A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

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LIBERAL FEMINISM PORTRAYED THROUGH THE MAIN

CHARACTER, SOMALY MAM, IN SOMALY MAM ’S

  

THE ROAD OF LOST INNOCENCE

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

  By Christina Artyka Puspitasari

  Student Number: 091214130

  

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

  “True knowledge exists in knowing that you know nothing” (Socrates) “Fight for the things you love. Love the things worth fighting for.” (Anonymous) “Any kind of possession could be lost, but your experience is yours forever. Keep it and find a way to use it.” (Father -- The Road of Lost Innocence)

  This undergraduate thesis is dedicated to: My Jesus Christ Myself

  My Beloved Mother and Father My family My friends My partner and everyone who always supports me

  

ABSTRACT

  Puspitasari, Christina Artyka. (2013). Liberal Feminism Portrayed through the Main Character, Somaly Mam, in Somaly Mam ’s The Road of Lost Innocence. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education.

  Sanata Dharma University.

  This study analyzes a novel written by Somaly Mam, entitled The Road of

  Lost Innocence. This novel is based on a true story, focusing

  on Somaly Mam’s experiences of being a prostitute and finally she could help Cambodian women free from sex trafficking. This story took place in Cambodia between 1970s and 2000s during the Cambodian Civil War. The novel clearly describes how the Cambodian heroine, named Somaly Mam, tried to help all Cambodian women escape from sex slavery. Thus, in this study, I intended to analyze the feminism values which are depicted through

  Somaly Mam’s actions in freeing Cambodian women from their suffering. One question to be answered in this study is ; “How is feminism portrayed through the main character

  ’s actions, Somaly Mam, in Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence?”

  In order to answer the problem, I applied feminist approach which enabled me to know the feminist thought in the novel. I also carried out the library research as the method of the study. There were two data sources, namely primary and secondary sources. The primary source was the novel itself, The Road of Lost

  

Innocence. The secondary sources were from the theory of feminist literary

  criticism, theory of characterization, and also theory of feminism. The theory of feminism contains several kinds of feminism; such as First wave of feminism, Second wave of feminism, Socialist/Marxist feminism, Asian, black, and women of color feminism, Lesbian feminism, Liberal feminism, and Psychoanalytic feminism.

  Based on the analysis conducted, there were 14 feminist actions which have been done by Somaly Mam in freeing those Cambodian women from sex slavery. According to the theory of characterization and the theory of feminism, it could be concluded that liberal feminism is depicted through

  Somaly Mam’s actions. Somaly tried to achieve women’s equality in several aspects; such as politics, economics, and also socials. Thus

  , Somaly’s actions were in line with the characteristics of liberal feminism. Finally, I propose two suggestions for two parties. For the further researchers, I suggest that they analyze and study this novel by using socio- cultural historical approach and psychological approach. Meanwhile for the teaching implementation, I suggest that the teachers use some stories in this novel as the materials for Basic Reading II in English Language Education Study Program.

  Keywords: feminism, liberal feminism, sex trafficking

  

ABSTRAK

Puspitasari, Christina Artyka. (2013). Liberal Feminism Portrayed through the

Main Character, Somaly Mam, in Somaly Mam

  ’s The Road of Lost Innocence.

Yogyakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Jurusan Pendidikan

Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan. Universitas Sanata

Dharma.

  Studi ini membahas tentang novel karya Somaly Mam yang berjudul The

Road of Lost Innocence. Novel ini berdasarkan kisah nyata mengenai kehidupan

Somaly Mam yang menjadi pekerja seks hingga dia dapat menyelamatkan wanita

Kamboja dari perdagangan seks. Novel ini berlatar belakang perang sipil

Kamboja pada tahun 1970an hingga 2000an. Novel ini secara jelas menceritakan

bagaimana pahlawan wanita Kamboja yang bernama Somaly Mam, berusaha

menolong wanita Kamboja terbebas dari perbudakan seks. Oleh karena itu,

melalui studi ini, saya menganalisa nilai-nilai feminisme yang dapat dilihat dari

tindakan Somaly Mam ketika dia menolong para wanita Kamboja. Satu

pertanyaan yang akan dijawab di dalam studi ini, yaitu; “Bagaimana feminisme

digambarkan melalui tindakan yang dilakukan oleh karakter utama, Somaly

Mam, di dalam novel The Road of Lost Innocence karya Somaly Mam?” Untuk membahas pertanyaan ini, saya melakukan pendekatan feminisme

yang memudahkan saya untuk mengetahui pemikiran feminis yang terdapat di

dalam novel. Saya juga menggunakan studi pustaka sebagai metode di dalam

studi ini. Studi ini juga menggunakan dua macam sumber; yaitu sumber utama

dan sumber sekunder. Sumber utama yaitu dari novel The Road of Lost

Innocence. Sementara sumber sekunder dalam studi ini menggunakan teori kritik

sastra feminis, teori karakterisasi, dan teori feminisme. Teori feminisme terdiri

dari beberapa jenis feminisme; yaitu feminisme gelombang pertama, feminisme

gelombang kedua, feminisme sosialis/Marxist, feminisme wanita kulit hitam,

feminisme lesbian, feminisme liberal, dan psikoanalisis feminisme.

  Berdasarkan analisis yang telah dilakukan, terdapat 14 tindakan

feminisme yang telah dilakukan Somaly Mam dalam membebaskan wanita

Kamboja dari perbudakan seks. Berdasarkan teori karakterisasi dan teori

feminisme, dapat disimpulkan bahwa feminisme liberal dapat dilihat melalui

tindakan Somaly Mam. Somaly berusaha untuk mencapai hak wanita di berbagai

aspek; seperti politik, ekonomi, dan sosial. Maka dari itu, tindakan Somaly sesuai

dengan karakteristik dari feminisme liberal.

  Pada studi ini, saya juga mengajukan dua saran bagi dua pihak. Bagi

peneliti selanjutnya, saya menyarankan untuk menganalisa dan mempelajari

novel ini dengan menggunakan pendekatan sosio kultural historis dan pendekatan

psikologis. Sementara bagi pengajaran bahasa Inggris, saya menyarankan untuk

menggunakan beberapa cerita dari novel ini sebagai materi untuk mata kuliah

Basic Reading II di program studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris.

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Amen.

  First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to Jesus Christ my Savior for everything that He has given to me, so I could accomplish this thesis. His blessings, love, and guidance, give me strength to go through these hard days of my life.

  Secondly, I would like to thank my beloved mother, Martina Arty

  

Murniati and also my beloved father, Brigjend Pol. (Purn) Drs. Aloysius

Mudjiyono, S.H., M.Hum., who always support me each time I almost give up. I

  would like to thank my parents for so many great advice and motivation that are always sent to me. They are always standing beside me to encourage me to do my best. I love them so much. My dedication also goes to my beloved brothers,

  

Leonardus Ardho Hendrata, Michael Terry Hendrata, Henrikus Yossi

Hendrata, whom I care very much.

  I would like to express my gratitude sincerely to my sponsor, Henny

  

Herawati, S.Pd., M.Hum. I thank her for her advice, patience, support, beneficial

  suggestion, and kindness in supervising this thesis. May God always bless her and her family with joy and happiness. Then, I would like to thank Sanata Dharma

  

University, all the lecturers in English Language Education Study Program

  and the staff of Sanata Dharma University Library for their service. I thank them for these four years. I will not forget my alma mater. May God bless them

  A special gratitude goes to Petrus Vitaka Hendrawan, who always stands beside me during my sadness and happiness. His patience, support, and kindness make me strong to face this life.

  I would also like to thank Adesti Komalasari, S.Pd., M.A., Sr.

  

Margareth, Felicita Devi Adyaningtyas, Budi Prasetyo, and also Marshel

Reinvialno Tanamal, who helped me in checking the language for my thesis.

  Then, I would like to appreciate my friends Dhian, Ajeng, Hayu, Nino, Oscar,

  

Vian, Keket, Studemus Vitae Group: Adit, Ita, Berta, Indrek, and also my

friends from ‘The Travelers’ Play Performance who could not be mentioned

  one by one. I thank them for their support, for sharing laughter, stories, happiness, and sadness, and also the times we spent together in Sanata Dharma University.

  May God always bless them all.

  And I would like to thank everyone who could not be mentioned here, and finally, I would like to send my deepest appreciation to myself. Because of my hard working, pain, sorrow, my pray, and my motivation that I build, I could finish my undergraduate thesis successfully.

  In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Amen.

  Christina Artyka Puspitasari

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  Page TITLE PAGE ........................................................................................................... i APPROVAL PAGE ................................................................................................ ii DEDICATION PAGE ............................................................................................ iv STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ...................................................... vi

  

PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ...................................................... vii

  ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................ viii

  

ABSTRAK .............................................................................................................. ix

  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................... x TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................... xii LIST OF APPENDICES ....................................................................................... xv

  CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 1 A. Background of the Study ......................................................................... 1 B. Problem Formulation ............................................................................... 5 C. Objective of the Study ............................................................................. 5 D. Benefits of the Study ............................................................................... 5 E. Definition of Terms ................................................................................. 6 CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ....................................... 9 A. Review of Related Theories .................................................................... 9

  1. Theory of Critical Approach ............................................................ 10

  2. Theory of Characterization .............................................................. 11

  3. Theory of Feminism ......................................................................... 15

  a. First Wave Feminism ................................................................. 17

  b. Second Wave Feminism ............................................................. 18

  c. Socialist/Marxist Feminism ........................................................ 18

  d. Asian, Black, and Woman of Color Feminism .......................... 20

  f. Liberal Feminism ........................................................................ 21

  g. Psychoanalytic Feminism .......................................................... 25

  B. Review on Socio-cultural Historical Background ................................. 26

  1. Socio-cultural Historical Background of Cambodian Civil War ..... 26

  2. Women in Cambodia........................................................................ 27

  a. The Involvement of Cambodian Women in Sex Industry .......... 27 b.

  Traditional Cambodian Women’s Roles .................................... 28

  C. Theoretical Framework .......................................................................... 29

  CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY ....................................................................... 31 A. Object of the Study ................................................................................ 31 B. Approach of the Study ........................................................................... 33 C. Method of the Study .............................................................................. 33 CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS .................................................................................. 36 A. Feminism Portrayed through Somaly Mam’s Actions in The Road of Lost Innocence ....................................................................................... 36

  1. The Feminist Actions and the Type of Feminism Represented by Somaly Mam .................................................................................. 37

  a. When Somaly Mam still Works in the Brothel .......................... 38 1) Letting Two Girls Escape from Brothel ................................ 38

  b. When Somaly Mam Leaves the Brothel .................................... 40 1) Giving Aunt Peuve and Her Friends a lot of Money ............. 40 2) Treating Cambodian Girls from Sexual Transmitted

  Diseases... .............................................................................. 42 3) Working in France ................................................................. 48 4) Helping Girls Escape from Brothels ..................................... 50 5) Finding a Charity to Fund a Proper Centre for Prostitutes .... 55 6) Building AFESIP as the Proper Centre for Prostitutes .......... 57 7) Helping Sophanna from Her H usband’s Physical Abuse ...... 60

  9) Building a Second Shelter for Prostitutes .............................. 65 10) Building a Proper Centre for Children ................................ 67 11) Giving an Educational Campaign to Cambodian Men ........ 70 12) Building a New Shelter in Siem Reap ................................. 73 13) Opening an AFESIP Garment Workshop ........................... 75

  CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS ...... 78 A. Conclusions ........................................................................................... 78 B. Implications ........................................................................................... 81 C. Suggestions ............................................................................................ 82

  1. Suggestions for the Further Researchers .......................................... 82

  2. Suggestions for Teaching English Using the Literary Works .......... 83 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................... 86 APPENDICES ....................................................................................................... 89

  

LIST OF APPENDICES

  Page Appendix A The Summary of The Road of Lost Innocence ....................................................... 90 Appendix B The Biography of Somaly Mam ............................................................................. 94 Appendix C Syllabus of Basic Reading II .................................................................................. 98 Appendix D Lesson Plan .......................................................................................................... 105 Appendix E Teaching Materials ............................................................................................... 110 Appendix F Short Story of The Road of Lost Innocence ......................................................... 114

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter explains five main parts in this study. First is the background of

  the study, which spells out my personal reasons for choosing the novel, The Road of

  

Lost Innocence . Second is the objective of the study, which reveals the purpose of

  this study. Third is the problem formulation, where the problems of this study are formulated. Fourth is the research benefits, which outline advantages for the readers of this study. The last part is the definition of terms, where two important terms are explained in order to avoid misinterpretation.

A. Background of the Study

  Humans are God’s creatures that could share their feelings and thoughts through several means. They could share them through literary works such as songs, poems, novels, and paintings. This happens because literary works are the pleasure for humans to express their stories of life and feelings. Literary works are also very close to hu man’s lives. Many kinds of literary works are presented in our society such as some prose, poems, short stories, and also novels. One of literary works which has the complex story is a novel.

  A novel becomes one of the ways to share people’s feelings. Through language and words that are in the novel, people usually share their feelings and make

  1 them into a beautiful story. The readers usually get involved in the story and have the same emotion when they read the story in the novel itself. Taormina (2008) says, “novel is an English transliteration of the Italian word "novella"--used to describe a short, compact, broadly realistic tale popular during the medieval period

  .” Novels always depict the situations happening in the time when the story is written. Thus, I am interested in analyzing the novel for this study. Novels are always full of stories which reflect the tragedy or irony in the real life. Many problems in society are always used as the story in the novel and one of t he society’s problems is feminism, which is often seen in the real life. The feminism genre appears because there is gender discrimination between men and women. For example: the discrimination of workload between men and women. According to Montagu (1953), “woman’s place is in the home and man’s place is in the counting house and on the board of directors” (pp. 23-24). He also adds that “women have been conditioned to believe that they are inferior to men, and they have assumed that what everyone believes is a fact of nature” (p. 23). It shows that the situation puts women in gender inequality or gender discrimination, where women are in the second position after men.

  The feminism emerges in society, thus, women all over the world could protect and defend themselves from male domination. Women would fight for their rights and therefore they could not be discriminated by men. Roosevelt states that

  “a woman is like a tea bag; you never know how strong it is until it’s in a hot water.” It is a famous proverb that could describe women all over the world. Women are beautiful creatures from God. There is a strong power and beauty inside women; even though women have difficult tasks in this life, such as: giving birth, house making, nursing children. Since people in society always assume that men are stronger than women, men always dominate women in some aspects.

  The condition of gender inequality in society puts women in a place where they could not do anything because of male domination. de Beauvoir (1989) states that

  “women always do certain domestic works, such as keeping house and also rearing children ” (p. 431). They do not have rights to express their ideas or thoughts.

  Therefore, there is a stereotype in society, which makes people think that women are lower than men in all aspects such as women have to take care of their children at home, men are always the breadwinner in almost every family, and many more. Those examples of stereotypes make the gender discrimination in society much stronger. Men and women are definitely different. However, Rubin (1975, as cited in Holmberg, 2012) reveals that

  “they are not as different as day and night, earth and sky, yin and yang, life and death.

  ” In this study, I am interested in analyzing novel which emphazises the gender discriminations between men and women as the subject of this study. I focus on the feminism side in the Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. This novel is based on the Somaly Mam’s true stories which are full of feminist spirit for women all over the world. In this novel, Somaly Mam tells her experiences when she had been a sex worker in Cambodia. Her novel could inspire all women to fight for their rights. Furthermore, her novel could enrich the readers’ understanding of the feminist actions through women’s struggles.

  Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence reveals sex slavery that still exists in Cambodia. Somaly Mam, who is the main character, had been a sex worker when she was 12 years old. At that time, she was sold by her grandfather into the brothel. She suffered the brutality from men who had abused her (rape, torture) as a sex worker. In the end, she met a French worker named Pierre who later became her husband. Somaly Mam tried to escape from the persecution and she started to help Cambodian girls who worked in the brothels as sex workers. Then, Somaly Mam built AFESIP which stands from

  “Acting for Women in Distressing Situations”. AFESIP provides the guidance, education, rescue, recovery for the victims of sex trafficking in Southeast Asia.

  The personal reason for choosing this topic is; this novel is based on the w riter’s personal experiences which tell women’s struggle to defend Cambodian women from sex slavery. It makes me curious to know more about sex slavery that happens in South East Asia countries; such as Philippine, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, and especially in Cambodia. Furthermore, I am interested in studying

  Somaly Mam’s spirit to struggle for her life and help Cambodian girls free from sex trafficking. It could give me a life lesson how strong women in the world are.

  B. Problem Formulation The problem of this study is formulated as follows.

  How is feminism portrayed through the main character ’s actions, Somaly Mam, in

  Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence? C.

   Objective of the Study

  The aim of this study is to find out how feminism is portrayed through the main character, Somaly Mam, in Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. I collected and analyzed the data by observing Somaly Mam’s actions when she helped

  Cambodian women free from sex slavery. It is very helpful in order to understand and explore the feminism idea thoroughly which is depicted in So maly Mam’s actions when Somaly helps Cambodian women.

  D. Benefits of the Study

  This study is conducted in order to give some benefits for several parties. First is for the readers of this novel, The Road of Lost Innocence. Since this novel tells feminist actions to combat sex trafficking in Cambodia, it is expected for the readers to know and understand women’s struggles in combating sex trafficking and also the bad side of sex trafficking in Cambodia. In addition, readers may know male domination over women in Cambodia. Moreover, this study also encourages the readers to be more respectful to women all over the world.

  Second is for language teaching in English Language Education Study Program. PBI is expected to develop English teaching materials based on the novel or short stories by addressing the issues of feminism such as; gender roles and women trafficking in some of the reading materials used in PBI courses.

  Here, PBI students are expected to know more about literary works, especially novels which consist of feminist theme. Hopefully, it could be their references in their study. Third, for the further researchers who are interested in gender discrimination or gender issues which are depicted in some literary works, especially some novels. This study could be useful as their references to enable them conducting their study.

E. Definition of Terms

  In analyzing the novel, it is important to define the terms related to the problem formulation. It aims to avoid misinterpretations and give clearer explanations. Therefore, I attempt to define two main terms as follows.

1. Feminism

  Feminism is defined as women’s struggles and movements to achieve women’s equality between men; therefore, women have the equal rights and portions as men (Barrow and Millburn, 1990, p. 128, as cited in Ebunoluwa, 2009, p. 227). It means that women struggle to seek their equality and rights from male domination. It is similar to Humm’s study that “feminism incorporates both a doctrine of equal rights for women (the organized movement to atta in women’s rights) and an ideology of social transformation aiming to create a world for women beyond simple social equality ” (Humm, 1995). It means that there is a social transformation to gain social equality between men and women; therefore, women have a right so they could not be dominated by men anymore. In this study, I define feminism as obtain wome n’s equal rights in surviving and protecting each other from slavery.

  2. Liberal Feminism

  Humm (1995) states that liberal feminism happens because women are conscious that they are dominated by men; therefore women try to achieve their equal rights in politic, social, and also economic. Liberal feminism tries to put women equal with men. Further, Humm (1995) also states that liberal feminists stress in the women’s rights in term of education, health services, and also welfare needs. On the other hand, liberal feminism also supports to abolish sexual discrimination or gender roles which are experienced by women (Madsen, 2000, pp. 35-36). This means, liberal feminism does not only achieve women’s equality in politic, social, and economic aspect; however, it also supports to abolish any kinds of gender roles in this world.

  3. Sex Trafficking

  Sex trafficking, according to Soroptimist (2012), is “sex exploitation of women and children, within national or across international borders, for the purposes of forced sex work.” The purpose of sex exploitation itself is to find the good and money for the traffickers. It is estimated that around 800,000, women and children are trafficked each year.

  Meanwhile, Harris (2013) defines sex trafficking as “the act of forcing, coercing, or transporting a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act.” This means, sex trafficking is the act of commercial sex where the traffickers force the victims to work into prostitution. Sex trafficking could occur in the brothels, hotels, strip clubs, and also the street prostitution. While, Haag (2012, as cited in Sherbert, 2012), states that

  “sex trafficking is a blight on our communities and, unfortunately, today’s technology makes it possible for modern day pimps to spread this blight far and wide,” This means, sex trafficking could happen because of the high technology nowadays. The modern pimps could spread this business into the clients by using the modern technologies; such as cell phone, internet, and many more. Moreover, this study describes how women and children are trafficked into the sexual exploitation.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter is divided into three sections. They are the review of related

  theories, the socio-cultural historical background, and also the theoretical framework. First is the review or related theories, which present some theories that are applied to this study. Those theories are the theory of feminist approach, the theory of characterization, and the theory of feminism; such as first wave feminism, second wave feminism, socialist/Marxist feminism, Asian, black, and woman of color feminism, lesbian feminism, liberal feminism, and the last is psychoanalytic feminism.

  Second is the socio-cultural historical background, which provides the history of Cambodian Civil war and also women‟s condition in Cambodia. Third is the theoretical framework, which shows the contribution of those theories and also reviews in analyzing the problems in this study.

A. Review of Related Theories

  This study uses some theories to answer the problem in the formulated problem. The teory of critical approach, the teory of feminism, and the theory of characterization will be discussed as follows.

1. Theory of Critical Approach

  In order to conduct a deep analysis in the literary work, it is very useful to apply a certain approach related to the problems in this study. Kenedy and Gioia (2002) state that there are ten critical approaches to the literature; one of them is feminist criticism (p. 629). A feminist approach is suitable for this study because this study focuses on presence of feminism which is depicted in the main character‟s actions in Somaly Mam‟s The Road of Lost Innocence.

  According to Kenedy and Gioia (2002), a feminist approach or feminist literary criticism explores how sexual identity or gender influences are applied in some literary works. They also add that

  “feminist criticism has explored how an author‟s gender influences – consciously or unconsciously – his or her writing” (pp. 648-649). Meanwhile, according to Goodman (1996), feminist literary criticism is an academic approach to analyze a feminist thought in the literary contexts (p. xi). Humm (1994) also says that feminist literary criticism focuses on gender influences in some literary works and therefore those literary works produce gender representations which are experienced by women (p. ix).

  In this study, I employed a feminist approach or feminist literary criticism in order to find out the idea of feminism or feminist values depicted in the main character, Somaly Mam, in

  Somaly Mam‟s The Road of Lost Innocence. This novel tells how Somaly Mam struggles to help Cambodian women free from human trafficking. She also tries to help the victims of sex trafficking by building AFESIP, which provides guidance, education, counselling, rescue, and also recovery.

2. Theory of Characterization

  It is important for the author in literary works to describe the characteristics of a person in the story. It aims to convey to the readers about the message from the story. Abrams (1981) defines

  “characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the readers as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what they say-the dialogue-and by what they do- the action” (p. 20). Besides character, it is necessary for the author to describe the characterization of a person in the story. According to Murphy (1972), characterization explains how the writer tells to the readers about personalities, thought, characters, and behaviors of the people that they write in the story.

  Harmon and Holman (2009) also states that characterization is the representation of characters‟ actions in the story and therefore the readers could understand what the story tells about by analyzing through the characters‟ actions in the story (p. 95).

  By knowing the characterization, the readers could understand how those characters in that story react to people, events, and situations. It could be seen when those characters show the conversations and how they behave to other his/her mannerism and therefore the readers could know why a person behaves and acts as he/she does at the present time (Murphy, 1972: 161-173). However, Henkle (1977) adds that “characterization is central to the fictional” (p. 86).

  According to Abrams (2009: 43), there are two ways in presenting a person‟s characteristics in the story. They are showing and telling. In showing, the author simply presents the characters when they are talking and acting, and leaves it entirely up to the readers to infer the motives and dispositions that lie behind what they say and do. In this method, the author does not only describe the external speech and the actions of the character in the novel; however, the author also descri bes the character‟s inner thoughts, feelings, and responsiveness to events. Meanwhile in telling, the author intervenes authoritatively in order to describe, and often to evaluate, the motives and dispositional qualities of the characters. Henkle (1977) states that

  “using the characterization enables authors to communicate their human qualities and guide the readers to an understanding of the human themes of the novels ” (p. 87).

  Murphy (1972: 161-173) proposes nine ways or methods in the theory of characterization. It aims to make the readers understand the characters that author describes in the story or the novel. They are: a.

   Pesonal Description

  Murphy (1972) states that personal description explains how the writer describes a person in the story through his/her appearances and clothes. The writer explores more about the character‟s face, skin, eyes, and how that peson wears the clothes.

  b. Character as Seen by Another

  According to Murphy (1972), a character as seen by another person explains how the author describes a person through the eyes and opinions of other people.

  Through the other‟s opinions and eyes, the readers could understand the characteristics of the main character which are depicted in the novel.

  c. Speech

  Speech explains how the author conveys to the readers through what the characters say in the novel. The author describes the character by providing how a person speaks, how he/she has the conversation with other people, and also how he/she argues his/her opinion to other people. It may help the readers understand the stories through a person‟s characteristics (Murphy, 1972).

  d. Past Life

  Murphy (1972) states that past life describes how the author lets the readers learn a person‟s past life, which has shaped his/her behavior and characteristics. By giving that information, the author could give the readers a clue to events that have helped to shape a person‟s characteristics.

  e. Conversation of Others

  Murphy (1972) reveals that conversation of others explains how the author describes to the readers some clues of a person‟s characteristics through the through the things that other people say about that person. By analyzing those conversations, the readers could catch the ch aracters‟ personalities which are portrayed in the story.

  f. Reactions

  According to Murphy (1972), reactions explain how the author gives the readers about a clue to a person‟s characteristics by letting them know how that person reacts to various situations and events. By knowing his/her action to other people, the readers could see and understand how the person behaves and has the characteristics.

  g. Direct Comment

  Direct comment reveals how the author could describe or comment on a person‟s characteristics directly. By describing and giving the comment on a person‟s characteristics, the readers could understand about the person‟s characteristics in that story (Murphy, 1972).

  h. Thoughts

  Murphy (1972) reveals that thoughts describe how the author could give the readers about direct knowledge of what a person is thinking about. By providing the thoughts of a person during the story, the readers could know and understand about the person‟s characteristics which are portrayed in the novel.

i. Mannerisms

  Mannerisms explain how the author could describe a person‟s mannerism, characteristics.

  The author reveals the character through the person‟s thoughts, therefore, the readers could grab the idea of the pers on‟s personalities in the novel itself (Murphy, 1972).

  Those are some ways in which the author makes the readers to be aware and to understand the characteristics and personalities from a person in the story.

  It will help the readers to get better knowledge in understanding the characters of a person which are conveyed by the author.

3. Theory of Feminism

  Women , is a word that could describe many things related to the feminine

  creature. de Beauvoir (1989) says that “women always do certain domestic works, such as: keeping house and also rearing children

  ” (p. 431). However, women‟s conditions are always dominated by men. It has been described by de Beauvoir: .......since patriarchal times women have in general been forced to occupy a secondary place in the world in relation to men, a position comparable in many respects with that of racial minorities in spite of the fact that women constitute numerically at last half of the human race, and further that this secondary standing is not imposed of necessity by natural “feminine” characteristics but rather by strong environmental forces of educational and social tradition under the purposeful control of men (p. xxxix). As time goes by, men always dominate women. A gender inequality between men and women occurs in several aspects; such as education, politic, social, economy, and many more. Rosaldo (1992, as cited in Humm, 1992: 407) has described inequality: relegation of women to the domestic sphere. The differential participation of men and women in public life gives rise not only to universal male authority over women but to a higher valuation of male over female roles. It could be seen as the gender discrimination where people always see humans based on the sexes. In addition, it also shows that men treat women unfairly. Since there are a lot of problems related to the gender discriminations, feminist genre appears in society. Feminism tries to seek gender equality because women are always assumed as a lower human after men. de Beauvoir (1989) states that

  “men viewed women as fundamentally different from themselves. In being so defined, women were reduced to the s tatus of the second sex.”

  Women want to seek equal rights. Feminism has become a common thing in society knowing that the problems in society, which is inequality between men and women, have become wider. Basically, feminism explores more about the belief principle that tells women‟s rights in society. Ebunoluwa (2009) says that the basic meaning of feminism is to struggle for women‟s rights. However, feminism, according to Humm (1995: 94), is

  “the ideology of women‟s liberation since intrinsic in all its approaches is the belief that women suffer injustice .”

  Further, according to Barrow and Millburn (1990: 128) , feminism is “a label for commitment or movement to achieve equality for women

  ” (as cited in Ebunoluwa, 2009: 227). This condition brings the fact that there is a gender inequality in society where women are in the second position after men.

  Additionally, according to Humm (1992), there are seven types of feminism. They

  Asian black feminism, lesbian feminism, liberal feminism, and also psychoanalytic feminism.

a. First Wave Feminism

  This term is sometimes known as „old wave‟. The first wave feminism refers to women‟s movements in America, Asia, and England around 1880 and 1920. Humm (1992) states that this kind of feminism focuses on the women‟s rights in productive work, material rights, politic, and also social knowledge (p.

  11). Humm (1992) further adds that “a first wave feminism is principally concerned with equalities where women are the objects, sometime victims of mistaken social knowledge ” (p. 11).

  This theory is also supported by de Beauvoir (1989) by saying that the first wave feminism centres on materialism and also political rights for women (as cited in Humm, 1992, p. 11). This means that the first wave feminism is concerned more about women‟s oppression which lie on the material, politic, and also social knowledge. The first wave feminists want to achieve women‟s equal rights into the better professions and into higher education. Moreover, it also focuses on the full access to public and also the material space.

  In addition, Humm (1992) strengthens her theory by saying that “the first wave feminists struggle for the vote, and the later battles for family allowances, contraception, abortion, and welfare rights.

  ” At last, the first wave aims to achieve the women‟s equal rights in social knowledge, material, and also political aspects.

  b. Second Wave Feminism

  The second wave feminism has three main issues, which are reproduction, experience, and also difference. This kind of feminism happened in the late of 1960s and lasted through early 1980s. Humm (1992) states that the second wave of feminism takes the point of politics of reproduction, while the first wave of feminism shares about the feminism‟s politics of legal, educational, and economic equal rights for women (p. 54). Humm further explains that the second wave feminism focuses on the gender difference issues which lie on the sexual violence in society (p. 12). This issue brings the conditions women that they are different from men in the street and in the home. Therefore, women are assumed as the powerful human being because they experience a gender difference.

  Brien (1981, as cited in Humm, 1992: 54) also supports Humm‟s theory about the second wave of feminism by stating that this kind of feminism focuses more on the reproductive rights. Brien (1981) also adds that “the fight for reproductive rights entails a fight against sexual and domestic violence, and has profound rep ercussions for gender identity.” This means that women‟s oppression becomes rampant as cases of domestic violence and sexual objectification escalate.

  c. Socialist/Marxist Feminism

  Humm (1994) states that “Marxist feminism has traditionally looked to the material conditions of literary production.

  ” Humm (1994) also further adds about alternative values (p. 74). Neither Marxism nor socialism could totally incorporate each other. Marxism argues that women are defined by the workload. This means that women‟s oppression lie on the economic system, especially in the working field. This kind of feminism makes the interaction between gender and the economy class in the society. Furthermore, women are always assumed as unproductive labour because housework and children rearing in the home do not produce some money or surplus value (p. 87).

  Moreover, Humm (1994) adds th at “socialist feminism could highlight the full impact of the sexual division of labour, for example by pointing out that women in the home do more of the work” (p. 88). This theory is also supported by Rowbotham (1973) who explains that

  “socialist feminism depended on a movement of working-class women because only working-class women fully experience the double oppression of the sexual division of labour in work and in the home” (as cited in Humm 1992, p. 92).

  Rowbotham (1973) reveals that since women are always harmed by psychological consequences of their subordination of working or in the family, they have a special and unique relationship to economic field. Mitchel (1966) also supports the statement by saying that

  “women‟s subordination comes as a result more of historical changes in production and specifically from changes in four structures; such as: reproduction, production, the socialization of children, and sexuality.

  ” At last, socialist/Marxist feminism is concerned about women‟s unproductive labour. Thus, the purpose of socialist/Marxist feminism is to get the women‟s equality in the working field.

d. Asian, Black, and Woman of Color Feminism

  Black feminism reveals that women‟s oppression is based on their skin colours; whether they have black skin or white skin. This feminism intensively explores the history of traditions and culture of Africa, African America, and the Caribbean. Furthermore, black feminism is concerned about the position, race, and class in society between African women and Caribbean women (Humm, 1994, p. 24). This means that the skin colours in Africa and Caribbean may lead the discrimination between white women and black women in society.

  Black women usually fall for victims of racial discriminations especially in working field. They always become the victims and are always assumed as low-educated women (Humm, 1992, p. 122). Davis (1992), a member of black liberation movements in the 1960s and 1970s (Civil Rights and the Black Panthers) reveals that

  “the black women suffer the double oppression in the economic aspect when racism and sexism combine to relegate black women to low-paid jobs ” (as cited in Humm, 1992: 128).

  In black feminism, an education has an essential role for black women since it becomes as the source of important connections between self, change, and also empowerment (Humm, 1992, p. 123). Most black women work outside their houses than white women. This brings the thought in society that black women

  e. Lesbian Feminism

  Lesbian feminism stresses on the relationship between women who commit together. According to Humm (1995: 149), lesbian feminism is a belief that women-identified women, who committed together for politic, sexual, and also economic support.

  Furthermore, lesbian feminists ignore men‟s presence in their life. They believe the presence of men would become their oppressive because it will bring the patriarchy system and it is a bad effect for their life. It is also supported by the theory from Bunch (1975) who states that

  “lesbian feminism attacks both the institution and the ideology of heterosexuality as being centre of patriarchy.

  ” This means that being lesbian feminist could be avoided from the patriarchy system because they only involve in the women-centered.

  Atkinson (1995) further explains that lesbians are the radicals of feminist because they could think radically about getting freedom of being kept away from patriarchy issues (as cited in Humm, 1995, p. 150). Further, Daly (1973) states that lesbian feminism is choosing an erotic community of women. In conclusion, whatever the position that those women hold on, lesbian feminist reveals that they commit together in the same sex, economy, and also politics, in order not to be discriminated because of patriarchy issues in society.

  f. Liberal Feminism

  Most people believe that women are weak human beings. Since people always see that women are always in the second position after men, women are conditioned to believe that they are inferior to men, and they have assumed that what everyone believes is a fact of nature” (p. 23). Whereas, de Beauvoir (1989) also adds that “men viewed women as fundamentally different from themselves. In being so defined, women were reduced to the status of the second sex.” This phenomenon brings us to see that women are always in the second position after men. Knowing these facts, women always become the object of gender discrimination. They become the victims of gender inequality. Women are not confident to show their potential in society.

  Since women are always assumed as weak human beings, feminist thought appears in society. One of the types of feminism is liberal feminism. Liberal feminism comes from the word liberty, which the freedom to live as you wish or go where you want

  (“Liberty”). Liberal feminism emphasizes women‟s movement to achieve equality between men. In this case, women have to be treated fairly as men, because women are also rational human beings. This theory is a theory of individual freedom for women. Humm (1992) argues that liberal feminism aims to achieve equal legal, political and social rights for women (p. 181). Therefore, in liberal feminism, it tries to put women equal with men. In this type, women also have an opportunity to achieve the goal of equality. The definition of liberal feminism is described by Madsen (2000): liberal feminism emphasis on the individual stresses the importance of the individual and individual autonomy which are protected by guaranteed rights, economic justice and equality of opportunity.

  ” ...... liberal feminists supports the Equal Rights Amendment and other legislative acts to abolish sexual discrimination and to oppresive gender roles (pp. 35-36). She also adds that liberal feminist perspectives focus on how women attempt to create a feminist consciousness that they are oppressed by men (p. 37).

  Humm (1992), also reveals that liberal feminism wishes to bring women equally into all public instituti ons and to extend of knowledge so that women‟s issues could no longer be ignored (p. 181). Humm wants to underline that women deserve the equal position between men since people always assume that women are weak human beings than men. Further, Humm (1992) notes that

  “liberal feminism is the major of feminism since liberation is what feminist wants to.

  ” However, Humm (1995) has also explained liberal feminism in several aspects:

  Liberal feminism argues for individual fulfillment free from the structures of highly defined sex roles. It limits itself to reformism, seeking to improve the status of women within the system but not fundamentally contesting either the system‟s operation or its legitimacy. Contemporary liberal feminists espouse women‟s rights in terms of welfare needs, universal education, and health services (p. 151). In her statements, Humm believes that women have to be free from all the gender discrimination in the society. Liberation aims to seek and improve the status of women in the society. In addition, she also adds that liberal feminist stresses on the women‟s rights in term of education, health services, politics, socials, and also welfare needs. However, Sobloe (2006: 334) reveals that

  “liberal feminists tend to adopt a libertarian or public health approach regarding commercial sexual activity.” Liberal feminist does not only stress on the women‟s highlights the women‟s equal rights in the family role. Okin (2004, as cited in Soble, 2006) argues about the women‟s position in a marriage:

  That marriage should be reconceived as an equal partnership in which neither partner should leave the world of paid employment for the domestic sphere, which necessarily disadvantages the partner who maintains the home. Traditional marriage makes women vulnerable by channeling them into lower-paying, more flexible forms of employment before marriage, by reducing their negotiating power within marriage, and by impoverishing them in divorce. The expectation of women will be the primary caregivers for children and other dependents encourage women to make choices that militate against their own best interests; men are not similarly disadvantaged (pp. 335-336).

  In this case, liberal feminism has the important role in achieving the women‟s equal rights as the wife. Liberal feminism does not only concern the women‟s positions; however it also emphasizes the children‟s positions in family. Liberal feminists took aim squarely at the nuclear family. Sex roles within the family had to become androgynous for the ideal of equality to be served, with neither parent assuming primary responsibility for rearing children and maintaining the home (Sobloe, 2006: 334). In this condition, children should be treated fairly by their parents. They must get the equal rights for their parents because they are also the rational human beings.

  Moreover, Okin (2004, as cited in Soble, 2006) gives the explanation that liberal feminist commit justice between the sexes and the equal rights for men and women (p. 336). Liberal feminism also maintains that pornography, sexual industry, and violence are illegal. They try to keep women safe from the discrimination. MacKinnon (1982, as cited in Humm, 1995) describes that raped), and also pornography. In addition, women‟s position in all aspects should equal with men

  ‟s. Women and men are equally members of the moral community and deserve equal concern and respect.

  Humm (1992: 191) states that in 1960s and early 1970s, liberal feminism shaped into many of political programs. A contemporary model of liberal feminism was founded by Betty Friedian when she founded the National Organisation of Women (NOW) in 1966. NOW campaigned for equal civil rights, equal access to education, health service, welfare need, and also equal pay for women. This means that women should get the equal opportunity between men in society. They have to be treated fairly in education, welfare, economy, and also for the payment in working field.

g. Psychoanalytic Feminism

  According to Freud (2009, as cited in Tong, 2009), there is a relation between sex and gender in psychoanalytic feminism. Freud (2009, as cited in Tong, 2009) reveals that psychoanalytic feminism happens because there is a gender inequality between men and women which is caused by early childhood experiences. Society always sees that masculinity is better than feminity (p. 129). In addition, society always assumes that women always have the feminine characteristics; such as: shy, polite, sensitive, caring, weak, not egocentric.

  Meanwhile men are always assumed having the masculine characteristics; such as: rude, ambitious, brave, strong, rational, and also egocentric. Those things make people always see that women are lower than men (Humm, 1992 as cited in Respati, 2010).

  Therefore, in this kind of feminism, it tries to put women equal with men without any people‟s assumptions about feminity and masculinity. This kind of feminism also supports to have the multicultural characteristics between men and women, therefore, there are feminity and masculinity in our society. In addition, it could also avoid gender discriminations in society (Humm, 1992 as cited in Respati, 2010).

B. Review on Socio-cultural Historical Background 1. Socio-cultural Historical Background of Cambodian Civil War

  The Road of Lost Innocence was written in 2005, and set during the

  Cambodian civil war. It happened around 1970s during a time of great upheaval in Cambodia. This was the time when there was a war between Cambodia and Vietnam. There were lot of starvation, dead people, and also executions during this time.

  Mam (2008) reveals that there was a shocking situation when Khmer Rouge came to power in 1975. Khmer Rouge, which was led by Pol Pot, tried to wage war against Shihanouk and also Lon Nol Regime. After that, Pol Pot could lead Cambodia with his tyrannical leadership. During his regime, a lot of Cambodians suffered from injustice and were killed by Khmer Rouge. A lot of would kill Cambodians if they know that Cambodians have a better education in that country.

2. Women in Cambodia

  This section discusses the condition of Cambodian women during the reign of Khmer Rouge until 2005. In this section, I focus on Cambodian women who were engaged and trafficked in sex industry and also the traditional Cambodian w omen‟s roles which still exist in Cambodia.

a. The Involvement of Cambodian Women in Sex Industry

  Since Cambodian civil war had caused human suffering and decreasing of male labors in Cambodia, the central job was centered on women. Cambodian women took over the responsibilities in having a great duty as the labor. Women must work in order to pay the debt that their parents or husband have. In this condition, Cambodian women also do not have a good education.

  According to Mam (2008), Cambodia is a less developed country and Cambodian women only have a low-skill and therefore the increasing number of prostitutes in Cambodia are very rapid. 4000 from 5000 were born as sex workers in brothels. According to CWCC research (2004), they indicate that 64.45% of Cambodian women become prostitutes because they have been forced into this work, 52.9% are duped by a prospect of a good job, 11.04% are sold by their family members, and 0.58% is raped. In this case, women are trafficked for sexual

  According to Edlund (2002), prostitution itself could be described as, “low-skill, labor intensive, female, and well paid.” There are some reasons why Cambodian women become sex workers in brothels. They are sold in order to pay the debt of their parents or husband. Others become sex workers because they do not have a choice where they should live and this is the only way they survive in Cambodia.

b. Traditional Cambodian Women’s Roles

  According to Mam (2008: 31), Cambodian women should obey their parents; especially their husbands. Cambodian women have a „soft‟ attitude; like they should walk so quitely until people could not hear their footsteps. In

  Cambodia, women must respect their parents and husbands. Their husbands are their master-they are second only to their father. Since the traditional gender roles which are experienced by Cambodian women, they have to obey their husband and parents although the family members ask them to be the prostitutes.

  Therefore, the number of prostitutes in Cambodia is still high.

  Additionally, in Cambodia custom, women have to put up with everything that their mothers-in-law do and never complain to their husbands. Therefore, it makes Cambodian women become very quiet persons. Wood (1996, as cited in Asia Culture Forum, 2006: 3) describes Cambodian women‟s roles as follows.

  Women have to be silent and walk so softly that one cannot hear the sound of her silk skirt rustling. She is shy and naïve and must be protected. Before her marriage, she has ideally never left the company of her family member. At the same time women are expected to be strong and capable

  Cambodian women are afraid to speak and act as they wish because there are Cambodian gender roles which exist in their society. These traditional gender roles also make gender inequality in Cambodia society. It makes Cambodian women become the victims of gender discrimination. Domestic violence in some families is often found. They treat their wives or their daughters as if women have no power (Mam, 2008, p. 31).

C. Theoretical Framework

  The focus of this study is the analysis of feminist actions and the type of feminism which are portrayed through the main character ‟s actions, Somaly

  Mam, in the novel The Road of Lost Innocence. This study employs some theories to support and answer the problem revealed in the problem formulation. Those theories are: theory of characterization and also theory of feminism. Additionally, I also use feminist literary criticism as the theory of critical approach because this study discusses women

  ‟s movement in Cambodia era in 1970s and 2000s. The theory of characterization by Murphy is applied in this study in order to know how the main character behaves in the story. This theory is useful for this study in order to know the traits of the main character toward other people; whether the main character uses her thought, reactions, personal description, speech, past life, conversation of others, direct comment, and her mannerism to describe her feminist actions. By applying this theory, it gives the detail of how the characteristics of feminism which have been done by the main character in the story.

  The theory of feminism is also applied in this study. The theory would be very useful because by proposing this theory, I could analyze the idea of feminism which is depicted through the Somaly Mam‟s actions in the novel. It also shows what kind of feminism is revealed through Somaly Mam‟s actions in freeing Cambodian women from sex trafficking. In this study, I focus on the liberal feminism which is reflected through Somaly Mam‟s actions in freeing Cambodian women from sex trafficking. By using the theory of liberal feminism, I could understand the relevance between the characteristics of liberal feminism and Somaly Mam‟s actions when she helps Cambodian women free from sex trafficking.

  The review of socio-cultural historical background of Cambodian civil war is also applied in this study. It aims to give further explanations about civil war which happened in Cambodia around 1970s (during a time of great upheaval in Cambodia). Whereas, the situation of women in Cambodia is also useful for this study because it would explain the situations of Cambodian women which remain in sex industry from Cambodian war began until 2005, and also the traditional Cambodian w omen‟s roles which still exist there. Moreover, by analyzing those points, I could support the finding of the idea of feminism which is portrayed through the main character, Somaly Mam.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter consists of three parts. The first part discusses the subject

  matter, which describes Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence as the subject of this study. The second part discusses the approach of the study which is used in this study. The third part discusses the methodology which is used to conduct this study.

A. Object of the Study

  The primary source of the following study is The Road of Lost Innocence:

  

The True Story About Cambodian Heroine. This novel is based on the Somaly

  Mam’s experiences which consists of 14 parts in 210 pages. It was published in 2007 by Virago Press, London and was translated from French by Lisa Appignanesi. The novel was originally published in France in 2005 under the title

  

Le Silence de l’Innocence. This novel tells the main character in this novel,

  Somaly Mam, who was sold to the brothels by her grandfather when she was 12 years old. Her grandfather put her into brothels as a sex worker in order to pay his debt. Somaly Mam experienced brutality, torture, and also oppression because Cambodian men raped her.

  When she became a sex worker, she also worked in the hospital which was near the brothels. There was a Vietnam War at that time and therefore she became a nurse to help the wounded Cambodian soldiers and also people from the village whose legs or hands were blown off. Working as a nurse in the hospital and also a sex worker in brothel, she met a French worker named Pierre. It triggered Somaly Mam to escape from brothel. Since she married with Pierre, she moved to France.

  Since that time, she had a big motivation to help Cambodian women who still worked in brothel. Somaly Mam, helped by her husband, built an AFESIP.

  AFESIP is the organization which has rescued, rehabilitated, and reintegrated the victims from sex slavery.

  This story takes place in Cambodia, where prostitution remains in that country. This novel portrays the prostitution in Cambodia where most of Cambodian girls were born to be sex workers because they have to pay their paren ts’ and husbands’ debt. Therefore, Cambodian women become sex workers to earn some money for their family. In this case, Cambodian women act as collateral and they have to pay the debt.

  This story is full of men’s dominance over women in each aspect of life. The novel also offers the readers about the different side of life. It does not only tell men’s dominance over women, however, it also tells the women’s struggle towards male domination and also the freedom that Somaly Mam and other

  Cambodian women experienced when they succeed in escaping from brothels.

  B. Approach of the Study

  In analyzing this problem, I employed a feminist approach or feminist literary criticism as the approach of this study. This approach aims to figure out the feminist thought and gender influence which are presented in several literary works, especially in novels. A feminist approach is suitable in this study because this novel is clearly described how the main character in this story, Somaly Mam, who struggles to achieve the liberation, an opportunity, and also equality for Cambodian women. She also attempts to combat sex slavery in order to help Cambodian women free from their suffering.

  By using this approach, I could analyze Somaly Mam’s life experiences and also her feminist actions against male domination which are depicted in

  Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. Thus, a feminist literary criticism helps to reveal the depiction of spirit of feminism by Somaly Mam.

  C. Method of the Study

  In conducting this study, I used a library research as the method in gathering the reliable data. This method aims to find out all the reliable theories from the book or the internet sources which will be useful for this study. George (2008) says that

  “a library research is a form of structured inquiry with specific tools, rules, and techniques ” (p. 3). Meanwhile, George (2008) also adds that a library research also provides some factual information and expert opinion on a The data from this study were taken from two sources, primary and secondary sources. The primary data for this study was taken from the novel itself, entitled The Road of Lost Innocence. Then, the secondary sources were taken from other sources, such as some journals, some books, and some internet sources which could support this study. Those secondary sources were needed in order to analyze the topic and answer the research problem which is discussed in Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. The theories had been explained in detail in the chapter two.

  In analyzing Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence, I took several steps. Firstly, I read the novel in order to gain a deep understanding about the story itself. Secondly, I read the novel again in order to know about Somaly Mam’s actions and her life experiences in the story by taking some notes and marking some important things which are related to the feminist actions. By knowing her life experiences and actions, I could analyze the feminist ideas which are depicted in

  Somaly Mam’s actions. Thirdly, I tried to find out some theories that would be useful to answer the research problem in this study. The theories consist of the theory of feminist literary criticism, the theory of characterization, the theory of feminism, and also reviews on the history of Cambodian civil war and women in Cambodia. Those theories are useful for me in revealing the feminist values which could be depicted in

  Somaly Mam’s actions, women’s position in Cambodia, and also sexual

  Fourthly, I applied the approach and the theories to answer the research problem in this study. The research problem was how feminism is portrayed through the main character, Somaly Mam, in

  Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost

  

Innocence. At last, I drew the conclusion based on the analysis to answer the

  question stated in research problem, and I also made some suggestions for the further researchers who want to analyze this novel, and also for teaching and English learning activities in a classroom.

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter discusses feminism as portrayed in the main character, Somaly Mam in Somaly Mam‟s The Road of Lost Innocence. In the discussion of

  feminism portrayal, it is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the Somaly Mam

  ‟s actions which present the feminist values towards Cambodian women in combating sex trafficking. In analyzing Somaly Mam‟s feminist actions, I use the theory of characterization. The theory of characterization is considered as the appropriate theory because by using that theory, I could analyze the characteristics of feminism and feminist values which are depicted in Somaly Mam‟s actions when she helps Cambodian women free from sex slavery.

  By analyzing Somaly Mam‟s actions which present the characteristics of feminism, I could find out the type of feminism portrayed by Somaly Mam in The

  

Road of Lost Innocence. Therefore, the second part discusses the type of feminism

  through Somaly Mam‟s actions in The Road of Lost Innocence. In analyzing this type of feminism, I use the theory of feminism to find out the type of feminism portrayed by Somaly Mam.

A. Feminism Portrayed through Somaly Mam’s Actions in The Road of Lost

  Innocence

  In part A, I analyze the feminist values portrayed in the Somaly Mam‟s actions in The Road of Lost Innocence. In answering this problem, I analyze the idea of feminist actions which are depicted in the main character in the novel of It could be seen when Somaly Mam struggles for The Road of Lost Innocence. Cambodian women‟s rights of being discriminated and humiliated by men in a patriarchal society, and also when Somaly tries to help Cambodian women free from sex slavery.

1. The Feminist Actions and the Type of Feminism Represented by Somaly Mam

  In The Road of Lost Innocence, there is much male domination that happens in daily lives. Most of women suffer because they become sex workers and they are abused, raped, and also tortured by men. This domination could be seen in

  Somaly Mam‟s experiences. In this novel, Somaly Mam tries to help Cambodian women run away from brothels and leave their jobs as prostitutes. She does not only help them to improve their lives, however, she helps them to have better education, freedom, a place to stay, and also to get their welfare of needs. According to Humm (1992), liberal feminism aims to achieve equal legality, political and social rights for women (p. 181). This type of feminism emphasizes women have to be treated fairly as men. This feminism asks women to achieve their goal of equality. Those characteristics of liberal feminism are in accordance with

  Somaly Mam‟s actions when she helps Cambodian women. Below are some of Somaly Mam‟s actions which depict the spirit of liberal feminism. These Mam had been a sex worker, she already had the spirit of feminism. Those actions could be seen below.

a. When Somaly Mam still Works in the Brothel 1) Letting Two Girls Escape from Brothel

  Somaly Mam‟s The Road of Lost Innocence describes how the main character, Somaly Mam, helps Cambodian women free from a sex brutality that exists in Cambodia. Even though Somaly Mam still works as a sex worker, however, she already has the spirit of feminism in her heart. It could be proven when she tries to help their friends free from brothel. She does not want her friends feel the same pain as the way she feels. She works so hard to seek the equality and help all Cambodian women free from sex trafficking.

  According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), it could be seen that Somaly uses her thought and reactions to describe the feminist values in saving their friends from sex slavery. The feminist values in Somaly‟s actions and thought are depicted when Somaly helps her friends free from brothels. At that time, she still works as a sex worker in

  Aunt Peuve‟s brothel. Below is the fact when Somaly Mam helps her friends to escape from brothel: One time, though, I let two girls go. They were new, straight from the countryside, and they looked alike, with long, dark hair. Aunt Peuve had them tied up and they were crying. I knew what was waiting for them

  • – the life would be taken out of them. They would die internally, like me. And for some reason I didn‟t want it to happen again (p. 62).
That quotation shows that Somaly wants Cambodian women to get their freedom and let those women free in chasing their dreams. Therefore, they would not feel the same feeling and pain as Somaly. They become sex workers, being tortured, and being raped, in order to pay the debt of their parents and their husbands. Somaly realizes that her actions will bring herself in the dangerous thing. Nevertheless, the most important thing is that she could save other Cambodian women from a brutality that exists in Cambodia although it only starts from a small action.

  Sometimes Somaly feels sorry for her friends who are being tortured. Those tortures could be very cruel things that those women always have a bad dream.

  “If another girl had had a really brutal time, or if she was badly hurt, sometimes I would volunteer to go to a client in her place ” (p. 62). Her thought of showing pity to her friends make her realize that Cambodian women are always dominated by men.

  The feminist values could be seen in Somaly Mam ‟s actions and thoughts above. As stated in the review of related theory, Humm (1992) reveals that the main aspect of liberal feminism is focused on achieving equal legals, politics, and social rights for women (p. 181). In this situation, Somaly lets her friends escape from brothel because she wants to see them get a proper job than being prostitutes. Further, Somaly wants her friends to explore their soft skills and she does not want them to be humiliated and sexually exploited.

  Madsen (2000) states that liberal feminists support the Equal Rights Amendment and another legacy to abolish sexual discrimination and oppressive gender roles (pp. 35-36).

  Contemporary liberal feminists espouse women‟s rights in terms of welfare needs, universal education, and health services” (p. 151). This means that women should have the equal rights and free access to get a better job except to be a prostitute because a liberal feminist supports the abolition of sexual discrimination.

  Those characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Humm (1992) and Madsen (2000) are in accordance with

  Somaly Mam‟s actions in freeing her friends from brothel. From the evidence and the characteristics of liberal feminism above, it could be concluded that the type of feminism which is presented in Somaly Mam ‟s actions is liberal feminism.

b. When Somaly Mam Leaves the Brothel 1) Giving Aunt Peuve and Her Friends a Lot of Money

  In this action, Somaly wants to reveal that she keeps being humble and tries to help their friends to be out from sex slavery although Somaly has a hard life. There is a foreigner who falls in love with Somaly, named Dietrich. He is a humanitarian worker with one of the big relief agencies in Phnom Penh who comes from Switzerland. One night, Somaly meets Dietrich, who has stopped her on th e street. Dietrich is the only one of Somaly‟s clients, who has a white skin a good and a rich man. He used to come and look for Somaly at Aunt Peuve‟s brothel and give a lot of money to Aunt Peuve and Somaly Mam.

  “Sometimes Dietrich gave me enough money, so I didn‟t really have to work for Aunt Peuve for a few weeks

  ” (p. 75). Dietrich always gives Somaly clothes and everything that makes her become more beautiful and prettier.

  As time goes by, D ietrich‟s contract in Cambodia is drawing to a close and he has to go back to Switzerland. Before he leaves, Dietrich gives Somaly a thousand dollars. He gives Somaly a lot of money because he wants to see Somaly starts a new life, not being as a prostitute. After Dietrich goes to Switzerland and gives Somaly a lot of money, then, Somaly visit to Aunt Peuve‟s brothel and give

  Aunt Peuve and her friends some money. She could not let her friends and Aunt Peuve are suffering from sex slavery although Aunt Peuve has tortured Somaly many times in brothel. According to

  Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that Somaly‟s willingness to buy a Cambodian women‟ freedom is depicted in her reactions when she gives them some money. This fact could be seen from the following quotations: After he left I went back to Aunt Peuve‟s and gave her a hundred dollars.

  I really have no idea why I did that, but it‟s what I did. I suppose that, like an idiot, I thought she had feelings for me. I also gave a hundred dollars each to Mom and Chetra. ... But to all the girls at Aunt Peuve‟s house I gave fifty dollars to each. I bought them their freedom, if they wanted to take it, and that was something I never regretted (pp. 79-80). Somaly gives some money to her friends who still work in brothel because giving them some money, they will have a chance to have another job except to be a prostitute. Somaly only wants to see them be free, hence they do not suffer for a long time.

  That is the last time for Somaly to go to Aunt Peuve‟s brothel. She is sick of being tortured and raped in that place. She wants to go away from prostitution.

  Somaly decides to find and start a new life by working as a cleaning service in Ceclilia

  ‟s villa, who is an Italian. “I earned twenty dollars a month. It was enough ” (p.80).

  The feminist values could be depicted in Somaly‟s reactions and thoughts above. It is because Somaly cares about women‟s lives and she tries to make their lives become better than before. This kind of feminism focuses on the women‟s rights in terms of welfare needs, universal education, and health services”

  (Humm, 1995:151). In this situation, Somaly wants to see her friends have their welfare needs by giving them some money. Those characteristics of feminism are usually known as liberal feminism. Based on the evidence and the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Humm (1995), those characteristics of liberal feminism are in line with Somaly Mam‟s actions. Therefore, it could be concluded that the type of feminism represented in Somaly‟s actions is liberal feminism.

2) Treating Cambodian Girls from Sexual Transmitted Diseases

  In this case, Somaly wants to reveal that she tries to help Cambodian gives some information to those prostitutes regarding the treatment of HIV AIDS. Further, she helps them by giving them a treatment as well and therefore they could recover from their illness. MacKinnon (1982, as cited in Humm, 1995) says that

  “women‟s experiences of sexual objectification – of rape, pornography, and violence

  • – are the true core of women‟s oppression.” Therefore, Somaly tries to raise

  Cambodian women‟s lives from the oppression of sex trafficking and also violence by giving them a treatment from the physical disease.

  According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that Somaly uses her thoughts and reactions to describe her actions in saving Cambodian women from sexually transmitted diseases. Cambodia custom believes that women should obey their parents, especially their husband who is superior to women.

  “In Cambodian custom you have to put up with everything your mother-in-law does and not complain to your husband ” (p.111). Other facts could be seen below:

  This is Cambodia: if you are a girl you owe obedience to your parents. If your family requires you to sell your body on the side of the road so that your younger brother could go to school

  • – or so your mother could gamble – that is what you do (pp. 125-126).

  As stated in the chapter two, Madsen (2000: 185) reveals the role of family in a patriarchal aspect: “family is a powerful instrument of socialization, where we learn to adopt particular postures in relation to the patriarchal power structure; that is where we learn positions of subordination and domination.” Therefore, those girls are afraid to break the boundaries and they only keep quiet even though their them. As a result, Cambodian women do not have good education, or even some treatments from HIV AIDS which are caused by extramarital sex (Mam, 2008).

  According to Mam (2008), most Cambodian women are prostitutes and have an extramarital sex every day and therefore some of them have sexually transmitted diseases. However, Somaly breaks the boundary that women should have enough knowledge about HIV AIDS

  . In this case, Somaly‟s actions in giving some treatments from HIV AIDS to prostitutes are depicted when Somaly works as a team‟s assistant at MSF clinic. She helps many girls who suffer from sexually transmitted disease. Most of them are girls who suffer the brutality from men.

  One day, a girl who is a prostitute, goes to the clinic. Somaly decides to take care of her and ask her to keep clean and using condoms. Somaly also tells her about HIV AIDS infection. After that girl comes to the clinic, other girls from brothels come to the clinic in a small group. A great deal of pain is in their heart.

  According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that

  Somaly uses her thought and reaction to show her feminist actions which could be seen in the following quotation: “I felt I didn‟t have a choice: I needed to help them get away out of the life they were imprisoned in, streets away from me. This was something I could do that few other people could, and I had to do it ” (p. 122).

  This thought implies that Somaly does not want to be quiet and let those girls suffer from HIV AIDS. Her actions which represent women should be free from tortures reflect that she wants all girls free from brutality and sex slavery. slavery, she could help them even it is from the small actions. Furthermore, she also feels happy because she could save the other girls outside there from the brutality of men.

  Knowing that pity condition, Somaly thinks twice and decides to talk to Pierre‟s boss at MSF to give her stock of condoms and dozens of bars of soap and therefore Somaly could distribute those things to all prostitutes. It really helps those prostitutes a lot because that medicine is important for preventing illness too. According to

  Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), Somaly uses reactions to describe her feminist actions when she distributes condoms in Kratié which could be seen as follows.

  I used to pretend to be a nurse from Médecins Sans Frontières. I dressed like a Khmer de France and came in with an official air and a box of condoms. I told the meebons that I wanted to help keep the girls healthy, and that it was in their own interest that the girls be free of disease (p.124).

  Somaly‟s reactions show that she helps wholeheartedly those prostitutes even she has to pretend to be a nurse from MSF. She does not care that she has to lie to the pimps. In addition, Somaly thinks that the pimps will get interest on it because she does not need to spend a cent taking care of her prostitutes.

  Nevertheless, Somaly just wants to take care of those girls, hence they could be away from disease. Additionally, she is very confident when she is pretending to be a MSF‟s nurse and coming to brothels to help those girls. Somaly could become a brave person because she ever lives in France and France also has changed her to be a confident and a strong woman.

  Somaly also helps a little girl whose nipple has been torn off by her client. Then, Somaly asks help from MSF to have a car and therefore Somaly could bring some of the sickest girls to the clinic every morning. At first, MSF could not make any decision to help

  Somaly. Somaly takes the wife of Pierre‟s boss to brothels and therefore she could know and see the real condition outside there. Her name is Marie-Louise and she is a doctor.

  She saw the battered girls in scummy places, their wounds and scars, and she was horrified. She couldn‟t believe how people treated other human beings. By the time we came back to the MSF office, she was speechless. Marie-Louise made sure that I received the use of a car (p. 125).

  Somaly helps those girls with all her heart. She could feel the condition of those girls because she was once like them. She also begins her day to go to brothels and help those girls there. “It wasn‟t just about distributing condoms and information about HIV, or about ferrying girls to hospital. It was about being with these girls, connecting with them in a deeper way

  ” (p. 125). Another girl that Somaly helps is Tom Dy. She is a girl who is found by

  Somaly on the road. She is dirty and people always throw stones at her because she is nasty and has sarcomas on her skin from HIV AIDS. In addition, she looks half-dead. In this situation, Somaly feels pity for her and decides to help that girl. According to Murph y‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that those traits are presented in Somaly‟s reactions.

  I thought she was about thirty or thirty-five. I asked the driver to stop, and I put my arms around her and took her into the car. The driver said, myslef

  • – I didn‟t want anyone else to look after her. I tried to bring her to the hospital but the nurses and everyone else glared at her. She told me she was just seventeen. ... Every morning I washed Tom Dy and dressed her wounds with antiseptic. She told me she had been a prostitute since the age of nine. The pimps puts her out on the street and threw stones at her when she became too sick to work. With our care, she put on weight and became like the chief of the whole centre (p. 147). Somaly, as the portrayal of woman who seeks the women‟s equal rights, feels that this condition is really pitiful. Somaly believes that no one would take care of that girl because she is full of illnesses. It is not easy to help dominated girls in those days because people only take care of themselves. They do not care about other people. With her care and also her concern, Somaly wants to help and raise those girls up from the suffering. In addition, Somaly wants to improve the lives of women who are being kept and traded as slaves.

  Based on those facts above, liberal feminism could be depicted in Somaly‟s thought and actions. Sobloe (2006: 334) explains that “liberal feminists tend to adopt a libertarian or public health approach regarding commercial sexual activity

  .” Meanwhile, Madsen (2000) also reveals that “liberal feminism focuses upon how women attempt to create a feminist consciousness of the oppression ”

  (p. 37). Knowing those bad conditions, Somaly realizes that Cambodian women are in the disadvantaged position and therefore she must do something to help Cambodian women free from sex slavery.

  This means that as the liberal feminist, Somaly would like to see better education. She does not want to see Cambodian women suffer from sexual transmitted disease because of extramarital sex that they experienced. She also wants that other people, especially MSF, would be aware that there are many Cambodian women who are trafficked and suffer from the sexual transmitted disease.

  Further, Somaly also wants to make the lives of women become better than before. She treats them well from the disease that they are suffering from.

  From the evidence and the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Sobloe (2006) and Madsen (2000),

  Somaly Mam‟s actions are in accordance with the characteristics of liberal feminism. Therefore, it could be concluded that the type of feminism depicted in Somaly‟s actions is a liberal feminism.

3) Working in France

  Somaly‟s feminist actions are not only depicted in her reactions when she helps Cambodian women from sex industry; however, it is also depicted when she helps herself to improve her life. When Somaly has left the brothel and gets married with Pierre, then, she goes to France with Pierre to have a better life there.

  They also would like to find a better job in France because it is impossible to run a business in Cambodia since there is a war which flares up there. MacKinnon (1982) states that

  “work is the social process of shaping and transforming the material and social worlds, creating people as social beings as they create value ” explore herself in the working field except to be a prostitute. In France, Somaly could explore all things that she had never done before. She works as the cleaning service in a hotel and also washing cleaner in the restaurant. She does not want to be a prostitute in her entire life. She thinks that she deserves to get equality and opportunity to work in society.

  According to Mur phy‟s the theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that

  Somaly‟s willingness to do a proper job could be seen in her reactions and thoughts. These facts could be seen below: One day I found a copy of the local paper, Nice-Matin. Looking through it, I came upon the classified section. I saw the word „emploi‟ and looked it up in the dictionary – it meant „jobs‟. I pieced together a few ads with the aid of my dictionary and I saw that people were looking for cleaners and maids. I realized that even with little French I might be able to find a work. … I explained to the director that I wanted to work. I told him, „Je veux

  travailler

  ,‟ in a loud voice and he got the message. He smiled broadly and told me I could start the next morning. I would be a cleaner at the Hotel Hibiscus on the Promenade des Anglais (p. 108). From those facts, it could be seen that Somaly never gives up improving herself to have a better life. She forces herself to get a proper job in France although she could not speak French. After eighteen months of living in France, Somaly feels that she has changed a lot. She has worked in proper places and she also learns how to look people in the eye and communicate with them directly, as an equal.

  Based on those Somaly‟s actions, those actions are in accordance with the equally into all public institutions and extending of knowledge and therefore that women‟s issues could no longer be ignored (Humm, 1992: 181). Meanwhile, liberal feminism also concerns about an equality of civil rights, access to education, and also an equality of pay for women in the working field (Humm, 1992: 191).

  In this condition, Somaly tries to bring herself into the equal rights between men. It is not only for the economic aspects; however, it also for her welfare needs. By working in a proper job, Somaly could also mingle with society and it increases her self-esteem. From those actions and the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Humm (1992), it could be concluded that the spirits of liberal feminism are in accordance with

  Somaly Mam‟s actions.

4) Helping Girls Escape from Brothels

  Another Somaly Mam ‟s action which reflects the feminist values is helping women free from brothels. Somaly always thinks that she should be a person for others. She always thinks that helping Cambodian girls who are tortured in brothel is also helping herself free from slavery. At least, by helping and giving them some treatments to the hospital, Somaly could cure their pain.

  Several Cambodian girls who are in brothels have been sold outright. They live in the nastiest of places which make them never forget about those places for their entire of lives. Those girls who are captive in those places have the hostile those girls take them out to the hospital because those brothels are guarded by several men with some guns in their hand. However, other brothels are not guarded by several men and therefore Somaly could get in easily help the girls free from brothels. Meanwhile, the pimps think that the girls would not try to escape from brothels. These facts could be seen below:

  The pimps know their livestock won‟t try to escape. A girl‟s will is easily broken and she quickly learns she has nowhere to run. They couldn‟t go back to their homes because they were no longer welcome there. They had no skills, no way to support themselves on their own.

  They were condemned to sell themselves more or less for ever (p. 126). Those facts make Somaly becomes panic and suddenly, her bitter experiences of being sold and tortured in brothels come to her mind. Knowing that fact, she decides to take a new start to help those girls even though it might be impossible to take them out from that brothel. According to

  Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that Somaly uses reactions to describe the feminist values when she tries to help Cambodian girls free from brothels. Somaly‟s reactions could be seen in the following quotation: “The first girl I helped to escape was dark-skinned like me. She had straight hair all the way down her back. She was sixteen and she had been a prostitute for over a year. She was guarded, but I had to help her

  ” (p. 126). That action shows that Somaly has the intention to help that girl even though the brothel was heavily guarded. She fights her fear to help this girl although she bets her life. Fortunately, Somaly knows how to solve those however, she finds a place which is far enough away from the brothel. She finds a tailor in Sanbo and this woman is willing to take the girls in and train them as the seamstresses. Sanbo is a village about ten miles up the river from Kratié. Somaly thinks that this place is save enough and therefore the girl could stay there and her pimp does not know where she is. Furthermore, the girl could use her potential to make a positive thing.

  Sanbo was far enough away to escape their notice. I paid for two more girls, then another two

  • – I sent them to learn sewing from this seamstress and I gave them a small living allowance. I wasn‟t buying them out of prostitution, because I didn‟t have that kind of money. But I was giving them a way out if they could manage to leave (p. 127). When Somaly sends those girls to Sanbo, the pimp and her guards always visit to the clinic to look for their livestock, whether they are treated as well or not. However, nobody has seen them in the clinic.

  Since France has changed Somaly to be brave, strong, and confident, she is not afraid of people anymore. She becomes a brave person although she has a gun against her head. It is like when she tries to give the condoms and talk to the prostitutes in the Mr. Eng‟s brothel. The prostitutes in this old man‟s brothel are heavily guarded. When she is going to give the condoms to those prostitutes, Mr. Eng holds a gun and raises it against Somaly‟s head and asks Somaly to get out from that place. This fact could be seen below:

  I was going to Mr. Eng‟s brothel to give out condoms and talk, but before I‟d begun climbing up the ladder to his stilt-house, he stepped out of the chair where he‟d been dozing in a singlet with a gun in his hand. He held it against my head and told me to get out or he would shoot me. (p. 127)

  Realizing this situation, Somaly looks at Mr. Eng and says something to him. According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), it could be concluded that Somaly uses her authority in her speech.

  “If you kill me then your wife, your children, all of you will go to the prison, because I am protected. You know who I am. All of you will be killed.” ....... “I was a Khmer de France and a white man‟s wife” (pp. 127-128).

  However, through her speech, readers could know her courage to fight for women‟s rights. Somaly pictures a strong and a brave woman, no matter how difficult to help women in those days. Somaly keeps going on although she bets her life. She knows that it is hard to have an equal right between men and women; nevertheless, she keeps trying to get justice and freedom for those girls.

  Another Somaly‟s action in freeing a girl from brothel is when she helps Srey out from prostitution. Robert Deutsch, an American man, contacts Somaly that there is a woman with him who says that her daughter has been sold into brothel. When Somaly finds Srey in brothel, she is feverish almost messed up. Srey has been given some kind of drug by her pimp. Knowing about this condition, her mother does not want her own daughter any more. Finally, Somaly takes this little girl into her house. According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that this trait is characterized through Somaly‟s reactions. “Srey was the first victim who came to live with us. We had nowhere to take the girls and no money to set up a centre, but we had two bedrooms and a living room. It wasn‟t large, but there was space enough” (p. 137).

  This reaction implies that Somaly is willing to take the girl into Somaly‟s house although her house is not big enough. However, she still keeps helping the other girls no matter how hard the situation is that she has at that time. Somaly only wants to change the small life that she sees standing in front of her, which is suffering.

  Somaly draws the feminist actions through her reactions above that how she really struggles for women‟s rights who are dominated by the situation in

  Cambodia. This action is suitable with the idea of liberal feminism presented by Madsen (2000). As stated in the review of related theory, Madsen (2000: 35-36) reveals that

  “the main aspect of liberal feminism is focused on the Equal Rights Amendment and other legislative acts to abolish sexual discrimination and to oppressive the gender roles.” Humm (1995: 151) also adds that “contemporary liberal feminists espouse women‟s rights in terms of welfare needs, universal education

  , and health services.” This means that women should have the equal rights and a free access to get the better job; except to be the prostitute because liberal feminist supports the abolition of sexual discrimination (Madsen: 2000). Somaly thinks that those Cambodian women deserve to get the better lives, education, and welfare; except to be a prostitute in brothel.

  Furthermore, Madsen (2000) also reveals that liberal feminism focuses

  37). Here, Somaly realizes that Cambodian women are in the second-class citizens and they are in the disadvantaged position. They are trafficked in sexual exploitation and Somaly tries to help them from that oppression. She realizes that those girls are going to have a bad life if they still continue to live in those brothels. From that evidence, it could be concluded that the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Madsen (2000) and Humm (1995) are in line with Somaly Mam‟s feminist actions. Thus, it could be concluded here that Somaly Mam displays liberal feminism in her actions.

5) Finding a Charity to Fund a Proper Center for Prostitutes

  When Somaly has successfully taken those girls out from brothels, then, she realizes that she needs a place for the prostitutes to live. Somaly needs a place for them; thus, they could be looked after once they have managed to escape. They need a safe place where their pimps could not get them. Somaly thinks that they should be trained in some soft skills and therefore they could create the positive thought in their mind. It also helps them to forget about their painful experinces of being tortured while they are in brothels.

  Knowing this situation, Somaly thinks twice that she really needs money to build some shelters for those prostitutes. She should find the charity to help them. According to

  Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), Somaly uses a rection and a thought to describe her feminist actions. It could be seen when Somaly has a way of thinking and reaction regarding to the situation that she faces at that time.

  I also thought that, with money, there might be some way to rescue

  • – the girls who were captives. They would need somewhere safe to live somewhe re the pimps wouldn‟t get them. They needed training. I started to write down notes, in Khmer, about what I thought this should look like – I was thinking of some kind of charity (p. 128). This thought and reaction implies that she does not want to be quiet and do nothing knowing that many prostitutes out there need some help. She does not want that the number of prostitutes in Cambodia keeps increasing day by day. Meanwhile, she does not want to see many Cambodia women are exploited and not respected as well. Somaly‟s thought shows that she is a picture of women who is concerned with women‟s exploitation in those days.

  When Pierre knows about this situation, he begins helping Somaly by giving her some ideas for charity. He is also helped by his Dutch friend Eric, who works with MSF, starting to write statutes. In this case, Pierre really helps Somaly a lot in looking for a charity to build a proper center for the prostitutes.

  Somaly draws a liberal feminism through her actions that how she wants to see those women get a freedom. Meanwhile, Somaly also wants to take care of them as well. Somaly wants people, especially governments, to have awareness that there are many Cambodian women who become the victims of sexual exploitation. She raises some funds to build this shelter because she wants Cambodian women are safe from human trafficking. She would protect them from sex slavery. Althought it is a big task; however she could do the little thing to help them.

  In this situation, Somaly shows her concerns about Cambodian women‟s lives. Humm (1995) states that

  “liberal feminist tries to put the equality of welfare needs, universal education, and also the health services.

  ” Somaly‟s actions are in accordance with the spirit of liberal feminism. Based on the evidence and the characteristics of liberal feminism, it could be concluded that Somaly presents the liberal feminism through her actions in freeing Cambodian women.

6) Building AFESIP as the Proper Center for Prostitutes

  In this case, Somaly wants to reveal that she helps Cambodian prostitutes through her actions by building a proper center for them. In early 1996, Somaly, Dietrich, and Eric finish their project to raise fund to make a proper center in helping prostitutes. They have taken their project to the European Union office in Phnom Penh to raise funds, nevertheless, they do not get any fund from EU. EU thinks that there are no prostitutes in Cambodia. Then, Somaly meets Robert again. He talks to John Anderson at Save the Children UK. Finally, they decide to lend Somaly a house, which will be the first center. Somaly holds an official opening ceremony for AFESIP on March 8, 1997.

  Somaly portrays a woman who never gives up helping Cambodian women from sex slavery. She keeps trying to seek women‟s equality in those days care about sex slavery in their country. In this case, the idea of feminism from Somaly could be depicted when she takes many women to AFESIP, the small wooden house in north-west Phnom Penh. Somaly also finds some help to run AFESIP, to cook, to live there, to guard the shelter, and to keep it organised. Somaly organizes all those things which are needed by AFESIP. Meanwhile, Somaly wants to train the girls in the shelter and therefore they could have skills which could be used later in the working field.

  According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), Somaly uses her thought to describe her struggles to seek women‟s equality. This fact could be seen as follows

  : “What we needed was a lot more money – enough to start up a proper centre where former prostitutes could live and learn to stand on their feet again – but at least this way I could make a little extra” (p. 138).

  This thought implies that Somaly wants to raise Cambodian girls up from their suffering. They have been suffering for a long time, and Somaly does not want to see that again. She wants to help them to learn and stand on their feet again. Therefore, they could continue their lives with their new experience and new hope.

  Six years later after building the first shelter (AFESIP), Somaly also builds another AFESIP in Thailand. She chooses to build AFESIP shelter there because prostitution and trafficking industry is higher than in Cambodia. She hopes that by building the new shelter in Thailand, the numbers of prostitutes and trafficking industries could be reduced gradually. Then in 2006, Somaly also sets up other offices of AFESIP in Laos and a training center in Sisattanak Province.

  Somaly real ly wants to improve women‟s lives by building several shelters. It is not only a place where they could live after they escape from brothel; however, it is also a place where they are able to improve their skills.

  They could renew themselves and could start their new life. There are many things that they could learn in the shelter. They could learn sewing, cooking, reading, and writing in Khmer. Meanwhile, they also learn about weaving, hairdressing, and how to keep accounts and run a shop. Those skills are very useful for them if they want to have a better job outside the shelters.

  By building AFESIP as the proper center for the prostitutes, it means that Somaly really concerns about

  Cambodian women‟s lives. She does not want to let them suffer fo r the second time. Since women‟s experiences of sexual objectification

  • – of rape, pornography, and violence – are the true core of women‟s oppression, Somaly wants to combat sex trafficking in Cambodia by placing them in some proper places. After that, Somaly wants to educate them in order to raise their lives.

  The spirit of liberal feminism could be seen in Somaly Mam‟s actions. In this condition, she tries to give the opportunity to Cambodian women to get education, a better place, and also learning some soft skills which are useful when they work in the working field. By placing them in AFESIP, Cambodian women transmitted disease. Those actions are in line with the characteristics of liberal feminism, where it aims to achieve the equality of women‟s opportunity (Madsen, 2000, pp. 35-

  36) and also to achieve the women‟s welfare of needs, universal education, and also health services (Humm, 1995, p. 151). According to the evidence and the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Madsen (2000) and Humm (1995), it could be concluded that Somaly presents liberal feminism through her actions.

7) Helping Sophanna from Her Husband’s Physical Abuse

  In The Road of Lost Innocence, Somaly does not only help Cambodian women free from sex trafficking; however, she also helps her sister who becomes the victim of husband‟s physical abuse. She is Sophanna. Sophanna is Somaly‟s sister who is tortured by her husband. Her daughter, Ning, is very sick and is going to be sold by Sophanna‟s husband. Since her husband does not have enough money for their lives, he thinks that it is a good decision to sell that girl into the neighbor (p. 133).

  Okin (2004) reveals that “a marriage should have an equal partnership between wife and husband.

  ” Further, she adds that it is often founded in the traditional marriage that there is gender discrimination between wife and husband.

  She has explained women‟s position in the traditional marriage below: “Traditional marriage makes women vulnerable by channeling them into lower-paying, more flexible forms of employment before marriage, by for children and other dependents encourage women to make choices that militate against their own best interests; men are not similarly disadvantaged ” (pp. 335-336). Since Sophanna‟s marriage still holds the traditional marriage in

  Cambodia and there is a traditional gender roles which require women to obey parents and husband, Sophanna feels tortured and humiliated by her husband. Her husband has left her and Ning without giving them some money. This fact could be seen below:

  Then Sophanna c ame in. She was living in a shelter outside my parents‟ house

  • – just a shack really, it wasn‟t even on stilts. She worked as a schoolteacher in a nearby village. Her husband was out but I gathered that he earned no money. All he did was feeding the pigs and lying around the house. Sophanna looked thin too. She had somehow lost her looks; her pretty little mouth looked drawn and her eyes had lost their joy. She seemed far older … Her husband was fooling around with other women. I truly disliked my brother-in-law. He was a brute to Sophanna and never did a stroke of work (pp. 85-86, 141-142). From those facts, it could be seen that Sophanna is not happy with her marriage. Her husband just quits her and he also earns no money. According to Murphy‟s theory characterization (1972), the study reveals that Somaly shows her kindness to Sophanna through her reaction. Somaly decides to help Sophanna by adopting Ning as her adoptive daughter although she has never been a mother before. Sophanna always begs Somaly when she is still eight months pregnant. That fact could be seen in the following quotation.

  Sophanna came and begged me to find a way out, and so, when I was eight months pregnant, Pierre and I decided to have Ning come and

  This action implies that Somaly is willing to adopt a girl becomes her adoptive daughter although she never has any experience of having children. She does not want to see her sister suffers for a long time. Sophanna‟s husband has tortured his wife and now he wants to sell his own daughter. Somaly does not want to let that thing happens because it is only increasing the human trafficking in Cambodia. Somaly thinks that a marriage should have an equal relationship between husband and wife. Okin (2004) reveals that a marriage should be reconceived as an equal partnership (pp. 335-336).

  Somaly also helps Sophanna by giving her some money and asks her to be a teacher in AFESIP. According to Murphy‟s theory characterization (1972), the study reveals that Somaly shows her kindness to Sophanna through her reactions by asking her to be the sewing teacher in AFESIP which could be seen in the following quotation:

  … I asked Sophanna if she would teach sewing. She was always a good tailor, and used to teaching. She knew I co uldn‟t pay her, but she wanted to move to Phnom Penh anyway

  • – she had learned that her husband was fooling around with other women (p. 141). Somaly helps her sister to work as a teacher because she wants to improve

  Sophanna‟s life. Somaly would give her sister a better place, a job, and welfare of need. Further, Somaly wants to see Sophanna to get her liberty. According to Madsen (2000), she states that

  “liberal feminism stresses on the importance of individual and the autonomy of individual in the economic justice and also the an opportunity to speak and act in all aspects. Women also have liberation and freedom. Somaly wants to prove that women could achieve their equal rights by working hard.

  Finally, it could be concluded that Somaly Mam‟s feminist actions here are also in accordance with the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Madsen (2000).

8) Sending a Letter to Cambodian Prime Minister

  Humm (1995: 94) states that f eminism is the ideology of women‟s liberation since women are oppressed by male domination. In The Road of Lost

  

Innocence, Somaly also presents her anger to Cambodian Prime Minister that

  Cambodian women are suffering from injustice of being sex workers in that country. It happens when Somaly begins to receive threats from unknown people.

  She receives a letter that says „Leave Phnom Penh or you will die‟ (p. 149). Somaly receives that threat beacuse she has helped many prostitutes free from brothels, and many pimps feel that it is very distrubing since they do not get any income or money from their clients anymore.

  Somaly realizes that it is a serious warning. Pierre asks Somaly to take a break for a while. Then, Somaly decides to leave the shelter in the hands of her mother. Somaly becomes angry of this chaotic condition. She feels that it should not happen to her since she wants to help Cambodian women from their suffering.

  According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that

  Somaly uses reactions to describe her anger in seeking equality. This fact could be seen below: The night before I left I wrote a letter to the Cambodian Prime Minister, Hun Sen. It was like a throwing a neddle into a pile of dried rice stalks

  • – I thought it was hopeless. But I was very angry and I needed to tell someone in authority that this should not be happening. I said the traffickers had threatened to roast my baby like a chicken, and that I should not be driven out of my country in fear of my life because I wanted to improve the lives of women who were being kept and traded as slaves (p. 150). This anger implies that Somaly wants an equal right from the Cambodian government to women who are suffering from sex slavery. She feels that Cambodian Prime Minister does not care about women‟s condition in Cambodia. Meanwhile, Somaly also thinks that government should protect her in that country because she only wants to save Cambodian women from slavery. However, Somaly‟s thought is not the same as the real condition. One day, she gets a replied letter from Cambodian Prime Minister, Hun Sen. He asks Somaly to continue her work in protecting Cambodian women from slavery. This statement makes Somaly proud of herself, because Hun Sen is concerned with Somaly‟s work.

  Besides, he has asked Cambodian policemen to investigate the arson of her parents‟ house.

  The feminist values could be seen in Somaly‟s reactions. She wants the

  Cambodian government to realize what extent prostitutes are the victims and the importance in helping the victims of sexual slavery. Those women are marked by their experiences of being prostitutes. In addition, Somaly would like children. According to Madsen (2000: 35-36), liberal feminism stresses on the importance of the individual and individual autonomy which are protected by the guaranteed rights, economies, and equality of opportunity. Meanwhile, the main purpose of liberal feminism is trying to seek the equality position between men and women and focuses upon the consciousness of the women‟s oppression (Madsen, 2000, p. 37). Women realize that they are in the second position after men and they feel dominated by men. Knowing this situation, women always try to find their right place in the society.

  In this situation, Somaly tries to say what she feels by sending a letter to Cambodian Prime Minister regarding sex trafficking that happens in Cambodia.

  From the evidence, it could be concluded that the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Madsen (2000) is in accordance with Somaly Mam‟s feminist actions here. Thus, it could be concluded that Somaly Mam displays liberal feminism in her actions.

9) Building a Second Shelter for Prostitutes

  Somaly Mam is a picture of woman who really cares for all alienated women. She wants to improve women‟s lives by giving them an education, a place to live, counselling guidance, and also rescue for them. Therefore, those victims would not be traumatized anymore because of sex suffering that they have experienced before. Somaly helps them a lot by giving them many things that prostitutes, named AFESIP. After two years running some programs in AFESIP‟,

  Somaly decides to build a new center for prostitutes. Somaly begins to build the new center in 1998. They plan to name it with Tom Dy. Tom Dy is one of women in AFESIP who died in the shelter because of HIV-AIDS. In order to commemorate her, Somaly wants to name her new shelter with „Tom Dy‟.

  Tom Dy is built because Somaly has received funds from the European Union and also from UNICEF to her shelter, AFESIP.

  Somaly‟s works are also known by Emma Bonino, the European Commissioner for Humanitarian Affairs.

  According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), it could be seen that Somaly uses reactions when she shows her empathy to prostitutes in building a new center. This fact could be seen below:

  We began building the new centre in 1998. We planned to call it after Tom Dy. We wanted to put up a series of buildings on a piece of land AFESIP had bought, near a village about ten miles south-west of the city. I wanted to have a large covered room for the sewing classes and a separate room where a full-time schoolteacher could hold small classes in literacy and basic maths. We planned several spacious bedrooms with room for ten women to lay down their mats, and separate cupboards for every person (p. 157).

  Somaly‟s reactions show how Somaly really cares and wants to improve women‟s lives in Cambodia by building the new proper center. She really wants to take care of them and save them from slavery. Meanwhile, she prefers to allocate the funds that have been given to build the new shelter because she knows that there are many women outside there who really need her help to free from sex harassments.

  The feminist values could be seen in Somaly‟s reactions above. By knowing Somaly‟s reactions, it could be concluded that Somaly has the spirit of liberal feminism. As stated in the review of related theory that the characteristics of liberal feminism is to achieve the equality of women‟s opportunity (Madsen,

  2000, pp. 35- 36) and also to achieve the women‟s welfare of needs, universal education, and also health services (Humm, 1995, p. 151).

  In this situation, Somaly gives the education and counseling and therefore they would not get trauma because of sexual exploitation that they experience.

  Here, Somaly would show that women deserve to get the opportunity in getting the education and public health service. As stated in the review of related theory Sobloe (2006: 334) reveals that

  “liberal feminist also tends to adopt a libertarian or public health approach regar ding commercial sexual activity.” This characteristic is also suitable with

  Somaly‟s actions in helping Cambodian women from HIV-AIDS. Based on the evidence and the characteristics of liberal feminism, it could be concluded that Somaly Mam‟s actions are in line with the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Humm (1995), Madsen (2000), and Sobloe (2006). Thus, I could conclude that Somaly Mam displays liberal feminism in her actions.

10) Building a Proper Center for Children

  Somaly‟s works in taking care of Cambodian women have been known by award because Somaly has promoted humanitarian values in Cambodia. Her kindness to those who has spread human values triggers Somaly to work harder as a human volunteer.

  The warm welcome from Prince Asturias in Spanish makes Somaly thinks for the first time that her work is really supported and would no longer have to go begging anymore. Knowing this situation, Somaly always receives donations in money and she realizes that she is not alone anymore. She feels that there are many people who are ready to help her. Finally, Somaly builds a new center for children whom she has rescued. It is because she does not want those children to be sold again to the pimps.

  According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that Somaly uses her reactions to show her awareness to those children.

  This fact could be seen below: After completing Tom Dy Centre my first priority was to find a place where the children we had rescued could grow up. Some children simply could never be returned to their families

  • – the risk that they would be sold again was too high. By now we were housing several children, some as young as seven or eight, whom we had rescued from brothels (p. 161). The action above shows how Somaly really cares to Cambodian children.

  She does not want them to be sold again because it only increases the numbers of sex trafficking in Cambodia. The idea comes when Somaly thinks that she could build the new center in the location where she spent her childhood, Thloc Chhroy. According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that following quotation: “The idea came to me that I could buy some land in Thloc

  Chhroy, near my father‟s house, and make it into a children‟s centre” (pp. 161- 162). Somaly thinks that by building this center in Thloc Chhroy, they will be safe because the location is far enough from Phnom Penh. Pimps will not find them.

  According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), Somaly uses reactions to describe her concern to Cambodian women by building a shelter in Thloc

  Chroy. This fact could be seen below: With the money from the Prince of Asturias Prize, AFESIP bought a piece of land right by the village school in Thloc Chhroy. … On it we built a spacious house on stilts. It has a fish pond and a chicken coop, and space to house a dozen weaving looms and sewing machines so the girls could learn a trade (p. 162). Those reactions prove that Somaly wants to save children from sex trafficking that happens in Cambodia. Together with AFESIP, she wants to educate those children and girls and therefore they could have enough knowledge and soft skill for themselves. When they have grown up, AFESIP should let them go because they have to earn money by their soft skills that they have learnt in the shelter. It is hard to say goodbye to a child that Somaly has brought up. However, there is a time for those girls to leave too.

  Those actions reveal that there is a feminist value in Somaly‟s actions. As stated in the review of related theory, the main aspect of liberal feminism is women‟s consciousness about their disadvantaged position between men (Madsen 2000: 37). MacKinnon (1982, as cited in Humm, 1995) also states that

  “women‟s the t rue core of women‟s oppression.” Somaly realizes that Cambodian girls and children are in the disadvantaged position. It means that they could be sold to brothels as prostitutes if no one would take care of them. Knowing this situation, Somaly takes the decision that she must take care of those children by placing them in a proper place. Therefore, she builds a proper shelter for the Cambodian children. Based on the characteristics of liberal feminism, it also reveals that liberal feminism emphasizes that parents are responsible for rearing the children and maintaining the home.

  Indeed, Somaly is not their real parents; however, she becomes their parents in the shelter by giving them a warmth hug and laugh. She tries to guide and give them guidance. It aims for them to forget the pain feeling that they experience when they are sold by their parents or even when they are abused by men. Based on the evidence and the characteristics of liberal feminism, it could be conc luded that Somaly Mam‟s actions are in accordance with the characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Humm (1995), Madsen (2000), and MacKinnon

  (1982). Thus, I could conclude that Somaly Mam displays liberal feminism in her actions.

11) Giving an Educational Campaign to Cambodian Men

  Many people in Cambodia become completely egocentric, especially in the cities. The reason is because they are still traumatized by years of war and not stop and help you. The idea is, if there is a person who helps that accident, he or she will be accused of having caused the accident and he will be stuck with the bill. Unfortunately, it is true and Cambodians will do that.

  Somaly thinks that almost all of men in Cambodia only want to have an extramarital sex as a pleasure. They think that women are like servants. This fact could be seen below: ….women are like servants. It has always been like that in Cambodia.

  Girls are taught only shame and ignorance about their bodies and men have their first sexual experience in brothels. Rape is the only thing they know (p. 167). Knowing this pity condition, Somaly tries to manage all things into the better one. At least, she begins to change this mentality. In 1999, Emma Bonino helps her to raise funds for campaign to educate Cambodian men. Somaly decides to make a breakthrough by giving an education campaign about sex to all Cambodian men. Somaly chooses Mr. Cheng, a social worker from AFESIP, as her partner in giving the sex education. According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that Somaly uses reactions to show the feminist values by giving Cambodian men an education campaign. This fact could be seen below:

  We started off by explaining how to protect yourself from catching Aids. The men were interested because they were scared: the epidemic was becoming enormous. We explained everything, starting from the very basics. With the help of banana we even showed them how to put on a condom…

  By asking questions we arrived at the problem of their relationship with their wives (pp.167-168).

  The action above is another portrayal of Somaly‟s feminist action. Although she gives this campaign to Cambodian men, the campaign aims for them to realize that extramarital sex is not healthy for them. She tries to explain how hurt women when men rape and torture them. In this campaign, Somaly also asks about their relationship with their wives. Some of them answer that they go to brothels because their wives do not like have a sex. Somaly believes by giving this campaign, Cambodian men could realize that how extramarital sex is painful for women, especially for those who are raped.

  In this action, liberal feminism could be seen in her actions because by giving this campaign to Cambodian men, Somaly could also help Cambodian women be free from the sexual exploitation. According to Madsen (2000: 35-36), liberal feminism reveals that pornography and sexual industry are illegal things.

  Meanwhile, it also states that liberal feminists are trying to abolish the sexual discrimination regarding the commercial sexual activity. In this situation, Somaly tries to combat sex trafficking that happens in Cambodia by giving this kind of campaign. She only wants to seek equality between men and women.

  Those characteristics of liberal feminism propose by Madsen (2000) are in accordance with Somaly Mam‟s actions in giving education campaign for

  Cambodian men. Therefore, I could conclude that Somaly Mam‟s actions here also display the spirit of liberal feminism.

12) Building a New Shelter in Siem Reap

  Somaly does not want to let sex trafficking grows larger in Cambodia. She also does not want to let Cambodian women suffer for a long time because of human exploitation that they experience. Knowing the fact that sex business in Cambodia is really profitable and becoming more professional, Somaly thinks harder how to prevent that dirty business. Sex trafficking in Cambodia grows larger and many tourists come to Angkor Wat temple. Every night, they would rent some hotel rooms nearby town Siem Reap and they want to sleep with some young girls. According to

  Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), it could be concluded that Somaly‟s reaction in knowing this condition could be seen from the following quotation.

  “We began finding so many girls imprisoned in brothels in Siem Reap that in 2001 we opened a shelter there too. Until we intervened the police had never done anything about it because they had never b een told to” (p. 173).

  Somaly‟s reactions show that she does not want sex business in Cambodia becomes larger by the time. She is also really mad with Cambodian policemen in those days, because they could not do anything to prevent sex business. Only few Cambodian policemen concern about that problem. However, the rest of them become the clients for sex trafficking. Therefore, Somaly opens another center for women who are exploited in Siem Reap. Thus, they could be safe and cure their mental pain in that center.

  The real situation in Cambodia especially in Siem Reap is very cruel. Prostitution is a very profitable business. They may sell a young girl with the high price. This fact could be seen from the quotation below:

  In Siem Reap an ordinary girl, not a virgin, might bring in about fifteen dollars per client. Let‟s say five a day. Four girls will make you almost ten thousand dollars a month and cost you nothing but a bit of rice and a few guns.

  With profits like these it‟s clear that you could bribe whomever you want (p.173). The fact brings that sex business in Cambodia ruins everything. Some of government apparatuses also become the one who use sex business there. There are no law firms talking about sex selling in Cambodia. Almost all of Cambodians are taking charge in sex business since it is the profitable business in that country.

  As stated in the review of related theory, Okin (2004) states that the main aspect of liberal feminism is that the sexual industry, violence, and prostitution are illegal. Many liberal feminists oppose the sexual industry and pornography. They try to combat those sexual exploitations where women become victims. In this situation, Somaly has the spirit of liberal feminism. It could be depicted in her actions by building new shelter for women who have escaped from sex slavery. It aims for them to cure their mental pain. Moreover, Somaly does not want the numbers of sex trafficking in Cambodia is getting high.

  Finally, Somaly‟s actions are suitable with the characteristics of liberal feminism, where it aims to achieve the women‟s welfare of needs, universal education, and also health services (Humm, 1995, p. 151). Since women are in the as men. They have to survive humanly, no differences between women and men. The liberal feminism‟s purpose is to find gender equality. Here, Somaly tries to help Cambodian women who are suffering from sex trafficking. Those characteristics of liberal feminism proposed by Okin (2004) and Humm (1995) are in accordance with

  Somaly Mam‟s actions in building a new shelter in Siem Reap. Thus, I could conclude that Somaly Mam‟s actions here display the spirits of liberal feminism.

13) Opening an AFESIP Garment Workshop

  After building several shelters for women and children, Somaly wants to open a working field for those women in her shelter. The purpose is for them to be able to work by using the soft skills that they have learnt in the shelter. In 2003, Somaly opens an AFESIP garment workshop and she takes women to work there.

  In Cambodia, women know that all garment factories is a brutal place. They are always raped and exploited there. This fact could be seen from the following quotation.

  They know that in Cambodia a garment factory is often a brutal place, crowded and poorly ventilated. Many women are so ill-treated and exploited there that they may even choose to become prostitutes voluntarily, though initially they don‟t usually realize what that means (p. 178). That fact shows that the real conditions in Cambodia‟s working fields are really brutal and not appropriate. Those women actually want to seek a better job trafficking that happens in that place. Therefore, Cambodian women have a low skill in the factory because the condition that they are always treated unfairly by Cambodian men.

  However, Somaly realizes about that condition. Her AFESIP Fair Fashion Workshop does not treat those women brutally. They treat those women like a human (p. 178). According to Murphy‟s theory of characterization (1972), the study reveals that Somaly uses reactions in making women‟s lives better. This fact could be seen from page 178: “Our AFESIP Fair Fashion workshop isn‟t like that: it‟s a decent environment where every employee is treated like a human, and each girl knows that every woman has gone through the same kind of pain as her.

  ” Cambodian women suffer a deep pain in their mental and physical because the brutality that they experience. However, Somaly wants to get their lives back and save them from human trafficking in Cambodia. Therefore, she wants to improve their lives by opening a working field that could be useful for their future. In Cambodia, it is no use telling this problem to the law because law could be paid in that country. Almost all the policemen and judges in the law court are paid off by the suspect (p. 189). Therefore, they do not have a law firm to find justice. Somaly feels sad and she is also flooded with anger knowing about this worst condition. She just keeps her head down and tries to help one girl after another. It is a big task for her since it is dealing with the human‟s justice (p. 203).

  As stated in the review of related theory, liberal feminism focuses upon

  (Madsen, 2000: 35-36). While, liberal feminism also stresses in bringing women equally into all public institutions and extending of knowledge so that women‟s issues could no longer be ignored (Humm, 1992: 181). In this case, Somaly gives some skills to those women that would be used for them to have a proper job.

  Somaly gives Cambodian women the opportunities by training them in soft skills and giving them the proper job in the AFESIP Garment. Somaly hopes that by having those skills, they could improve themselves to be a better woman.

  MacKinnon (1982) also states that “work is the social process of shaping and transforming the material and social worlds, creating people as social beings as they create value

  ” (as cited in Humm, 1992, p. 117). Therefore, by having a proper job, it aims for Cambodian women to have a good process and they could have the better lives than before. Meanwhile, by working in a proper place, it also makes them become social persons and could mingle in society. Further, women must have their own social experience in finding a job in order not to be discriminated by men. Those characteristics of liberal feminism propose by Madsen (2000) and Humm (1992) are in accordance with

  Somaly Mam‟s actions in opening a working field for Cambodian women. Thus, it could be concluded that Somaly Mam‟s actions here also display the spirit of liberal feminism.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter consists of two parts, namely conclusions and

  recommendations. Conclusions aim to summarize the research findings based on the analysis in the chapter four, while recommendations are used to give some suggestions for further researchers and the implementation of a literary work in English learning activities.

A. Conclusions

  There is one conclusion which could be drawn from the analysis of chapter four. The analysis was conducted based on the problem formulation which reveals the portrayal of feminism through Somaly Mam’s actions in freeing Cambodian women from sex slavery, in

  Somaly Mam’s The Road of Lost Innocence. The analysis reveals that there are 14 actions which have been done by Somaly in helping those Cambodian women free from sex slavery. Those actions are divided into two parts. The first one is when Somaly Mam still worked in the brothel as the sex worker. The second one is when Somaly Mam had left the brothel. Here, I attempted to reveal that although Somaly still worked as the prostitute, she already had the spirit of feminism by helping her friends to escape from brothels. The findings were obtained by classifying them using the theory of characterization from Murphy (1972), the theory of feminism from Barrow and Millburn (1990), Humm (1992), and also Humm (1995), and the theory of liberal feminism from Humm (1992), Humm (1995), Madsen (2000), Sobloe (2006), and Okin (2004).

  Based on the analysis in chapter four, there are 14 feminist actions which could be depicted in Somaly’s actions. They are: letting two girls escape from the brothel, giving Aunt Peuve and her friends a lot of money, treating the girls from the brothels by asking help from MSF, working in France, helping girls escape from the brothels, rising a charity to fund a proper centre for prostitutes, building AFESIP as the proper centre for prostitutes, helping Sophanna from her husband’s physical abuse, sending a letter to the Cambodian Prime Minister, building a second shelter as the proper centre for prostitutes, building a proper centre for children, giving an educational campaign to Cambodian men, building a new shelter in Siem Reap, and opening an AFESIP garment workshop.

  From all of Somaly Mam ’s actions, I could conclude that Somaly is a feminist because by analyzing her reactions, thought, and speech; she shows that she attempts to achieve liberation, equality, and also opportunity for Cambodian women. Somaly does not only help Cambodian women free from sex slavery; however, she also tries to seek an equality in civil rights, an access to education, a public health service, a welfare of need, and also an equality in earning some money in the working field.

  Furthermore, after I classify Somaly Mam’s actions into the specific one, I feminism proposed by Humm (1992), Humm (1995), Madsen (2000), Sobloe (2006), and Okin (2004). Those characteristics of liberal feminism reveal that women are conscious that they are in the second class after men; therefore they would like to achieve their equal rights in several aspects; such as economy, socials, cultures, politics, and also welfare of needs. In addition, liberal feminists also support to abolish gender roles or sexual discrimination in this world. Therefore, this study draws the conclusion that Somaly Mam displays a liberal feminism which could be depicted in her actions.

  There are many moral values which could be found in this study. I hope that the readers are encouraged to be more aware of gender issues in society.

  Thus, there is no benefit found from sex trafficking. This study also gives me a lot of moral value. I could appreciate myself as a woman because being a woman is a difficult task in this world. We have to give birth, take care of our children, house-

  • cooking, and many more. I hope all men in the world could understand how hard being a woman is. Without women, we could not be born in this world. It could be done from the small action first, such as respecting our mother as well. By respecting our mother, it means that we support the gender equality in this world.

  However, it is pathetic if the number of sex trafficking in this world is still increasing every year. Sex trafficking only makes women suffer more and more.

  In this situation, the discriminators would be labeled as the cruel human beings. However, I encourage the readers not to practice discrimination and to love each

B. Implications

  This study could give some contributions to an educational aspect. First, it could teach the students about the bad sides of gender discriminations. By knowing the gender discrimination, the students could respect women all over the world. Starting from a small action, such as respecting their mothers and their girlfriends in the school. Second, it could give the understanding to the teachers in giving some learning activities to the students which are related to avoiding gender discrimination. The teachers could make some various leaning activities. One of them is, making a group of four or five, which consists of some boys and some girls. By placing them in the one group, it could teach them not to differentiate with each other. Additionally, they could learn that between boys and girls have the same ability and therefore they could mingle with each other.

  Third, this study could be implemented three important things that Sanata Dharma has taught to Sanata Dharma’s students, namely: competence, conscience, and compassion. As soon-to-be teachers, we do not only give them formal education to our students, however, we also teach them how we respect and care with others. Real education starts from a love from children’s/students’ environments. They are expected to build their competence, conscience, and compassion before they receive formal education in the classroom.

C. Suggestions

  This part presents some suggestions for two parties. The first point is the suggestions for the further researchers. The second point is the suggestions to teaching English using the literary works, especially novels.

1. Suggestions for the Further Researchers

  The Road of Lost Innocence is an interesting novel since it is full of

  women’s struggles to combat a sex trafficking. It presents women’s powers toward sex slavery, the relationships between men and women, women’s oppressions, violations

  , and also traditional women’s roles in Cambodia. The

  Road of Lost Innocence conveys a message to the readers about the wome

  n’s feminist actions against sex trafficking and a patriarchal system in society.

  Therefore, the readers could know and understand the feminist actions which appear in this story. Thus, the readers would get a beneficial value after reading the novel.

  Since this study analyzes the feminist actions, further researchers could focus on the other interesting issues which are still related to the gender problem.

  I recommend for further researchers to continue this study to the specific analysis. This study could be more specific if further researchers focus on the socio cultural historical approach because this novel is dealing with women position in Cambodia and also gender roles in that country. In addition, further researchers may study The Road of Lost Innocence by using psychological approach because considered as the appropriate approach in this study because this approach deals with the human behavior, human mind, and also human sense.

2. Suggestions for Teaching English Using the Literary Works

  Novels, as the literary works, could give the best chance to the students to sharpen their knowledge. Meanwhile, it also gives them a moral value, a lesson, and knowledge inside. Shang (2006) says that

  “literature could not only facilitative for language learning purposes in general, but it could also accelerate language learning in content-based instruction ” (as cited in Khatib, 2011, p. 203). Therefore, novels could be used as the materials in English learning activity. The implementation of language teaching in using English novels could help the students to enrich their vocabulary. The students could expand their imagination about the story itself.

  Since novels are good for reading purposes, students could practice their reading speed by reading passage and they could practice their understanding by reading a story. Meanwhile, the students could develop their critical thinking in finding the main idea in the story itself. The novel The Road of Lost Innocence by Somaly Mam provides some interesting materials as the topic to teach English in a classroom. The topics in the novel, such as sex trafficking or human trafficking are the appropriate topics to teach reading activity for the students. This novel tells the sex trafficking that happens in Cambodia. Thus, I choose Basic Reading to implement a reading activity in the classroom and use this novel as the media in teaching a reading skill for the students. The students could learn sex trafficking which happens in several countries in South East Asia; such as Philippine, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and especially Cambodia. In addition, the students could learn the bad effects of sex trafficking itself.

  In teaching Basic Reading Skill II, there are three major activities. The first is pre-reading activity. In this activity, a teacher gives the students some information, which is related to sex trafficking in Cambodia. It aims to help the students understand sex trafficking in Cambodia. Further, it also aims to stimulate the students’ interest in reading the passage. The second activity is whilst-reading activity. In this activity, the students are asked to read and comprehend the text.

  Additionally, the students are asked to answer several questions which are given by the teacher and the teacher discusses the answers with the students. Therefore, the students could understand what the text tells about and know the solution from each exercise.

  This activity also aims to measure students’ comprehension about the information underlying the passage. The last activity is post-reading activity.

  In this activity, the students are expected to share what they feel after reading and answering some exercises which are related to human trafficking. The teacher also asks to students about what they have learnt from today’s lesson. This activity aims to know students’ understanding about the materials that they got from the learning activities.

  The procedures to teach Basic Reading Skill II are listed below.

  1. The teacher gives some pre-reading questions to stimulate the students’ interests in a reading topic.

  2. The teacher asks the students’ opinion about sex trafficking that happens in our environment/society.

  3. The teacher distributes a reading text and asks the students to read a reading passage briefly.

  4. The teacher asks the students to underline some important information based on the text that they have read.

  5. The teacher asks the students to read aloud one by one of each sentence.

  6. The teacher asks the students to summarize the short story with their own words (only six-seven sentences)

  7. The teacher asks the students to work individually to answer some new vocabulary items based on the text.

  8. The teacher gives some time to discuss in a group of four in answering the comprehensive questions based on the text.

  9. The teacher discusses the answers with the students.

  10. The teacher asks some moral values that they get after reading the text.

  11. The teacher closes the learning activity.

  

REFERENCES

th

  Abrams, M. H. (2009). A glossary of literary terms. (9 ed). Orlando: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

  rd ed). Cambridge: Cambridge

  Cambridge advanced learner’s dictionary. (2003). (3 University Press.

  De Beauvoir, S. (1989). The second sex. New York: Vintage Books Edition. Ebunoluwa, S. M. (2009). Feminism: The quest for an African variant. The Journal of Pan African Studies, 3, 227-228.

  Edlund, L. (2002). A theory of prostitution. Journal of Political Economy, 11, 181. George, M. W. (2008). The elements of library research

  • – what every student needs to know . Oxford: Princeton University Press.

  Glover, D., & Kaplan C (2000). Genders. New York: Routledge. Goodman, L. (1996). Literature and gender. London: Routledge The Open University.

  th

  Harmon, W., & Holman, C. H. (2009). A handbook to literature. (5 ed). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Henkle, R. B. (1977). Reading the novel: An introduction to the technique of interpreting fiction. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers. Holmberg, A. (2012). David Mamet and American macho. New York: Cambridge University Press. Humm, M. (1992). Feminisms a reader. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Humm, M. (1994). Contemporary feminist literary criticism. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

  nd

  Humm, M. (1995). The dictionary of feminist theory. (2 ed). Columbus: Ohio th

  Kennedy, X. J., & Gioia, D. (2002). Literature: An introduction to poetry. (10 ed). New York: Longman. Khatib, M. (2011). Literature in EFL/ESL classroom. Couldadian Center of Science and Education , 4, 203. Madsen, D. L. (2000). Feminist theory and literary practice. London: Pluto Press. Mam, S. (2008). The road of lost innocence. London: Virago Press. Mitchel, J. (1971). Women: The longest revolution. New York: Penguin. Montagu, A. (1953). The natural superiority of women. New York: The Macmillan Company. Murphy, M. J. (1972). Understanding unseens: An introduction to English poetry

  and the English novel for overseas students. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.

  Sobloe, A. (2006). Sex from Plato to Paglia. Westport: Greenwood Press. Tong, R. (2009). Feminist thought: A more comprehensive introduction. Denver: Westiew Press.

  Sources from the internet: th

  Harris, K. D. (2013). What is human trafficking?. Retrieved August 20 , 2013 from Hur, S. (2012).

  Women’s movements and feminism in asia 2007-- women’s rd

  Retrieved October 3 , 2012 movements, feminism and gender in asia. from

  th

  Mel. (2013, October 12). Timmy the tenacious teabag. Retrieved November 14 , 2013 f Respati, S. W. (2010, August 27). Feminisme dan psikoanalisis gender. Retrieved

  th

  September 26 , 2013, from

  Sherbert, E. (2012, April 20). Bay area sex trafficker sentenced to 9 years in

  rd prison . Retrieved October

  3 , 2012, from

  Soroptimist (2012). Sex slavery/trafficking: frequently asked questions. Retrieved

  th

  August 20 , 2013 f

  rd

  Taormina, A. (2008, June 14). Definition of the novel. Retrieved October 3 , 2012, from

  The United States Attorney’s Office Nothern District of California. (2012, April 19). Sex trafficker sentenced to nine years in prison. Retrieved August

  th

  20 , 2013 from

  

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