TEACHERS’ STRATEGIES IN TEACHING LISTENING COMPREHENSION : A Descriptive Study at an English Department in One of State Universities in Bandung.

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TEACHERS’ STRATEGIES IN TEACHING LISTENING

COMPREHENSION

(A Descriptive Study at an English Department in One of State Universities in Bandung)

A Research Paper

Submitted to the English Education Department, the Faculty of Language and Arts Education, Indonesia University of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

By:

Aat Janatun Erawati

0606389

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

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TEACHERS’ STRATEGIES IN TEACHING LISTENING

COMPREHENSION

(A Descriptive Study at an English Department in One of State

Universities in Bandung)

Oleh

Aat Janatun Erawati

Sebuah skripsi yang diajukan untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana pada Fakultas Pendidikan Ekonomi dan Bisnis

© Aat Janatun Erawati 2013 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Januari 2013

Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang.

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PAGE OF APPROVAL

TEACHERS’ STRATEGIES IN TEACHING LISTENING COMPREHENSION

(A Descriptive Study at an English Department in One of States Universities in Bandung)

By

Aat Janatun Erawati

0606389

Approved by

Main Supervisor

Prof. Dr. H Didi Suherdi, M.Ed. NIP. 196211011987121001

Co-Supervisor

Ika Lestari Damayanti, M.A. NIP. 197709192001122001

Head of English Education Department Faculty of Language and Arts Education

Indonesia University of Education

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ABSTRACT

The study attempts to investigate the strategies used by teachers in teaching listening comprehension and to find out the students responses toward the strategies used. The study took place at English Department in One of State Universities, where three lecturers and 107 of 1st semester students from 6 different classes were participated. The study employed descriptive method, where the data obtained through observation, questionnaires, and teachers interviews. The study found that the teachers used some strategies in teaching listening comprehension, which had been categorized into Bottom-up, Top-down and Metacognitive. In bottom up, it was found that teacher 1 used audio program, teach grammar and pronunciation. Teacher 2 also used the same strategies with the addition of dictation, while teacher 3 also used the same strategies as teacher 1 with the addition of mind mapping. In top down, teacher 1 used Lecturing strategy, question-answers, visualization and discussion. Meanwhile, teacher 2 used live listening, question-answers, discussion and checking. Furthermore, teacher 3 used dictogloss strategy, question-answers, visualization and discussion. In metacognitive category, teacher 1 and teacher 2 only used planning and monitoring. However, teacher 3 used planning, monitoring and

evaluating. Students’ responses toward the strategies used were positive. Teacher 1 gained

71.9%, teacher 2 gained 81.1% and teacher 3 gained 73.7% of positive responses.

Key words: Listening Comprehension, Teachers’ Strategies, descriptive

ABSTRAKSI

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan strategi yang digunakan para pengajar dalam pembelajaran Listening, serta mengetahui respon siswa terhadap strategi tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Jurusan Bahasa Inggris di Salah Satu Universitas Negeri di Bandung, dimana terdapat tiga pengajar dan 107 siswa semester 1 dari 6 enam kelas yang berbeda turut berpartisipasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif dimana data penelitian diperoleh melalui observasi, kuisioner, dan wawancara. Dalam penelitian ini, menemukan bahwa para pengajar menggunakan beberapa strategi dalam pembelajaran

Listening, yang kemudian dikategorikan menjadi bottom-up, top-down dan metacognitive. Dalam kategori bottom-up, ditemukan bahwa Pengajar 1 menggunakan strategi audio program, teach grammar dan pronunciation. Sementara Pengajar 2 dan 3 juga menggunakan strategi yang serupa namun dengan tambahan dictation (pada pengajar 2) dan mind mapping (pada pengajar 3). Dalam kategori top-down, pengajar 1 menggunakan strategi Lecturing, question-answers, visualization dan discussion. Pengajar2 menggunakan live listening, question-answers, discussion, checking dan Pengajar 3 menggunakan

dictogloss strategy, question-answers, visualization and discussion. Pada kategori metacognitif, Pengajar 1 dan 2 menggunakan strategi planning dan monitoring. Sementara Pengajar 3 menggunakan planning, monitoring and evaluating. Respon siswa terhadap strategi yang digunakan para pengajar juga positif. Pengajar 1 mendapat 71,9%, pengajar 2 mendapat 81,1% dan Pengajar 3 mendapat 73,3% respon yang positif.

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TABLE OF CONTENT 1.2Statement of the Problems ………..………… 1.3Objectives of the Study……… 1.4Significances of the study ……….………..… 1.5Scope and Limitation of the study ………..… 1.6Methodology..………. 2.1. Definition of Strategy in Teaching ………...

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2.4. Conclusion………... 18

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ……

4.1Findings ………... 4.1.1 Teachers’ Strategies in Teaching Listening

Comprehension………..

4.1.2 Students’ Responses toward the Strategies Used………. 4.2Discussion...………

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS …………...

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Observation Framework ………...………… 23

Table 3.2 Interview Framework ……….. 24

Table 3.3 Questionnaire Framework ……… 25

Table 4.1 Summary of Strategies in Teaching Listening

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 4.1 Questionnaires Result (Bottom-up Percentages)………….. 41

Figure 4.2 Questionnaires Result (Top-down Percentages)………….. 42

Figure 4.3 Questionnaires Result (Metacognitive Percentages)……… 43

Figure 4.4 Questionnaires Result (Bottom-up Percentages)………….. 44

Figure 4.5 Questionnaires Result (Top-down Percentages)………….. 45

Figure 4.6 Questionnaires Result (Metacognitive Percentages)……… 46

Figure 4.7 Questionnaires Result (Bottom-up Percentages)………….. 47

Figure 4.8 Questionnaires Result (Top-down Percentages)………….. 48

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter starts with the background of the study in which reasons for choosing

the topic and significance of the research are included. The chapter also includes

research questions and aim of the study. Besides, some concepts containing

research design employed in the study are presented in relation to data analysis.

The last, organization of paper will be explained in the end of this chapter.

1. Background of the Study

It is widely believed that listening as one of four basic skills in English,

plays an important role in language learning. It requires the language learners to

receive and to understand incoming information or input (Rost, 2002). Therefore,

without understanding inputs, the learners cannot learn anything (Nunan, in

Richards and Renandya, 2002). Moreover, Vandergrift (1999) states that listening

lies at the heart of language learning, but it is least understood and least

researched.

As mentioned above, listening is least understood and least researched,

which means that it attracts little attention in both theory and practice compared to

other three language skills (i.e., reading, writing, and speaking). Furthermore,

Richards and Renandya (2002) argue that the listening skills had been abandoned

in language teaching for many years since the teaching method emphasized on

productive skills (i.e. speaking and writing) and there was an assumption that

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recently an active interest in the role of listening comprehension is being

developed due to a development of powerful theories in listening comprehension

and inclusions of developed listening courses in many ESL programs (Richards,

2008). Hence, the teaching of listening comprehension has attracted a greater level

of interest in recent years than it did in the past.

A good listening comprehension seems to develop easily for first language

listening, but it requires more effort in listening to second or foreign language.

Consequently, students who learn English as second or foreign language might

find difficulties in listening comprehension. According to Ur (1984), there are

several problems found by the students during listening comprehension. The

students sometimes: (1) do not understand the certain English sounds, (2) do not

know how to cope with the redundancy and “noise”, (3) cannot predict the

language meaning because they are not familiar with the pattern of words, (4) do

not understand the colloquial vocabulary, (5) cannot set their own listening pace,

(6) have difficulties in understanding another accent, (7) have lack ability of how

to use environmental clues to get the meaning. Moreover, it was found that the

students are poorly equipped with strategies and activities to help them improve

their listening comprehension (Nurrahman, 2009).

In other research, Mendelssohn (1995) also found that teachers often

expect students to develop their listening skill by osmosis (absorption) and

without help. In the osmosis approach, it is believed that if students listen to the

target language all day, they will improve their listening comprehension.

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difficulties in comprehending the spoken language that they had already been

given by the teacher. This finding indicates that teachers need to be equipped by

strategies in teaching listening comprehension in order to help the students to cope

with the difficulties in learning English listening.

In line with the previous explanation that listening comprehension is

necessary in language learning but the EFL or ESL students and teachers are

confronting some problems in the process of listening comprehension, there is a

great interest for researcher to investigate what strategies that are used in teaching

listening comprehension especially in English Department where the listening

comprehension as a course is being taught.

2. Statements of Problems

This study essentially tried to figure out the strategies used in teaching

listening comprehension. Hence, this study merely focused on these following

questions.

1. What strategies do the teachers use in teaching listening comprehension?

2. What are the students’ responses toward the strategies used by the

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3. Objectives of the Study

According to the question formulated above, the objectives of this study

are as follow.

1. To investigate the strategies that is used by teacher in teaching listening

comprehension in class.

2. To find out the students responses toward the strategies used.

4. Significances of the Study

This study is intended to be valuable for:

1. The teachers in guiding the students to improve their listening

comprehension’s skill

2. The students in improving their awareness of strategies used for better

understanding in the processes underlying in listening

3. Other researchers who investigate the teaching strategies in English

Language teaching and Learning especially in listening comprehension.

5. Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study attempts to investigate the college lecturers who teach English

listening comprehension at particular listening lesson to first semester students

of English Department in Public University. More specifically, this study is

only limited to describe the strategies used in teaching listening comprehension

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6. Methodology

6.1 Research Design

This study employed descriptive design in particular. Best and Khan

(1989) cites in Suherman (2011) state that descriptive method is the method

that describes, records, analyzes and interprets conditions that exist in certain

group. Therefore, the objective of descriptive research was to understand

participants from their points of view (McMillan, 2001). In other words, the

researcher did not control the selection or manipulate the independent variable

and had no control over what had already happened to the participant (Gay,

2003). In addition, this study also utilized both elements of quantitative and

qualitative method within the same study since it involved data collection and

data analysis using those methods.

6.2 Site and Participants

This study took place at English department in one of State Universities

in Bandung. The participants of this study were three college lecturers and

English Department students that took listening lesson as one of their subjects.

The students involved in this study were first semester English Department

students. There were six different classes with total 107 students who

participate in this study. They were labeled as A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2

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6.3 Data Collection Procedure

The data of this research are collected by using the following methods.

a. Observation

In this study, the data collected from several meetings that conduct in the

classroom through observation. The observation in this study was conducted

to determine behaviours that present in classroom including what the teacher

said and done, also what the students’ responses toward teaching and learning

listening process. In relation to this study, Ary, Jacobs and Sorensen (2010,

p.216) states that “observation notes focus on determining the extent to which

a particular behavior(s) is present and the researcher identifies the behavior of

interest and devises in a systematic procedure for identifying, categorizing,

and recording the behavior in either a natural or a contrived situation”.

b. Interviews

In this study, the interviews were conducted to the teachers. It was conducted

individually at place and time that had been compromised. It was done to

obtain more data in listening lesson that could not be found in observation.

Moreover, it was carried out to dig out and to confirm what actually happened

in the classroom. Fraenkel and Wallen (2009) assert that interview aims at

gaining more informations that relate to the issue and at finding out what the

respondents think or feel about something.

c. Questionnaire

List of a research or survey questions were given to respondents (the first

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designed to extract specific information on students’ responses toward

teachers’ strategy in teaching listening. Gay (1987) states that questionnaire

has several advantages such as it requires less time and it permits data

collection from large sample.

7. Organization of the Paper

This study will be organized as follows:

Chapter I Introduction

This chapter provides background of study, statements of the problem, the

purpose of research, the scope of study, research methodology, population and

sample, clarification of the key terms, and organization of the paper.

Chapter II Theoretical Foundation

This chapter explains related theories and literature. It consists of several parts

as following: 1) Definition of Strategy, 2) Definition of Listening

Comprehension, and 3) Strategies used in Teaching Listening Comprehension

that are included direct strategies (covering bottom-up, and top-down) and

indirect strategies (metacognitive strategies).

Chapter III Methodology

This chapter will discuss the methodology in conducting the research. It

contains the method and design of the research, site and participants where the

research conducted, data collection and data analysis that describe how the data

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Chapter IV Finding and Discussion

This chapter endows the results of the conducted research in order to answer

the research question. Furthermore, this chapter presents the discussion of

research’s findings in relation with theoretical foundation.

Chapter V Conclusion and Suggestion

This chapter contains conclusion of this study and suggestion for the students,

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the procedures and stages of the research employed by the

researcher. The discussion begins with the formulation of the problems, then

describing the research method and the research design, participant, research site,

data collection and data analyses.

3.1 Formulation of problems

The main point of the study was investigating the strategies used in

teaching listening comprehension. Therefore, this study focused on answering the

formulated questions as follows:

1. What strategies do the teachers use in teaching listening comprehension?

2. What are the students’ responses toward the strategies used by the

teachers?

3.2 Research Design and Method

This study employed descriptive design in particular. Best and Khan

(1989) cited in Suherman (2011) state that descriptive method is the method that

describes, records, analyzes and interprets conditions that exist in certain group.

Furthermore, descriptive method determines and report the ways things are and

the researcher has no control over the variable that was being researched (Gay,

2003). This was in line with McMillan and Schumacer (2001, p. 283) that in

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researcher and it simply describes attitudes, behaviors or other characteristics of a

group of subject. In addition, the term descriptive study also utilizes both elements

of quantitative and qualitative method within the same study since it involved data

collection and data analysis using those methods (AECT, 2007).

In present study, the descriptive method was used to investigate the

teachers’ strategies in teaching listening comprehension. Hence, it was done by

exploring and investigating behaviors and attitudes that happened in the

classroom, and then simply described it without involving manipulation or

treatment to the research subjects or variables. Moreover, it was conducted to

acquire an in-depth comprehension regarding the process of teaching listening

comprehension related to the strategies applied in classroom. Furthermore,

descriptive method in term of descriptive statistics was used to analyze the

students’ responses toward the strategies used by the teachers. It means that the

data were calculated to seek the answers regarding to quantity of the students’

responses that gained through questionnaires.

3.3 Site and Participants

The selection of site and participants in this study was on purpose or it was

well known as purposive sampling. It was based on previous knowledge of

population and the specific purpose of the research so that researcher used

personal judgment to select a sample (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2009, p.99).

The site of study took place at English department in one of State

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developed listening program, which was related to the study. Whereas, the

participants of this study were three college lecturers (written as teachers in this

study) and English department students who took listening lesson as one of their

subjects. The participants were considered appropriate with the focus of the study

since the teachers had experiences in teaching listening that was necessary to gain

data. Moreover, the students studied listening as their subject.

The study involved the first semester students of English Department.

There were six classes that had participated. They were labeled as A1, A2, B1,

B2, C1 and C2 class with total 107 students. The students were selected because

they represented the population of English Department students who took

listening lesson. In accordance with this, Maxwell (1996) cited in Alwasilah

(2009, p.147) states that the use of purposive sampling were based on several

reasons such as special characteristic or representation of the setting, individual,

or activities and heterogeneity in population.

3.4 Data Collections

The data was gathered from three main sources. The data sources were

from observations, questionnaires and teachers’ interview. The observations were

conducted in the classroom during the lessons and the later was conducted outside

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3.4.1 Classroom Observation

One of the instruments that were used to collect the data in this study was

through observation. According to Alwasilah (2009, p.211), observation is a

systematic and planned monitoring that aims to gain data. Through observation,

the researcher learns about behavior and the meaning attached to those behaviors

(Marshall, 1995 cited in Sugiyono, 2008, p.310).

The intensive classroom observation was conducted three times for each

class. During classroom observation, the observer sat among the students

observing teacher and students activities, taking notes and checklist on the steps

taken by teacher, and observing students’ responses in teaching learning process.

The purpose of this observation was to investigate what strategies were

used by the teacher in teaching listening and the students’ responses toward

teacher’s strategies. The class was observed carefully until the observer could

identify the pattern of teacher’s strategies in teaching listening comprehension,

and students’ responses toward the strategies used by the teacher. During the

classroom observation the observer paid attention to the teacher’s presentation,

methods, strategies, and teacher or students interaction in conducting the

classroom activities. This study used classroom observation checklist adapted

from theories. The checklist can be seen in appendix A. Here is the observation

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Table 3.1 Observation framework

Adapted from Brown (2001) and Vandergrift (1996) in Rost (2002)

Categories Total item

Bottom-up exercises 6

Top-down exercise 5

Planning 7

Monitoring 7

Evaluating 7

In order to get additional and detailed data, the observer made field notes

during observing the teaching and learning activities. It was done to get a clear

idea about what really happened in the classroom. The result of field notes was

written in the observation sheet that can be seen in Appendix B. The observer also

used videotape to record more detail data. The videotaping recorded all of

activities, specifically during teaching and learning activities.

3.4.2 Interview

Another instrument that was used in this study was interview. It aimed at

gaining more information related to the issue and at finding out what the

respondents think or feel about something (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2009). It also

built trust and relationship between respondents and interviewer, and it might

obtain information that the individual probably would not reveal by using other

data collecting techniques (Gall and Borg, 2003).

The present study employed a semi-structured interview. It involved

asking the series of structured questions and then probing more deeply using

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The interview was conducted and recorded once for each teacher to

investigate in-depth about the strategies that were used by teacher that could not

be found and clarified in the observation. As suggested by Fraenkel and Wallen

(2009, p.445) that ―interview is important to check the accuracy of—to verify or

refute—the impressions the researcher has gained through observation‖. The

interview schedules can be seen at appendix A. Here is the interview framework

Table 3.2 Interview framework

Number of items Details

15 Identifying specific method or technique

5 Identifying students’ response in relation to

the strategies’ used by teacher

The total number was 20 questions. The sample questions were provided

as follows

 Identification of the strategies used in teaching listening comprehension

What do you usually do in starting listening lesson?

 Identification of the students response

Are the students able to answer the questions related to the listening

materials?

3.4.3 Questionnaire

The questionnaire was used to get some information of students’ response

towards the strategy used in teaching listening comprehension. The questionnaire

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Table 3.3 Questionnaire framework

Adapted from Brown (2001) and Vandergrift (1996) in Rost (2002)

No. Categories Indicators Item

Number

1 Bottom-up strategies

Listening for specific details 1, 2, 6 Recognizing word pronunciation 3, 4, 5 Recognizing word-order pattern 5

2 Top-down strategies

Listening for the main idea 7,8,9

Predicting 9

data that can be categorized easily (McMillan, 2001). Thus, the respondents were

required to put a check or thick (√) in the place that best reflects their opinion or

beliefs about statements that had been given in the questionnaire.

The questionnaire in this study used Likert scale that scaled from strongly

agree – agree – disagree – strongly disagree. According to Schreiber and

Asner-Self (2011, p.132), ―Likert scale is a set of several items, not a single item, where

the participants’ responses are added and/or averaged to create an overall score‖,

which means that each questions are related (in terms of scoring) and can be

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3.5 Trustworthiness

Trustworthiness is the truth which is derived from description, conclusion,

interpretation and other kinds of report (Alwasilah, 2002). The trustworthiness of

data consists of credibility (validity) and dependability (reliability) (Sugiyono,

Wahyuningsih, 2007, p.40).

In conducting this research, there is awareness that there might be biases.

Therefore, to avoid the two treats, the present study applied triangulation to

enhance the trustworthiness of qualitative data as Cresswell (2008, p.266) states:

Qualitative inquires triangulate among different data sources to enhance the accuracy of the study. Triangulation is the process of corroborating evidence from different individuals (e.g. principal and a student), type or data (e.g. observation field notes and interviews), or method of data collection (e.g. documents and interview) in descriptions and themes in qualitative research.

Thus, in gathering data and information, the study applied more than one

techniques which are observation, questionnaires and interview that was collected

from different subject of study or participants.

3.6 Data Analysis

The data analysis was conducted regarding to the instruments used in this

research. First, the data gained from observation, and second, the data gained

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3.6.1 Analysis data from observation

There are several steps adapted from Dornyei (2011) in analyzing the

qualitative data gained from observation.

1. Transcribing the data that meant transforming the recording data (from

observation check-list, videotaping, and field notes) into a textual form.

2. Determining which materials might be relevant to the study.

3. Analyzing and classifying the data into some categories based on the the

theories adapted from Brown (2001) and Vandergrift (1996) in Rost (2002)

related to the main focus, that is the strategies in teaching listening

comprehension. The central theme was about teaching strategies used by

teacher.

4. Interpreting the data from observation to address the study and drawing

conclusions.

3.6.2 Analysis data from interview

The data from interview were analyzed through several steps as suggested

by Alwasilah (2002) as follow:

1. Transcribing the interview into write-ups form

2. Categorizing the write-ups

3. Reducing inappropriate data

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3.6.3 Analysis Data from Questionnaires

The descriptive quantitative data analysis was applied to find respondents’

tendency on perception, opinion, and judgment. It was used to analyze the

students’ responses toward the strategies used by the teacher by using

questionnaire. The data were analyzed by calculating frequency which refers to

how often something occurs.

The steps were as the follows (1) Scoring the students’ responses on the

questionnaire, (2) Calculate the questionnaire to find frequency and percentage,

(3) Make a table consisting of the statement, the frequencies and the percentage

that have been computed.

3.7 Clarification of Terms

The title of this study is ―Teachers’ Strategy in Teaching Listening

Comprehension (A descriptive study in Public University in Bandung)‖. In order

to give a clear understanding about the study, some terms are clarified here:

a. Teacher

In this study, teachers that became focus are university lecturers who teach

listening comprehension.

b. Strategy

Brown (2001) divines strategy as specific methods of approaching a

problem or task, or planned designs for controlling and manipulating

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c. Listening

According to Vandergrift (2002), it is a process of matching speech with

what listeners already know about the topic.

d. Comprehension

Comprehension is the ability to grasp something mentally and the capacity

to understand ideas and facts (SIL, 1999).

3.8 Conclusion

This chapter has been written to discuss a methodological description of

the research. It includes the discussion of the instruments used in answering the

two research questions. The instruments used in this research were observation,

interview and questionnaire. All of them were used to answer the first and second

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

This chapter delineates the conclusions and suggestions of this research. The

conclusions are formulated from the research findings, and the suggestions present

the recommendation for the English teachers and the further research.

5.1 Conclusions

This study investigated strategies that were implemented by English teacher in

teaching listening comprehension and the students’ responses toward the

strategies used.

It was revealed that the teachers used various strategies in teaching

listening. The strategies used by the teachers were categorized into bottom-up,

top-down and metacognitive. In bottom up category, teacher 1’s strategies were

recognizing and discriminating the sounds, grammar and pronunciation. Most of

the students responded negatively to those strategies, which means they mostly

had difficulty in recognizing and discriminating the sounds. Whereas, Teacher 2

used almost the same strategies as teacher 1 in bottom-up with the addition of

writing down the audio record. Meanwhile, it gained positive response from the

students that means they could catch the sounds of English words and pattern.

Furthermore, teacher 3 also used the same strategies as teacher 1 with the addition

of looking for keywords. However, the students’ responses were quite varied.

Most of them agreed that they could listen for specific details, but they disagreed

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In top-down category, teacher 1’s strategies were answering questions

related to the topic, visualization and discussion. It gained positive responses from

the students such as they could predict the meaning and they could listen to main

idea of listening passage. Meanwhile, teacher 2’s strategies were live listening,

answering questions and discussion. Moreover, it gained positive response from

the students, which means they could catch the main idea and summarizing.

While, teacher 3’s strategies were recognizing and predicting the topic, group

work, answering questions, visualization, and discussion. Furthermore, it obtained

mostly positive responses, which means the students could listen to main idea and

predict the meaning.

In metacognitive category, teacher 1 and teacher 2 did planning and

monitoring the teaching and learning process. However, they did not specifically

evaluate the lesson, but the students responded positively towards the strategies.

In contrast, teacher 3 did planning, monitoring and evaluating the lesson. It gained

a positive response from the students that their comprehensions were monitored

and their listening outcome also evaluated in listening tasks.

5.2 Suggestions

Several suggestions are given for some elements including English

Teachers and Further research in teaching listening comprehension. For English

teachers, they should pay attention on appropriate strategies that can be applied to

help students comprehending listening tasks. Hence, teacher might consider the

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comprehension. Strategies in bottom-up focus on words, phrases or cohesive

devices in order to build up a whole discourse. Thus, teachers should assist the

students in recognizing and producing the sounds. While strategies in top-down

focus on building-up schemata (background information) to get general view of

listening passage. Hence, teachers should help the students to relate their prior

knowledge with the topic of listening passage. Whereas, the metacognitive

strategy also should be applied by teachers, which means they should plan,

monitor and evaluate the listening teaching and learning process in class. In

addition, teacher might find and use other strategies for teaching listening for

making students interested in learning listening comprehension.

Finally, further research might want to focus on benefit and challenges

which are faced by teacher in using those strategies and analyze the students’

listening performances since this study only focused on the strategies used by the

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Figure

Table 3.1 Observation Framework ………………………...…………

Table 3.1

Observation Framework ………………………...………… p.7
Figure 4.1 Questionnaires Result (Bottom-up Percentages)………….. 41

Figure 4.1

Questionnaires Result (Bottom-up Percentages)………….. 41 p.8
Table 3.1 Observation framework  Adapted from Brown (2001) and Vandergrift (1996) in Rost (2002)

Table 3.1

Observation framework Adapted from Brown (2001) and Vandergrift (1996) in Rost (2002) p.21
Table 3.2 Interview framework

Table 3.2

Interview framework p.22
Table 3.3 Questionnaire framework

Table 3.3

Questionnaire framework p.23

References

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