be thy sacrifice!” Kim was genuinely distressed at the old man’s sorrow, and Mahbub Ali’s phrase slipped out unawares (Kipling, 1990: 266). Kim took the Lama back to the Woman of Kulu’s house to be nursed until they regained their health and strength. While Kim was taken over by fever, the

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 Lama wandered around alone to find his river. He wanted to find it so that he be released from all sins and his wheel of life, so he could cure his disciple. Huree Babu was curious by the Lama’s behavior so he decided to follow him. He helped the lama from being drown in the river he bathed in. “.. By Jove, O’Hara, do you know, he is afflicted with infirmity of fits. Yess, I tell you. Cataleptic, too, if not also epileptic, I found him in such a state under a tree in articulo mortem, and he jumped up and walked into a brook and he was nearly drowned but for me. I pulled him out.” “Because I was not there!” said Kim. “He might have died” (Kipling, 1990: 284). Huree Babu told the story of the Lama almost got drowned to Kim after he got over the fever. Kim became frustrated that he could not assist and look after the Lama due to his illness. Kim was supposed to be the Lama’s guardian to protect him from danger. He was upset because he was unavailable when the lama needed his help. It is important to understand Kim’s depiction to picture his hybridity. Kim’s depiction shows that he has a strong character which make him special and that he is different from other kids at his age. Kim’s depiction serves as a prologue which lead to a detailed information of his hybridity. B. Hybrid Identity in Kim Kim was a boy of Irish descent but he lived in India since he was born. His father, named Kimball O’Hara, took care of him after his mother passed away due to cholera which swept over the town. Mr. O’Hara, who stayed in India after his regiment went back to Ireland, fell into depression after his wife died; he

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 wandered around town and got a taste of opium from the woman who kept a secondhand furniture shop. He fell into addiction, smoking opium in his depression, and died as a poor white man. After Mr. O’Hara died, the woman who guarded the secondhand furniture shop in the market took care of Kim and pretended to whoever asking her about the boy in her care that she was the sister of Kim’s mother. This woman did not in fact take care of Kim properly; she was also addicted to opium and forgot that she had a child to watch over. Kim, who grew up as an independent child, preferred to beg for food in the market stalls and eat in the street with his friends. The fact that Kim was a white boy raised by a native woman of India made him experience a mixed identity, as William Edward Burghardt DuBois stated that people who are involved in the mixture of two cultures will experience “a kind of ‘two-ness’” as two identities blend in one individual. Kim knew very well that he was an Irish, a British by blood, but it is the culture that influenced his growth is India. He could not be either a pure British or pure India at the same time, and this caused him to have a hybrid identity. Sometimes Kim acted like he was more superior than the native people of India, and some other times he acted like a true people of India. Kim’s hybridity is portrayed in his everyday life like when he interacted with others, through his actions, the attitude he showed, the languages he used, and the way he thought. 1. Kim’s Attitudes

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 Kim showed two kind of attitudes, the first is his attitude towards the local people of India, and the second is his attitude towards his fellow white men. Kim acted like he was a more important person when he was face to face with the native. He could casually throw rude words to the local policeman who was on duty. As he drummed his heels against Zam-Zammah he turned now and again from his king-of-the-castle game with little Chota Lal and Abdullah the sweetmeat seller’s son, to make a rude remark to the native policeman on guard over rows of shoes at the Museum door (Kipling, 1990: 11). Kim did not show politeness although the person he addressed with rude words was a police. He felt secure to say those things because he knew the policeman personally and he would not get any trouble by saying it. Furthermore, when the police asked Kim to help him interpret the talk of a foreigner, Kim nonchalantly called the policeman with an improper name. “Send him hither,” said Kim, dropping from Zam-Zammah, flourishing his bare heels. “He is a foreigner, and thou art a buffalo” (Kipling, 1990: 12). The policeman knew Kim’s history and is understood Kim’s behavior that he did not take Kim seriously. However, Kim’s attitude was different when he was faced with his fellow white man. When Kim was in the barrack school before he was sent to St. Xavier’s, he received some unjust treatment from his teacher and his friends who were in charge of watching him. He was often beaten by them without any reason. “I will wait,” said Kim, “but the boys will beat me” (Kipling, 1990: 118).

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 Kim showed different attitudes because he did not feel familiar with the people at the school. He was used to being surrounded by native people that he did not know how to react to the treatments he received from his fellow white men. They have an authority which Kim could not deny; if he reacted rudely to them or took revenge against them, he would receive punishments. 2. Kim’s Choice of Language Kim used two language alternately, the vernacular which he spoke fluently and English which he knew a little, depends on who he was talking to. When he sneaked to his father’s regiment camp-ground and get caught by the chaplains, he spoke broken English and surprised them for they had not expect that a beggar could speak English. “Give it me. O give it me. Is it lost? Give me the papers.” The words were in English – the tinny, saw-cut English of the native-bred, and the chaplain jumped (Kipling, 1990: 90). Kim spoke and understood English a little before he entered the school. He stringed the words together without the knowledge of grammar, but his sentences were quite understandable. The boy who was in charge of guarding him while Kim was in the barrack school considered that speaking the vernacular was a state of disgrace. Kim tried his best to pretend that he did not speak that language. “You talk the same as a nigger, don’t you?” “No-ah! No-ah! I onlee speak a little. What shall we do now?” (Kipling, 1990: 107) At the barrack school, Kim had to wear a shirt, a pair of trousers, and boots. His look was just like any other white kids at school. Kim loved to speak in the

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 vernacular better. He tricked the sweeper of the camp just to scowl at him in the language he knew better. Kim hailed as sweeper, who promptly retorted with a piece of unnecessary insolence, in the natural belief that the European boy could not follow. The low, quick answer undeceived him. Kim put his fettered soul into it, thankful for the late chance to abuse somebody in the tongue he knew best (Kipling, 1990:105). After the barrack school, Kim was transferred to the best school for white kids in India. There was a pedicab waiting for Kim at the train station, and Kim made him take him around the city before dropping to school. Kim’s appearance was just like any other sahib that the driver answered in impolite language; he was surely assuming that Kim did not know the difference. Then, Kim shifted his language and made it clear to him that he understood the language. “My order is to take thee to the school.” The driver used the “thou,” which is rudeness when applied to a white man. In the clearest and most fluent vernacular Kim pointed out his error, climbed onto the box seat, and, perfect understanding established, drove for a couple of hours up and down, estimating, comparing, and enjoying (Kipling, 1990: 123). Kim sometimes needed to be reminded which language he had to use to address people he was speaking to. During his school years in St. Xavier’s, he spoke English all the time, which made him forget how to speak the local language for a while. In his days out of school, Kim was called to a sahib house (Lurgan Sahib) to be trained as a spy. He asked for direction to a child in English, forgetting that the child was a native. A Hindu child, some ten years old, squatted under a lamppost. “Where is Mr. Lurgan’s house?” demanded Kim.

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 “I do not understand English,” was the answer, and Kim shifted his speech accordingly (Kipling, 1990: 152). Although the school had made Kim forget the vernacular for a while, but a certain aroma could bring him to remember his habit of speaking the vernacular. The house of the sahib where Kim spent his holiday, was full of fragrance which was normally found at the temple. After inhaling that fragrance, Kim forgot the things related to school or British, and he returned to his old habit. “I am here,” said Kim at last, speaking in the vernacular: the smells made him forget that he was to be a sahib (Kipling, 1990: 153). A simple thing which was closely related to the life in India such as fragrance, could bring back the memories. Kim, who was used to wandering in the city and came to contact with the smell of the temple every day, remembered how he used to be before he entered the school. That smell made him forget that he was a white man who had to speak English as his mother tongue. 3. Kim’s Way of Thinking Besides speaking in two languages, Kim also thought in two ways. He thought in Hindi and in English. There are things which can only be viewed from a sahib point of view, and there are things which would only makes sense if seen from the point of view of a native Indian. Kim rubbed his nose and grew furious, thinking, as usual, in Hindi. “This with a beggar from the bazaar might be good, but – I am a sahib and the son of a sahib and which is twice as much more beside, a student of Nucklao. Yess” (here he turned to English), “a boy of St. Xavier’s. Damn Mr. Lurgan’s eyes! It is some sort of machinery like a sewing machine. Oh, it is a great cheek of him – we are not frightened that way at Lucknow –

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 No!” Then in Hindi: “But what does he gain? He is only a trader – I am his shop. But Creighton Sahib is a colonel – and I think Creighton Sahib gave orders that it should be done. How I will beat that Hindu in the morning! What is this?” (Kipling, 1990: 154) The native way of thinking is sometimes vulnerable. The native mind can be easily interfered by their strong belief of supernatural. The English mind is much more critical that it can separate illusion and the truth. A part of Kim’s training with Lurgan Sahib was to distinguish what is real and what is forced into believing. When Kim broke a jar, Lurgan Sahib tried to make him believe that the jar had come to rebuild itself. Kim did not want to believe it because he thought that it did not make sense. So far Kim had been thinking in Hindi, but a tremor came on him, and with an effort like that of a swimmer before sharks, who hurls himself half out of the water, his mind leaped up from a darkness that was swallowing it and took refuge in – the multiplication table in English! (Kipling, 1990: 157) The mathematics taught at St. Xavier’s enabled Kim to keep his mind clear. His Hindi mind wanted to accept that the jar had really reconstituted itself, but the English mind took over and made Kim see the fact that the jar was still shattered on the floor. The English mind also influenced Kim to refuse all kinds of native enchantments. Kim was supposed to be given protection before he entered The Great Game, but he struggled during the incantation which made it hard for the spells to work. “Allah! How he fought! We should never have done it but for the drugs. That was his white blood, I take it,” said Mahbub Ali testily. “Go on with the dawut (invocation). Give him full protection.” (Kipling, 1990: 183) That night he dreamed in Hindustanee, with never an English word. . . . (Kipling, 1990:199)

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 Kim held tight to his English mind every time he was faced to something irrational. Mahbub Ali noticed how hard it was to make Kim surrender to the enchantments. He had to force Kim to accept it; it took a long time before Kim eventually gave in and accepted it. 4. Kim’s Gesture There are certain behaviors which are naturally done if the person is acquainted with it in his daily life. Kim was English by birth, but his culture was India. He was more familiar with the custom of India rather than British, because that was what he usually saw and imitated in his action every day. At the barrack where he stayed with his father’s regiment, he slept on the floor just like he had usually done. Native fashion, he curled himself up on a stripped cot and went to sleep (Kipling, 1990: 103-104). Although he slept on a bed, Kim still curled up, just as he had always done when sleeping on the floor. He was not accustomed to laying straight on the bed. Kim also sat like any other natives when he asked a letter-writer to write him a letter to Mahbub Ali, when he had not yet learn how to write and read. Mechanically Kim squatted beside him – squatted as only the natives can – in spite of the abominable clinging trousers (Kipling, 1990: 106). Other white man will stands or sit on a chair when they wait on something to be done. Kim preferred to squat beside the letter-writer when he waited for his

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 letter to be written, although he wore the clothes of a white man. He also applied the salute of natives when he finally rejoined his lama. “I was made wise by thee, Holy One,” said Kim, forgetting the little play just ended; forgetting St. Xavier’s; forgetting his white blood; forgetting even the great game as he stooped, Mohammedan fashion, to touch his master’s feet in the dust of the Jain temple (Kipling, 1990:195). It is common to touch the feet of a person whose status is higher. Kim was a white man, but when he was with the Lama, who was a native, he considered the Lama his master and that he had to bow before him. Handshake is more common for white men than touching feet. However, when Kim offered his gratitude to a woman who had helped him and the Lama, he did it the English way because the woman was familiar with the custom. “How if I guess, though?” said Kim, and putting his arm round her waist, he kissed her on the cheek, adding in English: “Thank you verree much, my dear” (Kipling, 1990: 271). A kiss in the cheek is a common thing for British people. Kim felt that it was proper to do it to the woman who had helped him because he was British and the woman was familiar with the gesture. He did it without any awkward feeling which implied that he was also comfortable with British culture. 5. Kim’s Action Kim’s actions are also influenced by his blood and cultures. All the things he did are mostly based on how it would benefit him from each points of view. When dealing with Mahbub Ali, he chose to be fair because he knew there was

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 little to gain from lying to him. However, in other chance, Kim could act like a native. Kim was the one soul in the world who had never told him a lie. That would have been a fatal blot on Kim’s character if Mahbub had not known that to others, for his own ends or Mahbub’s business, Kim could lie like an Oriental (Kipling, 1990: 29). Mahbub Ali was almost like a father to Kim. Once he sent Kim to deliver a cryptic message to a colonel in Umballa; Kim’s task was only to deliver the message and nothing else. Nevertheless, Kim set off to investigate more for the sake of his own curiosity. Swiftly Kim took up the money; but, for all his training, he was Irish enough by birth to reckon silver the least part of any game (Kipling, 1990: 41). If Kim was a pure native, he would have left after the message is delivered. However, Kim was not a pure native; he was also a white man that he chose to investigate the message further for his own benefit. The lama, as Kim’s teacher, taught Kim all the wisdom in his knowledge. He wanted Kim to act right by his teaching. “To abstain from action is well – except to acquire merit.” “At the Gates of Learning we were taught that to abstain from action was unbefitting a sahib. And I am a sahib” (Kipling, 1990: 216). Even though Kim respected his teacher, he still found that not all his lessons were directly acceptable. Some of them were quite different from what St. Xavier’s taught him. He tried to find counter the lama’s wisdom with the lessons he had received at school.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 6. Kim’s Preference of Clothing Style Kim grew up in the street and the lively of bazaars. There were a lot of traditional celebration he had attended there, so he prefered to wear the native garment rather than the inflexible clothes of sahibs. When it was imperative or he himself desired it, he could also wear a shirts and a pair of trousers. Kim showed up in front of the Lama for the first time wearing a shirt and a pair of trousers because he was playing games with his friends and he wanted to be the conqueror, which was represented by the clothes he wore. “As a boy in the dress of white men – when I first went to the Wonder House. And a second time thou wast a Hindu. What shall the third incarnation be?” He chuckled drearily (Kipling, 1990: 96). Wearing a uniform is a must at school, and Kim was obedient to the rule for his own safety. During the holidays, he was no longer attached to the school’s rules that he slipped away to the streets he had missed so much. Kim dressed as a native boy as a disguise so that the people from his school would not find out of his whereabouts. He was born in the land. He has friends. He goes where he chooses. He is a chabuk sawai (a sharp chap). It needs only to change his clothing, and in a twinkling he would be a low-caste Hindi boy” (Kipling, 1990: 112). Kim knew how to disguise himself well, he knew people who could put some make up on him and gave native clothes, then he would become unrecognizable. It would be easier for Kim to blend in the crowds when he wore the native garb. He would stand out among other people if he still wore his white man attires.

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 Kim’s hybrid identity is clearly shown on these six points. He always shifts his behavior as he favors it, from native-like to British-like and vice versa. His identity is the mixture of two cultures, the white blood in him and the India in his society. Kim cannot choose one of the two cultures to be his true identity due to his love for both of them. His hybrid identity shows that he tries to intermediate both cultures to exist in balance inside him.

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In this chapter, the writer draws the conclusion based on the findings from two questions that have been formulated. Through the character of Kimball O’Hara or Kim, we can see the hybrid identity caused by the mixture of two cultures under the British imperialism in India. Kim acted to be a superior towards the native people of India because he inherited the white blood from his parents. He was left alone far away from his original country because his mother died due to the cholera plague which swept the country. His father was drowned in despair for losing his beloved wife, and he followed her. Kim acted superior to the native because he was proud to be a British man. He considered that being an Englishman means he had higher social status than the natives. This social status cannot be measured by money or wealth, but only by blood. Kim obviously felt that his richer friends were still below him although they might have more money and wealth while Kim was just a poor boy. Kim used his condition to take advantage over the generosity of people around him. He put a performance displaying how he had left alone without parents and he had no money to take care of himself. Many people, especially women, fell to pity him and give him what he asks. 47

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 Imperialism causes cultures to mix into one another. There are at least two cultures blend in one place and distracts the stability of the country. Kim who was an Irish born in India because his father worked for the army and was placed there. After his parents died when he was just three years old, he is left to be taken care of by a native which caused him to experience a fusion between his British blood and the local culture of India. Kim’s hybrid identity is shown through his daily life in his attitudes toward the native and the other white people, his choice of language, his way of thinking, his gesture, his actions, and his preference of clothes. All of his activities are influenced by two cultures which resided in him. Kim could not choose only one identity out of the two to be his true identity due to his consideration for the two cultures. He was proud to be a British man, yet he loved India and everything inside it immensely that he could not separate himself from it. The mixture of the two culture forced Kim to be a hybrid. Kim did not choose to have a hybrid identity;it is the social condition that had shaped him into what he was. Thus, he could not be a true British or a pure India.

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Massachusetts: Earl McPeek, 1998. Asmon, Itil. Discover Kipling. 2013. ( November 28, 2013. Crowe, Alison. “Kipling: A Representative of A Dedicated Imperial Nation”. 2008. Dewi, CaturUtami. “Parents Role, It’s Contribution In Kim’s Identifying Self In Rudyard Kipling’s Kim”. Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: UniversitasSanata Dharma, 1997. Johnson, Robert. British Imperialism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Kerr, Douglass. The Literary Encyclopedia: Rudyard Kipling, ( 2014. 2006. 23, Kipling, Rudyard. Kim. New York: The Reader’s Digest Association, 1990. Kutzer, M. Daphne. Empire’s Children: Empire and Imperialism in Classic British Children’s Book. New York: Taylor and Francis e-Library, 2002. Lichtheim, George. Imperialism. Middlesex: Allen Lane The Penguin Press, 1971. Loomba, Ania. Colonialism/ Postcolonialism. New York: Routledge, 2000. Mallet, Phillip. Rudyard Kipling: A Literary Life. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Morton, Stephen. Routledge Critical Thinkers: GayatriChakravortySpivak. London: Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2004. Murfin, Ross and Supryia M. Ray. The Bedford Glossary of Critical and Literary Terms. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martins, 2009. Roberts, Edgar V. and Henry E. Jacobs. Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. Saddle River: NJ Pearson/ Prentice Hall, 2005. Rohrberger, Mary and Samuel H. Woods, Jr. Reading and Writing About Literature. New York: Random House, Inc., 1971. Said, Edward. Culture And Imperialism. New York: Vintage Books, 1993. 49

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 ___________. Introduction. Kim. By Kipling, Rudyard. London: Penguin Books, 1998. ___________. Orientalism. New York: Random House, Inc, 1979. Smith, Keri E. Iyall and Patricia Leavy. Hybrid Identities. Boston: Brill, 2008. Tibile, Ramesh. “The Location of Culture: Homi K. Bhabha’sNew Methodology of Cultural Analysis”. Vol. 1 Issue 1, 2010. ( June 4, 2014. Williams, Deanne. “Rudyard Kipling and The Norman Conquest. Ariel: A Review of International English Literature”. Vol. 39 No. 3, 2008. ( January 5, 2013.


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