CHARACTER, SOMALY MAM, IN SOMALY MAM
THE ROAD OF LOST INNOCENCE
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education
Christina Artyka Puspitasari Student Number: 091214130
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA
“True knowledge exists in knowing that you know
“Fight for the t
“Any kind of possession
could be lost, but your experience
is yours forever. Keep it and find a way
to use it.”
This undergraduate thesis is dedicated to:
My Jesus Christ
My Beloved Mother and Father
Puspitasari, Christina Artyka. (2013). Liberal Feminism Portrayed through the Main Character, Somaly Mam, in Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education. Sanata Dharma University.
This study analyzes a novel written by Somaly Mam, entitled The Road of Lost Innocence. This novel is based on a true story, focusing on Somaly Mam’s experiences of being a prostitute and finally she could help Cambodian women free from sex trafficking. This story took place in Cambodia between 1970s and 2000s during the Cambodian Civil War. The novel clearly describes how the Cambodian heroine, named Somaly Mam, tried to help all Cambodian women escape from sex slavery. Thus, in this study, I intended to analyze the feminism values which are depicted through Somaly Mam’s actions in freeing Cambodian women from their suffering. One question to be answered in this study is; “How is feminism portrayed through the main character’s actions, Somaly Mam, in
Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence?”
In order to answer the problem, I applied feminist approach which enabled me to know the feminist thought in the novel. I also carried out the library research as the method of the study. There were two data sources, namely primary and secondary sources. The primary source was the novel itself, The Road of Lost Innocence. The secondary sources were from the theory of feminist literary criticism, theory of characterization, and also theory of feminism. The theory of feminism contains several kinds of feminism; such as First wave of feminism, Second wave of feminism, Socialist/Marxist feminism, Asian, black, and women of color feminism, Lesbian feminism, Liberal feminism, and Psychoanalytic feminism.
Based on the analysis conducted, there were 14 feminist actions which have been done by Somaly Mam in freeing those Cambodian women from sex slavery. According to the theory of characterization and the theory of feminism, it could be concluded that liberal feminism is depicted through Somaly Mam’s actions. Somaly tried to achieve women’s equality in several aspects; such as politics, economics, and also socials. Thus, Somaly’s actions were in line with the characteristics of liberal feminism.
Finally, I propose two suggestions for two parties. For the further researchers, I suggest that they analyze and study this novel by using socio-cultural historical approach and psychological approach. Meanwhile for the teaching implementation, I suggest that the teachers use some stories in this novel as the materials for Basic Reading II in English Language Education Study Program.
Puspitasari, Christina Artyka. (2013). Liberal Feminism Portrayed through the Main Character, Somaly Mam, in Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan. Universitas Sanata Dharma.
Studi ini membahas tentang novel karya Somaly Mam yang berjudul The Road of Lost Innocence. Novel ini berdasarkan kisah nyata mengenai kehidupan Somaly Mam yang menjadi pekerja seks hingga dia dapat menyelamatkan wanita Kamboja dari perdagangan seks. Novel ini berlatar belakang perang sipil Kamboja pada tahun 1970an hingga 2000an. Novel ini secara jelas menceritakan bagaimana pahlawan wanita Kamboja yang bernama Somaly Mam, berusaha menolong wanita Kamboja terbebas dari perbudakan seks. Oleh karena itu, melalui studi ini, saya menganalisa nilai-nilai feminisme yang dapat dilihat dari tindakan Somaly Mam ketika dia menolong para wanita Kamboja. Satu pertanyaan yang akan dijawab di dalam studi ini, yaitu; “Bagaimana feminisme digambarkan melalui tindakan yang dilakukan oleh karakter utama, Somaly Mam, di dalam novel The Road of Lost Innocence karya Somaly Mam?”
Untuk membahas pertanyaan ini, saya melakukan pendekatan feminisme yang memudahkan saya untuk mengetahui pemikiran feminis yang terdapat di dalam novel. Saya juga menggunakan studi pustaka sebagai metode di dalam studi ini. Studi ini juga menggunakan dua macam sumber; yaitu sumber utama dan sumber sekunder. Sumber utama yaitu dari novel The Road of Lost Innocence. Sementara sumber sekunder dalam studi ini menggunakan teori kritik sastra feminis, teori karakterisasi, dan teori feminisme. Teori feminisme terdiri dari beberapa jenis feminisme; yaitu feminisme gelombang pertama, feminisme gelombang kedua, feminisme sosialis/Marxist, feminisme wanita kulit hitam, feminisme lesbian, feminisme liberal, dan psikoanalisis feminisme.
Berdasarkan analisis yang telah dilakukan, terdapat 14 tindakan feminisme yang telah dilakukan Somaly Mam dalam membebaskan wanita Kamboja dari perbudakan seks. Berdasarkan teori karakterisasi dan teori feminisme, dapat disimpulkan bahwa feminisme liberal dapat dilihat melalui tindakan Somaly Mam. Somaly berusaha untuk mencapai hak wanita di berbagai aspek; seperti politik, ekonomi, dan sosial. Maka dari itu, tindakan Somaly sesuai dengan karakteristik dari feminisme liberal.
Pada studi ini, saya juga mengajukan dua saran bagi dua pihak. Bagi peneliti selanjutnya, saya menyarankan untuk menganalisa dan mempelajari novel ini dengan menggunakan pendekatan sosio kultural historis dan pendekatan psikologis. Sementara bagi pengajaran bahasa Inggris, saya menyarankan untuk menggunakan beberapa cerita dari novel ini sebagai materi untuk mata kuliah Basic Reading II di program studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris.
In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Amen.
First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to Jesus Christ my Savior for everything that He has given to me, so I could accomplish this thesis. His blessings, love, and guidance, give me strength to go through these hard days of my life.
Secondly, I would like to thank my beloved mother, Martina Arty Murniati and also my beloved father, Brigjend Pol. (Purn) Drs. Aloysius Mudjiyono, S.H., M.Hum., who always support me each time I almost give up. I would like to thank my parents for so many great advice and motivation that are always sent to me. They are always standing beside me to encourage me to do my best. I love them so much. My dedication also goes to my beloved brothers, Leonardus Ardho Hendrata, Michael Terry Hendrata, Henrikus Yossi Hendrata, whom I care very much.
stands beside me during my sadness and happiness. His patience, support, and kindness make me strong to face this life.
I would also like to thank Adesti Komalasari, S.Pd., M.A., Sr. Margareth, Felicita Devi Adyaningtyas, Budi Prasetyo, and also Marshel Reinvialno Tanamal, who helped me in checking the language for my thesis. Then, I would like to appreciate my friends Dhian, Ajeng, Hayu, Nino, Oscar, Vian, Keket, Studemus Vitae Group: Adit, Ita, Berta, Indrek, and also my friends from ‘The Travelers’ Play Performance who could not be mentioned one by one. I thank them for their support, for sharing laughter, stories, happiness, and sadness, and also the times we spent together in Sanata Dharma University. May God always bless them all.
And I would like to thank everyone who could not be mentioned here, and finally, I would like to send my deepest appreciation to myself. Because of my hard working, pain, sorrow, my pray, and my motivation that I build, I could finish my undergraduate thesis successfully.
In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Amen.
TITLE PAGE ... i
APPROVAL PAGE ... ii
DEDICATION PAGE ... iv
STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ... vi
PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ... vii
CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ... 9
A. Review of Related Theories ... 9
1. Theory of Critical Approach ... 10
2. Theory of Characterization ... 11
3. Theory of Feminism ... 15
a. First Wave Feminism ... 17
b. Second Wave Feminism ... 18
c. Socialist/Marxist Feminism ... 18
d. Asian, Black, and Woman of Color Feminism ... 20
g. Psychoanalytic Feminism ... 25
B. Review on Socio-cultural Historical Background ... 26
1. Socio-cultural Historical Background of Cambodian Civil War ... 26
2. Women in Cambodia... 27
a. The Involvement of Cambodian Women in Sex Industry ... 27
b. Traditional Cambodian Women’s Roles ... 28
C. Theoretical Framework ... 29
A. Feminism Portrayed through Somaly Mam’s Actions in The Road of Lost Innocence ... 36
1. The Feminist Actions and the Type of Feminism Represented by Somaly Mam ... 37
a. When Somaly Mam still Works in the Brothel ... 38
1) Letting Two Girls Escape from Brothel ... 38
b. When Somaly Mam Leaves the Brothel ... 40
1) Giving Aunt Peuve and Her Friends a lot of Money ... 40
2) Treating Cambodian Girls from Sexual Transmitted Diseases... ... 42
3) Working in France ... 48
4) Helping Girls Escape from Brothels ... 50
5) Finding a Charity to Fund a Proper Centre for Prostitutes .... 55
6) Building AFESIP as the Proper Centre for Prostitutes ... 57
7) Helping Sophanna from Her Husband’s Physical Abuse ... 60
10) Building a Proper Centre for Children ... 67
11) Giving an Educational Campaign to Cambodian Men ... 70
12) Building a New Shelter in Siem Reap ... 73
13) Opening an AFESIP Garment Workshop ... 75
CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS ... 78
A. Conclusions ... 78
B. Implications ... 81
C. Suggestions ... 82
1. Suggestions for the Further Researchers ... 82
2. Suggestions for Teaching English Using the Literary Works ... 83
REFERENCES ... 86
Page Appendix A
The Summary of The Road of Lost Innocence ... 90
The Biography of Somaly Mam ... 94
Syllabus of Basic Reading II ... 98
Lesson Plan ... 105
Teaching Materials ... 110
This chapter explains five main parts in this study. First is the background of the study, which spells out my personal reasons for choosing the novel, The Road of Lost Innocence. Second is the objective of the study, which reveals the purpose of
this study. Third is the problem formulation, where the problems of this study are formulated. Fourth is the research benefits, which outline advantages for the readers of this study. The last part is the definition of terms, where two important terms are explained in order to avoid misinterpretation.
A.Background of the Study
Humans are God’s creatures that could share their feelings and thoughts through several means. They could share them through literary works such as songs, poems, novels, and paintings. This happens because literary works are the pleasure for humans to express their stories of life and feelings. Literary works are also very close to human’s lives. Many kinds of literary works are presented in our society such as some prose, poems, short stories, and also novels. One of literary works which has the complex story is a novel.
them into a beautiful story. The readers usually get involved in the story and have the same emotion when they read the story in the novel itself. Taormina (2008) says, “novel is an English transliteration of the Italian word "novella"--used to describe a short, compact, broadly realistic tale popular during the medieval period.”
Novels always depict the situations happening in the time when the story is written. Thus, I am interested in analyzing the novel for this study. Novels are always full of stories which reflect the tragedy or irony in the real life. Many problems in society are always used as the story in the novel and one of the society’s problems is feminism, which is often seen in the real life. The feminism genre appears because there is gender discrimination between men and women. For example: the discrimination of workload between men and women. According to Montagu (1953), “woman’s place is in the home and man’s place is in the counting house and on the
board of directors” (pp. 23-24). He also adds that “women have been conditioned to believe that they are inferior to men, and they have assumed that what everyone believes is a fact of nature” (p. 23). It shows that the situation puts women in gender inequality or gender discrimination, where women are in the second position after men.
is a famous proverb that could describe women all over the world. Women are beautiful creatures from God. There is a strong power and beauty inside women; even though women have difficult tasks in this life, such as: giving birth, house making, nursing children. Since people in society always assume that men are stronger than women, men always dominate women in some aspects.
The condition of gender inequality in society puts women in a place where they could not do anything because of male domination. de Beauvoir (1989) states that “women always do certain domestic works, such as keeping house and also rearing children” (p. 431). They do not have rights to express their ideas or thoughts. Therefore, there is a stereotype in society, which makes people think that women are lower than men in all aspects such as women have to take care of their children at home, men are always the breadwinner in almost every family, and many more. Those examples of stereotypes make the gender discrimination in society much stronger. Men and women are definitely different. However, Rubin (1975, as cited in Holmberg, 2012) reveals that “they are not as different as day and night, earth and sky, yin and yang, life and death.”
worker in Cambodia. Her novel could inspire all women to fight for their rights. Furthermore, her novel could enrich the readers’ understanding of the feminist actions through women’s struggles.
Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence reveals sex slavery that still exists
in Cambodia. Somaly Mam, who is the main character, had been a sex worker when she was 12 years old. At that time, she was sold by her grandfather into the brothel. She suffered the brutality from men who had abused her (rape, torture) as a sex worker. In the end, she met a French worker named Pierre who later became her husband. Somaly Mam tried to escape from the persecution and she started to help Cambodian girls who worked in the brothels as sex workers. Then, Somaly Mam built AFESIP which stands from “Acting for Women in Distressing Situations”. AFESIP provides the guidance, education, rescue, recovery for the victims of sex trafficking in Southeast Asia.
The problem of this study is formulated as follows.
How is feminism portrayed through the main character’s actions, Somaly Mam, in Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence?
C.Objective of the Study
The aim of this study is to find out how feminism is portrayed through the main character, Somaly Mam, in Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. I collected and analyzed the data by observing Somaly Mam’s actions when she helped Cambodian women free from sex slavery. It is very helpful in order to understand and explore the feminism idea thoroughly which is depicted in Somaly Mam’s actions when Somaly helps Cambodian women.
D.Benefits of the Study
Second is for language teaching in English Language Education Study Program. PBI is expected to develop English teaching materials based on the novel or short stories by addressing the issues of feminism such as; gender roles and women trafficking in some of the reading materials used in PBI courses.
Here, PBI students are expected to know more about literary works, especially novels which consist of feminist theme. Hopefully, it could be their references in their study. Third, for the further researchers who are interested in gender discrimination or gender issues which are depicted in some literary works, especially some novels. This study could be useful as their references to enable them conducting their study.
E.Definition of Terms
In analyzing the novel, it is important to define the terms related to the problem formulation. It aims to avoid misinterpretations and give clearer explanations. Therefore, I attempt to define two main terms as follows.
Feminism is defined as women’s struggles and movements to achieve
women’s equality between men; therefore, women have the equal rights and portions
of social transformation aiming to create a world for women beyond simple social equality” (Humm, 1995). It means that there is a social transformation to gain social equality between men and women; therefore, women have a right so they could not be dominated by men anymore. In this study, I define feminism as obtain women’s equal rights in surviving and protecting each other from slavery.
2. Liberal Feminism
Humm (1995) states that liberal feminism happens because women are conscious that they are dominated by men; therefore women try to achieve their equal rights in politic, social, and also economic. Liberal feminism tries to put women equal with men. Further, Humm (1995) also states that liberal feminists stress in the women’s rights in term of education, health services, and also welfare needs. On the other hand, liberal feminism also supports to abolish sexual discrimination or gender roles which are experienced by women (Madsen, 2000, pp. 35-36). This means, liberal feminism does not only achieve women’s equality in politic, social, and economic aspect; however, it also supports to abolish any kinds of gender roles in this world.
3. Sex Trafficking
money for the traffickers. It is estimated that around 800,000, women and children are trafficked each year.
Meanwhile, Harris (2013) defines sex trafficking as “the act of forcing, coercing, or transporting a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act.” This means, sex trafficking is the act of commercial sex where the traffickers force the victims to work into prostitution. Sex trafficking could occur in the brothels, hotels, strip clubs, and also the street prostitution. While, Haag (2012, as cited in Sherbert, 2012), states that “sex trafficking is a blight on our communities and, unfortunately, today’s technology makes it possible for modern day pimps to spread this blight far
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter is divided into three sections. They are the review of related theories, the socio-cultural historical background, and also the theoretical framework. First is the review or related theories, which present some theories that are applied to this study. Those theories are the theory of feminist approach, the theory of characterization, and the theory of feminism; such as first wave feminism, second wave feminism, socialist/Marxist feminism, Asian, black, and woman of color feminism, lesbian feminism, liberal feminism, and the last is psychoanalytic feminism.
Second is the socio-cultural historical background, which provides the history of Cambodian Civil war and also women‟s condition in Cambodia. Third is the theoretical framework, which shows the contribution of those theories and also reviews in analyzing the problems in this study.
A.Review of Related Theories
1. Theory of Critical Approach
In order to conduct a deep analysis in the literary work, it is very useful to apply a certain approach related to the problems in this study. Kenedy and Gioia (2002) state that there are ten critical approaches to the literature; one of them is feminist criticism (p. 629). A feminist approach is suitable for this study because this study focuses on presence of feminism which is depicted in the main character‟s actions in Somaly Mam‟s The Road of Lost Innocence.
According to Kenedy and Gioia (2002), a feminist approach or feminist literary criticism explores how sexual identity or gender influences are applied in some literary works. They also add that “feminist criticism has explored how an author‟s gender influences – consciously or unconsciously – his or her writing” (pp. 648-649). Meanwhile, according to Goodman (1996), feminist literary criticism is an academic approach to analyze a feminist thought in the literary contexts (p. xi). Humm (1994) also says that feminist literary criticism focuses on gender influences in some literary works and therefore those literary works produce gender representations which are experienced by women (p. ix).
AFESIP, which provides guidance, education, counselling, rescue, and also recovery.
2. Theory of Characterization
It is important for the author in literary works to describe the characteristics of a person in the story. It aims to convey to the readers about the message from the story. Abrams (1981) defines “characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the readers as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what they say-the dialogue-and by what they do-the action” (p. 20).
Besides character, it is necessary for the author to describe the characterization of a person in the story. According to Murphy (1972), characterization explains how the writer tells to the readers about personalities, thought, characters, and behaviors of the people that they write in the story. Harmon and Holman (2009) also states that characterization is the representation of characters‟ actions in the story and therefore the readers could understand what the story tells about by analyzing through the characters‟ actions in the story (p.
his/her mannerism and therefore the readers could know why a person behaves and acts as he/she does at the present time (Murphy, 1972: 161-173). However, Henkle (1977) adds that “characterization is central to the fictional” (p. 86).
According to Abrams (2009: 43), there are two ways in presenting a person‟s characteristics in the story. They are showing and telling. In showing, the
author simply presents the characters when they are talking and acting, and leaves it entirely up to the readers to infer the motives and dispositions that lie behind what they say and do. In this method, the author does not only describe the external speech and the actions of the character in the novel; however, the author also describes the character‟s inner thoughts, feelings, and responsiveness to events. Meanwhile in telling, the author intervenes authoritatively in order to describe, and often to evaluate, the motives and dispositional qualities of the characters. Henkle (1977) states that “using the characterization enables authors to communicate their human qualities and guide the readers to an understanding of the human themes of the novels” (p. 87).
Murphy (1972: 161-173) proposes nine ways or methods in the theory of characterization. It aims to make the readers understand the characters that author describes in the story or the novel. They are:
a. Pesonal Description
explores more about the character‟s face, skin, eyes, and how that peson wears the clothes.
b. Character as Seen by Another
According to Murphy (1972), a character as seen by another person explains how the author describes a person through the eyes and opinions of other people. Through the other‟s opinions and eyes, the readers could understand the characteristics of the main character which are depicted in the novel.
Speech explains how the author conveys to the readers through what the characters say in the novel. The author describes the character by providing how a person speaks, how he/she has the conversation with other people, and also how he/she argues his/her opinion to other people. It may help the readers understand the stories through a person‟s characteristics (Murphy, 1972).
d. Past Life
Murphy (1972) states that past life describes how the author lets the readers learn a person‟s past life, which has shaped his/her behavior and characteristics. By giving that information, the author could give the readers a clue to events that have helped to shape a person‟s characteristics.
e. Conversation of Others
through the things that other people say about that person. By analyzing those conversations, the readers could catch the characters‟ personalities which are portrayed in the story.
According to Murphy (1972), reactions explain how the author gives the readers about a clue to a person‟s characteristics by letting them know how that person reacts to various situations and events. By knowing his/her action to other people, the readers could see and understand how the person behaves and has the characteristics.
g. Direct Comment
Direct comment reveals how the author could describe or comment on a person‟s characteristics directly. By describing and giving the comment on a person‟s characteristics, the readers could understand about the person‟s characteristics in that story (Murphy, 1972).
Murphy (1972) reveals that thoughts describe how the author could give the readers about direct knowledge of what a person is thinking about. By providing the thoughts of a person during the story, the readers could know and understand about the person‟s characteristics which are portrayed in the novel. i. Mannerisms
characteristics. The author reveals the character through the person‟s thoughts, therefore, the readers could grab the idea of the person‟s personalities in the novel itself (Murphy, 1972).
Those are some ways in which the author makes the readers to be aware and to understand the characteristics and personalities from a person in the story. It will help the readers to get better knowledge in understanding the characters of a person which are conveyed by the author.
3. Theory of Feminism
Women, is a word that could describe many things related to the feminine
creature. de Beauvoir (1989) says that “women always do certain domestic works, such as: keeping house and also rearing children” (p. 431). However, women‟s conditions are always dominated by men. It has been described by de Beauvoir:
...since patriarchal times women have in general been forced to occupy a secondary place in the world in relation to men, a position comparable in many respects with that of racial minorities in spite of the fact that women constitute numerically at last half of the human race, and further that this secondary standing is not imposed of necessity by natural “feminine” characteristics but rather by strong environmental forces of educational and social tradition under the purposeful control of men (p. xxxix).
As time goes by, men always dominate women. A gender inequality between men and women occurs in several aspects; such as education, politic, social, economy, and many more. Rosaldo (1992, as cited in Humm, 1992: 407) has described inequality:
relegation of women to the domestic sphere. The differential participation of men and women in public life gives rise not only to universal male authority over women but to a higher valuation of male over female roles. It could be seen as the gender discrimination where people always see humans based on the sexes. In addition, it also shows that men treat women unfairly. Since there are a lot of problems related to the gender discriminations, feminist genre appears in society. Feminism tries to seek gender equality because women are always assumed as a lower human after men. de Beauvoir (1989) states that “men viewed women as fundamentally different from themselves. In being so defined, women were reduced to the status of the second sex.”
Women want to seek equal rights. Feminism has become a common thing in society knowing that the problems in society, which is inequality between men and women, have become wider. Basically, feminism explores more about the belief principle that tells women‟s rights in society. Ebunoluwa (2009) says that the basic meaning of feminism is to struggle for women‟s rights. However, feminism, according to Humm (1995: 94), is “the ideology of women‟s liberation since intrinsic in all its approaches is the belief that women suffer injustice.”
Asian black feminism, lesbian feminism, liberal feminism, and also psychoanalytic feminism.
a. First Wave Feminism
This term is sometimes known as „old wave‟. The first wave feminism refers to women‟s movements in America, Asia, and England around 1880 and 1920. Humm (1992) states that this kind of feminism focuses on the women‟s rights in productive work, material rights, politic, and also social knowledge (p. 11). Humm (1992) further adds that “a first wave feminism is principally concerned with equalities where women are the objects, sometime victims of mistaken social knowledge” (p. 11).
This theory is also supported by de Beauvoir (1989) by saying that the first wave feminism centres on materialism and also political rights for women (as cited in Humm, 1992, p. 11). This means that the first wave feminism is concerned more about women‟s oppression which lie on the material, politic, and also social knowledge. The first wave feminists want to achieve women‟s equal rights into the better professions and into higher education. Moreover, it also focuses on the full access to public and also the material space.
b. Second Wave Feminism
The second wave feminism has three main issues, which are reproduction, experience, and also difference. This kind of feminism happened in the late of 1960s and lasted through early 1980s. Humm (1992) states that the second wave of feminism takes the point of politics of reproduction, while the first wave of feminism shares about the feminism‟s politics of legal, educational, and economic equal rights for women (p. 54). Humm further explains that the second wave feminism focuses on the gender difference issues which lie on the sexual violence in society (p. 12). This issue brings the conditions women that they are different from men in the street and in the home. Therefore, women are assumed as the powerful human being because they experience a gender difference.
Brien (1981, as cited in Humm, 1992: 54) also supports Humm‟s theory about the second wave of feminism by stating that this kind of feminism focuses more on the reproductive rights. Brien (1981) also adds that “the fight for reproductive rights entails a fight against sexual and domestic violence, and has profound repercussions for gender identity.” This means that women‟s oppression becomes rampant as cases of domestic violence and sexual objectification escalate.
c. Socialist/Marxist Feminism
alternative values (p. 74). Neither Marxism nor socialism could totally incorporate each other. Marxism argues that women are defined by the workload. This means that women‟s oppression lie on the economic system, especially in the working field. This kind of feminism makes the interaction between gender and the economy class in the society. Furthermore, women are always assumed as unproductive labour because housework and children rearing in the home do not produce some money or surplus value (p. 87).
Moreover, Humm (1994) adds that “socialist feminism could highlight the full impact of the sexual division of labour, for example by pointing out that women in the home do more of the work” (p. 88). This theory is also supported by Rowbotham (1973) who explains that “socialist feminism depended on a movement of working-class women because only working-class women fully experience the double oppression of the sexual division of labour in work and in the home” (as cited in Humm 1992, p. 92).
unproductive labour. Thus, the purpose of socialist/Marxist feminism is to get the women‟s equality in the working field.
d. Asian, Black, and Woman of Color Feminism
Black feminism reveals that women‟s oppression is based on their skin colours; whether they have black skin or white skin. This feminism intensively explores the history of traditions and culture of Africa, African America, and the Caribbean. Furthermore, black feminism is concerned about the position, race, and class in society between African women and Caribbean women (Humm, 1994, p. 24). This means that the skin colours in Africa and Caribbean may lead the discrimination between white women and black women in society.
Black women usually fall for victims of racial discriminations especially in working field. They always become the victims and are always assumed as low-educated women (Humm, 1992, p. 122). Davis (1992), a member of black liberation movements in the 1960s and 1970s (Civil Rights and the Black Panthers) reveals that “the black women suffer the double oppression in the economic aspect when racism and sexism combine to relegate black women to low-paid jobs” (as cited in Humm, 1992: 128).
e. Lesbian Feminism
Lesbian feminism stresses on the relationship between women who commit together. According to Humm (1995: 149), lesbian feminism is a belief that women-identified women, who committed together for politic, sexual, and also economic support. Furthermore, lesbian feminists ignore men‟s presence in their life. They believe the presence of men would become their oppressive because it will bring the patriarchy system and it is a bad effect for their life. It is also supported by the theory from Bunch (1975) who states that “lesbian feminism attacks both the institution and the ideology of heterosexuality as being centre of patriarchy.” This means that being lesbian feminist could be avoided from the patriarchy system because they only involve in the women-centered.
Atkinson (1995) further explains that lesbians are the radicals of feminist because they could think radically about getting freedom of being kept away from patriarchy issues (as cited in Humm, 1995, p. 150). Further, Daly (1973) states that lesbian feminism is choosing an erotic community of women. In conclusion, whatever the position that those women hold on, lesbian feminist reveals that they commit together in the same sex, economy, and also politics, in order not to be discriminated because of patriarchy issues in society.
f. Liberal Feminism
conditioned to believe that they are inferior to men, and they have assumed that what everyone believes is a fact of nature” (p. 23). Whereas, de Beauvoir (1989) also adds that “men viewed women as fundamentally different from themselves. In being so defined, women were reduced to the status of the second sex.” This phenomenon brings us to see that women are always in the second position after men. Knowing these facts, women always become the object of gender discrimination. They become the victims of gender inequality. Women are not confident to show their potential in society.
Since women are always assumed as weak human beings, feminist thought appears in society. One of the types of feminism is liberal feminism. Liberal feminism comes from the word liberty, which the freedom to live as you wish or go where you want (“Liberty”). Liberal feminism emphasizes women‟s movement to achieve equality between men. In this case, women have to be treated fairly as men, because women are also rational human beings. This theory is a theory of individual freedom for women. Humm (1992) argues that liberal feminism aims to achieve equal legal, political and social rights for women (p. 181). Therefore, in liberal feminism, it tries to put women equal with men. In this type, women also have an opportunity to achieve the goal of equality. The definition of liberal feminism is described by Madsen (2000):
liberal feminism emphasis on the individual stresses the importance of the individual and individual autonomy which are protected by guaranteed rights, economic justice and equality of opportunity.”
liberal feminists supports the Equal Rights Amendment and other legislative acts to abolish sexual discrimination and to oppresive gender roles (pp. 35-36).
She also adds that liberal feminist perspectives focus on how women attempt to create a feminist consciousness that they are oppressed by men (p. 37). Humm (1992), also reveals that liberal feminism wishes to bring women equally into all public institutions and to extend of knowledge so that women‟s issues could no longer be ignored (p. 181). Humm wants to underline that women deserve the equal position between men since people always assume that women are weak human beings than men. Further, Humm (1992) notes that “liberal feminism is the major of feminism since liberation is what feminist wants to.” However, Humm (1995) has also explained liberal feminism in several aspects:
Liberal feminism argues for individual fulfillment free from the structures of highly defined sex roles. It limits itself to reformism, seeking to improve the status of women within the system but not fundamentally contesting either the system‟s operation or its legitimacy. Contemporary liberal feminists espouse women‟s rights in terms of welfare needs, universal education, and health services (p. 151).
highlights the women‟s equal rights in the family role. Okin (2004, as cited in Soble, 2006) argues about the women‟s position in a marriage:
That marriage should be reconceived as an equal partnership in which neither partner should leave the world of paid employment for the domestic sphere, which necessarily disadvantages the partner who maintains the home. Traditional marriage makes women vulnerable by channeling them into lower-paying, more flexible forms of employment before marriage, by reducing their negotiating power within marriage, and by impoverishing them in divorce. The expectation of women will be the primary caregivers for children and other dependents encourage women to make choices that militate against their own best interests; men are not similarly disadvantaged (pp. 335-336).
In this case, liberal feminism has the important role in achieving the women‟s equal rights as the wife. Liberal feminism does not only concern the women‟s positions; however it also emphasizes the children‟s positions in family. Liberal feminists took aim squarely at the nuclear family. Sex roles within the family had to become androgynous for the ideal of equality to be served, with neither parent assuming primary responsibility for rearing children and maintaining the home (Sobloe, 2006: 334). In this condition, children should be treated fairly by their parents. They must get the equal rights for their parents because they are also the rational human beings.
raped), and also pornography. In addition, women‟s position in all aspects should equal with men‟s. Women and men are equally members of the moral community and deserve equal concern and respect.
Humm (1992: 191) states that in 1960s and early 1970s, liberal feminism shaped into many of political programs. A contemporary model of liberal feminism was founded by Betty Friedian when she founded the National Organisation of Women (NOW) in 1966. NOW campaigned for equal civil rights, equal access to education, health service, welfare need, and also equal pay for women. This means that women should get the equal opportunity between men in society. They have to be treated fairly in education, welfare, economy, and also for the payment in working field.
g. Psychoanalytic Feminism
make people always see that women are lower than men (Humm, 1992 as cited in Respati, 2010).
Therefore, in this kind of feminism, it tries to put women equal with men without any people‟s assumptions about feminity and masculinity. This kind of feminism also supports to have the multicultural characteristics between men and women, therefore, there are feminity and masculinity in our society. In addition, it could also avoid gender discriminations in society (Humm, 1992 as cited in Respati, 2010).
B.Review on Socio-cultural Historical Background
1. Socio-cultural Historical Background of Cambodian Civil War
The Road of Lost Innocence was written in 2005, and set during the Cambodian civil war. It happened around 1970s during a time of great upheaval in Cambodia. This was the time when there was a war between Cambodia and Vietnam. There were lot of starvation, dead people, and also executions during this time.
would kill Cambodians if they know that Cambodians have a better education in that country.
2. Women in Cambodia
This section discusses the condition of Cambodian women during the reign of Khmer Rouge until 2005. In this section, I focus on Cambodian women who were engaged and trafficked in sex industry and also the traditional Cambodian women‟s roles which still exist in Cambodia.
a. The Involvement of Cambodian Women in Sex Industry
Since Cambodian civil war had caused human suffering and decreasing of male labors in Cambodia, the central job was centered on women. Cambodian women took over the responsibilities in having a great duty as the labor. Women must work in order to pay the debt that their parents or husband have. In this condition, Cambodian women also do not have a good education.
According to Edlund (2002), prostitution itself could be described as, “low-skill, labor intensive, female, and well paid.” There are some reasons why Cambodian women become sex workers in brothels. They are sold in order to pay the debt of their parents or husband. Others become sex workers because they do not have a choice where they should live and this is the only way they survive in Cambodia.
b. Traditional Cambodian Women’s Roles
According to Mam (2008: 31), Cambodian women should obey their parents; especially their husbands. Cambodian women have a „soft‟ attitude; like they should walk so quitely until people could not hear their footsteps. In Cambodia, women must respect their parents and husbands. Their husbands are their master-they are second only to their father. Since the traditional gender roles which are experienced by Cambodian women, they have to obey their husband and parents although the family members ask them to be the prostitutes. Therefore, the number of prostitutes in Cambodia is still high.
Additionally, in Cambodia custom, women have to put up with everything that their mothers-in-law do and never complain to their husbands. Therefore, it makes Cambodian women become very quiet persons. Wood (1996, as cited in Asia Culture Forum, 2006: 3) describes Cambodian women‟s roles as follows.
Cambodian women are afraid to speak and act as they wish because there are Cambodian gender roles which exist in their society. These traditional gender roles also make gender inequality in Cambodia society. It makes Cambodian women become the victims of gender discrimination. Domestic violence in some families is often found. They treat their wives or their daughters as if women have no power (Mam, 2008, p. 31).
The focus of this study is the analysis of feminist actions and the type of feminism which are portrayed through the main character‟s actions, Somaly Mam, in the novel The Road of Lost Innocence. This study employs some theories to support and answer the problem revealed in the problem formulation. Those theories are: theory of characterization and also theory of feminism. Additionally, I also use feminist literary criticism as the theory of critical approach because this study discusses women‟s movement in Cambodia era in 1970s and 2000s.
the characteristics of feminism which have been done by the main character in the story.
The theory of feminism is also applied in this study. The theory would be very useful because by proposing this theory, I could analyze the idea of feminism which is depicted through the Somaly Mam‟s actions in the novel. It also shows what kind of feminism is revealed through Somaly Mam‟s actions in freeing Cambodian women from sex trafficking. In this study, I focus on the liberal feminism which is reflected through Somaly Mam‟s actions in freeing Cambodian women from sex trafficking. By using the theory of liberal feminism, I could understand the relevance between the characteristics of liberal feminism and Somaly Mam‟s actions when she helps Cambodian women free from sex
This chapter consists of three parts. The first part discusses the subject matter, which describes Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence as the subject of this study. The second part discusses the approach of the study which is used in this study. The third part discusses the methodology which is used to conduct this study.
A.Object of the Study
The primary source of the following study is The Road of Lost Innocence: The True Story About Cambodian Heroine. This novel is based on the Somaly
Mam’s experiences which consists of 14 parts in 210 pages. It was published in 2007 by Virago Press, London and was translated from French by Lisa Appignanesi. The novel was originally published in France in 2005 under the title Le Silence de l’Innocence. This novel tells the main character in this novel,
Somaly Mam, who was sold to the brothels by her grandfather when she was 12 years old. Her grandfather put her into brothels as a sex worker in order to pay his debt. Somaly Mam experienced brutality, torture, and also oppression because Cambodian men raped her.
a nurse to help the wounded Cambodian soldiers and also people from the village whose legs or hands were blown off. Working as a nurse in the hospital and also a sex worker in brothel, she met a French worker named Pierre. It triggered Somaly Mam to escape from brothel. Since she married with Pierre, she moved to France. Since that time, she had a big motivation to help Cambodian women who still worked in brothel. Somaly Mam, helped by her husband, built an AFESIP. AFESIP is the organization which has rescued, rehabilitated, and reintegrated the victims from sex slavery.
This story takes place in Cambodia, where prostitution remains in that country. This novel portrays the prostitution in Cambodia where most of Cambodian girls were born to be sex workers because they have to pay their parents’ and husbands’ debt. Therefore, Cambodian women become sex workers to earn some money for their family. In this case, Cambodian women act as collateral and they have to pay the debt.
B.Approach of the Study
In analyzing this problem, I employed a feminist approach or feminist literary criticism as the approach of this study. This approach aims to figure out the feminist thought and gender influence which are presented in several literary works, especially in novels. A feminist approach is suitable in this study because this novel is clearly described how the main character in this story, Somaly Mam, who struggles to achieve the liberation, an opportunity, and also equality for Cambodian women. She also attempts to combat sex slavery in order to help Cambodian women free from their suffering.
By using this approach, I could analyze Somaly Mam’s life experiences and also her feminist actions against male domination which are depicted in Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. Thus, a feminist literary criticism
helps to reveal the depiction of spirit of feminism by Somaly Mam.
C.Method of the Study
The data from this study were taken from two sources, primary and secondary sources. The primary data for this study was taken from the novel itself, entitled The Road of Lost Innocence. Then, the secondary sources were taken from other sources, such as some journals, some books, and some internet sources which could support this study. Those secondary sources were needed in order to analyze the topic and answer the research problem which is discussed in
Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. The theories had been explained in
detail in the chapter two.
In analyzing Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence, I took several steps. Firstly, I read the novel in order to gain a deep understanding about the story itself. Secondly, I read the novel again in order to know about Somaly Mam’s actions and her life experiences in the story by taking some notes and marking some important things which are related to the feminist actions. By knowing her life experiences and actions, I could analyze the feminist ideas which are depicted in Somaly Mam’s actions.
Fourthly, I applied the approach and the theories to answer the research problem in this study. The research problem was how feminism is portrayed through the main character, Somaly Mam, in Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. At last, I drew the conclusion based on the analysis to answer the
This chapter discusses feminism as portrayed in the main character, Somaly Mam in Somaly Mam‟s The Road of Lost Innocence. In the discussion of
feminism portrayal, it is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the Somaly Mam‟s actions which present the feminist values towards Cambodian women in combating sex trafficking. In analyzing Somaly Mam‟s feminist actions, I use the theory of characterization. The theory of characterization is considered as the appropriate theory because by using that theory, I could analyze the characteristics of feminism and feminist values which are depicted in Somaly Mam‟s actions when she helps Cambodian women free from sex slavery.
By analyzing Somaly Mam‟s actions which present the characteristics of feminism, I could find out the type of feminism portrayed by Somaly Mam in The Road of Lost Innocence. Therefore, the second part discusses the type of feminism
through Somaly Mam‟s actions in The Road of Lost Innocence. In analyzing this type of feminism, I use the theory of feminism to find out the type of feminism portrayed by Somaly Mam.
A.Feminism Portrayed through Somaly Mam’s Actions in The Road of Lost Innocence
idea of feminist actions which are depicted in the main character in the novel of The Road of Lost Innocence. It could be seen when Somaly Mam struggles for
Cambodian women‟s rights of being discriminated and humiliated by men in a patriarchal society, and also when Somaly tries to help Cambodian women free from sex slavery.
1. The Feminist Actions and the Type of Feminism Represented by Somaly
Mam had been a sex worker, she already had the spirit of feminism. Those actions could be seen below.
a. When Somaly Mam still Works in the Brothel
1) Letting Two Girls Escape from Brothel
Somaly Mam‟s The Road of Lost Innocence describes how the main
character, Somaly Mam, helps Cambodian women free from a sex brutality that exists in Cambodia. Even though Somaly Mam still works as a sex worker, however, she already has the spirit of feminism in her heart. It could be proven when she tries to help their friends free from brothel. She does not want her friends feel the same pain as the way she feels. She works so hard to seek the equality and help all Cambodian women free from sex trafficking.
According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), it could be seen that Somaly uses her thought and reactions to describe the feminist values in saving their friends from sex slavery. The feminist values in Somaly‟s actions and thought are depicted when Somaly helps her friends free from brothels. At that time, she still works as a sex worker in Aunt Peuve‟s brothel. Below is the fact when Somaly Mam helps her friends to escape from brothel:
That quotation shows that Somaly wants Cambodian women to get their freedom and let those women free in chasing their dreams. Therefore, they would not feel the same feeling and pain as Somaly. They become sex workers, being tortured, and being raped, in order to pay the debt of their parents and their husbands. Somaly realizes that her actions will bring herself in the dangerous thing. Nevertheless, the most important thing is that she could save other Cambodian women from a brutality that exists in Cambodia although it only starts from a small action.
Sometimes Somaly feels sorry for her friends who are being tortured. Those tortures could be very cruel things that those women always have a bad dream. “If another girl had had a really brutal time, or if she was badly hurt, sometimes I would volunteer to go to a client in her place” (p. 62). Her thought of showing pity to her friends make her realize that Cambodian women are always dominated by men.
Madsen (2000) states that liberal feminists support the Equal Rights Amendment and another legacy to abolish sexual discrimination and oppressive gender roles (pp. 35-36). Contemporary liberal feminists espouse women‟s rights in terms of welfare needs, universal education, and health services” (p. 151). This means that women should have the equal rights and free access to get a better job except to be a prostitute because a liberal feminist supports the abolition of sexual discrimination.
Those characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Humm (1992) and Madsen (2000) are in accordance with Somaly Mam‟s actions in freeing her friends from brothel. From the evidence and the characteristics of liberal feminism above, it could be concluded that the type of feminism which is presented in Somaly Mam‟s actions is liberal feminism.
b. When Somaly Mam Leaves the Brothel
1) Giving Aunt Peuve and Her Friends a Lot of Money
a good and a rich man. He used to come and look for Somaly at Aunt Peuve‟s brothel and give a lot of money to Aunt Peuve and Somaly Mam. “Sometimes Dietrich gave me enough money, so I didn‟t really have to work for Aunt Peuve for a few weeks” (p. 75). Dietrich always gives Somaly clothes and everything that makes her become more beautiful and prettier.
As time goes by, Dietrich‟s contract in Cambodia is drawing to a close and he has to go back to Switzerland. Before he leaves, Dietrich gives Somaly a thousand dollars. He gives Somaly a lot of money because he wants to see Somaly starts a new life, not being as a prostitute. After Dietrich goes to Switzerland and gives Somaly a lot of money, then, Somaly visit to Aunt Peuve‟s brothel and give Aunt Peuve and her friends some money. She could not let her friends and Aunt Peuve are suffering from sex slavery although Aunt Peuve has tortured Somaly many times in brothel. According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that Somaly‟s willingness to buy a Cambodian women‟ freedom is depicted in her reactions when she gives them some money. This fact could be seen from the following quotations:
After he left I went back to Aunt Peuve‟s and gave her a hundred dollars. I really have no idea why I did that, but it‟s what I did. I suppose that, like an idiot, I thought she had feelings for me. I also gave a hundred dollars
giving them some money, they will have a chance to have another job except to be a prostitute. Somaly only wants to see them be free, hence they do not suffer for a long time.
That is the last time for Somaly to go to Aunt Peuve‟s brothel. She is sick of being tortured and raped in that place. She wants to go away from prostitution. Somaly decides to find and start a new life by working as a cleaning service in Ceclilia‟s villa, who is an Italian. “I earned twenty dollars a month. It was enough” (p.80).
The feminist values could be depicted in Somaly‟s reactions and thoughts above. It is because Somaly cares about women‟s lives and she tries to make their lives become better than before. This kind of feminism focuses on the women‟s rights in terms of welfare needs, universal education, and health services”
(Humm, 1995:151). In this situation, Somaly wants to see her friends have their welfare needs by giving them some money. Those characteristics of feminism are usually known as liberal feminism. Based on the evidence and the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Humm (1995), those characteristics of liberal feminism are in line with Somaly Mam‟s actions. Therefore, it could be concluded that the type of feminism represented in Somaly‟s actions is liberal feminism.
2) Treating Cambodian Girls from Sexual Transmitted Diseases
gives some information to those prostitutes regarding the treatment of HIV AIDS. Further, she helps them by giving them a treatment as well and therefore they could recover from their illness. MacKinnon (1982, as cited in Humm, 1995) says that “women‟s experiences of sexual objectification – of rape, pornography, and violence – are the true core of women‟s oppression.” Therefore, Somaly tries to raise Cambodian women‟s lives from the oppression of sex trafficking and also
violence by giving them a treatment from the physical disease. According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study
reveals that Somaly uses her thoughts and reactions to describe her actions in saving Cambodian women from sexually transmitted diseases. Cambodia custom believes that women should obey their parents, especially their husband who is superior to women. “In Cambodian custom you have to put up with everything your mother-in-law does and not complain to your husband” (p.111). Other facts could be seen below:
This is Cambodia: if you are a girl you owe obedience to your parents. If your family requires you to sell your body on the side of the road so that your younger brother could go to school – or so your mother could gamble – that is what you do (pp. 125-126).
them. As a result, Cambodian women do not have good education, or even some treatments from HIV AIDS which are caused by extramarital sex (Mam, 2008).
According to Mam (2008), most Cambodian women are prostitutes and have an extramarital sex every day and therefore some of them have sexually transmitted diseases. However, Somaly breaks the boundary that women should have enough knowledge about HIV AIDS. In this case, Somaly‟s actions in giving some treatments from HIV AIDS to prostitutes are depicted when Somaly works as a team‟s assistant at MSF clinic. She helps many girls who suffer from sexually transmitted disease. Most of them are girls who suffer the brutality from men.
slavery, she could help them even it is from the small actions. Furthermore, she also feels happy because she could save the other girls outside there from the brutality of men.
Knowing that pity condition, Somaly thinks twice and decides to talk to Pierre‟s boss at MSF to give her stock of condoms and dozens of bars of soap and therefore Somaly could distribute those things to all prostitutes. It really helps those prostitutes a lot because that medicine is important for preventing illness too. According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), Somaly uses reactions to describe her feminist actions when she distributes condoms in Kratié which could be seen as follows.
Somaly also helps a little girl whose nipple has been torn off by her client. Then, Somaly asks help from MSF to have a car and therefore Somaly could bring some of the sickest girls to the clinic every morning. At first, MSF could not make any decision to help Somaly. Somaly takes the wife of Pierre‟s boss to brothels and therefore she could know and see the real condition outside there. Her name is Marie-Louise and she is a doctor.
She saw the battered girls in scummy places, their wounds and scars, and she was horrified. She couldn‟t believe how people treated other human beings. By the time we came back to the MSF office, she was speechless. Marie-Louise made sure that I received the use of a car
Somaly helps those girls with all her heart. She could feel the condition of those girls because she was once like them. She also begins her day to go to brothels and help those girls there. “It wasn‟t just about distributing condoms and information about HIV, or about ferrying girls to hospital. It was about being with these girls, connecting with them in a deeper way” (p. 125).
Another girl that Somaly helps is Tom Dy. She is a girl who is found by Somaly on the road. She is dirty and people always throw stones at her because she is nasty and has sarcomas on her skin from HIV AIDS. In addition, she looks half-dead. In this situation, Somaly feels pity for her and decides to help that girl. According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that those traits are presented in Somaly‟s reactions.
myslef – I didn‟t want anyone else to look after her. I tried to bring her to the hospital but the nurses and everyone else glared at her. She told me she was just seventeen. like the chief of the whole centre (p. 147).
Somaly, as the portrayal of woman who seeks the women‟s equal rights, feels that this condition is really pitiful. Somaly believes that no one would take care of that girl because she is full of illnesses. It is not easy to help dominated girls in those days because people only take care of themselves. They do not care about other people. With her care and also her concern, Somaly wants to help and raise those girls up from the suffering. In addition, Somaly wants to improve the lives of women who are being kept and traded as slaves.
Based on those facts above, liberal feminism could be depicted in Somaly‟s thought and actions. Sobloe (2006: 334) explains that “liberal feminists tend to adopt a libertarian or public health approach regarding commercial sexual activity.” Meanwhile, Madsen (2000) also reveals that “liberal feminism focuses upon how women attempt to create a feminist consciousness of the oppression” (p. 37). Knowing those bad conditions, Somaly realizes that Cambodian women are in the disadvantaged position and therefore she must do something to help Cambodian women free from sex slavery.
better education. She does not want to see Cambodian women suffer from sexual transmitted disease because of extramarital sex that they experienced. She also wants that other people, especially MSF, would be aware that there are many Cambodian women who are trafficked and suffer from the sexual transmitted disease.
Further, Somaly also wants to make the lives of women become better than before. She treats them well from the disease that they are suffering from. From the evidence and the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Sobloe (2006) and Madsen (2000), Somaly Mam‟s actions are in accordance with the characteristics of liberal feminism. Therefore, it could be concluded that the type of feminism depicted in Somaly‟s actions is a liberal feminism.
3) Working in France
explore herself in the working field except to be a prostitute. In France, Somaly could explore all things that she had never done before. She works as the cleaning service in a hotel and also washing cleaner in the restaurant. She does not want to be a prostitute in her entire life. She thinks that she deserves to get equality and opportunity to work in society.
According to Murphy‟s the theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that Somaly‟s willingness to do a proper job could be seen in her reactions and thoughts. These facts could be seen below:
One day I found a copy of the local paper, Nice-Matin. Looking and told me I could start the next morning. I would be a cleaner at the Hotel Hibiscus on the Promenade des Anglais (p. 108).
From those facts, it could be seen that Somaly never gives up improving herself to have a better life. She forces herself to get a proper job in France although she could not speak French. After eighteen months of living in France, Somaly feels that she has changed a lot. She has worked in proper places and she also learns how to look people in the eye and communicate with them directly, as an equal.