Full text




Adi Prasetyo

Faculty of Language and Literature Satya Wacana Christian University


Maria Christina Eko Setyarini Faculty of Language and Literature Satya Wacana Christian University



Teaching English in Pabelan is challenging since Pabelan is a rural area that has fewer facilities to support the learning process. Meanwhile, in teaching vocabulary, teachers usually need to use Audio Visual aids (AVAs) to help them. Considering the importance of vocabulary in learning English, this research was conducted to describe what techniques used by teachers to teach vocabulary in Pabelan Elementary Schools. The participants in this study were three English teachers from three elementary schools in Pabelan. The data were collected through classroom observation and a semi-structured interview. The findings revealed that the teachers mostly used clues, hints, and realia. The reason was that clues, hints, and realia make it easier for the teachers to introduce vocabulary and to cope with the lack of teaching facilities.

Keywords: vocabulary, teaching techniques, rural area


The most important thing that people need in learning English is vocabulary since many experiments have proven that vocabulary is the key to success. Chall, Jacobs, and Baldwin (1990) as cited in Biemiller (2003) said that vocabulary predicts success in learning to read, and it is a central feature of intelligence. Ironically, there are many obstacles that teachers have to face to teach vocabulary in a rural area. Teaching vocabulary in a rural area is not easy as teaching in an urban area. The lack of the supporting material and facilities are the main problems for the teachers there. The geographical settings may also cause a problem in teaching. Students from rural settings usually have special characteristics related to background knowledge, subject familiarity, previous experiences, and lifestyles. All of these conditions contribute to the challenge faced by the teachers teaching in a rural area. In this case, the uses of

certain techniques that encourage the students’ willingness to learn English are needed to help

English teachers teaching in this area.


schools are located in isolated areas, therefore, researchers are not always willing to spend sufficient time there.

This study aimed to describe what techniques used by teachers to teach vocabulary in Pabelan Elementary Schools. It was guided by two research questions, “What are the techniques of teaching vocabulary in rural area elementary school?” and “What are the teacher’s reason use those techniques?”. This research is expected to be useful especially for teachers. It may help teachers who are planning to teach in a rural area to see the techniques usually used in teaching vocabulary to elementary school students in a rural area. It can also be input to researchers doing research in rural areas.



Hornby (1995) defines vocabulary as the total number of words in the language, all the words know to a person or used in a particular book, subject, a list of words with their meanings, especially one that accompanies a textbook in a foreign language. Similarly, Huyen and Nga (2003) revealed that vocabulary is the collection of words that an individual knows. Meanwhile Rafael (2008) sees vocabulary not only as a collection of words that a person knows but as something that is more complex. He classifies vocabulary into two, receptive and expressive vocabulary. He further mentions that one person’ receptive vocabulary is usually larger than his expressive vocabulary. Receptive vocabulary is the words that a person recognizes and understands whereas Expressive vocabulary includes the words that a person uses when speaking or writing. Referring to the three definitions vocabulary can be seen a person’ property of words comprises the ones used (expressive) and the ones not used only understood (receptive).

Vocabulary Teaching Techniques

There are many techniques that teachers can use in teaching vocabulary. There are at least six that are generally used by teachers. They are Using Pictures, Reading Aloud, Pronunciation Drilling, Using Clue and Hints, Using Realia, and Using Gestures Techniques.

In using pictures technique, the teacher shows pictures to help student understanding the vocabulary. This is done to give student a visual help in learning as Wright (2007) also states that pictures as visual representation of mind can better affect students in learning a language. Further, Wright (2007) also mentions that there are three roles of pictures in speaking and writing. First, pictures can motivate the students in learning vocabulary. Second, pictures contribute to the context that the language is being used. The last is pictures can provide information to be referred to in conversation, discussion, and storytelling.

Reading Aloud means the teachers mention the vocabulary and require the students to read the vocabulary they learn aloud. Kailani (1998) reveals a good activity of reading aloud have some characteristics. They are the clear articulation of words, flexibility in rate, volume, and tone, adequate phrasing and effective use of pauses.


Using Clues/Hints means the teacher helps students understanding vocabulary using things related to the vocabulary. The most frequent used clue in teaching is context clue. Context clues are clues given to guess the meaning of a word. It includes antonyms, synonyms, explanation and examples (Joffe, 1994)

Using realia in teaching means the teacher brings real things to the classroom to help him in teaching. Milone (2003) reveals that Realia includes objects, actions, concrete materials, also real factors and activities of every category that can make a closer relation between the concept of the idea and the word or word phrases. Milone (2003) also suggests that it is better to use real things rather than rely on wordy explanations and discussions in teaching vocabulary.

Teaching using gestures means the teachers use his body movement in teaching. According to Ekman & Friesen (1969), there are four types of gestures that are important for effective communication. They are illustrators, regulators, emblems, and affect displays. Illustrators are the natural hand and body gestures that accompany speech, such as gesturing, smiling, frowning, or pointing to illustrate a point. Regulators are gestures that are used to control turn-taking and other procedural aspects of communication. Emblems are gestures that can be translated into words and that are used to transfer a message. Affect displays are gestures that express emotions.


This study was a descriptive qualitative research. It described the techniques of teaching vocabulary in a rural area. It also described the reason the teachers of some school in Pabelan chose certain strategies in teaching vocabulary.

Context of the Study

The setting of the study is three elementary schools in Pabelan. Those schools are SDN Jembrak, SDN Glawan, and SDN Kadirejo. The focus of the study is in the third grade because students begin to learn English vocabulary at this grade.

Participant of the Study

The participants in this study were three English teachers from three elementary schools in Kecamatan Pabelan. The reason the participants were taken from three elementary schools because in rural area elementary school, they only have one English teacher in each school. Thus, I decided to use participants from three schools. The participants were selected based on the purposive sampling or criterion-based selection (Blackledge, 2001 as cited in Zacharias, 2011).

Research Instrument

To gather the information, this study used observation protocol and interview questions. The type of observation used was non-participant observation. I used an observation protocol to help me in observing the classes.


Table 1. Observation Protocol

School Observatio


Teaching Technique Additional


Pi Rd Pr Cl Rl Gs Others

Pi: Pictures Ri: Realia Rd: Read aloud Gs: Gesture Pr: Pronunciation

Cl: Clue and Hint

Data Collection Procedure

The observation was held nine times in three classes. Each class was observed three times. The activity or learning and teaching process between the teacher and the students were recorded using a video recorder. The observation was held to see the real teaching learning process. The observations are focused on what was happening in class.

After I have done with class observation, I did an interview with the same teachers that I had observed before. The semi-structured interview was the techniques to collect the data. My intention of using this kind of technique was to make greater flexibility like changing the order of questions to provide an opportunity for follow-up questions. The interviews were conducted

to seek specific information on teachers’ technique in teaching vocabulary for young learners.

The interviews were conducted in informal situations where the interviewer and the interviewee sat to create natural conversations to encourage the teachers to recount their experiences, opinions, and free responses. The interview was held after the each observation, and I finished doing the observation and interviews in one month.

Data Analysis


data was analyzed descriptively, and some supporting theories were included to carry out the analysis.


The study revealed that there were 8 techniques used by teachers in Pabelan in teaching vocabulary. There are two techniques in addition to the six in the literature review found in the study. They are Using Repetition and Using Song.

Using Pictures

The first technique that the teachers used to teach vocabulary was teaching using

pictures. The pictures were taken from the textbook. This technique was used by all of the teachers. Mrs. A used pictures in explaining the material to the students. She started to use pictures at the beginning of her explanation to encourage the students. She asked the students to look at the pictures while she was explaining about parts of our body, as seen in extract 1 and picture 1.

Extract 1

Mrs. A : Hidung, siapa yang tau hidung? (The teacher asked the students to look at the pictures in their book)

Students : Nose

Mrs. A : Nose (the teacher repeated the words while she wrote it in the blackboard)

Picture 1: Part of our body, taken from LKS Bahasa Inggris Kelas 3 SD Tahun 2013-2014


Statement 1

Kalo menggunakan picture itu anak lebih tertarik, mereka suka melihat gambar-gambar yang seperti kartun. Jadi mereka menggunakn imajinasi mereka untuk meningat vocab-vocab yang baru mereka pelajari.

In the same way, Mrs. B added in statement 2. Statement 2

Kalo menggunakan gambar, itu memudahkan kita dalam mengajar. Kita ndak perlu buang-buang waktu menulis dan menjelaska n dengan panjang lebar, tinggal suruh anak melihat gambar dan membaca tulisan di samping gambar. Selain memudahkan kita, juga memudahkan siswa untuk menghafal.

Based on the observation, those three teachers used pictures to teach vocabulary in order to encourage the students. They used pictures in the beginning up to the end of their explanation to make the students easier in understanding the words. This technique was supported by Wright (2007) who said that picture as a visual representation of mind can better affect students in learning a language. Similar to Wright’s (2007) statement, Rivers (1964) said that young learners are very connected to their surroundings and are more attracted to the physical and visible things.

Using pictures is a good way to get student’s attention, young learners more interested in learning a process that is using pictures. In using pictures, teachers do not need to talk too much to explain about the words because pictures play their role as a visual representation of the students mind. That is why using pictures is important in teaching vocabulary for young learners.

Reading Aloud

The second technique that teachers used to teach vocabulary was reading aloud. This technique was used at the beginning of the class by Mrs. A when she was teaching vocabulary about part of the body. She asked the students to read aloud with her after she wrote those words on the blackboard. This strategy used by the teacher to give more practice to the students in reading and speaking aspect. This technique was presented in the fourth observation by Mrs. A, as seen in extract 2.

Extract 2

Mrs. A asked some students to read aloud part of the body on the blackboard. After that, she asked all of the students to read aloud together with her.

Mrs. A : Ayo dibaca yang keras bersama-sama. (Appointing to the word in the blackboard “part of body”)

Mrs. A and Students : Eye (reading aloud together)

Mrs. A : Ulangi, bersama-sama.

Mrs. A and Students : Eye (reading aloud together)


introduce new vocabulary to the students. This strategy also used to cheer up the students when they were feeling bored. During the interview after the class, Mrs. A said in statement 3.

Statement 3

Reading aloud itu ya gunanya biar siswa mau mengucapkan kata -kata, agar lidah mereka juga terbiasa mengucapkan bahasa inggris. Karena mereka biasanya diam saja kalau tidak di ajak membaca bersama-sama.

Based on the observation, Mrs. A used this kind of strategies at the beginning, half, and the end of the class. It means that the teacher tried to give more practice to the students in reading and speaking aspect. It is good for the children especially young learners to practice more. Another advantage of this kind of strategy was the students got more spirit when they were feeling bored in the class. They got back their spirit when they were reading aloud.

According to Zokaee (2012), vocabulary learning strategies that worked for Iranian learners was using read aloud. The students are asked to read aloud while reading the material in their handbook. Thus, the students can see what they read by themselves and practice reading loudly.

Pronunciation Drilling

The third technique that the teacher used to teach vocabulary was pronunciation drill. This technique was used when Mrs. B and Mrs. C were teaching about food and part of body. They used this strategy while they read aloud the words together. Before Mrs. B and C explained about the words, they asked the students to read it aloud together. Then, they correcting the wrong pronunciation did by the students. This technique was presented by Mrs. B in the third observation, as seen in extract 3.

Extract 3

Mrs. B : Makanan ada banyak sekali jenisnya, di sini cuma ada beberapa sample, kita baca dulu ya. Rice /rʌɪs/

Students : Rice (clear) /rʌɪs/ Mrs. B : Meatball/ˈmiːtbɔːl/

Students : Meatball (not clear) /ˈmitbɔl/

Mrs. B : Coba di ulangi lagi dari yang paling atas, rice. /rʌɪs/

Students : Rice (clear) /rʌɪs/ Mrs. B : Meatball /ˈmiːtbɔːl/

Students : Meatball (quite clear)/ˈmiːtbɔːl/

Mrs. B : Kalo tulisannya (all) di baca /ɔːl/. (Teacher explained while wrote it in the blackboard) meatball. /ˈmiːtbɔːl/

Students : Meatball (clear) /ˈmiːtbɔːl/


Statement 4

Ya drilling itu penting, karena dengan cara itu siswa bisa mengucapkan vocab-vocab yang baru mereka tau dengan benar. Ga a sal bunyi aja, kayaknya bener, tapi kalo di dengerin baik-baik ternyata salah pengucapannya. Jadi ya kalo mau bisa berbicara bahasa Inggris harus bisa ngucapin yang bener dulu.

This technique also presented by Mrs. A in the seventh observation, as seen in extract 4. Extract 4

Before Mrs. A asked one of her students who was Sulis to write down the meaning of the word “mother” in the blackboard, she asked Sulis to read it.

Mrs. A : Number two, Sulis. Di baca dulu. Sulis : Mother /ˈmoðēr/

Mrs. A : Mother /ˈmʌðə/

Sulis : Mother /ˈmʌðə/

It showed that Mrs. A used pronunciation drill to teach her students. According to Mrs. A, drilled activity is really important in teaching vocabulary. She said in statement 5.

Statement 5

Drilling itu ya gunanya biar anak-anak ngucapinnya ga salah, kalo dia salah ucap, sampai tua nanti ya taunya kata yang salah itu. Makanya dari kecil begini harus di ajari pengucapan yang tepat.

Similarly, the first and the second technique used by the teacher aimed to teach how to pronounce the words correctly. Before the teachers taught them about the meaning, they introduced the vocabulary first. After introducing the vocabulary, the students practiced speaking; they spoke up and pronounced the vocabulary correctly.

It was an appropriate way to master the students in pronounces words. Teachers gave an opportunity to the students to read aloud and to correct the pronunciation. Furthermore, students got an experience in reading and directly got a correction from the teachers. This thing will make the students get longer memorize the words.

Using Clues

The fourth technique that the teacher used to teach vocabulary was using hint/clue. The teacher used this technique in teaching vocabulary about colors and hobby. This strategy used by Mrs. C when the students got confused about her explanation. Mrs. C tried to help the students to understand easily by using a clue. This technique was presented in the fourth observation by Mrs. C, as seen in extract 5:

Extract 5


Mrs. C : Warna daun apa? Apa wa rnanya?

Students : Hijau.

Mrs. C : iya hijau, green. Apa? Students : Green.

Based on the observation, Mrs. C used the clue to teach vocabulary. She used it to help the students in understanding the meaning of the words. Besides, it also helps the teacher in explaining the new words. She does not need to explain too much about the meaning of the words. During the interview after the class, Mrs. C said in statement 6.

Statement 6

Kalo pake clue itu siswa jadi lebih mudah meneba k, karena mereka lebih familiar dengan benda-benda di sekita r. Lagipula nanti mereka juga akan lebih mudah ingat jika bertemu vocab itu lagi, karena mereka juga ingat dengan clue yang pernah di berikan di sekolah.

Based on the interview, Mrs. C used clues to teach vocabulary because the teacher knew that clues could make the students memorize the vocabulary longer. She thought that this technique was effective enough to convey students to stimulate vocabulary knowledge of the students. Thus, the teacher preferred to give clues rather than explain the word to teach the vocabulary.

Another advantage of using this kind of strategy is saving more time in explanation case. The teacher could explain a lot of new words in the short time using clues. It also made the students got better memorization about new words they learn because they tend to memorize what the teacher used as a clue.

Using Realia

The fifth technique that the teacher used to teach vocabulary was realia. This technique was used when Mrs. A and Mrs. C were teaching about part of the body. Mrs. A and C used this kind of strategy when their students got confused about what they were explained about. The teacher used a real example to make the students easier to understand what they mean. This technique was presented by Mrs. A in the first observation, as seen in extract 6.

Extract 6

Mrs. A : Ini apa? (Teacher showed and appointed to her teeth). Students : Teeth

Mrs. A : Iya apa? Teeth Students : Teeth

In the seventh observation, Mrs. A presented another example of realia, as seen in extract 7.

Extract 7

Mrs. A : Son Students : Son


Based on the observation, it showed that Mrs. A used a real example to make her students easy to understand and remember the word. The students tend to memorize longer when the teacher gave them a real example. Relia is not similar as clue and hints. The teacher who used realia tend to show real things as an example; it is totally different with the teacher who used clue and hint strategy. In the case of using clues and hints, the teacher tended to give some clue to help the students in understanding the meaning but did not give real things as an example.

According to Mrs. A, using real example is a better way to make the students remember the words than using a textbook. As seen in statement 7.

Statement 7

Anak-anak itu akan lebih ingat kalo kita kasih contoh yang benar-benar nyata, jadi mereka bisa lihat langsung, dan cenderung lebih ingat dari pada contoh-contoh yang mereka lihat di buku.

In teaching vocabulary, it is better to use real things rather than rely on wordy explanations and discussions. Furthermore, concrete items can create the teaching-learning activity more enjoyable and lively.

Although this kind of strategy is good for the students, using realia as the strategy in teaching vocabulary is not always helps the teachers. They need to prepare many things every lesson and bring those real things to the class as an example of the teaching-learning process. It is good if the lesson is about something around the class, so the teachers do not need to bring many things to the class.

Using Gestures

The sixth technique that teacher used to teach vocabulary was using gesture. This technique was used by Mrs. C when she was teaching vocabulary about hobby. Mrs. C used gesture when they were explaining the meaning of the new words. She also used this technique when her students got confused about her explanation. This technique was presented by Mrs. C in the sixth observation, as seen in extract 8.

Extract 8

Mrs. C : Tennis (reading aloud) Students : Tennis (repeating)

Mrs. C : Tennis yang di maksud di sini adalah tennis lapangan, bukan tennis yang pa ke meja. Tennis yang menngunakan raket besa r dan bola seperti bola kasti, kalau tennis meja itu yang pake raket kecil dan bola kecil, itu namanya tennis meja, (Act like she was played tennis and table tennis, use her hands like she was hit the ball in the pitch and then in the table) paham?

Students : Ya

Based on the observation, the teacher used gesture to help her in explaining the meaning and differences between Tennis and table tennis. Using gesture, students could easily imagine what their teacher did. They could easily found what the meaning of the words because of the teacher’s gesture.


Statement 8

Ya saya sering juga menggunakan gestur dan mimik kalau siswanya terlihat tidak antusias dan bingung. Jadi saya kasih gesture agar mereka mau berfikir sebelum saya jelaskan. Dengan begitu kan mereka jadi ta u dan ingat dengan sendirinya, karena mereka yang menebak gesture saya.

In line with the teacher, Gordon (2007) said that comprehensible input can be delivered using nonverbal communication strategies, for example using gestures and pantomime. Gestures were helpful for the students to convey the meanings. The gesture helped the students to understand the meaning of new vocabulary.

The use of gesture in vocabulary learning process was helpful both for the teacher and students. Using gesture could help the teacher in explaining new words, gesture encourage the students to imagine what the teacher’s did. They can look at the teacher and realize by themselves what the meaning of their teacher’s gestures. It was also make the students easier to

understand what their teacher’s talking about. That is why the teacher tends to use gesture in

teaching vocabulary.

Using Repetition

The seventh technique that teacher used to teach vocabulary was using repetition. This technique was used by all of the teachers. This technique was used when they were teaching vocabulary about part of body, food, color, hobby, and days. They used this technique while they were explaining the material. They asked their students to read the words several times with them. They used it to give more practice to the students in speaking aspect. This technique was presented by Mrs. B when she was teaching about days in the eighth observation, as seen in extract 9.

Extract 9

Mrs. B read the sentence several times and asked the students to read after her. Mrs. B : Sekarang di baca dulu ya biar bisa. There are

Students : There are Mrs. B : Seven days Students : Seven days Mrs. B : In a week Students : In a week

Mrs. B : There are seven days in a week.

Students : There are seven days in a week.

Mrs. B : There are seven days in a week.

Students: There are seven days in a week.

Based on the observation, the teacher asked the students to read together with her in several times. The teacher tried to introduce those words to the students by repetition. Using repetition, students tend to be usual to speak in English although they are not correct yet in pronunciation.


Statement 9

Repeating words itu gunanya biar ana k-anak terbiasa berbica ra baha sa Inggris, karena lidah mereka akan kaku dan kaget kalau tidak di latih dari kecil. Kita tidak hanya mengenalkan vocab-vocab baru, tapi juga mengajari untuk mengucapkannya aga r terbiasa.

This technique was not as deep as pronunciation drill technique. In repetition case, the teacher focuses on introducing the new words to the students. They also gave more practice to the students to speak, but it did not focus yet in the pronunciation. That was the differences between repetition and pronunciation drill.

Using Songs

The eighth technique that the teacher used to teach vocabulary was using song. Mrs. A used song in teaching vocabulary about family. She used this technique in the middle of the class after she explained about the material. This technique was presented by Mrs. A in the seventh observation, as seen in extract 10.

Extract 10

One and one I love my mother Two and two I love my father

Three and three I love brother sister One two three I love my family

Based on the observation, Mrs. A used the simple song to make the students easy to memorize it. This melody also familiar for the students because it seems like Indonesian song that is “satu-satu aku sayang ibu”. This technique also cheer up the students, they got back their spirit and sang together with the teacher.

According to Mrs. A, using songs aimed to make the vocabulary more memorable and create a relaxed atmosphere in class. The uses of songs were really appropriate materials for children, as seen in statement 10.

Statement 10

Pakai lagu itu lebih menyenangkan, karena semua siswa ikut bernyanyi. Jadi otomatis mereka belajar pronunciation juga. Selain itu kan kalau pake lagu mereka tidak jenuh, mereka menjadi lebih bersemangat dan materi mudah untuk di hafal.

Furthermore, Abbott, (2002) cited in Gordon, (2007) said that using TPR, song and games are suggested in the second language classroom. Using songs helped to create a relaxed atmosphere during the learning process. Also, using songs made the learning process memorable.


song. Another advantage is students can easily memorize many vocabularies w using songs. That is the main reason the teacher used the song as the technique in teaching vocabulary.


This research was conducted to find out what the techniques of teaching vocabulary in the rural elementary school are. The research also held to describe what the teacher’s reason are in using those techniques in teaching vocabulary for rural elementary school. The research found that there were eight techniques that were used by the teacher to teach vocabulary in rural area elementary school: pictures, read aloud, pronunciation drill, clues / hints, realia, gestures, repeating, and song.

It will be better if English teachers use AVA (such as pictures, video, songs, puzzle, etc.) which is supported by some interactive teaching strategies in their teaching. The teachers have to create interesting activity to encourage students in learning process. Also, teachers have to prepare their material well before they teach. Thus, the teaching and learning process will be well-managed.

There were several limitations in this research. The first one was the time constraint in doing this research. To make it practical, the research was done in Pabelan, a rural area around Salatiga. The other limitation was this research involved a small number of participants. The limitation happened because of the lack participants in a rural area.

Further research may involve a large number of participants to cover more issues in teaching vocabulary. A further research also need to be conducted in others context of teaching English in a rural are so that there will be many researches about teaching English in rural areas. It will increase the quality of English teaching especially in teaching vocabulary in rural areas.


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Table 1. Observation Protocol

Table 1.

Observation Protocol p.4


Other : J01423

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