THE INFLUENCE OF THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF BUSHIDO ON TOTTO-CHAN’S PERSONALITY, IN TETSUKO KUROYANAGI’S TOTTO-CHAN: THE LITTLE GIRL AT THE WINDOW A THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in Englis

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THE INFLUENCE OF THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF BUSHIDO

ON TOTTO-CHAN’S PERSONALITY, IN TETSUKO KUROYANAGI’S

TOTTO-CHAN: THE LITTLE GIRL AT THE WINDOW

A THESIS

  

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

  

By

Felisitas Kanyamurti

Student Number: 05 1214 046

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

  

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

2009

  

THE INFLUENCE OF THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF BUSHIDO

ON TOTTO-CHAN’S PERSONALITY, IN TETSUKO KUROYANAGI’S

TOTTO-CHAN: THE LITTLE GIRL AT THE WINDOW

A THESIS

  

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

  

By

Felisitas Kanyamurti

Student Number: 05 1214 046

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

  

DEPARTEMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

2009

  

ABSTRACT

  Kanyamurti, Felisitas. (2009). The Influence of the Seven Principles of Bushido

  

on Totto-chan’s Personality, in Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: the Little

Girl at the Window. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program,

  Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

  Every country has different guideline as a basic principle in society to behave. The basic principle can be written or unwritten. Japanese believe in their country’s unwritten basic principles called the seven principles of Bushido. However, Bushido has been taught from generation to generation and engrafts its meaning in every Japanese heart. This study discusses Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window. In this novel, those principles are revealed by the dialogues, actions, and manners of the characters. Those principles, however, also bring some influence to the main character’s personality.

  This study raises two problems to be solved. The first problem is how the seven principles of Bushido are revealed in Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window. The second problem is how the seven principles manifest their meanings to Totto-chan.

  This study uses library study to collect data. The main source of this study is Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s entitled Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window. The secondary sources are some books and articles which are closely related to this study, such as theory of critical approach, self-actualization in the theory of human needs, characteristics of self-actualized person, theory of character, theory of characterization, and some review on Japanese culture. This study applies two approaches, the first one is socio-cultural-historical and the other one is the psychological approach.

  The analysis finds that the seven principles of Bushido, namely Gi, Yu, Jin, Rei, Makoto, Meiyo, and Chugo, are revealed by the dialogues, actions, and manner of the characters in Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window. The characters, Mr. Kobayashi and teachers, Totto-chan’s parents also Totto-chan’s friends, help Totto-chan to understand and engraft its meaning in her heart. The effect of those principles is that Totto-chan experiences the process of self- actualization and the self-actualization contributes to her personality trait. Those findings provide some evidences that Bushido influences the life and behavior of the Japanese.

  This study also provides a suggestion for teaching learning activity. The suggestion is using a part of the novel Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window in Intensive Reading II Class in English Language Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University.

  Key words: Bushido, personality, self-actualization

  

ABSTRAK

  Kanyamurti, Felisitas. (2009). The Influence of the Seven Principles of Bushido

  

on Totto-chan’s Personality, in Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: the Little

Girl at the Window. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Bahasa Inggris, Jurusan

  Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan and Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

  Setiap negara memiliki pedoman yang berbeda-beda sebagai salah satu prinsip dasar untuk berperilaku dalam masyarakat. Prinsip dasar tersebut dapat secara tertulis maupun tidak tertulis. Jepang memiliki suatu prinsip dasar tidak tertulis yang sangat dipercaya oleh Bangsa Jepang disebut dengan tujuh prinsip- prinsip Bushido. Walaupun Bushido tidak tertulis, Bushido sudah diajarkan dari generasi ke generasi dan setiap arti Bushido tertanam di setiap hati Bangsa Jepang. Dalam novel karya Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window, prinsip-prinsip Bushido tercermin dalam percakapan, tindakan, dan sikap setiap tokoh. Selain itu prinsip-prinsip tersebut juga membawa beberapa pengaruh terhadap kepribadian tokoh utama.

  Ada dua permasalahan yang dibahas dalam penelitian ini. Permasalahan pertama adalah bagaimana Bushido terungkap dalam karya Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window. Permasalahan kedua adalah bagaimana perwujudan makna dari tujuh prinsip tersebut terhadap Totto-chan.

  Penelitian ini mengunakan studi pustaka dalam pengumpulan data. Sumber utama dalam penelitian ini adalah novel karya Tetsuko Kuroyanagi yang berjudul Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window. Sumber kedua yang dipakai adalah beberapa buku dan artikel-artikel yang erat hubungannya dengan topik penelitian ini, seperti teori tentang pemecahan masalah, perwujudan diri dalam teori kebutuhan manusia, karakter orang yang terbentuk dari perwujudan diri, teori karakter, teori penokohan, dan beberapa resensi tentang budaya Jepang. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua pendekatan yang pertama adalah pendekatan sosial budaya dan sejarah serta yang kedua adalah pendekatan psikologi.

  Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa tujuh prinsip Bushido, yang disebut dengan Gi, Yu, Jin, Rei, Makoto, Meiyo, dan Chugo, tercermin melalui dialog, tindakan, dan sikap yang dilakukan setiap karakter dalam Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window. Karakter- karakter tersebut, Kepala Sekolah dan guru-guru, orangtua Totto-chan, dan juga Teman-teman Totto-chan, membantu Totto-chan untuk memahami dan meresapkan makna Bushido dalam dirinya. Sebagai pengaruh dari prinsip-prinsip tersebut adalah Totto-chan mengalami proses perwujudan diri dan perwujudan diri tersebut berperan dalam pembantukan karakternya.

  Penelitian ini juga memberikan saran berupa kegiatan pembelajaran. Saran yang dapat diberikan adalah dengan menggunakan salah satu bagian dari novel Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window di kelas Intensive Reading II Program Study Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

  Kata kunci: Bushido, kepribadian, perwujudan diri

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  I praise the Lord, Jesus Christ, as I have finished my thesis. He guides me in every step I made, gives me His bless and love. Thank you, Lord.

  I would like to express my deepest gratitude to V. Triprihatmini, S.Pd.,

M.Hum., M.A., my sponsor, for her patience and guidance in finishing this thesis.

  My gratitude also goes to F.X. Ouda Teda Ena, S.Pd., M.Pd., for his ideas and supports, and to the lectures, secretariat staff, and library staff of English Education Study Program for their support in finishing my thesis.

  My gratitude goes to my beloved family: my parent, Aloysius Bekti

  

Subagyo, Ambrosia Sari Ningsih, and my sisters, Maria Erika and Clara

Dewi, for their patience to always remind me for finishing my thesis.

  I would like to thank Theofilus Ardentya and family, for their love, patience, and support in finishing this thesis. I would like to thank Suster

  

Benedicte CB, Yeni, Esti, Dhina, Maria, Stela, Savitri, Achie, Christine, and

everybody who always support me with their laughs and loves. My gratitude goes

  to the members of Chicken Coop Chinaman, Sun Bright English Course, and

  

Elite English Course (EEC), who always beside me in finishing play

  performance and SPD office. Jeanne Gabriella Jiwanggi, my beloved student, who is always supporting me in many ways. To the friends of mine whom I passed these years through the process of studying in English Education Program: Rindang, Berlin, Esti, Verdi, Topik, and Fandi.

  Felisitas Kanyamurti

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

TITLE PAGE ..........................................................................................................i

APPROVAL PAGES ............................................................................................ ii

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY...................................................iv

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH

UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS…………………………………..…..…v

ABSTRACT ...........................................................................................................vi

ABSTRAK............................................................................................................. vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS….……………………………………………......viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………......ix

LIST OF APPENDICES…………………………………………………….….xi

  

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………..1

  1.1 Background of the Study………………………………………1

  1.2 Problem Formulations…………………………………………4

  1.3 Problem Limitation……………………………………………5

  1.4 Objectives of the Study………………………………………..5

  1.5 Benefits of the Study…………………………………………..5

  1.6 Definition of Terms…………………………………………....6

  

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE…………………….9

  2.1 Review of Related Theories…………………………………...9

  2.1.1 Theory of Critical Approach…………………………….9

  2.1.2 Self-actualization in the Theory of Human Needs……..11

  2.1.3 Characteristics of the Self-actualized Person…………..16

  2.1.4 Theory of Character……………………………………17

  2.1.5 Theory of Characterization……………………………..18

  2.2 Reviews on Japanese Culture………………………………...19

  th th

  2.2.1 Japanese Culture in the 12 – 19 Century………….....20

  2.2.2 The Seven Principles of Bushido………………………21

  2.3 Theoretical Framework………………………………………24

  

CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY…………………………………………...26

  3.1 Object of the Study…………………………………………...26

  3.2 Approach of the Study………………………………………..28

  3.3 Method of the Study………………………………………….28

  

CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS…………………………………………………….31

  4.1 How the Seven Principles of Bushido are Revealed in Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window…….31

  4.1.1 Gi……………………………………………………….32

  4.1.2 Yu………………………………………………………36

  4.1.3 Jin………………………………………………………40

  4.1.4 Rei……………………………………………………...42

  4.1.5 Makoto…………………………………………………44

  4.1.6 Meiyo…………………………………………………..46

  4.1.7 Chugo…………………………………………………..47

  4.2 The Manifest of Seven Principles of Bushido to Totto-chan...48

  4.2.1 Acceptance of self, others, and nature…………...…….49

  4.2.2 Spontaneity……………………………………………..51

  4.2.3 Sympathy for humankind………………………………54

  

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS……………………..56

  5.1 Conclusions…………………………………………………..56

  5.2 Suggestions…………………………………………………..58

  

REFERENCES….………………………………………………………………60

APPENDICES…………………………………………………………………..62

LIST OF APPENDICES

  APPENDIX 1 The Summary of Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window........63 APPENDIX 2 Biography of Tetsuko Kuroyanagi……………………………….65 APPENDIX 3 Lesson Plan in Teaching Intensive Reading……………………...67 APPENDIX 4 Material…………………………………………………………...71 APPENDIX 5 Reading Material “Put It All Back!”……………………………..73

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter is divided into six sections. The first section is Background of

  the Study. This section explains the background knowledge of the study. It also explains why the novel was chosen as the primary data of this study. The second section is Problem Formulation that contains questions to be answered as the focus of this study. The third section is the Problem Limitation. This section explains the limitation of the problem formulation as the focus of this study. The fourth section is Objectives of the Study. This section mentions the main purpose of this study. The fifth section is Benefits of the Study that contains the advantages of this study. The sixth section is Definition of terms. It explains the terms used in this study to make a better understanding for the readers about this study.

1.1 Background of the Study

  Literature is one of special written art works. Literature draws the social phenomena, the attitude, and even the culture in society itself. Literature is special because it gives people very clear reflection on their live. So, by reading literary works, people can understand about their selves, about society around them, or about the culture. Literature facilitates people to learn about society and culture without having direct experience by them selves.

  2 Hudson (10) says that literature is a vital record of what men have seen about life; what they have experienced of it, what they have thought, and felt about those aspects of which have the most immediate and enduring human interest. It is fundamentally dealing with an expression of life through the medium of language.

  Literature allows people to reflect about life. People can see life and its aspects very clearly through reading the literary works. People do not have to experience the atmosphere, but they can feel it as if they were in the novel. There are three genres in literature, namely fiction, poetry, and drama. According to Millligan (4) novel is classified as fiction that has a close relationship to human life. Novels convey reality. Every novel may have their way and style in telling us about the story. In general, novel describes or tells the life just how it is happened.

  Talking about education, it always becomes an interesting subject of discussion by many people because this subject has a long and interesting history.

  The changes on it involve many efforts from so many people in this world. Many authors had brought this issue into their writing. Tetsuko Kuroyanagi is the one of great writers in telling the educational experiences. She has an interesting way to tell a story through her novel. Her diction is always perfect. Moreover, she conveys the meaning clearly. To make the novel enjoyable to everyone, she uses her own experiences in her childhood in telling the story. The characters and the society descriptions are also explained clearly and understandably. Tetsuko Kuroyanagi really knows how to make the readers understand and get involved in the story. Because of its strengths, I chose Tetsuko’s novel as the primary source.

  3 When people are talking about education, people should include matters that influence the particular issue such as culture, what the society believe, and psychological situation about self-actualization. Since it includes many matters, the practicality of the issue may vary and it will be challenging to find out how it differs among countries. That is the reason why I chose Tetsuko’s literary work, which is a Japanese novel, to find out about the Japanese culture and the seven principles of Bushido from the Japanese ancestors’. Furthermore, I am eager to find out the influence of those principles to Totto-chan.

  Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window is actually telling us about Tetsuko’s childhood. In Japan, this novel was first published in 1981. Tetsuko tells us about Totto-chan’s childhood and school life experiences in the middle of World War II. Totto-chan is a kind of high-spirited child and she always wants to know about everything around her. She is willing to learn many things and to try new things by her own way to satisfy her curiosity. Totto-chan’s mother tries to find other schools for Totto-chan where there is a freedom to express children’s feeling. The school is Tomoe Gakuen, an extraordinary school. There, she meets Mr. Kobayashi, the headmaster. After talking to Mr. Kobayashi, a good relationship between Mr. Kobayashi and Totto-chan is created. The book goes on describing the life, the friends, the lessons at school, and the colorful atmosphere of Totto-chan. All of these are presented to the readers through the eyes of a child.

  Besides Totto-chan as the main character, there is another important person in the novel. That is why I also present protagonist characters through the headmaster, Mr. Kobayashi and the teachers, Mother and Daddy, also Totto-

  4 chan’s friends. Mr. Kobayahi is one of important characters in the novel in molding the students. He is a kind of man who understands children. Moreover, he tries to develop children self-actualization in their qualities of mind, body, and soul. At Tomoe Gakuen, he creates a happy atmosphere for his pupils. World War

  II has started. It does not appear in at Tomoe until the school is bombed and destroyed. Mr. Kobayashi always motivates his pupils to be good children as the fulfillment of their self-actualization needs. He always tries to build his pupils’ self-confidence and teaches them about life in the society.

  This novel gives an illustration about Japanese society in the World War

  II. Nowadays, Japan grows as a powerful country and it is not easy after a great booming. Japan rebuilds their life very fast since the World War II. In the process of rebuilding the society, Japanese are motivated by the seven principles of Bushido. The seven principles of Bushido appear in the novel. I am interested in revealing the seven principles of Bushido that the Japanese holds as self- actualization through the characters in this novel. Those principles, apparently, have a great impact to Totto-chan.

1.2 Problem Formulation

  The questions to be answered in this study can be formulated as follows:

  1. How are the seven principles of Bushido revealed in Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window?

  2. How do the seven principles manifest their meanings to Totto-chan?

  5

  1.3 Problem Limitation

  The limitation of this study is on how the seven principles appear in the novel and how the seven principles manifest their meaning to Totto-chan. For the second problem limitation, I will discuss the theory of human needs. I will focus only on the self-actualization as one of the needs in human needs theory. I also use the characteristics of self-actualized person to reveal the self-actualization of the main character. Self-actualization is the highest stage of the human needs by Abraham Maslow. I will discuss it further more on the chapter three.

  1.4 Objectives of the Study

  The first objective of this study is to find out how the seven principles of Bushido are revealed in the novel. The second objective is more specified, to find out how the seven principles of Bushido manifest their meanings to Totto-chan.

  1.5 Benefits of the Study

  There are some benefits can be obtained from this study, among others and for readers, PBI students who are interested in literary works, English teachers, and other researchers. By reading this study, readers can get better understanding about how other countries role their society to overcome the problems. The other benefit is for PBI students who are interested in Japanese literary works. This study is to help them in gathering the information with the same topic. For English teachers, reading this study helps them to make a material design in teaching reading comprehension about a culture that is implied from a novel. This novel

  6 itself can give a good motivation to the teachers in teaching their pupils using interesting ways. Furthermore, it helps the teachers and the students to have good relationship at school to create a fun environment. This study also helps the other researchers to get more information about the novel.

1.6 Definition of Terms

  In order to have a clear understanding of this study, I include the definition of terms used in this thesis.

  The Seven Principles of Bushido

  Taisen Deshimaru “The Zen Way to the Martial Arts” uses the Seven Principles of Bushido in the samurai era. All the samurais must hold those seven principles as their guidance. The seven principles are: a. Gi : the right decision, rectitude.

  b. Yu : bravery tinged with heroism.

  c. Jin : universal love, benevolence toward mankind, compassion.

  d. Rei : right action.

  e. Makoto: utter sincerity, truthfulness

  f. Meiyo : honor and glory g. Chugo : devotion, loyalty.

  The meaning of Bushido itself is: Bu -- martial arts; shi -- warrior; do -- the way. These principles already become Japanese life principles from generation to generation. Bushido has influenced Buddhism, and vise versa. The elements of Buddhism found in Bushido are pacification of the emotions, tranquil compliance

  7 with the inevitable, self-control in the face of any event, a more intimate exploration of death than of life, and pure poverty <http://www.shotokai.com/ingles/filosofia/principles.html>.

  Personality

  In Lester D. Crow and Alice Crow’s Reading In General Psychology (228- 231), psychology is often said as the study of human behavior and the progress of man’s self development. Human behavior and development are influenced by the environment and the potential that man have. That is why psychology can be said as the study of personality.

  In this book, the most famous work of personality is Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality. Freud states three elements, namely the id, the ego, and the superego, can affect human personality. Those three elements have their own function.

  The first component is the id. The id is that aspect of self that encourages the fulfillment of personal needs and urges, possibly through personally and socially harmful behavior (229). This component is the only one component that every human has since he or she is born. The second is the ego. The ego represents conscious states and acts (229). Human will have this ego if they are able to develop their id first. Id gives some impulses to ego so that a human being can act appropriately in society. This component deals with the reality. The third is the superego. The superego was one of personality trait that controls participation in selfish or self-centered activities (229). As the last component of personality, superego holds very important part. This component of personality

  8 provides human being to be able to make judgment, build a sense of right or wrong. Since the id gives impulses to the ego then the superego acts what the ego has decided to act.

  Manifest

  Based on Oxford Dictionary, there are some meanings of manifest. The first is something clear and obvious. Second is to show something clearly. The third is to demonstrate something. The last is to show itself and to appear.

  In this study, manifest refers to the second meaning. Manifest is to show something clearly.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter is divided into three sections. The first section is Review of Related Theories. Review of related theories examines the relevant theory applied

  in this study. The second section is Review on the Historical Background. The third section is Theoretical Framework. Theoretical framework clarifies the contribution of the theories in answering the problem formulation.

2.1 Review of Related Theories

  This section presents some theories and reviews which can be used in analyzing the novel. In this study, I have two problem formulations. In answering the problem formulations, I will apply two critical approaches. Socio-cultural- historical approach will be used in answering the first problem. Besides that, I will also use some reviews of Japanese culture.

  For the second problem formulation, I will use the psychological approach. To support the answer, theory of character and characterization are used to find out a clear description of Totto-chan as the main character. I will combine those theories with the theory of human needs. In this study, I will use Maslow’s theory of human needs to analyze the main character self-actualization.

2.1.1 Theory of Critical Approach I have to be able to make a reasonable judgment in analyzing this study.

  Therefore, I will employ two of the theories of critical approaches. Those critical

  10 approaches will help me in analyzing and exploring the values which are revealed in the novel. Moreover, it is used to get better understanding. Rohrberger and Woods’s (3) distinguish five critical approaches. Those principles are the formalist approach, biographical approach, socio-cultural – historical approach, mythopeic approach, and psychological approach.

  In this thesis, I will employ the socio-cultural – historical approach. According to Rohrberger and Woods (9-10), socio-cultural-historical approach insists that the only way to locate the real work is be in the reference to the civilization that produces it. The historical approach investigates the social, cultural, and intellectual context that produced the work. It is important to explore the time and place of the work itself. The historical approach often seeks to understand the impact of a work in today’s life.

  Besides socio-cultural-historical approach, I will also apply psychological approach. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia (1947), psychological approach believes that a literature work is the reflection of life itself and the real representation of human motivation and behavior. This approach allows me to choose the focus on the creativity process of the author, the artist’s motivation or behavior, or analyzing fictional characters’ motivations and behaviors.

  Using both approaches leads me to analyze the novel from the socio- cultural-historical and psychological point a view. Socio-cultural-historical approach enables me to investigate and dig out some understanding about the society or the place. Society creates culture, which becomes one of the guidance, besides religion, on their life. In society, culture takes an important role. Besides

  11 the culture, time also brings big influence to the society. The setting of time of the novel is around 1945, we can call it history. Society, culture, and history have a certain relation. Therefore, by using the socio-cultural-historical approach, I can analyze the novel deeper and keen.

  Second approach is psychological approach. Using this approach enables me to have better understanding the main character behavior. Psychological approach also helps me to dig out some psychological characteristics influenced by the moral values in the main character. Through the experiences in the main character’s life, I can analyze the manifest of the culture to the behavior of main character.

2.1.2 Self-actualization in the Theory of Human Needs

  Reviewing on self-actualization theory, in this study, I employ several theories. Based on Vernon J. Nordby and Calvin S. Hall, the psychologists researching on self-actualization are Abraham Maslow (116), Carl Gustav Jung (95), and Kurt Goldstein (66). Three of them are talking about self-actualization with different views.

  Jung said about personality is referred to as the psyche (97). Psyche consists of three components. They are the conscious ego, the personal unconscious and its complexes, and the collective unconscious and its archetypes. Jung also stated the important dynamic concepts are psychic energy or libido, value, entropy, and equivalence. Developmental concepts are those of individuation, the transcendent function, and symbolization. Furthermore, Jung

  12 stated that a typology has been very influential. It consists of the attitudes of extraversion and introversion, and the psychological functions of thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting. As the final concept of Jung is synchronicity.

  Unlike Jung, Kurt Goldstein’s principal concept is organism (68). Goldstein divided the organism functions based on the three dynamic concepts. The functions are equalization, self-actualization, and “coming to terms” with the environment. The abstract attitude and concrete attitude is the famous works of Goldstein.

  Another expert who is talking about self-actualization is Abraham H. Maslow. The famous work of Abraham Maslow about individual personality is the hierarchy of needs. In discovering the human needs, Maslow borrowed some concepts from other experts. However, Maslow found some original values. There are metaneeds, self-actualizing persons, and peak experiences (117).

  After several reading and finding others sources, I prefer to employ self- actualization theory by Abraham Maslow as the basis of this study. The other reason is Abraham Maslow is the psychologist who discovers the core of traits that distinguish self-actualizing individuals (117).

  In Hebert L. Petri’s book Motivation: Theory and Research (301), there are five stages on Maslow’s theory of human needs. It is well-known as the hierarchy of needs. Before someone can fulfill the self-actualization, which is the highest level in the hierarchy, it is crucial for the human being to satisfy the lower level of their needs.

  13 The first stage is physiological needs. As the basic stage, it becomes the strongest needs among the other human needs to be able to survive physically.

  The needs are hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, oxygen, and the other biological needs.

  The second stage is safety needs. The safety needs represent a need safety or security in our environment, such as protection, law, and stability. This safety needs also include the personal security, financial security, and health. Because of the reason, people mostly chose to have secure jobs, familiar surroundings, and insurances.

  The third stage is belongingness and love needs. In this stage, human needs to feel as a part of a group, and to have relationship with the others. These needs are different from sexual needs. It is more to get affection from family and from the surroundings, have a work group, and have relationship with others as a part of a society.

  The fourth stage is esteem needs. Esteem needs present a normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. It is called a positive need because this need likes an evaluation of oneself.

  The last is self-actualization. This is the final stage of development in the hierarchy of human needs. Someone will come to this stage if they are already satisfied the first, second, third, and fourth needs. It is the needs which are motivated human to grow, to find self-fulfillment, and to realize one’s potential.

  Based on Maslow’s The Farther Research of Human Nature (44), there are eight ways leading to self-actualization. The eight ways are:

  14

  1. Concentration According to Maslow, “First, self-actualization means experiencing fully, vividly, selflessly, with full concentration, and total absorption” (44). In experiencing a moment in life, individuals have to be aware of everything happens around them. Therefore, it is important for individuals to forget their resistance and introversion. This is the moment of self-actualizing.

  2. Growth choices In life, individuals have to make a lot of choices. In making decision, it can lead to the progress choice or the regress choice. More than those choices which an individual has to make, there is a growth choice to choose one option, the right choice. To make a growth choice in life, someone has to open his or herself to the new and the challenging experiences and not afraid to the possible failure or disappointment. That is why self-actualization called as an ongoing process (44).

  3. Self-awareness Self-awareness is a moment when an individual becomes aware of their own potentials and their inner nature. In this phase, an individual can decide their own likes and dislikes or the right or wrong for their own.

  4. Honesty Sometimes there is a time when doubt comes to someone’s mind. It is not easy to make an honest decision. Self-actualization happens when an individual can make an honest action based on their heart and take the responsibility of it.

  15

  5. Judgment By following those first four steps can guarantee individuals to have a better life. When individuals dare to follow their own taste, they can feel that they already make a good judgment for their own. They will find a better choice about what is right or wrong for him or her.

  6. Self-development Self-actualization is also an ongoing process developing individual’s potentialities. It means that working to do well the thing that one wants to do (46).

  It is a never ending process to make real the potentials in life.

  7. Peak experiences Peak experiences are transient moments of self-actualization (46). At this moment, individuals are already aware of their own potential and where their good at. Individuals can think clearly, have better understanding to others, and have less conflict with their selves.

  8. Lack of ego defenses This is the hardest thing to do. Individuals have to be able to make defenses although sometimes it hurts to make a defense to something unpleasant.

  When individual has to make a defense, individual must be aware to the other defense the society.

  This novel tells about Totto-chan’s childhood experiences. Therefore, from those eight ways in leading to self-actualization, I will only focus on the first way about direct experiences that can help someone to actualize herself or

  16 himself. It helps me in analyzing the manifest of seven principles of Bushido in Totto-chan self-actualization.

2.1.3 Characteristics of the Self-Actualized Person

  In Hebert L. Petri (305), Maslow makes a list of characteristics self- actualized person. Those characteristics are more efficient perception of reality and more comfortable with it, acceptance of self, others, and nature, spontaneity, problem centering, detachment (need for privacy), independence from culture and environment, continued freshness of appreciation, mystic experience or oceanic feeling, sympathy of humankind, interpersonal relations, democratic character structure, means and ends, philosophical, unhostile sense of humor, and last is creativity. From those characteristics, I will only apply some of those characteristics which can support me to analyze the main character, Totto-chan.

  1. Acceptance of self, others, and nature Self-actualized individuals were also analyzed as accepting themselves and their own foibles without guilt or extremely anxiety (305). They will accept people for what the way they are.

  2. Spontaneity Self-actualized person has spontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness in their actions and thoughts. They will follow their intuition in their acting and behaving. They will do what they think it is right to do. However, they will behave based on the code of ethics they have and it makes them look unconventional.

  17

  3. Sympathy for humankind Self-actualized person has feeling for the others. They also tend to have a feeling of togetherness, aware, and sensitive to their surrounding.

  In the novel Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window, the influence of the culture toward the main character’s self-actualization is very interesting to be analyzed. It is because the culture that Japanese believe as their moral value can reflect the power of the society in controlling Totto-chan’s life and behavior.

  Those three characteristics are appeared toward Totto-chan’s self-actualization experiences as a process to develop Totto-chan personality. Based on the descriptions from the author of Totto-chan, self-actualization will be analyzed.

2.1.4 Theory of Character

  In this study, I use the theory of character and characterization in understanding Japanese culture through Totto-chan character in the novel.

  Japanese culture deals with the society and the historical background of the environment. Because of that reason, I mostly use the socio-cultural-historical approach to analyze the novel. The theory of character and characterization is used when I want to examine Totto-chan’s character as the main character in the novel. I apply this theory by relating the theory with their behavior and action.

  According to Abrams (23), characters are the person’s described in a literary work, who have the moral and natural qualities that can be identified by seeing what they say as in the dialogue and what they do as in the action. Characters have emotion, temperament, moral, and social values that become the

  18 basic motivation of his or her speech and actions. During the story, a character can have some changes or in stable. The experiences that are happened to the character can affect their thoughts, ideas, or their environment or society.

  Meanwhile, according to Hugh Holman (81) in his book says character is a brief draft that describes a personage who has definite quality. This quality relates to the idea of moral construction of human personality. Each character has his own value, thus represents a sort of human being.

  All definitions above try to say that the moral principle is represented through the character. In this novel, Totto-chan is presented in dramatic and narrative way with dialogue and actions. Furthermore, those dialogue and actions are meant for Totto-chan to express herself. Through the dialogue and actions, readers can understand more about Totto-chan thoughts, ideas, and feelings. Her behavior, as represented in the novel, expresses her emotion, her temper, and even moral principles. Using this theory, I can analyze those behavior, dialog and actions, and get the fact beyond the moral principles.

2.1.5 Theory of Characterization

  Based on Abrams definition of character, it is obvious that what the characters say and do is very important in analyzing the character. Through the actions and dialogues, readers can see the interaction of the character to other characters in a literary work. Moreover, they can determine what kind of person he or she is. This theory is seeing from how character is revealed by those aspects.

  19 Meanwhile, Hugh Holman (81) explains characterization in three ways.

  The first is the explicit presentation, which means that the author gives direct exposition of the character. The second is the presentation of character in action, which means there is no explicit comment from the author, and the readers examine the character’s characteristic from the action. The last is the representation from within a character, “without comment on the character by the author, of the impact of actions and emotions on the characters itself”. The purpose is the readers can understand the attitude of each character clearly.

  Holman adds that a character can be the static or dynamic character. Static character is a character who the changes not really significant. A static character is more about how the action reveals the character than how the character response to the action and change the character. In the other hands, the dynamic character is a character who the changes by the experiences and actions.

  Based on those experts, I find that characters in novels ‘live’ and ‘act’ in the stories. Therefore, in this case, characterization is important. Characterization is a process in which characters are portrayed in the novel as real people in real life. I use the theory of characterization to analyze Totto-chan’s character deeper.

  Using this theory enables me to reveal a character’s description.

2.2 Reviews on Japanese Culture

  Since this study is using the socio cultural-historical approach, I will

  th th

  discuss on the Japanese Culture. During the 12 century until the 19 century,

  20 Japan used the feudal system in rolling their government. Feudal system was a way of the lord or the king made obligations with the vassal.

  th th

2.2.1 Japanese Culture in the 12 – 19 Century

  th th

  Feudalism in Japan happened since the 12 to 19 centuries. Japan divided the society into different classes. Unlike the European feudal system in which farmers or slaves were at the bottom, Japan placed merchant on the lowest class. Japan divided the society based on their productivity. That is why farmers had higher status than shopkeeper in Japan <www.regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/politicalsystems/feudalism.cfm>.

  According to The Four-Tiered Class System of Feudal Japan <http://asianhistory.about.com/od/japan/p/ShogJapanClass.htm>, Japan was divided the society into four classes. Those classes had their own contribution to the country. The four classes were the Emperor as the first class, the second class was the farmers, the third was the artisans, and the last was the merchants. There were not only the farmers in the second class but also the fisherman. Both of them had a very important role for Japan. They produced the food so all the society depended on them. Although they were considered an honored class, they still had to pay the taxes which burdened them.

  Japan feudalism is very interesting to be discussed. It was the Emperor in the first class but the Japan Emperor had a little power in role the country.

  However, there was the Shogun, as the minion of the Emperor, who took control of the country for the political and military situations. The Shogun ruled the

  21 country in the military way which was closely related to the absolutism. The Shogun distributed lands to his loyal vassal, called daimyo, and daimyo granted the lands to their warrior, the samurai.

  Those samurais were the warrior of Japan lived according to a code, called Bushido. Bushido was very strict because to protect the country and family’s honor. If a warrior failed in protecting the country or the family, the warrior was expected to perform a suicide. As time gone by, in the end the role of the feudal and emperor system in Japan, the samurai had gone, Bushido remains until now.

  Bushido becomes the code ethics and moral of the Japanese.

2.2.2 The Seven Principles of Bushido

  According to Inozen Nitobe, Bu-shi-do means Military-Knight-Ways – the ways which fighting nobles should observe in their daily life as well as in their vocation (205). In other words, Bu-shi-do means the “Precepts of Knighthood”, the nobleness oblige of the warrior class.

  In this study, I prefer to use the original term of Bushido. Bushido is the code of moral principles which the Japanese knights were required to observe (206). This code is unwritten. This code consists of a few norms carried out from mouth to mouth or coming from the well-known warrior. Although the code is unwritten and unuttered, the sanction is very deep and powerful. Moreover, the code will be written deep inside of the heart. There is no exact time and place which is showing the code is said. That is why the way of teaching Bushido is so

  22 unique and circumscribed, creating an additional of mind and character so unusual.

  The sources of Bushido are from the Buddhism and Shintoism (210). Both the sources are complementarily one to another. Buddhism teaches how to be calm and trust to the fate, submission, and life after death. Buddhism believes that every human being has their own “original sin”. In the other hand, Shinto teaches the patriotism and loyalty. Shinto believes in the goodness and purity of a human soul. Japanese combine the Buddhism and Shinto called Shinbutsu shugo (shin =

  

Shinto, butsu = Buddha, shugo = syncretism). There is dualism in Japan; they

  believe Shinto as secular life and Buddha as hereafter life. Those doctrines are well suited to the samurai who ruled the country.

  When feudalism came to Japan, naturally the professional class of warriors came into prominence. The professional class of warriors was well-known as

  

samurai. A Japanese word Bu-ke or Bu-shi (Fighting Knights) was also adopted in

  common use. They were a privilege class, and they are made to fight. Those

  

samurai must obey the norm of the Bushido which already been taught as their

bases.

  According to Inozen Nitobe, there are seven principles of Bushido. The first is rectitude or justice, in Japan well-known as Gi. It defines as a power of resolution or the power of deciding to something upon a certain situation whether it is good or bad for her or him. According to Inozen Nitobe (220), Gi means The Right Reason. Rectitude is the bone that gives the firmness.

  23 The second principle is courage or Yu. It means courage. It can be seen through the heroic stories for the children in Japan. It illustrates the courage of the warrior to fight until the last blood they had. To engraft the warriors boldness in a war or battle, heroic stories repeat all the time until the children already grown up.

  The third is benevolence toward humankind or Jin. It is a universal love. If rectitude and justice is more masculine, benevolence is more gentle and persuasive of a feminine nature.

  The fourth is politeness or Rei. This value is the most essential quality for the society. Politeness is well-known as one of Japanese trait. Politeness should be a sympathy feeling to others’ feelings. The value of this principles will lost the meaning if people hold it only because they are afraid to hurt others feeling. To hold this value, Japanese must perform it from their heart.

  The fifth is truthfulness or Makoto. It is taught to tell the truth in everything. Telling lies is unacceptable for Japanese. Moreover, it is like a coward. The promises that Japanese made has to be fulfilled although without a written pledge.

  The sixth is honor and glory or Meiyo. It is related to a personality and a good name – one’s reputation, the immortal part of one’s self, and what remains being bestial. It will become a big shame if someone cannot defend his or herself honor and glory.

  The last but not least is the duty of loyalty or Chugo. Bushido did not require their society to become a slave of a king. Someone who sacrifices his or

  24 her principles to steal master’s attention called as nei-shin. To be loyal on duty means someone does his or her job from their heart.

  Even though Bushido was a code from the old generation but it remains until now in Japanese religion, ethics, and moral. As basic moral principles in Japan, Bushido is taught since young and it starts from the family, school, and society. Bushido appears as the moral education at school and also in someone’s life experiences. One by one of the seven principles of Bushido appear in the actions and life experiences of Totto-chan. Those principles lead Totto-chan to fulfill her self-actualization to develop her personality as a young Japanese girl. The way of those principles leading Totto-chan to actualize herself is by developing her inner characters and potentials, such as being aware to the surroundings, being spontaneous, and having sympathy to the others.

2.3 Theoretical Framework

  This thesis provides some theories to answer the problem formulations stated in the first chapter. The theories of critical approach, theory of human needs, self-actualization, and theory of character and characterization also some reviews on Japanese culture, are significantly used in analyzing and answering the problems formulation.

  The first problem formulation is how the seven principles of Bushido are revealed in the novel. To reveal the seven principles of Bushido in the novel, I employ the socio-cultural-historical approach. I use this approach because the seven principles of Bushido are closely related to the history, society, and the

  25 culture of Japan. Here, some related literature on Bushido and the socio-cultural condition of Japan are necessary.

  The second problem is the manifestation of Bushido to the main character, Totto-chan. To support the answer, I use psychological approach by X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. Besides that the theory of character by Abrams and theory of characterization by Hugh Holman are employed to have better understanding about Totto-chan’s character. Furthermore, I would like to combine those theories with the theory of human needs Abraham Maslow. Since the theory of human needs has five stages, I only use the last stage of human needs. It is the self- actualization needs. There are eight ways that can lead to the self-actualization. In this study, however, I only concern for the first way because this novel tells about direct experience in the main character childhood. In the characteristics of self- actualized person, there are fourteen characteristics and I focus only on three characteristics which are acceptance of self, others, and nature, spontaneity, and sympathy for humankind.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter is divided into three sections. The first section is Object of the Study. This section explains the focus of this study. The second section is Approach of the Study. This section discusses the approaches being used in this

  study. The third section is Method of the Study. This section explains the steps in analyzing the work.

3.1 Object of the Study

  This study deals with literature and the subject matter is a novel entitled Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window by Tetsuko Kuroyanagi. This novel was published by Kodansha Publishers Ltd. in 1981 with its Japanese title

  

Madogiwa no Totto-chan . In 1984, it was translated into English by Dorothy

  Britton and published by Kodansha International Ltd. In 1996 the first edition of Totto-chan in English translation was published. It contains 188 pages and is divided into 61 chapters which are translated from its’ original text into English.

  This study focuses on Totto-chan character as the main character. She is a 7 years old child having a big curiosity and high spirit to know everything around her. She starts her school in the first grade when she has to be expelled by the teacher. At the new school, Totto-chan meets the headmaster, who later will help Totto-chan in understanding life and learning a lot of things together with her schoolmates. The headmaster combines the educational system he has with the seven principles of Bushido as the values that society believe. Mr. Kobayashi is

  27 very patient and has a great love to his job and his pupils. He teaches his pupils using uncommon ways. In this school, he gives his pupils a freedom in studying the lesson. Sometimes he adds some interesting activities. Mr. Kobayashi also teaches his pupils to understand people and to give love for others. By doing this, the headmaster hopes that his pupils can fulfill their self-actualization.

  The seven principles of Bushido appear in this novel from the description of the author through the dialogues, actions, and manners the characters in the novel. Using those principles, the teachers at Tomoe Gakuen want to mold their student to be able to fulfill students’ self-actualization. Totto-chan, as the main character, shows the fearless feeling to say what she wants, the spirit, the hard working, and the love among others. The headmaster helps Totto-chan to sharpen those characters in her.

  Through the characters, this novel teaches the value of making right decision, honesty, and respecting others. This novel also gives us motivation to have self confidence, to have no fear, to always have the spirit in life, and to love others with a pure heart. Furthermore, through this novel, readers can see that the principles of Bushid sooner or later become the culture as the guidance for the society in life.

3.2 Approach of the Study

  In order to get the answers of the problem formulations, a certain approach is needed. The approach is used to help me in analyzing Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window. Moreover, it is used to give the

  28 boundaries of the aspects and background of knowledge on the work to discuss.

  The focus of this study is on the seven principles of Bushido given from the old Japanese culture and on the manifest of its meaning to Totto-chan.

  This study applies two approaches. The first approach is socio-cultural- historical approach. This approach is used because it is closely related to the Japanese society, culture, and history toward Totto-chan’s experiences on the World War II. The culture and history will influence the society in the way of thinking about life including Totto-chan. The writer, Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, includes a piece of Japan situation at that time. By using the socio-cultural- historical approach, I can analyze the culture and attitude Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window.

  The second approach is the psychological approach. This approach is used to analyze the manifest the value of seven principles of Bushido toward main character, Totto-chan. The manifest of those values can be seen through Totto- chan’s characters that show characters of self-actualized person.

3.3 Method of the Study

  I used the library study to analyze Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window. The first thing I did in analyzing this novel was reading the novel Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window to find the message of the novel. I used this novel as the primary source to find evidence for this study. From the first time reading the novel, I was interested in the uniqueness of the school Tomoe Gakuen. Furthermore, it made me want to explore more and try to

  29 understand the culture and history better. After reading for the second times, I found the originality of Japanese culture toward the characters attitude. The main characters, Totto-chan, had a good relationship with the headmaster, Mr.

  Kobayashi, who influenced her in many ways. Talking about Mr. Kobayashi, he was also a very unique person. The way he influenced his pupils was very careful and easy to understand for the pupils. Using his words, he inspired his pupils’ to work hard, to have self confidence, to respect others, and to give love to others. I wrote several important points. Afterwards, I analyzed the cultural attitudes toward Totto-chan from the author’s comments, characters’ dialogues, actions, and manners to answer the problems in the problem formulation.

  Secondly, I tried to find some important theories to support my findings about the culture toward the main character, Totto-chan, as a part of Japanese society. In this phase, I read some books and articles, especially, which had connection with the problem of society, culture, history, and psychology. Those sources on literature were the secondary sources. All of the sources I read were used to analyze the problems. Since this study talks about society, culture, history, and psychology, books which discuss on those topics became the main interest to read. Those sources gave more information and guidance in understanding the novel. I browsed in the internet to find information related to my analysis.

  The third phase was analyzing the novel. In this phase, I answered the problems in the problem formulation using the approaches and references, which were related to the study.

  30 The last step was making the conclusion of the study. I made conclusion of the study after answering the questions in the problem formulation. The conclusion was the findings in the analysis and suggestion that was useful for the readers to use parts of Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window as teaching learning materials for the second semester students of the English Language Education Study Program.

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter discusses the answer of questions that are formulated in the

  problem formulation. The discussion is divided into two sections. The first section is the analysis on the seven principles of Bushido in the novel. The second section is the analysis on the manifest of seven principles of Bushido in the main character, Totto-chan. Each analysis is discussed using the theories that are stated in the review of related theories.

  

4.1 How the Seven Principles of Bushido are Revealed in Tetsuko

Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window

  Every country has their guidance in ruling the country. One of the interesting guidance is the guidance that the Japanese have. The guidance that the Japanese society believes is called Bushido. Bushido has seven important values and each value has deep meaning to the Japanese. What makes Bushido interesting is that those principles were very famous in the samurai era as their guidance in a war or in the life of samurai. Moreover, it was an unwritten code.

  Even though Bushido was an unwritten code and samurai era was over, the Japanese society still holds it until now because they believe in the power of those principles in their life.

  As a value that Japanese society believes, the seven principles of Bushido are also revealed in the novel in some ways. Those principles can be identified by

  32 analyzing the dialogues and actions of the characters in the novel. Since it is talking about something that a society believes, I use the socio-cultural-historical approach to find the seven principles in the novel. These are the seven principles of Bushido in the novel:

4.1.1 Gi

  The first value in Bushido is Gi. It means rectitude or justice. They have to be able to make a decision in every situation whether it is good or bad. It has deep meaning for Japanese. This novel tells us about a young girl named Totto-chan who has very unique characteristics.

  Somehow those characters bring so much trouble for Totto-chan at school. One of the effects is Totto-chan is expelled from the old school. It becomes Totto- chan’s mother concern. The reason Mother worried was because although Totto- chan had only just started school, she had already been expelled. Fancy being expelled from the first grade! (11)

  After Mother gets some explanations from Totto-chan’s homeroom teacher, Mother thinks she has to do something to Totto-chan. It is not fair for the other students at school being disturbed with Totto-chan actions. Mother decides to find another school which can understand Totto-chan and teach to get along with other people (16).

  After searching everywhere, Mother finds out that there is a school which may be suitable for her only daughter. The school name is Tomoe Gakuen.

  Mother takes Totto-chan to Tomoe. She hopes Tomoe Gakuen will accept Totto- chan as a student.

  33 From the beginning, Tomoe Gakuen is already unusual and special. The school gate is very unique. Totto-chan cannot believe in what she sees. She is amused by Tomoe Gakuen’s appearance.

  When she saw the gate of the new school, Totto-chan stopped. The gate of the school she used to go to had fine concrete pillars with the name of the school in large character. But the gate of this new school simply consisted of two rather short posts that still had twigs and leaves on them (17).

  Not only the gate but also the classrooms made from the unused railroad car (18). Totto-chan is surprised with all those things. Those things are so different with her old school. She never imagines that there was a school like Tomoe. Knowing the school’s environment, Totto-chan cannot stand any longer to be a part of Tomoe Gakuen as a student. For its classrooms, the school had made used of six abandoned railroad cars. To Totto-chan it seemed something you might dream about. A school in train! (18)

  Besides the unique appearance of Tomoe Gakuen, the teachers are also different. One of those teachers is the headmaster itself, Mr. Kobayashi. When the first time Totto-chan meets Mr. Kobayashi, she is already asked to tell everything about herself. Without a doubt, Totto-chan starts to talk. She cannot stop telling stories about herself to Mr. Kobayashi.

  Neither before nor since did any grown-up listen to Totto-chan for as long as that. And, besides, it would have amazed Mother and her homeroom teacher to think that a seven-year-old child could find enough to talk about for four hours nonstop (23).

  After the long talk, Totto-chan officially becomes one of the students at Tomoe. She likes both Tomoe Gakuen and Mr. Kobayashi so much. Every day

  34 she goes to school, she goes with full of joy. She gets a lot of friends and new experiences.

  The other uncommon thing at Tomoe is the lesson. Every school usually has scheduled for their daily lessons but not at Tomoe. The teacher at Tomoe comes to the class only for writing the list of the lessons for a day on the board. Then, the teacher let the students choose the lesson. They can choose to start with their own favorite lesson.

  Schools normally schedule one subject, for example, Japanese, the first period, when you just do Japanese; then, say, arithmetic the second period when you just do arithmetic. But here it was quite different. At the beginning of the first period, the teacher made a list of all the problems and questions in the subjects to be studied that day. Then she would say, “Now, start with any of these you like. (29)” Implementing that system, the teacher can observe the progress that the students have made. Furthermore, the teacher can observe the students’ interest.

  The students are free to start the day with the lesson they like first, then they learn the lesson they dislike. This system makes the students to be able to manage the lessons they have for a day. Besides, the students are free to ask to the teacher when it is necessary or the teacher will come to the students to give some explanation until the students understand about the problem. The teacher also gives them independent task. At Tomoe, there are no students just sitting and listening to the teacher quietly.

  As a new student of Tomoe, Totto-chan gets a lot of new experiences and new friends. She can adapt herself well. One day, she gets an accident after using the toilet. Her favorite purse falls down into a cesspool. She is curious where it can be. She does not want to cry and give up. She tries to find her favorite purse

  35 back. She digs the cesspool until she makes a pile around it. The headmaster passes by and asks Totto-chan. He is not mad to Totto-chan because of the dirt she makes. He thinks Totto-chan is doing an important task for her.

  “What are you doing?” he asked Totto-chan. “I dropped my purse,” she replied, as she went on ladling, not wanting to waste a moment.

  “I see,” said the headmaster, and walked away, his hands clasped behind his back as was his habit when he went for a stroll. Time went by and she still hadn’t found the purse. The foul-smelling pile was getting higher and higher. The head master came by again. “Have you found it?” he inquired. “No,” replied Totto-chan, from the center of the pile, sweating profusely, her cheeks flushed. The head master came closer and said in a friendly tone, “You’ll put it all back when you’ve finished, won’t you?” Then he went off again, as he has done before (45). Most of the teachers may think what Totto-chan have done is wrong. It makes Totto-chan look as a naughty girl. It is different with the headmaster, Mr.

  Kobayashi. Mr. Kobayashi chooses not to mad to Totto-chan. In the other hand, he asks her willingness to put all the piles to the cesspool after she had finished her task. Since Mr. Kobayashi trusts her, Totto-chan keeps the promise to put it all into the tank after finishing her task. To engraft the meaning of Gi, Mr. Kobayashi encourages Totto-chan to do so.

  The meaning of Gi is also revealed when Daddy has to make decision about his future. At that time, Japan is in war and there is not enough food. Daddy is a famous violist at that time. He is asked to play wartime music and as the payment he will get some food supplies. For sometimes, Daddy thinks about the offer. He knows that he has to support his family but he has his own idealism

  36 about his music. Mother and Totto-chan never argue about it. They keep supporting Daddy.

  Daddy thought for some time before replying, “I don’t want to play that sort of thing on my violin.” “I think you’re right,” said Mother, “I would refuse. We’ll get food somehow. (176)”

4.1.2 Yu

  The second value of Bushido is Yu which means courage to face the danger. This value has deep meaning in Japanese including Totto-chan’s Daddy. It is shown when he decides not to play music for the soldier. It is such a brave decision knowing that he also needs to support his family. As his consequences, most of the relatives refuse to talk to him anymore (176).

  The value of Yu can be seen at Tomoe Gakuen too. Mr. Kobayashi and the teachers create some activities which are fun and enjoyable for the students without losing their study time. Since Totto-chan becomes one of the students at Tomoe, she gets her freedom in expressing herself. It makes her very happy every time she goes to school (28). She makes a lot of friends at Tomoe. One of her friends is Yasuaki Yamamoto.

  Yasuaki is a brave and friendly friend but his physical appearance is different with the others. At first, Totto-chan does not understand what happened to him. After Yasuaki told her the fact that he had polio (31), she understands and never talks about it again. Indeed, they become a best friend.

  One day, Totto-chan gets an idea to let Yasuaki climb to her tree at school. Yasuaki welcomed Totto-chan’s idea. They make an appointment after school. As they meet at school, Totto-chan goes to the janitor room and tries to find

  37 something that can help Yasuaki to climb the tree. She finds a stepladder and drags it to the tree. “Now, don’t be afraid,” she said in a big-sisterly voice (62).

  This is the first time for Yasuaki to climb a tree. He feels so nervous looking at the stepladder. With all of his courage and power, he tries to climb it. It is difficult for Yasuaki to step his feet on the first rung. Both Yasuaki-chan and Totto-chan never give up. Yasuaki tries to reach the top of the ladder and Totto- chan helps him. By the sweat of Totto-chan and Yasuaki-chan, finally, Yasuaki can reach the top of the ladder.

  On the top of the ladder, somehow, Totto-chan feels hopeless but she tries not to show it in front of Yasuaki. She is confused on how to carry Yasuaki to the fork. With the rest of the power she has, Totto-chan tries to pull Yasuaki from the ladder to the fork. Yasuaki-chan trusts Totto-chan to take him to the tree. At last, Totto-chan and Yasuaki-chan are on the fork of the tree. They finally get onto the tree.

  But Yasuaki-chan trusted Totto-chan completely. And Totto-chan was risking her life for him. With her tiny hands clutching his, she pulled with all her might. From time to time a large cloud would mercifully protect them from the blistering sun. At long last, the two stood face to face on the tree. Brushing her damp hair back, Totto-chan bowed politely and said, “Welcome to my tree. (63-64)” Unlike Totto-chan and Yasuaki-chan, the headmaster’s right-hand-man,

  Mr. Maruyama, has different way in engrafting the value of Yu. Mr. Maruyama’s physical appearance is quite different with Mr. Kobayashi.

  Like his name, meaning “round hill”, his head was completely round, without a single hair on the top, but with a fringe of white hair at the back at ear level. He wore round glasses, and his cheeks were bright red. He not only looked quite different from Mr. Kobayashi, but he used to recite classical Chinese-style poems in a solemn voice (112).

  38 Besides their physical appearance, they also have different way of teaching. Mr. Kobayashi combines the educational system from Europe and other foreign countries with the educational system in Japan itself. In the other hand, Mr. Maruyama likes to teach the students through the heroic stories that Japanese has.

  December fourteenth is the celebration for the Forty–seven Ronin, one of Japanese heroic legend. Mr. Maruyama asks headmaster’s permission to take all the students to Kuhonbutsu Temple. Before Tomoe’s students leave, Mr.

  Maruyama tells the story of Forty-seven Ronin to the students on how brave and loyal they are.

  Before they left, Mr. Maruyama told the children the story of the famous Forty-seven-how Lord Asano’s brave and loyal men had plotted for almost two years to avenge the honor of their dead master, who had been so grievously wronged. Besides the Forty-seven, there was a courageous merchant called Rihei Amanoya. It was he who supplied the weapons, and when he was arrested by the officials of the shogun he declared, “I, Rihei Amanoya, am a man” and refused to confess or give away a single secret (113).

  Besides taking the students to the temple and telling them a heroic story, Mr. Maruyama also coaches the students a play about Japanese hero. Then, the students will perform it at the end of the year. This is the first performance they have. All of students are very excited about this program. They discuss it every time they meet or gather for lunch. Totto-chan’s class chooses to play a very famous heroic play in Japan.

  Totto-chan’s class decided to do Kanjincho (“The Fund-Raising Charter”). This famous old Kabuki play was not exactly what you would expect to see at Tomoe, but it was in one of their textbooks and Mr. Maruyama would coach them (163).

  39 Unlike Mr. Maruyama, Mr. Kobayashi teaches his student about bravery by giving them a chance to speak in front of public. Japanese are not accustomed to speaking during their mealtimes. Mr. Kobayashi decides to break the rule. He thinks that it is essential for his students to learn how to express their idea in front of public. During the lunch time, one by one of his students has to stand in the middle of the circle and tell a story for the other. All of them agree to the idea because most of them think that they are not good in speaking. They can say anything they like or anything they want to say. “You needn’t worry about trying to be a good speaker,” he said. “And you can talk about anything you like. You can talk about things you’d like to do. Anything. At any rate, let’s give it a try.

  (92)” Getting along with his students, headmaster already makes the list who will be the speaker that day. One by one, the student come to the middle of the circle in the Assembly Hall. Soon after, they realize that for being a good speaker they also need a lot of courage. It is not easy to speak in front of all Tomoe’s students when they are having their lunch. Some children were so shy at first that they just giggled. One boy had gone to a lot of effort and prepared a talk only to forget all of it the moment he stood up (93).

  There are a lot of ways to engraft the meaning of Yu in the young generation’s heart. Through the celebrations they have, they pray and give their respect to the ancestors. They still hold those celebrations to remain them how their ancestors protect their country and to remain them about their past time.

  40 Those celebrations are also to keep remaining young generation about their heroes who fought till their last blood to protect their country.

4.1.3 Jin

  Tomoe’s students are taught a lot of things in unique ways and full with love. They not only learn about subjects at school but also learn about love.

  Teachers at Tomoe have their own way in telling their students about it and sometimes both students and teachers get their lessons about love from their daily life.

  Jin means universal love. In this novel, the value of Jin can be seen through Mr. Kobayashi character. He loves his students so much. Moreover, he understands his students well. Because of it, a good relationship is created between them. Every time he teaches his students, he teaches with all his heart.

  Mr. Kobayashi’s love for children and his passion for teaching were stronger than the flames now enveloping the school. The headmaster was cheerful (188).

  To show his love and passion to his students, Mr. Kobayashi creates a lot of interesting activities for his students. Through the activities, he teaches his students about how to love everything they have. No matter what they are or how their physical appearances are. One of the activities he creates is called eurythmics as one of the activities at Tomoe. The headmaster had included eurythmics in his school curriculum because he felt it was bound to have good results and help the children’s personality to grow naturally, without being affected by too much adult interference (79).

  41 Mr. Kobayashi shows his love to the students in many ways. Besides, he creates interesting activities. He shows it through his words and actions. Because of it, a good relationship is created between the teacher and the students including Totto-chan. Since then, Mr. Kobayashi never forgets to tell Totto-chan how good she is. By saying those words, Mr. Kobayashi encourages her to have self confidence. “You’re really a good girl, you know.” That’s what the headmaster used to say every time he saw Totto-chan (141).

  Totto-chan has Mr. Kobayashi as Tomoe Gakuen’s headmaster. Moreover, she adores him so much. Since she is a young girl, she has Mother and Daddy who love her very much. They will do every thing for Totto-chan without spoiling her. Moreover, they will not let Totto-chan lose her childhood. Mother never interdicts Totto-chan to play around by herself or with her friends. Totto-chan often tears her cloths and panties. Sometimes Mother is wondering what her daughter has done until she tears her dresses and panties most of the time. Without making a judge to her daughter, she asks Totto-chan patiently what happen to most of her dress and panties.

  “As I was walking along the road,” she lied, on arriving home, “a lot of children I didn’t know threw knives at my back. That’s why my dress got torn like this.” “I can see how your dresses get torn by knives and thing like that,” said Mother, “but how do you manage to tear your panties too, day after day? (85-86)” What Mr. Kobayashi has done, this love value engrafts deep inside of every Tomoe’s. It is shown when all of Tomoe teachers and students are surprised knowing one of their student and friend, Yasuaki-chan, passed away. Yasuaki is the handicapped students at Tomoe. Both the teachers and the students do love

  42 Yasuaki. The news makes him very sad. He only got that far when his face became bright red and tears welled up in his eyes (169).

  The other children are surprised hearing the news. They all become very silent. They have no words to say. All Tomoe will go to the funeral. This trip is unlike the other trip they had before. This time, nobody shows their excitement. All the students are very silent and their faces show their deepest sadness. The children are stunned and nobody said a word. They were all thinking about Yasuaki-chan. Never had such a sad quietness passed over the grounds of Tomoe before (169).

4.1.4 Rei

  Rei means politeness. Japanese are famous for their politeness. To show it, Japanese have a tradition to bow. This tradition has been taught from generation to generation. Usually Japanese will bow to the others in their first meeting.

  Morover, Japanese bow to show their respect or to say thank you to the others.

  In Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s, Rei can be seen through the manner of the characters. Totto-chan shows her politeness. When she meets Mr. Kobayashi for the first time, she bows to him. With a hasty bow, Totto-chan asked him spiritedly, … (20).

  Besides to the others, Japanese bow to their parents. It is to show children’s respect to the parents. Totto-chan does the same thing. She bows to her parents when she has to say goodbye to them before she goes to school (25).

  Totto-chan shows her politeness to Mr. Tachibana, one of Daddy’s friends. Mr. Tachibana comes to Totto-chan’s house and brings her bananas. Directly,

  43 Totto-chan bows to Mr. Tachibana. Totto-chan was thrilled. She bowed politely to Mr. Tachibana…(48).

  Totto-chan still needs her parents’ help to learn about politeness. There is a time when Totto-chan is going to a concert with Mother. Something is bothering her when the conductor shakes hand with Daddy after the concert.

  “Why did they shake hands?” Totto-chan had whispered. “The conductor wants to thank the orchestra for having played so well, so he shook hands with Daddy as representative of the orchestra as a way of saying thank you,” explained Mother (69).

  Besides to the adult, Totto-chan shows her politeness in her friendship with her friends. She bows to Yasuaki when he, for the first time, comes to her tree. Brushing her damp hair back, Totto-chan bowed politely and said, “Welcome to my tree.” (64)

  Not only through the family Japanese children learn about politeness but also through their activity at school. It happens at Tomoe Gakuen. The students learn to express their grateful for the food in every meal they have.

  At Tomoe, they have a tradition to have lunch together. All the students are assembled in the hall. Mr. Kobayashi calls all the foods that students bring as “something from the ocean and something from the hills”. After all the students are ready to have lunch, together they will sing “Song to Sing before Lunch” the tune just same as “Raw, Raw, Raw Your Boat”. Then, they will say “Itadakimasu” as grateful for every food they have (36).

4.1.5 Makoto

  Makoto in Bushido means honesty. Japanese learn to be honest not only to the others but also to their selves. Totto-chan is only a young girl. To teach the

  44 value of Makoto to her, Mother and Daddy are always telling her the truth about everything and so does Mr. Kobayashi.

  At Tomoe, Mr. Kobayashi teaches the students a lot of things either about life or about lessons. The interesting about Mr. Kobayashi way of teaching is he teaches the students not always in a class but sometimes they take a walk to learn about things around them. Sometimes, the students can learn something not in class activities but from their daily life. Just like Totto-chan experience once.

  In one situation, Totto-chan wants to buy a grayish bark from a seller she saw on the station. She has no money to buy and asks her friends favor. For children in that age, it is a big mount for them. No one has that mount of money. Miyo-chan suggests Totto-chan to ask Mr. Kobayashi to lend her the mount of money. Perhaps, Mr. Kobayashi will help her.

  Totto-chan does what Miyo-chan has suggested to her. She goes to Mr. Kobayashi’s house near the assembly hall. Mr. Kobayashi asks her what she will do with the money. She has to tell the truth what it is for. “I want to buy a piece of bark that tells you whether you’re sick or whether you’re well,” she replied quickly (156). Knowing what the money is for, headmaster gives the money to Totto-chan. The day after, Totto-chan brings the grayish bark and refunds headmaster money.

  Besides her experiences with Mr. Kobayashi, Totto-chan gets another experience with the boy from Korean tenement. She tells her Mother about what happened to her and the boy (115-116). Mother tries to explain every thing she knows to make Totto-chan understand why the boy said those things to her.

  45 Drying her eyes, Mother said to Totto-chan very slowly, “You’re Japanese and Masao-chan comes from a country called Korean. But he’s a child, just like you. So, Totto-chan, dear, don’t ever think of people as different. Don’t think, ‘That person’s a Japanese, or this person’s a Korean.’ Be nice to Masao-chan. It’s so sad that that people think other people aren’t nice just because they’re Korean. (116-117)” Mother always teaches Totto-chan to be honest. Mother knows that sometimes Totto-chan makes a lot of excuses. She has her own way to teach the honest value to her only daughter.

  It happens when Mother asks Totto-chan about the dresses she has. Most of the time, Totto-chan comes home with worn-out garment. Totto-chan makes excuses because she does not want to make Mother angry. With her love and patient, Mother can make Totto-chan tell the truth directly.

  “You see, when you burrow under a fence you can’t help catching your skirt as you go through, and your panties when you back out, and you have to do an ‘Excuse me, may I come in?’ and a ‘Well, goodbye then’ from one end of the fence to the other, so your panties and things are bound to tear. (86)”

4.1.6 Meiyo

  Meiyo means honor and glory, taking care of his or her own good name. In Japan, someone’s name is really important to carry. They will never let someone’s name be scolded with or without purpose.

  One day, when students learn about human evolution, the teacher explains that, originally, everybody has a tail. The students are amused by the explanation and wondered where the tail they have. The class is getting noisy. To overcome the situation, without any purpose, the teacher calls Takahashi and uses Takahashi as an example. The teacher’s question makes Takahashi shock and quickly he replies that he does not have one.

  46 The homeroom teacher had been telling them about human beings originally having tails. The children had thought it great fun. Grown-ups would have probably called her talk an introduction to the theory of evolution. It appealed to the children greatly. And when the teacher told them everybody had the vestige of a tail called the coccyx, each child started wondering where his was, and soon the classroom was in an uproar. Finally the teacher had said, jokingly, “Maybe somebody here still has a tail! What about you, Takahashi?” Takahashi had quickly stood up, shaking his head emphatically, and said in deadly earnest, “I haven’t got one. (127)” Knowing what happen in the class, this problem becomes headmaster’s concern. He is afraid that it hurts Takahashi’s feeling or he lost his self- confidence. He wants to give a good education and take a good care of his students. What the headmaster says about it makes the homeroom teacher realize what she has done is wrong. She feels guilty and cries. Totto-chan could hear the homeroom teacher crying. “It was terribly wrong of me,” she sobbed. “What can I do to apologize to Takahashi? (128)”

  Unlike the homeroom teacher’s experience, Totto-chan has another experience. It happens in one afternoon. At that time, Tomoe’s students are playing in the ground until the final bell rings. They are free to do what they like. When they are playing in the ground, suddenly, they hear from the outside Tomoe, someone sings aloud a chant. It sounds terrible for Tomoe. “Tomoe School is a shabby old school; Inside, too, it’s a shabby old school! (146)”

  Totto-chan can hear it clearly. She thinks the chant is very awful. After hearing the song, Totto-chan is running outside Tomoe to catch the boys who sing the song. However, she cannot get the boys. She goes back to school and, on her way to Tomoe, she sings. “Tomoe School is a wonderful school; inside and out, it’s a wonderful school! (147)”

  47

4.1.7 Chugo

  Japanese are also famous for their loyalty. This loyalty to the country or job is called Chugo. They will sacrifice their life to protect their country or the job they are in. In war time, every young Japanese man has to join with the army. They will be called by the government.

  In this novel, the value of Chugo is revealed toward Ryo-chan. Ryo-chan is Tomoe’s janitor. He is a son of Mr. Kobayashi. Every student does like Ryo- chan. He is very kind and friendly to the students. One day, he has got the call from the government to serve the country.

  Ryo-chan, the janitor at Tomoe, whom all the children liked so much, was finally called up. He was a grown-up, but they all called him by his childish nickname. Ryo-chan was a sort of guardian angel who always came to the rescue and helped when anyone was in trouble. Ryo-chan could do anything. He never said much, and only smiled, but he always knew just what to do (183-184).

  Besides Ryo-chan, Chugo reveals its meaning toward Mr. Kobayashi. From the beginning, Mr. Kobayashi already shows his loyalty to his job. It is his dream to have a school and become a teacher there. He gives all his heart for his students to mold them to be good person.

  Moreover, Mr. Kobayashi shows the value of Chugo through his role in choosing the educational system for Tomoe Gakuen. He combines the European educational system with Japan system to create a fun situation for his students. In the end of the novel, he has to say goodbye to Tomoe Gakuen. Tomoe is bombed and burned down. In his heart, he still loves Tomoe and all of his students.

  In the midst of it all, the headmaster stood in the road and watched Tomoe burn. He was dressed, as usual, in his rather shabby black three-piece suit. He stood with both hands in his jacket pockets.

  48 “What kind of school shall we build next?” he asked his university-student son Tomoe, who stood beside him (187-188).

  In the other side, Totto-chan lays down with the other refugees. She is in a train going to the north. In her heart, she will never forget every moment she has at Tomoe, her friends, teachers, and experiences that she has with all of her beloved friends and teachers.

4.2 The Manifest of Seven Principles of Bushido to Totto-chan

  As the main character in this novel, Totto-chan also experiences Bushido in her life. Even though Bushido is not in written form, but Totto-chan’s parents and teachers at school guide her to behave appropriately based on Bushido. They, indirectly, help Totto-chan to understand the values of Bushido and engraft its meaning as a moral guidance for her in the society.

  Furthermore, Bushido helps Totto-chan to actualize herself. This self- actualization is a process for Totto-chan to develop her personality as Japanese girl. Self-actualization will not work well without help from her surroundings. Self-actualization, based on Maslow’s theory, is on going process. It will have no end together with the development of era. Maslow also states that there are fourteen characteristics of self-actualized person. In this novel, Totto-chan shows three of those characteristics by the help of her surroundings.

4.2.1 Acceptance of self, others, and nature

  At Tomoe Gakuen, Mr. Kobayashi wants to develop the body and soul of his students equally. He feels that it is important for all of his students to grow

  49 naturally and accept for the way they are. To teach his students about it, Mr.

  Kobayashi has his own way.

  It happens to Totto-chan when summer day comes. Totto-chan and her friends get a chance to swim in the school’s pool. How excited Totto-chan is but suddenly she realizes that all of her friends are naked. At Tomoe, there is no rule stating they have to swim naked (55-56). For a moment, Totto-chan is amused with what her eyes see. Knowing all of her friends swim without any cloth on, she forgets her shyness. She joins with the other in the pool. From that activity, she learns how to accept herself and others for what the way they are ignoring the shapes or the color of their skin.

  Besides from the swimming activity at Tomoe, Totto-chan shows her acceptance to herself by showing her self confidence in saying her thoughts.

  Before Tomoe Gakuen, Totto-chan already joins with one of the public schools. Her homeroom teacher has to expel her because of her behavior. Even though she is already being expelled from her school, she still feels happy and shows her confidence in every moment in her life. She speaks aloud to express her feeling and mind. She shows it when Daddy asks her opinion about his rejection to play some music for the soldier. Innocently, she says her opinion about it. So Totto- chan thought it quite right for him not to play something he didn’t like. Totto-chan skipped about around Daddy and said cheerfully, “I don’t mind. Because I love your violin, too. (176)”

  From her life experiences, Totto-chan learns how to understand and to accept other people for what ever they are. As a new student at Tomoe Gakuen,

  50 she shows her love and understands to all of her friends. One of her friends that she loves so much is Yasuaki-chan. Yasuaki-chan is a handicapped student at Tomoe (31).

  When he sat down at the desk behind her-it took him longer than other children to sit down-she turned around and asked, “Why do you walk like that?” He replied quietly, with a gentle voice that sounded intelligent, “I had polio.” …”Can’t they do anything about it?” she asked, concerned. He didn’t reply, and Totto-chan became embarrassed, wishing she hadn’t asked (30- 31). Even though she knows that Yasuaki got polio, she still plays with him. Totto-chan will do everything if there is other children say cruel things about Yasuaki. She was kind to everyone-particularly her physically handicapped friends. She would defend them, and, if children from other schools said cruel things, she would fight the tormentors, even if it ended with her crying (141).

  Moreover, Totto-chan shows her love and acceptance to all of his friends. Totto-chan shows it when she brings a grayish bark to school. She wants to find out whether her friends in good condition or not by using the grayish bark. She asks all of her friends to bite a piece of it. If the grayish bark tastes bitter, he or she is not healthy but if it is not, she or he is healthy. That day Totto-chan got everybody in the school to bite a piece of bark. Not a single child found it bitter, which meant they were all healthy. Totto-chan was very glad (159).

4.2.2 Spontaneity

  In this novel, Totto-chan is described as a seven years old child. She has a lot of imagination and fantasies. Moreover, she is very spontaneous and natural in doing her actions and saying her thoughts. She tells Mother about what she wants

  51 to be in the future. At first, she wants to be a spy but within a moment she can change her mind. Then, she meets a ticket collector at the railway station. She decides to be like him.

  She ran to where Mother waited, shouting, “I’m going to be a ticket seller.” Mother wasn’t surprised, but she said, “I thought you were going to be a spy.” …”That’s it!” A splendid idea occurred to her. She looked up at Mother and informed her of it at the top of her voice, “Couldn’t I be a ticket seller who’s really a spy?” …”I’ve changed my mind. I think I’ll join one of those little bands of street musicians who go about advertising new stores! (10)” Totto-chan’s spontaneity also can be seen in her actions. In her old school, what she does in class sometime disturbs the class activities (11-17). The teacher cannot understand why she keeps doing something disturbing. As a final decision, her teacher has to expel her from school.

  Then, Totto-chan goes to Tomoe Gakuen. There, Totto-chan spontaneity appears when she meets Mr. Kobayashi, Tomoe Gakuen headmaster. Unlike other children when they have to meet someone new, unhesitatingly, Totto-chan asks him a question and she says what she wants to.

  With a hasty bow, Totto-chan asked him spiritedly,

  “What are you, a schoolmaster or a stationmaster?” Mother was embarrassed, but before she had time to explain, he laughed and replied, “I’m the headmaster of this school.” Totto-chan was delighted. “Oh, I’m so glad,” she said, “because I want to ask your favor. I’d like to come to your school (20).” Totto-chan shows her spontaneity not only in her words but also in her actions. In her old school, Totto-chan has a school song that they can sing every morning. As a new student, Totto-chan asks to her classmate about Tomoe’s song. She figures out that they do not have one. She persuades her friends to ask Mr.

  52 Kobayashi to create a song for Tomoe. Next day, as headmaster promised before, he creates a song for Tomoe. He writes it on the blackboard. It only has a line written “To-mo-e, To-mo-e, To – mo – e! (42). Totto-chan is quiet surprised with it. She thinks that a song must have beautiful words like she had before. Nobody likes the song. The headmaster seemed rather sorry, but he wasn’t angry, and proceeded to wipe it off the blackboard. Totto-chan felt that they had been rather rude, but after all she had something a bit more impressive in mind (42). The tune has been rubbed off the blackboard. Totto-chan and the other students already forget about having a song. Then, Tomoe never has a song.

  Furthermore, Totto-chan shows her spontaneity to Mr. Kobayashi by making a promise to the headmaster. It is very important for Totto-chan. After several days thinking about the idea, she decides to tell her idea to Mr. Kobayashi right the way. From that time and on, Totto-chan keeps the promise like she has done before.

  Totto-chan said sweetly and slowly, in a big-sisterly or motherly way, “I’d like to teach at this school when I grow up. I really would.” Totto-chan expected the headmaster to smile, but instead, he asked in seriousness, “Promise?” He really seemed to want her to do it. Totto-chan nodded her head vigorously and said, “I promise,” determining in her heart to become a teacher there without fail (178).

  Besides in school, Totto-chan shows her spontaneity in her actions to satisfy her big curiosity. It happens when she is discovering an exiting thing by the side of the road. She finds that there is a huge pile of sand. It is an unusual thing in Japan to find sand far from the sea. After observing for sometime, she decides to jump on it. After all, she realizes that it is not a pile of sand. It is a pile

  53 of prepared gray wall plaster. She sinks into it. Mother is looking for her and finding her stuck on it. “I thought I told you once before,” said Mother, “when you see something that looks intriguing, don’t jump on it straight away. Look before you leap! (90)” It is not the first time Totto-chan jump on to something and gets some troubles with it. After Mother reminds her about it, Totto-chan promises that she does not want to jump on anything else.

4.2.3 Sympathy for humankind

  Totto-chan also has felt for a young boy that she often to see on her way to and from station. This young boy lives in Korean tenement. One day, on her way to come back home, the boy calls Totto-chan “Korean”. Totto-chan does not reply it because she does not understand why he calls her like that. After arriving at home, she tells to Mother what the boy has said to her. Mother shocks to hear such story.

  With the love and patient that Mother has, she explains to Totto-chan that she should be nice to everybody for whatever their nationality, color, or believes.

  It is difficult for Totto-chan to understand it. The sympathy that she felt for is because, on his youth, he already feels some cruel things. One thing that she knows between the boy and herself is they are all the same. They are children (115-117).

  Totto-chan shows her sympathy to Mr. Kobayashi when she knows that he is in trouble. One day after lunch time, Totto-chan and Mr. Kobayashi are having a conversation. It is about Totto-chan’s ribbon which bothers him.

  54 Mr. Kobayashi has a little daughter schooled at Tomoe. Her name is Miyo- chan. Miyo-chan likes the ribbon that Totto-chan has. Miyo-chan asks her father to find the same ribbon like Totto-chan but he cannot find it everywhere.

  “Totto-chan, I’d be grateful if you’d stop wearing that ribbon to school. You see, Miyo-chan keeps pestering me about it. Would you mind very much?” Totto-chan thought it over, her arms folded. Then she answered quickly, “All right. I won’t wear it here any more.” “Thank you,” said the headmaster (150).

  Totto-chan feels rather sorry to put Mr. Kobayashi in such trouble. Through this experience, Totto-chan learns how to understand other people’s difficulties and help others in their difficulties.

  Totto-chan shows her sympathy not only to people around her but also to the soldier she visits once. In one opportunity, Totto-chan becomes Tomoe Gakuen’s representative to visit the wounded soldiers. She goes with the other students from the other school. To entertain the soldiers, the other students have prepared some songs to be sung. Beautifully, they sing the songs for the wounded soldier. Totto-chan does not familiar with all of the song like the others do. She remains silent. …the soldier in the bed Totoo-chan was sitting on patted her head and said, “You didn’t sing (152).”

  Totto-chan feels so bad about it. Then, she decides to sing a song that she knows well. She sings the “Chew It Well”. The soldier cries after listening to Totto-chan’s song. Totto-chan thinks she has done something bad but suddenly, the soldier says his gratitude to Totto-chan (153). No one knows why the soldier cries and he smiles to Totto-chan. The soldier’s smile makes Totto-chan happy. Totto-chan looked at her soldier. His nose and eyes were red, but he smiled.

  55 Totto-chan smiled back. And she thought to herself, “I’m so glad the soldier smiled! (153)”

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter is divided into two major parts. The first part is the

  conclusion, which outlines the seven principles of Bushido revealed in the novel and the manifest of seven principles of Bushido to the main character, Totto-chan.

  The second part relates to the suggestions for the future researchers and the implementations of literature in teaching learning activities.

5.1 Conclusion

  Based on the analysis presented in Chapter IV, the seven principles of Bushido are revealed in the novel. Those seven principles of Bushido are Gi, Yu, Jin, Rei, Mokoto, Meiyo, and Chugo. Those principles are revealed in the novel by the dialogues, actions, and manners of the characters in Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-chan: the Little Girl at the Window. It shows that all of the Japanese really hold the values of Bushido itself.

  The first value is Gi which means rectitude or justice. It can be seen through the dialogues, actions, and manners of Mother and Daddy. They always support Totto-chan. Not only Totto-chan’s parents but also Mr. Kobayashi shows this value when he has to face Totto-chan’s actions. Second value is Yu which means courage to face danger. Through Yasuaki’s actions, Yu is revealed by doing something that he never has done before. Unlike Yasuaki, Mr. Maruyama prefers to tell heroic stories to the students in engrafting the meaning of Yu. The

  57 third value is Jin, which means universal love. Mr. Kobayashi shows his love to the students by creating such fun atmosphere for the students. Besides Mr. Kobayashi, there is Mother’s and Daddy’s love for Totto-chan. The fourth value is Rei. It means politeness. This value is revealed from the bowing tradition that the Japanese have. Mother and Daddy teach Totto-chan to act politely in every occasion. The fifth value is Makoto means honesty. Mr. Kobayashi always teaches his students to be honest in every problem the students have. It happens to the parents too, especially, Totto-chan’s Mother. The sixth value is Meiyo. It means honor and glory. For the Japanese, someone’s name is very important to carry. It is revealed when a homeroom teacher worries about what she has done to Takahashi in class is wrong. Eagerly, she wants to apologize to him. This value is also revealed through Totto-chan’s action after hearing an awful chant for Tomoe.

  The last value is Chugo. It means loyalty. Through the son of Mr. Kobayashi, Ryo-chan, this value is revealed. He has to serve his country by joining the military to go to the war. Besides Ryo-chan, Mr. Kobayashi shows his loyalty to his job till Tomoe burned down because of the bomb.

  The seven principles of Bushido also manifest its meaning to Totto-chan. The manifest of those principles is in the way Totto-chan shows her actualization as the process to develop her personality. Because of self-actualization is an on going process, Totto-chan, still needs some help from all of people around her.

  There are some characteristics to show someone’s self-actualized. In this novel, Totto-chan shows three characters of self-actualized person. First is about accepting self, other, and nature. As a young child, she shows her acceptance to

  58 herself is by having good self confidence. It can be seen through her words and action in every problem she has. Totto-chan shows her acceptance others through her friendship with Yasuaki-chan and the other friends. She is still playing with Yasuaki even though she knows that Yasuaki has polio. She accepts the others for the way they are. Second character is spontaneity. Totto-chan is quite spontaneous in showing her thoughts and expressions. She has a lot of fantasies for her future. Most of the time, her spontaneity brings her to some troubles. Third is sympathy for humankind. She is a kind of children who really cares with all the things around her. She shows her sympathy to Mr. Kobayashi after knowing his problem. Moreover, she shows her feeling to the wounded soldier that she visits once.

5.2 Suggestions for English Teaching Learning

  At school, teachers have very important role in developing their students’ skills. To be able to attract students’ attention to the subject that the teacher gives to them, it is better for the teacher to have a good preparation by creating some interesting activities. Those activities can help the students to grasp all of the information. It is also important for the students to have some understanding about society, cultural values, or the history from the other countries.

  To be able to achieve the objective, there is one way that can be used by teachers. It is through reading activities. By reading some books and articles students can find the information they need. Moreover, students also can improve their English vocabulary. I prefer to use this novel as the Intensive Reading II materials for the second semester students of English Education Program.

  59 Intensive Reading II is one of the English Education compulsory courses.

  Before taking Intensive Reading II, the students are expected already take Intensive Reading I course. Unlike Intensive Reading I, in Intensive Reading II, the students are able to read short text from a literary work and to give their own opinions about a novel.

  There are some steps in conducting teaching Intensive Reading II using Totto-chan: The Little Girl at the Window. First, the teacher introduces the topic for today’s meeting and let the students guess. Second, the teacher gives some times for the students to read the text given. While the students are reading the text, they are asking to find some difficult words. Third, based on the text, the students try to figure out the expression given true or false. After they are finished with the true or false, they continue finding the meaning or synonym of the words given using dictionary. After the vocabularies, the students are given some question related to the text in pairs. The last is the students together with the teacher discuss the answer and make a conclusion about the topic.

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