A GRADUATING PAPER Submitted to the Board Examiners as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I) English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty State Institute for Islamic Studies

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THE USE OF SPEECH THROUGH VIDEO

RECOR DING TO REPRESENT THE STUDENTS’

SPEAKING SKILLS

  

(The Study of Fourth Semester Students of English Department at IAIN Salatiga in

The Academic Years 2014/ 2015)

A GRADUATING PAPER

  

Submitted to the Board Examiners as a Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I)

English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education

Faculty

  

State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga

By:

ANIK HIDAYATI

  

113 10 046

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY

STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN)

  

DECLARATION

“In the name of ALLAH SWT, the most gracious and the most merciful”.

  Hereby the researcher declares that the researcher herself composes this graduating paper. It does not contain written materials or having been published by other people an d other people‟s idea except the information from the references.

  The researcher makes this declaration, and she hopes this declaration can be understood.

  th

  Salatiga, 16 April 2015 The Researcher

  Anik Hidayati 11310046

MINISTRY OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES(IAIN) SALATIGA

  Jl. Tentara Pelaja r02 Tlp (0298) 323433Fax 323433 Salatiga 50731

  

  Website

  th

  Salatiga,16 April 2015 Noor Malihah, Ph.D.

  The Lecturer of English Education Department State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga

ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR‟S NOTE

  Case: Anik Hidayati

  ’s Graduating Paper

  Dear, Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty

  Assalam u‟alaikum, wr.wb. After reading and correcting Anik Hidayati

  ‟s graduating paper entitled “THE

  USE OF SPEECH THROUGH VIDEO RECORDING TO REPRESENT THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS (The Study Of Fourth Semester Students Of English Department at IAIN Salatiga in The Academic Years 2014/ 2015)", I

  have decided and would like to propose that this paper can be accepted by the Teacher Training and Education faculty. I hope this paper will be examined as soon as possible.

  Wassalamu‟alaikum, wr.wb.

  Counselor

  

A GRADUATING PAPER

THE USE OF SPEECH THROUGH VIDEO RECORDING TO

REPRESENT THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS

  

(THE STUDY OF FOURTH SEMESTER STUDENTS OF

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT AT IAIN SALATIGA IN THE

ACADEMIC YEARS 2014/ 2015)

  

WRITTEN BY:

ANIK HIDAYATI

113 10 046

  Has been brought to the board of examiners of English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty at State Institute for Islamic Studies

  th

  (IAIN) Salatiga on 16 April 2015 and hereby considered to complete the requirement for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S.Pd.I) in English and Education.

  Boards of examiners, Head : Setia Rini, M.Pd. ______________ Secretary : Noor Malihah, Ph.D. ______________ First Examiner : Ruwandi, M.A ______________ Second Examiner : Faizal Risdianto, M. Hum ______________

  th

  Salatiga,16 April 2015 The Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty Suwardi, M. Pd.

  NIP. 19670121 199903 1 002

  MOTTO LIVE IS A CHALLENGE, LIVE IS AN ADVENTURE

BE THE PAST TIME BECOME A THE BEST LESSON IN OUR

LIVE

  

(THE RESEARCHER)

  

DEDICATION

  This graduating paper is whole heartedly dedication to: 1.

  My God, ALLAH SWT the most gracious and the most merciful.

  2. My beloved parents, Mrs. Mistikomah and Mr. Suprapto, who always give me the best education in my life.

  3. My beloved brother Ajik Hidayanto.

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

  Bismillahirrahmanirrahim, In the name of ALLAH, the most gracious and merciful, the kings of universe and space. Thanks to ALLAH because the researcher could complete this graduating paper as one of requirement to finish studying in English Education Department of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga.

  This graduating paper would not have been completed without support, guidance and help from individual and institution. Therefore, I would like to express special thanks to: 1.

  Dr. H. Rahmat Hariyadi, M.Pd. as the Rector of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga.

  2. Suwardi, M.Pd. as a Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of IAIN Salatiga.

  3. Noor Malihah, Ph.D. as a Head of English Education Department of IAIN Salatiga and as a Counselor who has educated, supported, directed and given the researcher advice, suggestion and recomendation for this graduating paper from beginning until the end. Thanks for your patience and care.

  4. Faizal Risdiyanto, M. Hum the lecturer of Interpreting subject.

  5. All of lecturers of IAIN Salatiga who have bestowed their knowledge to

  6. All of staffs of IAIN Salatiga who have helped the researcher in processing administration.

  7. My big family, thanks for their kindness and support.

  8. Angga Wahyu Saputra a special someone who supports and helps me in the finishing my graduating paper.

  9. My friendhip ( Ika, Mussy, mbak Ima, Uzin, Ayuk and my little friend evin) thanks for making my life more colorful. I will not forget your support, kindness, love and pray. Keep our promise to be friends forever.

  10. My friends in TBI 2010 especially TBI B keep spirit, we can do the best.

  11. Many people who have helped the researcher that I can not mention one by one, thanks all.

  Finally, this graduating paper is expected to be able to provide useful knowledge and information to the readers.

  Salatiga, 16

  th

  April 2015 The Researcher,

  ANIK HIDAYATI

  

ABSTRACT

  Hidayati, Anik. 2015. The use of speech through video recording to represent the

  stude nts’ speaking skill (The Study of Fourth Semester Students Of English Department at IAIN Salatiga in The Academic Years 2014/ 2015) .Counselor : Noor Malihah, Ph.D

  This research is aimed to describe the use of speech through video recording to represent the students‟ speaking skill in the Interpreting subject. Also, this research demonstrates the dominant aspects of speaking skill found in the speech as form of students‟ assessment in take Interpreting subject. In this quantitative and qualitative research, the researchers collect the data from observation, documentation and interview. To assess the speech through video recording as a form a assessment in the Interpreting subject, a rubric is used. The rubric show that students have Varian levels of qualification: Very good (28.57%), good (38.1%), good enough (4.76%), and enough (9.52%). Thus means that 80.95% students pass in the assessment. And thus, the speech as a form of assessment is able to represent the students‟ speaking skill. Although, however, there are 19,5% students are considered bad, the result of this research show that the dominant aspect of speaking skill in this speech assessment is comprehension (64) this means that the students comprehend or understand what they were talking about the topic in the video recording. Thus, they are successful in the communication. This result support the first result that speech through video recording as an assessment in the Interpreting subject represent the students‟ speaking skill in fourth semester students of English department at IAIN Salatiga in the academic years 2014/2015.

  Keyword : Speaking skill, Video recording, speech

  TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE ....................................................................................................................i

DECLARATION................ ..................................................................................ii

ATTENTION COUNCELOR NOTE................................................................iii

STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION.............................................................. iv

MOTTO .................................................................................................................v

DEDICATION.......................................................................................................vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...................................................................................vii

ABSTRACT....................................................... .................................................viii

TABLE OF CONTENT........................................................................................ix

LIST OF THE TABLE .........................................................................................x

LIST OF THE FIGURE.......................................................................................xi

  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study..................................................................1 B. Limitation of the Study....................................................................4 C. Research Question............................................................................4 D. Purpose of the Study........................................................................5 E. Benefit of the Study.........................................................................5 F. Definition of Keyword.....................................................................5 G. Outline of the Research....................................................................7

  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A. Speaking...........................................................................................9 1. Definition of Speaking...............................................................9 2. Types of Speaking Performance..............................................10 3. Characteristic of Speaking Skill...............................................12 4. The Importance of speaking skill.............................................14 5. The Elemens of speaking.........................................................15 6. Speaking Assessment...............................................................16 B. Video Recording.......................................................................................17 1. Definition of video...................................................................17

  2. The Advantages of using Video in the teaching and Learning

  Process...............................................................................................19

  3. Disadvantages using Video...............................................................21 C. Speech............................................................................................21 1.

  Definition of Speech................................................................22 2. Purpose of Speech...................................................................23 3. Types of speech........................................................................23 4. Speech Method.........................................................................25

  CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Research Methodology...................................................................27 1. Method of the Study...............................................................27 2. Setting Research.....................................................................29 3. Subject and Object of Research............................................30 4. Profile of Fourth Semester of STAIN Salatiga......................30 5. Data Collection.......................................................................31 6. Validity of Data....................................................................35 7. Technique of Data Analysis...................................................35 8. Research Procedure................................................................44 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. Research Findings...........................................................................45 1. The Observation class...............................................................45 2. The Documentation of students speech test ............................47 3. The students interview..............................................................52 B. Discussion......................................................................................56 1. The use speech through video recording to represent the

  students‟ speaking skill............................................................56 2. The dominant aspect of speaking skill in the students‟ speech assessment through video recording........................................57

  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion................................................................................58 B. Suggestion................................................................................60 REFERENCES APPENDIX

  

Lists of Tables

Table 3.1 The List Students of Class E..................................................................35Table 3.2 The Rubrics Speaking Assess................................................................43Table 3.3 The Qualification of Each Students.......................................................46

  Table 3.4 The Qulification of All Students‟ Mean Score......................................47

Table 4.1 The Score of Students Speech‟ Assessment.........................................55Table 4.2 Score and Qualification of Each Student in

  The Interpreting Class.............................................................................57 Table 4.3The Percentage of Students Having Same Score....................................59

  

Lists of Figure

Figure 3.1 The Model of Qualitative Research......................................................41Figure 4.1 The Score of All Students‟ Speech Assessment...................................56Figure 4.2 The Percentage of Students Having The Same Score..........................60

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of Study English becomes an important language in the world because English is the

  window of the world. Many references are written in English. English has been in many countries as a mean of communication. Holmes (1992: 51) state that ”

  A world language or international language is English language. It was used by people such as in economic, political and also education”. By mastering English, we can get much information. Likewise, in Indonesia, English is taught to students from elementary level to university level. It is expected that young generation can get knowledge as many as possible to develop Indonesia. Therefore, they are ready to face any competitions in the world.

  Many graduate students from an English Department faculty have more opportunities to get job in Indonesia. This is because many schools or offices need any employees who speak or write English.

  English is one of the subjects that is included in the national exam in Indonesia. Therefore, English teachers are expected to help students improve their English skills. There are four English language skills to learn, They are : speaking, listening, reading and writing. In this study, I will look only at the students‟ speaking skill mastery.

  Speaking is one of the basic skills in English that students need to people in communication. Therefore, speaking is very important for students and they have to learn it for a successful communication. Speaking is considered difficult for students to learn. Hetrakul (1995) says that since English is a foreign language in his country, most of the students especially of senior high school do not familiar with English. They only learn English frequently in the class and less frequently outside the class. However, students only have limited time to learn English in the class. They still do not have enough encouragement to practice English outside the class in order to get familiar with English.

  To speak a foreign language in front of many people, we need to be confident. However, students have low confidence when they are asked by the lecture to speak English. For example, in the class discussion, only one or two students are active to give their opinion about the problems. To make the students active in the class is very difficult. Many students only listen to their lecturers or friends and they are passive. There are many ways that the lecturer do to make them active, for example: make a conversation in the class by giving few time for each student to speak everything in the class about their experiences in their life. Then their lecturer asksthem to make conversation or speech about the theme given by lecture.

  In fact, with the assignment about it, the students will try to speak. If the students practice it frequently whether or not as assignment, they will

  In this study the researcher is interested to look at the use of video recording to produce speech represented the students‟ speaking skill in the Interpreting subject.

  Video recording help students to improve their speaking skill by listen, watching and imitating what they see and listen from the recording when students want to do an assignment, they can take some examples from the video recording, especially for producing speech. The students can play the video recording as many as they see, so they understand the speech in the video recording well. After they watched a video recording, they can also produce a speech from video recording to practice their speaking skill. By recording what they practice, students can see that they have made several mistakes. This is because they can play the video as they like. They then can reproduce a speech in the video to correct their mistake, to get a better speaking.

  Speech is express the main in the base of words that shown to many people to discourse that prepare to say in front of many people (Sugiyono,1990: 681). Generally, speech is shown from the people or the group of people to ask celebrate, to accept visitor, to celebrate festal day,etc (Karomami, 2011: 12).

  Based of statements above, the writer will find the factors that influence of students speaking skill in the interpreting lesson. The researcher chooses the students in the fourth semester of English Department because the study of of students speaking skill. Therefore, The researcher en titles this study is “The

  Use of Speech Through Video Recording to Represent The Students ’ Speaking Skills Of Fourth Semester In English Department Of

  IAINSalatiga In The Academic Year Of 2014/2015 “.

  B. Limitation of the Study

  This study is concerned with the use of video in the speech activity for the students of fourth semester in English department of IAINSalatiga in the academic years of 2014/2015 that join in the interpreting subject. Using limitation in this study, the researcher wants to give description about the use of video in the speaking activity, like the use of speech. Speech is one of activity that can be used in the speaking teaching. It can help students improve their speaking skill because they have to be active given explain their theme that they want be explained for audience. With this study, the researcher hopes it can help improve the students speaking skill especially for students of fourth semester of IAIN Salatiga that join in the interpreting subject.

  C. Research Question

  Based on the background of study above, I will answer the following question: 1.

  How does speech through video recording represent the students speaking skill in the interpreting subject?

D. Purpose of the Study

  The purposes of this study are: 1.

  To know whether the use of speech through video recording can represent the students speaking skill.

2. To find the dominant aspect of speaking skill found in the speech through video recording.

E. Benefit of the Study

  This study is expected to provide some benefit theoretically and practically: 1.

  Theoretically  The results it‟s of this study can be used to contribute to a reference on a language teaching.

2. Practically a.

  The results of this study can be used to know the student‟s speaking skill in Interpreting lesson.

  b.

  The results of this study will help the lecturer to know their success in the apply their technique.

F. Definition of Keyword

  There are some key term in this paper, the writer will give the meaning of this

  1. Speaking

  Speaking skill is a basic skill in the English language. It is the skill in English that must be mastered by students because they can use English to communicate with a native speaker. According to Richards and Renandya (2002 : 210), speaking is one of the elements of communication.

  2. Video Recording

  Richards and Renandya (2002: 364) state that a video is an extremely dense medium, one which incorporates a wide variety of visual elements and a great range of audio experiences in addition to spoken language. The teacher is there to choose appropriate sequences, prepare the students for the viewing experience, focus to students‟ attention on the content, play and replay the video as needed, design or select viewing tasks, and follow up with suitable postviewing activities.

  Video recording is as interesting as media to explain the material of interpretationfor students. In the teaching and learning of foreign language, video is very needed by teacher. It can be the media that help students to do their assessment that related with the improvement of their speaking skill.

  3. Speech

  Speech is express the main in the base of words that shown to many group of people to ask celebrate, to accept visitor, to celebrate festal day,etc (Karomami, 2011: 12).

  . Speech needs the ideas that are appropriate to the problem that rising in the world. It is not only to improve the speaking skill, but it increases the vocabulary of students because before having speech in front of other people, they must prepare the text or material. So they will remember the anything they want like deliver. It is very effective for students in the English department because they will get more time to prepare their material and memorize it. In speech, the people need selfconfidence because they must face many people.

G. Outline of the Research

  The researcher organizes the final paper in the five chapters. In order to the final paper can be arranged clearly. The first chapter is introduction. It introduces the background of research, research question; purpose the study, the benefit of the study, definition keyword and the last is outline of the study.

  The second chapter contain with the review of the related literature. In this chapter the researcher discuss the definition of speaking, video recording and definition of speech. Thirdly, in this chapter is research methodology. In this chapter discuss about the setting of research, research methodology and the data presentation. researcher discusses the research closure and the suggestion. Finally, the researcher gives references and appendices too.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter, the researcher will explain about the theoretical foundation

  which includes the definition of speaking, definition of video recording and definition of speech.

A. Speaking 1. Definition of Speaking

  There are many definitions about speaking that have been proposed by some experts in language learning.

  Brown (2001: 267) says that when someone can speak a language it means that he can carry on a conversation reasonably competently. In addition, he states that the benchmark of successful acquisition of language is almost always the demonstration of an ability to accomplish pragmatic goals through an interactive discourse with other language speakers.

  Richards and Renandya (2002: 204) state that effective oral communication requires the ability to use the language appropriately in social interactions that involves not only verbal communication but also paralinguistic elements of speech such as pitch, stress, and intonation.

  Moreover, nonlinguistic elements such as gestures, body language, and expressions are needed in conveying messages directly without any

  Brown (2007: 237) states that social contact in interactive language functions is a key importance and in which it is not what you say that counts but how you say it what you convey with body language, gestures, eye contact, physical distance and other nonverbal messages.

  Based on the definition speaking above, speaking is one of skill in the English language that do interaction with other people with conversation, speech and other by body language, gesture, eye contact and another style to convey the message.

2. Types of Speaking Performances

  Brown (2004: 271) describes six categories of speaking skill there are : a.

  Imitative This category includes the ability to practice an intonation and focusing on some particular elements of language form. That is just imitating a word, phrase or sentence. The important thing here is focusing on pronunciation. The lecture uses drilling in the teaching learning process. By using drilling, students can get opportunity to listen and to orally repeat some words.

  b.

  Intensive This is the students‟ speaking performance that practices somephonological and grammatical aspects of language. The students includes reading paragraph, reading dialogue with partner, reading information from chart, etc.

  c.

  Responsive Responsive performance includes interaction and test comprehension but at the somewhat limited level of very short conversation, standard greeting and small talk, simple request and comments. This is a kind of short replies to teacher or student-initiated questions or comments, giving instructions and directions. Those replies are usually sufficient and meaningful.

  d.

  Transactional (dialogue) It is carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information. For example here is conversation which is done in pair work.

  e.

  Interpersonal (dialogue) It is carried out more for the purpose of maintaining social relationships than for the transmission of facts and information. The forms of interpersonal speaking performance are interview, role play, discussions, conversations, games and speech.

  f.

  Extensive (monologue) Teacher gives students extended monologues in the form of oral reports, summaries, and storytelling and short speeches. Based on the the pronunciation, vocabularies, and language functions that they are going to use. When the students have been ready and prepared for the activity, they can use the language appropriately.

3. Characteristicsof Speaking Skill

  Speaking skill is seen as somewhat difficult for some language learners. Here, a speaker should at least pronounce the words well, choose the suit dictions, and try to do grammatically correct though, perhaps in any cases, it is common when a speaker speaks without having good attention at accuracy or fluency. Brown (2010: 270-271)says that there are eight characteristics of spoken language can make oral performance easy as well as, in some cases, there are : a.

  Clustering Because of fluent speech is phrasal, not word by word, so the learners should be able to organize their output both cognitively and physically through such clustering.

  b.

  Redundancy It means that the speaker has an opportunity to make meaning clearer through redundancy of language. Learners can capitalize on this feature of spoken language.

  c.

  Reduced colloquial contractions sometimes can develop a stilted, bookish quality of speaking that in turn stigmatize them.

  d.

  Performance variable As the process of thinking as we s peak, it„s possible allow us to manifest a certain number of performance hesitations, pauses, backtracking, and corrections. Some performance variable that can be taught to the learners are; how to pause and hesitation, for example, in English our thinking time is not silent; we insert certain fillers such us uh, um, well, you know, I mean, like, etc. One of the most silent differences between native and non native speakers of a language is their hesitation phenomena.

  e.

  Colloquial language To make the students able to speak well, the teachers should introduce them with the words, idioms, and phrases f.

  Rate of delivery It is another important characteristic of fluency. One of our tasks in teaching spoken English is to help learners achieve an acceptable speed along with other contributes of fluency.

  g.

  Stress, rhythm, and intonation This is the most important characteristic of English pronunciation.

  The stress-timed rhythm of spoken English and its intonation patterns speaking skill of its richest component: the creativity of conversational negotiation (Brown, 2010: 270-271).

  h.

  Interaction Speaking is about interaction. It is about how you interact and what kind of language that you use that will make the communication goes smoothly.

  Based on the explanation above, the analysis showed how easily speaking skill can be accommodated within this particular view of language. When a lecturers asks students to use the spoken language in the classroom, they needs them to take part in a process where not only involves a knowledge of the target language, but also a general knowledge of interaction between the speaker and audiences in order that meanings and negotiate meanings are made clear. The example, the audiences may respond or give feedback as to whether the audiences have understood or did not understand with the speaker says.

4. The Importance of Speaking Human being as social creature always communicates to one another.

  It can be occurred with the process of interchange of the thought or ideas which include interactions. For examples telling information or some news, asking other helps for their needs, or etc. All of them can be done trough

  Ramelan (1992:13) says that all human being whenever they live always speak a language, although they do not have any writing system to record their language.

  From the statement above it can be concluded that speaking is very important in mastering foreign language. Thus speaking capability can be measured whether a foreign language learner in successful in learning or not. But in mastering speaking skill can be seen not only from the performance of learners in spoken, but also we have to see from their competence in using the language.

5. The Elements of Speaking

  Speaking is a skill in the English teaching that deliver word and sound to express ideas, opinions or feeling. In the speaking there are some elements that must be considered by speaker (Chaudy,1997:22).

  a. Pronunciation According to Hewing (2004:9), “pronunciation is a feature of speech”. In the pronunciation includes with many components of speech which are combined together to form the pronunciation of language, such as sound, syllables, word and intonation. This particular range from the individual sound that make up speech, to the way in witch pitch, the rise and fall of the voice or sound.

  Grammar is a system of rules governing the conventional arrangement and relationship of word in a sentence (Brown, 2001:36). In the speaking English language well in the formal situation, many people that mastered of grammar when they speak.

  c. Vocabulary Vocabulary can be the build of word that is used by people to communication with other people. To speaking English fluently, the students must master many vocabularies.

  d. Fluency Hornby

  (1974:330) defines fluency as the quality of being able to speak smoothly and easily. It means that someone can speak without any hesitation. Someone can speak fluently even though he makes errors in pronunciation and grammar.

  e. Comprehension

  The last speaking element is comprehension. Comprehension can

  make the people getting the information that they want. It is defined as the ability to understand something by a reasonable comprehension of the subject or as the knowledge of what situation really like.

6. Speaking Assessment

  An assessment is the process of gathering data. More specifically, assessment is the ways instructors gather data about their teaching and their range of activities using different forms of assessment such as: pre-tests, observations, and examinations.

  Speaking task is an activity that involves speaker in using language for the purpose of achieving a particular goal or objective in particular speaking situation (Bachman& Palmer cited in Luoma, 2012:31).

  Based on the definition above, speaking assessment is the activity that is done to process the gathering data to achieve the goal of speaking.

  There are some types to assess the speaking skill. But, in this research, the researcher uses rubrics to assess the students‟ speech assessment as standard criteria.

  Rubrics, often developed around a set of standards or expectations, can be used for summative assessment. Rubrics can be given to students before they begin working on a particular project so they know what is expected of them (precisely what they have to do) for each of the criteria.

B. Video Recording 1. Definition of Video

  Video is considered to be one of media that can be profited in the English teaching and learning process. It has been proven to be an effective tool in the teaching English as a foreign/ second language (EFL/ESL) for young and adult learners (Rammal, 2006:142). Richards and Renandya experiences in addition to spoken language. The lecturer is there to choose appropriate sequences, to prepare the students for the viewing experiences, focus to students‟ attention on the content of material, play and replay the video that needed of them.

  When the lecturer decides to use the video recording as supplementary materials or assignments, they must believe that it is closely related with the goals of the study. One of way to do it, the teacher use video to introduce or to expand on a theme or topic based of the materials that teacher explains.

  According to Solomon (2004: 349), video segments can illustrate an event or a procedure so that students feel as though they are actually there. With the help of some special equipment, videos can easily be inserted into multimedia presentations. Smaldino(2007: 12) states video versions of the moving image are recorded on tape or disc, in the forms that vary in size, shape, speed, recording method, and playback mechanism.

  They also add any electronic media format that emp loys “motion pictures” to present a message can be referred as video.

  According to Harmer (2001: 284), a video is not only a great aid to see language-in-use such as comprehension since students are able to see general meanings and moods that are conveyed through expression, gestures, and other visual clues, but also uniquely bridge the cross cultural that for all of the reasons mentioned, most students show an increased level of interest when they have a chance to see language in use as well as hear it.

2. The Advantages Of Using Video In The Teaching And Learning Process a.

  The Use of Video as aMedium in The Teaching and Learning Process.

  Harmer (1998: 282) states there are many advantages when using videos in the teaching and learning process: 1)

  Seeing language-in-use, students do not just hear language but they can also see it. They can know the general meaning and moods that are conveyed through expressions, gesture, and other visual clues. 2)

  Cross-cultural awareness, which is allowing students a look at situations for beyond their classroom. Videos also give students a chance to see such things as what kinds of food people eat in other countries and what they wear.

  3) The power of creation, when students use video cameras themselves they are given the potential to create something memorable and enjoyable. Motivation, most students show an increased level of interest when they have a chance to see language in use as hear it, and when this is coupled with communicative tasks.

  Based of the three advantages above, advantage c) is the advantage of using video recording in the speaking assessment with

  Similar with the advantagesaid by Harmer, Paul (2000: 163) said that, the effective using of video requires knowledge and planning. Video can make easy of the lecture to explain the material. Instead of being fun and useful, they can create the situation in class do not make students boring. However, only a little of all the materials available will be suitable for the students and the teaching purposes. The lecture have to select materials with clear objectives, the students‟ level and interest in mind, and get to know it well before using it. There should be a clear purpose for every video that lecture show, for example, style of communicative interactions in English, working at language forms, developing listening comprehension, speaking or discussion.

  From the explanations above, it is clear that videos have many advantages. Videos can support the teaching learning process and also give advantage for the students to assess themselves to see if they to improve their speaking skill or not. The students can learn language not only by listening how native speakers pronounce some words but also by observing their expression. They can also learn about culture from other countries what other people in other countries wear, eat, and anything.

  b.

  The Use of Video as a Form of Assessment Video technology can also be used to document students‟ a clear, meaningful purpose and a concrete finished product (Biegel, 1998). Furthermore, students can observe their own current English oral proficiency (Shinohara, 1997), and thus discover areas they need to improve.

3. Disadvantages of Using Video

  Beside the advantage of using video discussed above, the use of video also has some disadvantages. They are: a.

  Sometimes whatpeople in the video said cannot be understood by students clearly, to make this method can be used clearly; the teacher must sure that the students see and hear it.

  b.

  The used the video recording to be the speaking assessment, sometime there are some students that not honest when they made the assessment.

  For example, when their lecturer asks them to make speech and memorize it in the video recording, they will make manner to read the script. So, some time the use of video recording in the do the assessment is not effective.

C. Speech

  As the researcher has discussed in the section 2, there are several types of speaking performance. One type of speaking performance that the researcher

1. Definition of Speech

  Speech is express the main in the base of words that shown to many people to discourse that prepare to say in front of many people (Sugono,1990: 681). Generally, speech is shown from the people or the group of people to ask celebrate, to accept visitor, to celebrate festal day,etc (Karomami, 2011: 12).

  Similar with Sugono, Juanda (2007:95) says that speech is a oral presentation for audience. A speech directly does in above of podium or speaker‟s platform and the contents of speech are directed for audience

  And according to Rahmat (2009:78), speech is face to face of communication , which two way, and the speaker must attention of interlocutor, although the speaker is more dominate of conversation he must listen the message that want his convey for audience.

  Based on the definitions of speech above, the researcher can give reason that speech is a oral communication that convey in the podium, stage or other place that has purpose to give information for audience. To giving speech in front of audience, the speaker must has wide knowledge or insight that can divide for the audience.

  2. Purpose of Speech

  According Sugono (1990: 682) there are some purposes of speech based of presentation, there are: a.

  To convey the information (Informative) is the speech that means to give report or knowledge or interesting thing for audience.

  b.

  Convince and give influence of audience attitude (Persuasive) is kind of speech that contain with effort to encourage, convince and ask the audience to do something.

  c.

  Humored of audience is a speech that means to give humored or make audience happy. For example the speech those do to give humor for the people that get disaster.

  3. Type of Speech

  According Labov (1972 cited in Gareis, 2006:35) there are some type of speech, there are: a.

  Narrative Speeches Narrative speeches are a speech telling story. While stories can be told in many different ways, they usually consist of five parts. There are:

  1) Opener: a short statement announcing the story. 2) Orientation: introduction of time, place and character. 3) Complicating events: the events of the story.

  In narrative speech, the story is told for its own sake. Short narrative can also be told as part of another speech, however, in form of anecdotes or jokes that serve as attention points. Stories catch the interest of most of audiences and should be incorporated freely into speeches.

  b.

  Demonstration speeches Demonstration speech shows how to something work or how something is done. Audiovisual aids are therefore essential. Sometimes, demonstrations show something that takes places on the floor.

  c.

  Informative speeches Speeches to inform are intended to share new ideas and build perceptions. The speaker identifies a topic of importance to the audience, and then does research to find out recent and new information that will affect the audience. A second goal of the information speech is to give audience members a new understanding or new appreciation of some topic with which they might be familiar but unaware of recent developments. Informative speeches do not take sides or urge direct action. The purpose is to provide an even-handed or objective view of a topic without drawing conclusions or taking sides or proposing solutions. d.

  Persuasion Persuasive speaking takes a less objective view on some topic and asks the audience to take action in support of that view. A speaker will urge the audience to consider why one side of an issue is worth supporting emotionally and logically, and then tell us what action we might take to make that support real. For example, most advertising is persuasive although the logic behind the action is often obscure or fallacious.

4. Speech Method

  Juanda (2007: 96) said that the method of speech can be divided into 4 type based on how to convey the speech: a.

  Impromptu method This method is used in the convey of speech without need time to make prepare of speech. An impromptu speech requires very little if any preparation. Conversation is impromptu speaking because a response is required immediately. In a public speaking class, students might be asked to select a topic such as a famous saying or a common household word, and then give a short, organized presentation on the topic without making notes or doing research. b.

  Memorize method It is make plan to speech and then memorize that their prepare.

  The speaker prepare their speech that will be conveyed for audience with complete before they convey it, the speaker will memorize word to word.

  This method can be drilled speaker to try comprehending speech text that want covey for audience. In addition, the speaker will focus with the material that they memorize and audience.

  c.

  Manuscript method Manuscript method is aspeech that use script that made by speaker before they convey for audience. And generally, this method is used in the formal speech. The speaker convey the speech with read their script that they write, that they write their self or other people.

  d.

  Extemporaneous method This method without prepare of complete script. The speaker has opportunity to make special preparing like framework speech or important note. This note only use by speaker to remember their organize of their idea (Mulgrave, 1954: 25) According this method of speech above, the method that used by students is manuscript speech. The students prepare their script before conveyed in the video, so they can

CHAPTER III METHOD OF RESEARCH A. Research Methodology In this chapter, the researcher will explain about the method that used in the

  this research which includes the definition of qualitative method, setting of research, object research, data collection , validity of research data, technique data analysis, research procedure and data presentation.

1. Method of The Study

  This is a qualitative ualitative research is a

  • – quantitative research. Q

  type of research that seeks answers to a question; is systematically conducted and involves the collection of evidence. However, the uniqueness of qualitative research is that you may produce findings that were not determined in advance and also the findings may be applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the study.

  Based on Patton (1980: 40), the qualitative method attempts to understand organizingpattern that exist in the empirical world under study.

  And the qualitative data consists of entire passages from documents that are collected.

  Different from Patton, Cresswell (1992: 2) states that qualitative problem, based on building a complex holistic picture, formed with word, reporting detail views of informants, and conducted in natural setting.

  Similar to Cresswell, Denzin&Lincoln (1994) state that qualitative research focuses on interpretation of phenomena in their natural settings to make sense in terms of the meanings people bring to these settings. Qualitative research involves collecting information about personal experiences, introspection, life story, interviews, observations, historical, interactions and visual text which are significant moments and meaningful in peoples' lives.

  According to Pope & Mays (1995), qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings in an effort to discover the meanings seen by those who are being researched (or subjects) rather than that of the researcher.

  Some characteristics of qualitative research they are: take places in the natural world, uses multiple methods that are interactive and humanistic, it is emergent rather than prefigured and fundamentally interpretative (Marshall,1999: 2-3). Qualitative research have some purposes, they are; describing, and reporting the creation of key concepts, theory generation and testing(Cohen,2007 :168).

  The term of naturalistic shows that the research is natural, on the normal situation without manipulate the condition, emphasize on the natural

  Based on the definition above, qualitative research is the type of research in the natural setting to know the situation and condition of teaching and learning process. Qualitative research is used to describe and explain how speech through video recording represents thestudents speaking skill in the Interpreting subject.

  While quantitative research deals with numbers where the data is analyze statistically.The following definition, taken from Aliaga and Gunderson (2000 :5)

  Quantitative research is „Explaining phenomena by collecting numericaldata that are analysed using mathematically based methods (in particularstatistics)‟.

  Different with Mouton and Moras, quantitative research as the approach used by researchers in the social sciences that is more formalized in nature than qualitative research as well as explicity controled with a more carefully defined scope.

  On other hand, quantitative approach is used to look at the represent of students speaking skill in the interpreting subject using statistical analysis.

2. Setting of Research

  The research was conducted in IAINSalatiga which located on rd st

  13 until September 11 2014 in the Interpreting subject for the students of fourth semester in English department of IAINSalatiga.

  3. The Subject and Object of Research

  The subject of research isstudents that join in the interpreting subject of class E. There were 21 students, consist of 5 males and 16 females.

  The object of research study should be selected in purpose as stated by Sugiyono (2006: 299). The speech assessment is considered as the object in this research.

  4. Profile of Fourth Semester Students of STAIN Salatiga

  Students of fourth semester in English department of IAIN Salatiga should take several subject as determined by the institution. One subject they have to take is Interpreting. For academic year 2014/ 2015, there 3 classes of fourth semester students taking Interpreting. As for an information, this Interpreting subject is given by Risdiyanto, the lecturer. According to Risdiyanto, from my interview, among the threeclasses of Interpreting, class E has the best achievement for this subject. The students in the class E are very active and able to create a conductive class during the lesson. For this reason, I decided to take this class my object of research I mentioned in the previous section.

  Table 3.1 The List of Students Class E Taking Interpreting subject

  Interpreting Subject of Class E NO Students’ Register Number Name

  1.

  113-12-013 RIF'AN NUR ROKHIM 2. 113-12-022

IKA NUR MUFIDAH 3.

  113-12-030 RIZKI WULANDARI 4. 113-12-059 TAUFIK HIDAYAT 5. 113-12-070 AIMMATUN NISAK 6. 113-12-072

IZZA MAFRUCHAH 7.

  113-12-075 AGUNG CHOIRUR ROIS 8. 113-12-080 SINTA PURWATININGSIH 9. 113-12-085 KUN AMINAH 10.

113-12-089 HERLINA

11. 113-12-093 MUH.SAEBANI 12. 113-12-097 ANA ARDIYANI 13. 113-12-098 UMAR ANAS 14. 113-12-101 EKA OKTAVIANI 15. 113-12-105

IVO ZULIYANTI 16.

  113-12-116 HILMI RAHMANITA 17. 113-12-137 ENDANG SRI RAHAYU 18. 113-12-144 UMATUL MAHMUDAH 19. 113-12-150 YUYUN AZIZAH

  113-12-160 NASTITI ARDITA SARI 21.

5. Data collection

  Data collection is considered as the most prominent step for a researcher due to the fact that the main purpose of conducting a research is to obtain needed data. In qualitative research, data can taken from archival documents, written or oral expression of people or their behavior, etc (Moleong, 2010: 157). Such was the case, the method that was used in this process of gathering the research data could be categorized as follow.

  a.

  Observation Observation is the activity of researcher that looking at what people actually do (Robert, 2007 :11). So, observation is the activity that is done by a researcher to view the people behavior. Observation is used to study observation is used to behavior of people and context in which the behavior occurs. Also, find out activity of students do in the interpreting subject.

  The benefits of observational data are that the researcher is able to describe some element of the subject. They are included the setting which is observed, the activities that took place in that setting, the people who participated in those activities, and the meaning of the setting (Patton, 1991 : 124).

  To collect the data, the researcher conducted an observation of The researcher came into the classroom to see the activities in the class during the teaching and learning process of Interpreting subject. The researcher joined class E from 10.20 to 12.00.

  The researcher observed the speaking activities process in the class. The observation is be used by the researcher to know the ability of students speaking when they are assessed by lecturer to speak English and in turn, their partner translated what the first students have said.

  In the observation, the researcher used note taking that to write everything that happened in the teaching and learning process.

  b.

  Documentationof Students Task According to Arikunto (2006:231), documentation is a number of data that present verbal data like correspondence, journal, memory, report and other which can mutually responsible.

  Similar with Arikunto, Sugiyono (2008 : 240) state that Documentation is the past event note. Documents are usually written note, picture, or monumental creation from someone.

  In this research, the researcher used video recording assessment Monday, July 21st2014. After the researcher got the final assessment, she can analysis the result of the students assessment to know the development of the students speaking skill with speech in the fourth semester.

  c.

  Interview Sugiyono (2006: 317) defines interviews as the meeting of two people who exchange information and ideas through question and answer in order to find meaning in the a certain topic. Meanwhile ,Singarimbun, (1987 cited in Inayah, 2012 : 24), argues that interview is a dialogue done by interviewer to get information by asking about students‟ interest, condition of equipment directly to the respondents. The aim is usually to gather an authentic und erstanding of people‟s experience.

  There are 3 kind of interview, structure interview, semi- structure interview and unstructured interview (Arikunto, 2001 : 156).

  But in the research, interview that used in collecting data is a structured interview. Structured interviews enable the interviewer to ask each respondent the same questions in the same way. A tightly structured schedule of questions is used, very much like a questionnaire. The questions contained in the questionnaire will have been planned in advance, sometimes with the help of a pilot study to refine the

  The kind of structure interview that used by the researcher in this study are open-ended question and close-ended question.

  Basedon this kind of interview, the interviewer is expected to express their opinion and idea so it can give information that is the issue could be explored ore openly.

  The researcher used note taking as instrument to write the data from interviewee. So, to get more information clearly, the researcher is more listen everything that interviewee said.

  After the researcher hascollectedthe data from students, the researcher will group the students based ontheanswerof the interview (see in the chapter IV). This is to know which group of students consider video recording positive, negative or no response.

6. Validity of Data

  Examining of data validity in the research is another fundamental step in the qualitative research. This step is needed by researcher in the study to find the validity in the research result.

  Sugiyono (2006 : 330) argues that triangulation as a useful means to check of data validation. He states that triangulation can be interpreted as a technique of data collection that combines data from various techniques of data collection like interview, the documentation students‟ test and observation.

7. Technique of DataAnalysis

  A qualitative data analysis is several simultaneous activities that engage the attention of researcher; collecting information from the field, sorting the information into a story or picture, and actually writing the qualitative text (Bogdan&Biklen, 1992 cited in Creswell, 1994).

  Similar with Bogdan&Biklen (1992), Sugiyono (2006 : 335) states that a qualitative data analysis is a process of searching and arranging systematically the obtained data from interview, field note and documentation by organizing data into categories, explaining into units, synthesizing, arranging into pattern, sorting the important ones, and drawing conclusion in order to be comprehended by researcher or the reader.

  In addition, Miles &Huberman (1992 : 18-20) divide the data analysis into two approaches, flow analysis and interactive analysis model.

  However, the researcher focuses on the second approach which appropriate with this research.

  In the interactive analysis model, data reduction and data presentation are processed with data collection. Those analysis components are interacted after all data that needed are collected. The figure below will

  

Collecting

Data Data Presentation

  Data Reduction Conclusion

Table 3.1 The Componen of Interactive analysis Model

  The interactive analysis models applied in this research can be explained with some step as follows: a.

  Data collection Collecting data starts from searching the data are needed in this research. As the explanation before, the researcher has explained that there are 3 techniques to collecting data such as Interview, observation and documentation.

  Before the researcher got the data used in this research, the researcher will process the data to get the scores of students „speech. To

  Table 3.2 The Rubrics Speaking Assessment

  Aspect Needs Improvement

  

2

Good

  3 Excellent

  4 Grammar Student was difficult to understand and had a hard time communicating their ideas and responses because of grammar mistakes.

1 Satisfactory

  Student was

able to express

their ideas and

responses

adequately but

often displayed

inconsistencies

with their sentence

structure and

tenses.

  Student was able to express their ideas and responses fairly well but makes mistakes with their tenses, however is able to correct themselves.

  Student was able to express their ideas and responses with ease in proper sentence structure and tenses.

  Pronunciation Student was difficult to understand, quiet in speaking, unclear in pronunciation.

  Student was

slightly unclear

with

pronunciation

at times, but generally is fair.

  Pronunciation was good and did not interfere with communication Pronunciation was very clear and easy to understand.

  Vocabulary Student had inadequate vocabulary words to express his/her Student was able to use broad vocabulary

words but was

  Student utilized the words learned in class, in an accurate manner for the Rich, precise and impressive usage of vocabulary

  

cannot expand

on his/her ideas.

  Fluency Speech is very slow, stumbling, nervous, and uncertain with response, except for short or memorized expressions.

  Difficult for a listener to understand

Speech is slow

and often hesitant and irregular.

Sentences may

be left

uncompleted,

but the student

is able to continue.

  Speech is mostly smooth but with some hesitation and unevenness caused primarily by rephrasing and groping for words.

  Speech is effortless and smooth with speed that comes close to that of a native speaker.

  Comprehension Student had difficulty understanding the topics that were being conveyed.

  

Student fairly

grasped the

topics that were

being conveyed.

  Student was able to comprehend the topics that were being discussed.

  Student was able to comprehend to all of the information in the topics that were being discussed with ease.

  In the rubric of table 3.2, there are five aspects in the speaking assessment: (1) Grammar, (2) Pronunciation, (3) Vocabulary, (4) Fluency and (5) Comprehension. Each aspect will be assessed based on four qualifications with the different thing, as shown in the table 3.2.

  Sothe maximal score for all 5 speaking aspects skill in the rubrics in table

  After the researcher assessed the students speech assessment using rubric, the researcher will get the score of students speech assessment with formula below (Purwanto, 2011 : 112 ) :

  = S x100 S = The students score R = The total point of rubrics item N = The maximum point of rubrics item

  Example = x100

  = 80

  From the example above, it is seen that if the students‟ total point in the rubrics is 16, his total score is 80. This score is taken by the researcher from the total point that he got in the rubric divided with the maximum point of rubrics item and times 100.

  After the scores of each students is calculated, it is necessary to describe the qualification of each student based on this scores. The

Table 3.3 The

  Qualification of Each Student No Mark Mark Qualification

  Students‟ Score 1 91-100 A Excellent 2 79-89

  A- Very Good 3 70-78 B Good 4 65-69

  B- Good Enough 5 55-64 C Enough 6 45-54 D Bad

  7 Below 45 E Very Bad After describing the qualification of each student, the researcher will calculate the mean score of all students taking Interpreting class. The mean score of all students is used to know the average of all students speaking skill.

  To calculate the mean score of all students, the researcher use a formula by alderson, Clapham& Wall (2005 : 275).

  M = M = the mean score all of students

  N = Number of all students For example, the total of students score is 1427 and the number of all students is 21, then the mean score is 67.95.

  To define the mean score of all students, the researcher used 7 levels of qualification as shown in table 3.3.The qualificati on of students‟ mean score that is arranged by Purwanto (1987 : 103).

  Table 3.4 The Qualification Of All Students

  ‟ Mean Score NO Score Range Qualification

  1

  80 -100 Excellent

  2

  66 -79 Very Good

  3

  65 -56 Good

  4

  49-55 Fairly good

  5

  30-39 Poor failed After calculating the students score individually, it is also necessary to know how many students getting the same score as a percentage. To get the percentage of students having the same score, The researcher will use following formula as Purwanto( 1987 : 102) has proposed :

  NP = x 100%

  NP = The Percentage of students having the same score N = Number of all students TS = Number of students having same score Example = x 100% = 28.57 %

  In the example , there are 6 students considered as “Very good”. To know the percentage of students having the same score for “ very good”, the researcher used the formula above. It is shown from the calculating that 28.57% students in Interpreting class are “Very good” b.

  Data Reduction The next step after the researcher has collected the data is data reduction. Reduction refers to resuming the data, choosing main things, focusing on the important things, looking for the theme. Therefore, data that was reduced will give clearer drawing and make the researcher easier to collect the next data (Sugiyono, 2006: 338).

  In this research, the process of data reduction was started by documentation. After that, the researcher categorizing the data to make it easy in presenting the findings of the researcher.

  c.

  Data Presentation In a qualitative research, the data presentation can be arranged in the form of chart, essay, flowchart, categorizing, etc. The purpose of data presentation is to help comprehend what is the aspects are discussed in the data and make next planning after that.

  The data presentation for this research was arranged into narration from the speech that the researcher got in the video recording and the questions and answers of students that got by researcher in the interview. This data will be explained by researcher in the form of essays.

  d.

  Conclusion The next step after data presentation is conclusion. Verification refers to the processes which are able to answer research questions and research objectives. Beginning conclusion is still temporary, and will be changed if there isn„t strong proof that support on the next step in collecting data. But, if the beginning conclusion is supported by valid proof and consistent, when the researcher backs to the field, so the

  In this research, withdrawing the conclusion is done by comparing between observation data, documentation data, and interview data. Observation data will be forceful by documentation data and interview data. Thus, the researcher will get conclusion about the use of speech though video recording to represent the speaking skill improvement of fourth semester students of IAIN Salatiga

8. Research Procedure

  The research move on through several step as explained below: a.

  Observation class Observation class that is done by the researcher to obtain the image or situation in the teaching and learning process of interpreting subject in the class.

  b.

  Documentation The main data of this research is the results of documentation about students‟ assessment of speech through video recording. The data from documentation is analyzed to answer theproblem.

  c.

  Interview problem or impression and the benefit of this assessment of the students after they join in the interpreting subject.

  d.

  Presenting the results of the research descriptively The result of this research will be reported in the form of research report.

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. Research Findings This chapter deals with the speech assessment through video recording to

  represent of students speaking skill improvement of fourth semester. The purpose of this research is to know thestudents speaking skill in Interpreting subject. Firstly, the researcher also presents the classroom observation as the additional data. Secondly, the researcher presents the result of the students‟ assessment that done the researcher using rubrics. Finally, the researcher presents the interview that can support the data after the students‟ documentation assessment. In this research, the researcher has collected the data from the documentation of students‟ assessment by video recording, interview and observation of the class.

1. The ObservationClass

  The observation was conducted in order to know the teaching learning process of Interpreting subject. From observation conducted on

  rd

  Tuesday, May 13 2014, the researcher collect data about the students‟ activities while they were in Interpreting class. Thefinding that the researcher has taken from the observation is as follow: a. In the Interpreting class, the lecturer delivered the materials while was followed by inviting the students to practice what he has explained.

  The practicing session was helpful and interesting for the students. So they did not feel bored in the class as I observed.

  b. The students were very supporting in the class when one of their friends performed a task in front of the class. Other students kept the situation condusive. This helped the one who performed become more focused on his task. So the students felt that the task given by the lecture is not difficult for them to perform.

  c. From the observation, the researcher found that most students were very active in the class. They gave question and answered the question in the class. So, the students‟ involvement in the discussion during the class was good. Based on the observation above, the funding show that students enjoyed in Interpreting class with some activities done during teaching and learning process.

  d. It is found that giving time to students to prepare the task to be performed is necessary. The preparation is helpful for the students to arrange what they would do in the task.

  e. The lecturer gave feedback to students every time the students performed the task. This is helpful because the students knew their strength and weakness.

  Based on the result of observation, the researcher got the data that situation and condition when their friends in front of the class to present their assessment arecomfortable because they can appreciate their friend performer. The lecturer gives feedback too after the performer, so the students can know the mistakes that they done.

  The observation in the class that done by the researcher was resulted that the students can make the situation of class is comfortable. And they listened their friends‟ performer in front of class. They are very active too, when the lecturer give question for them. They try answering the lecturer question with English. There is feedback that lecturer given to students after performer. It can help the students know the mistake that they made when performer.

2. The Documentation of Students Speech Test

  Based on the students‟ documentation of assessment, the researcher has collected the students‟ scores from the video recording using rubrics. In the assessment, the researcher knows the ability of students speaking skill(See in the chapter III, table 3.1). To ability the result of the assessment is demonstrated in table 4.1:

  Table 4.1 The Score of Students Speech Assessment

  55

  75

  3

  3

  3

  3

  3

  014

  50

  2

  2

  2

  2

  2

  013

  2

  3

  2

  2

  2

  3

  012

  55

  2

  2

  2

  2

  3

  011

  45

  2

  015

  3

  1

  3

  3

  3

  2

  3

  3

  019

  50

  3

  2

  2

  3

  3

  018

  80

  3

  3

  4

  3

  3

  017

  80

  4

  4

  3

  3

  2

  016

  80

  4

  3

  2

  2

  Name

Aspect

Score

  2

  3

  005

  80

  4

  3

  3

  3

  3

  004

  50

  2

  2

  1

  3

  003

  3

  65

  3

  3

  2

  3

  2

  002

  70

  3

  2

  3

  3

  3

  V G P F C 001

  3

  2

  2

  008

  010

  75

  3

  3

  3

  3

  3

  009

  75

  3

  3

  3

  3

  3

  85

  3

  4

  3

  3

  3

  4

  007

  70

  3

  3

  2

  3

  3

  006

  70

  70

  021

  3

  3

  2

  2

  4

  70 Total

  59

  59

  52

  55 64 1427

  Information: V : Vocabulary G : Grammar P : Pronunciation F : Fluency C : Comprehension

  Figure 4.1 The ScoreOf All

  Student‟ Speech assessment comprehension aspect. This means that students have relatively good comprehension. It means that they can give information and understood by the audience.

  To know the classification of the students ‟ score, the researcher has made the standard classification of students scores(seetable 3.3).

  Based on the table 4.1, the researcher can make the score and mark description of students speech assessment score through video recording.

  The score and mark description is known in the table 4.2.

  Table 4.2 Score and Qualification of each student in the Interpreting class

  No The Students Score Grade Mark description 1 001

  70 B Good 2 002

  85 A- Very Good 3 003

  50 D Bad 4 004

  80 A- Very Good 5 005

  70 B Good 6 006

  70 B Good 7 007

  65 B- Good Enough 8 008

  75 B Good

  11 011

  80 A- Very Good 21 021

  After the researcher has known the qualification of the students‟ mean score in the Interpreting class, so the researcher calculate the students that have same score too. The percentage of students having the same score

  Interpreting class is very good.

table 3.2 (see chapter III), so the qualification of students‟ mean score in thetable 4.2 shows the mean score all of the students are 67.95. Based on the

  Total scores 1427 Mean score

  70 B Good

  70 B Good 20 020

  55 C Enough 12 012

  50 D Bad 19 019

  80 A- Very Good 18 018

  80 A- Very Good 17 017

  80 A- Very Good 16 016

  75 B Good 15 015

  50 D Bad 14 014

  55 C Enough 13 013

67.95 From the table 4.2, the total scores of all students are 1427. And

  The Percentage ofStudents Havingthe Same Score No Mark Description Mark Total Mark Percentage

  1 A Excellent 0%

  2 A- Very Good 6 28.57%

  3 B Good 8 38.1%

  4 B- Good Enough 1 4.76%

  5 C Enough 2 9.52%

  6 D Bad 4 19.05%

  7 E Very Bad 0% The figure 4.2

  The percentage the students same score qualification for students in the Interpreting class is good (38.1%). Although most students are good, however, there are still some students which need more practice for their speaking skill. There are 19.05% are still in the qualification of bad.

  Regardless the 19.05% of bad qualification, it is still said that the speech assessment through video recording represent of stude nts‟ speaking skill because 80.95% students are considered to have good speaking skill ability.

  This finding is then, supported with the results of interview, which the researcher will explain in the next section.

3. The Students Interview

  In the interview, theresearcher asked3 categories of question to the students about the general about Interpreting subject, the materials that students learned from the lecturer and the Interpreting subject assignment.

  In category 1, there is one question. The question deals with the students‟ opinion about the Interpreting subject. One example of the question and the answer in the interview is shown in (1) below:

  (1)Researcher :Bagaimanapendapatandatentangpelajaran

  Interpreting? (What do you think about

  Interpreting Subject?) Students :Intepretingadalahsalahsatupelajaran yang

  menarikkarenacaramengajarbeliauituenak,

  mengikutipelajaranini. (Pak Faisa

  l‟s style in the teaching is enjoyable, so many students enjoyed in the class). (Field note/interview no 1)

  In example (1) the students answered that Interpreting subject is Interesting subject. This argument is said by students because they feel pleasant with the teach style of the lecturer.

  The second question deals with the impression with the materials that they got by the lecturer. The students said that they enjoyed joining in the Interpreting class with Risdiyanto be lecturer. The interview on this topic is illustrated in example (2).

  (2) Researcher : Apakahandasenangdenganmateri yang

  

disampaikanolehdosen,

danbagaimanaperasaananda ?

  (Do you enjoy with the materials was given by the lecture? What do you think?) Students : Iyasaya enjoy

  dapatmengikutipelajaranInterpreting yang di ampuolehpakFaisal karenapelajarannyasantaidanmengasikkan. Di sela- selapelajaranselaludiikutiguyonanjaditidakspane ng.

  (I enjoy taking Interpreting class. The teaching and learning process is relax and exciting. The lecturer sometimes made a joke during the class) The third question is about the Interpreting assessment. An interview example on this topic is given in (3).

  (3) Writer : Apasajakendala yang

  andahadapiketikamengerjakantugas Interpreting yaitupidato ?

  (What obstacles do you faced when you are doing the Interpreting assessment especially giving a speech?)

  Students : Sayamasihmenggunakanteksdanpersiapanun tukberpidatosayakurang. Dan sayatidakmempunyaibanyakkosa kata.

  (I still need a text when I give a speech. I need more preparation to have a speech. And I also do not have enough vocabulary to have a speech). (Field notes /interviews no 3)

  The students said that they still use text to have a speech because their preparation is less and they do not have vocabulary to speak in front of many people. They do not enough preparation. Their vocabulary also limited to speech in front of people.

  The last question is about the Interpreting assessment. An interview example on this topic is given in (4).

  (4)Researcher :Apakahadapeningkatankeahlianberbahasaan dasetelahmengikutipelajaran interpreting

  subject ? Students :

  Ya, Adabanyakpeningkatanbaikdalamkeahlianber bicaraataupundalamkosa kata.

  (Ya, there are many improvement like in the speaking skill and in the vocabulary. (Field notes /interviews no 4)

  Based on the observation and interview it can be concluded that the students feel exciting with Interpreting subject because the lecturer is very humorist. Risdiyanto can make the class comfortable with his jokes. Many students that said that their speaking skills are improve after join in the Interpreting subject too.

  The researcher also conducted an interview to the students to know their improvement of speaking skill. The interview in this research was

  st

  conducted on September 11 2014. The results of the interview are: (1) The students were enthusiastic to learn Interpreting subject because they enjoyed and happy in the class with the lecturer; (2) The students understood with the materials that were conveyed by the lecturer because the lecturer sometime make some jokes; (3) With the speech assessment through video recording for final exam, there are some students can bring a script which helped them to speak up and (4) The students feels that there are improvement of speaking skill and their vocabulary after they have completed the speech assessment. for students in the Interpreting subject gives positive respond for students in speaking skill.

B. Discussion 1. The Use Speech Through Video Recording to Represent the Students Speaking Skill.

  The researcher collected the data on the use of speech through video recording can represent the students speaking skill Improvement by the document about students‟ assessments with speech. This document is used by the researcher to know the use of speech through video recording can represent the students speaking skill. The score of students‟ speech assessment through video recording which represents the students speaking skill can be seen in the table 4.2 (see chapter 4).

  Based on research findings, it is known that the students in the class E of Interpreting class have “Good” qualification. About 38.10% students have good qualification. It can also be seen that 28.57% students are “very

  good ”, 4.76% are “Good enough” and 9.52% students are “Enough.

  When students are considered excellent to enough, they pass the Interpreting subject. Thus, when the researcher accumulated the students of by excellent to enough, 80.95% students pass the Interpreting subject. This means that

  Although 80.95% students passed the subject, there are still 19.05% students who failed in the Interpreting subject. Based on the researches ‟ observation, it is assumed that they failed because of some reasons. They are: (1) They did not prepare their assessment, so they could not do their speech fluently; (2) They still made mistake in the pronunciation and(3) They still lacked of the vocabulary and are poor at grammar.

2. The Dominant Aspect Of Speaking Skill In The Students’ Speech Assessment Through Video Recording

  Based on the table 4.1, The result of assess the students speech

  assessment with five aspect above, there are different total score in the each aspect: Vocabulary (59), grammar(59), pronunciation (52), fluency (55) and comprehension was (64). The researcher can conclude that the dominant aspect in the speech assessment is comprehension aspect. The score of the comprehension aspect for 21 students is 64. And then after the comprehension aspect, grammar and vocabulary aspect that get same score there are 59.

  Therefore, the researcher can conclude that the dominant of speaking skill in the students‟ speech assessment through video recording is comprehension as the students have high. Comprehension skill, it can be assessed that the task given (the use of speech through video recording) can represent the students speaking skill.

  These results can be concluded that the students can understand when they

CHAPTER V CLOSURE The researcher would like to conclude and gave suggestion in this chapter. Those was helped to understand about two objectives that had been presented

  to know the use speech through video recording represent the students speaking skill and the dominant aspect that founding in the speech through video recording in the fourth semester of English department IAIN Salatiga in the academic 2014/ 2015 in the interpreting subject.

A. Conclusion

  Based on the analysis in the chapter IV, the researcher answered the problem question (see in the chapter I) into two main conclusions in this section. Firstly, to respond to the first question of how speech through video recording represent the students‟ speaking skill in the Interpreting subject, the researcher found that speech through video recording as one kind of assessment in the

  Interpreting subject do represent the students‟ speaking skill. The results show that 80.95% students achieved scores ranging from “Very good” to “Enough”. This means more that 80% students are able to show their speaking skill using speech through video recording. Thus, it can be concluded, the academic year of 2014/2015. The results of the percentage are found from the calculating of students score as the results of documenting this finding is supported qualitively using the result of observation and interview. From the observation and interview (see appendix), the students feel an improvement for the speaking skill when the assignment is conduction via speech through video recording.

  Secondly, to answer the second question in chapter I, what is the

  dominant aspect of speaking skill found in the speech through video recording? , the researcher has demonstrated in chapter IV that the speech

  through video recording is comprehension (total score 64). Implicitly, it can be concluded that using an assessment speech through video recording, the students relatively had good understanding and comprehension of what they were talking to in the speech.

  Finally, although most students are relatively successful in using speech through video recording to represent their speaking skill, it is still necessary for the lecturer to pay more attention to the 19.05% students who still have low speaking ability.

B. Suggestion

  Based on the conclusion above, there are suggestions that speech through video recording in the speaking assessment:

  This research contributes to literature especially in the English teaching like how to represent the students speaking skills. This result of this research can be used as references of other researcher that that will conduct the same research and same topic.

2. Practically

  The use of speech through video recording can be used by the lecturers of Interpreting subject and other lecture in the represent speaking skill of students.To pass in the assessment, the first, the students must prepare the material before they present their assessment. Secondly, the students must practice the pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar to success in the assessment.

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