Senior Preliminary Problems & Solutions
1. There were 20 people at a round table for dinner. At the end of the dinner, each person got up and shook hands with everybody except the people who sat to their immediate right and left at dinner. The total number of handshakes that took place is:
(A) 170 (B) 190 (C) 340 (D) 360 (E) 380
The number of possible handshakes, counting shakes with neighbors is
= 20×19 2×1 =190
This includes the 20 shakes with neighbors, so the total number of handshakes excluding the shakes with neighbors is 190−20=170.
Answer is (A).
2. The number of prime numbers less than 100 that have digits that sum to 10 is
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4
The number cannot have a single digit, so we are looking for the two digit prime numbers whose have a sum of 10. The pairs of digits that add to 10 are 1 and 9, 2 and 8, 3 and 7, 4 and 6, and 5 and 5. The digits cannot be even and 55 is obviously not prime. So the possibilities are 19, 91, 37, and 73. Of these, all but 91=7×13 is prime. Thus, there are 3 prime numbers less than 100 that have digits that sum to 10.
Answer is (D).
3. An isosceles right triangle has an area of 12.5 cm2. To the nearest centimetre, the perimeter of the triangle is:
(A) 14 (B) 15 (C) 17 (D) 25 (E) 60
If xis the length of the two perpendicular sides of the triangle then, since the area of the triangle is 12.5,
By Pythagoras’ theorem, the hypotenuse of the triangle is√52+52 = 5√2. Hence, the perimeter of
the triangle is 5+5+5√2=52+√2. Since√2≈1.4, the perimeter is approximately 5×3.4=17.
4. If n is a non-negative integer, then nfactorial is n! = n×(n−1)×(n−2)× · · · ×2×1. So that 5!=5×4×3×2=120. The largest prime factor of 27!+28!+29! is
(A) 23 (B) 29 (C) 31 (D) 83 (E) 7
Using the fact that 28!=28×27! and 29!=29×28×27! we have
27!+28!+29!=27!(1+28+29×28) =27!×29×(1+28) =27!×29×29
Hence the largest prime factor of 27!+28!+29! is 29.
Answer is (B).
5. The number of real solutions of the equationxx
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 (E) 4
Sincea0=1 for any real numbera6=0, one possibility for solving the equation is
Further, 1b =1 for any real numberb, sox =1 is also a solution to the equation. Finally,(−1)n = 1 wherenis an even integer, and, forx=−1,x2
−5x+6=1+5+6=12 is even. Thus,x=−1 is also a solution. Since these are the only possible solutions to the equation, there is a total of 4 solutions.
Answer is (E).
6. A regular polygon is a closed figure in the plane for which all of the sides are of equal length and the interior angles, the angles between pairs of adjacent sides, are equal. The number of regular polygons that have interior angles which are integers when expressed in degree measure is:
(A) 15 (B) 16 (C) 18 (D) 22 (E) 24
Letnbe the number of sides of the polygon andIbe the common interior angle. Draw a line from two adjacent vertices on the polygon to the centre to form an isosceles triangle with anglesI/2,I/2 andC, the central angle. Then we have I+C =180 andC= 360/n. Now, for Ito be an integer,Cmust be an integer. This is the case ifnis a divisor of 360. Since 360= 23×32×51, there are 4×3×2 = 24 divisors of 360. However, these divisors include n = 1 andn = 2, neither of which give a polygon. Thus, there are 22 divisors of 360 that give polygons for which the common interior angle is an integer. This gives 22 regular polygons that have interior angles which are integers when in degrees.
7. Of the following, the equations that have the same graph are:
(A) (1) and (2) only (B) (1) and (3) only
(C) (2) and (3) only (D) (1), (2), and (3)
(E) None of these, since all have different graphs
The graph of equation (1) is the straight liney = x+4. The graph of equation (2) is the straight line
y = x+4 with a hole in the graph atx = 4 andy = 8. The graph of equation (3) consists of the two lines:y=x+4 and the vertical linex=4. Thus, all of the graphs are different.
Answer is (E).
8. When simplified as much as possible the expression
(A) 8 (B) 3501
(C) 16 (D) 17 (E) 3502
Simplifying the expression gives
3502−3500+16 3500+2 =
= 8 3
Answer is (A).
9. Given thatz2
+z−3=5, the numerical value ofz4
(A) 14 (B) 21 (C) 64 (D) 60−√33 (E) 60+√33
The given equation can be written asz2
+z=8. Squaring both sides givesz4
Note that the solutions to the quadraticz2+z−8=0 arez= −1±
2 . If either of these solutions is plugged into the fourth degree expression above you will get the value 21. Try it for fun.
10. The shaded crescent shown is bounded by a semi-circle and the arc of a second circle whose centre is on the first circle. If the second circle has radiusr, then the area of the crescent is:
Since ABis the diameter of the semi-circle, triangle ABCis an isosceles right triangle. Letx be the radius of the semi-circle, then by Pythagoras’ theoremr = √2x. Consider the circular wedge ABC. The area of the wedge is πr2/4. The area of the triangle ABCwith base of 2x and altitude x, is x2.
Subtracting this area from the area of the wedge, and this result from the area of the first semicircle, gives the area of the crescent as
11. Antonino and Ricardo go swimming together at the local pool. The ratio of Antonino’s swimming speed to Ricardo’s is 3 : 2. Antonino and Ricardo start swimming lengths in the same lane, going in a counterclockwise rotation, up one side of the lane and the back on the other side. Ricardo takes a one quarter pool length head start, but, since Antonino swims faster, he catches up to and passes Ricardo. If Antonino swims a total of 60 lengths of the pool, the number of times that Antonino catches up to and passes Ricardo is:
(A) 9 (B) 10 (C) 11 (D) 12 (E) 13
LetvaAntonino’s swimming speed andvrbe Ricardo’s. Thenvr = 23va. LetLbe the length of the pool. After Antonino and Ricardo have swum for a certain timet, measured from when Antonino starts, the total distance each has swum is:
Da=vat and Dr=vrt+ L Antonino first overtakes Ricardo when
Da =Dr ⇒vat= 2
that is, Antonino first overtakes Ricardo after he has swum three quarters of the length of the pool. Antonino again overtakes Ricardo when he has gone one extra lap, that is, two extra lengths of the pool. This happens when
So Antonino next overtakes Ricardo when he as gone six and three quarters lengths, or, six more lengths than the first time he overtook Ricardo. Continuing in the same way we see that Antonino overtakes Ricardo after 34, 6
4lengths during his 60 length swim.
Thus, Antonino overtakes Ricardo a total of 10 times during his swim.
12. A circle is inscribed in a right triangle with sides a, b, andc, wherec
is the hypotenuse, as shown in the diagram. The radius of the circle is:
(A) 12(a+b−c) (B) 1
a2+b2+c2 (E) a+b
Let rbe the radius of the circle. Then AO = BO = CO = AF = BF = r. Thus, AE = a−rand
BD=b−r. TrianglesAEOandCEOare right triangles with two equal sides, the hypotenuseEOand sides AO = CO= r. Hence, they are congruent withAE= CE = a−r. The same argument shows thatCD = BD = b−r. Then we haveCE = c−CD = c−(b−r) = c−b+r. Equating the two expression forCEgives
This completes the solution, but note that the diagram above can be used to prove Pythagoras’ theo-rem. Consider the areas of trianglesEFO,DFO, andDEO. These areas are 12ar,
1 2br, and
respec-tively. Their sum is the area of the triangleDEF. Hence, we have
Equating this expression forrwith the one found in the solution gives
Cross multiplying gives
which is Pythagoras’ Theorem.