Sách dạy Yoga The Art of Adjusting Complete OCR

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(2) AsouT THE AuTHOR JJ '':1 ' I' I Brian Cooper has been practicing Hatha Yoga since 1970 and teaching full time since 1990. His first formal studies were at Yoga Niketan in Rishikesh in 1972. He holds a doctorate in Bio-Engineering and an advanced diploma in Thai Massage. These strands have come together to produce this manual. He was co-founder of the Edinburgh Yoga Centre and director of Union Yoga in Edinburgh. He is director of Teacher Training for Union Yoga, and executive consultant for Yoga Alliance UK. He is the founder of the eco-aware Shanti Griha Retreat Centre in the secluded north west of Scotland. Brian runs teacher training and yoga classes all over the world. You can find more information at: • www.briancooper.eu • www.unionyoga.co.uk

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(5) RESOURCES Other Harmony Classics COOPER, Brian Yoga: The Art of Adjusting 2nd Edition Hatha Yoga- The Report of a Personal Experience BERNARD, Theos Penthouse Of The Gods BERNARD, Theos Pranayama- The Yoga of Breathing LYSEBETH, Andre Van Yoga and Health YESUDIAN, Selvarajan and HAICH, Elisabeth Yoga Week By Week YESUDIAN, Selvarajan Autobiography of a Yogi YOGANANDA, Paramahansa Union Yoga Publishings Yoga Asanas- A Natural Method of Physical & Mental Training FREDERIC, louis Hatha Yoga -The Yogi Philosophy of Physical Well-Being RAMACHARAKA, Yogi Advanced Course In Yogi Philosophy and Oriental Occultism RAMACHARAKA, Yogi www.harmonypublishing.org

(6) CoNCLUSION This manual has shown the many ways to use adjusting to enhance asana practice. Whatever the adjustment you choose, you should always use the correct approaches and techniques as discussed in these pages. The adjustments shown are only a cross-section of what is possible. Provided you carry them out properly, there is really no limit to ways of adjusting, and the forms these can take is limited only by the imagination. I hope this manual will give you the confidence, not only to practise, but to experiment and develop your own approach to this skill. Adjusting can be greatly enhanced by studying Traditional Thai Massage. Thai Massage teaches sensitivity, awareness and understanding of the body like few other therapies can. And of course the ultimate way of learning is through your own body. Do your asana practice with the same mindfulness as you would carry out adjusting. I 35

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(9) BACK B END I NG I Adjustments To ensure correct shoulder opening, keep your student's arms approximately shoulder-width apart while the student lifts off the floor and also when they come back to the floor. Do this by pressing against their forearms using your hands or forearms. If a student has poor shoulder flexibility they will find this very challenging. In this case you can allow their arms to come a little wider in order for them to lift into position. To help students lift from the floor, have them grab the adjuster's ankles.They can use this to push and get more lift. You can then assist them further by holding around their shoulders and pulling them up and towards you. The same adjustment can be done using a wall. The student places her wrists against the wall and uses this contact to push into theasana.

(10) .] BAC K B E ND I NG I Adjustments ~] ~] .] J J J The actions using the wall can also be done using adjustments. Using a belt provides better and safer control compared to holding the student directly. The belt Is placed around the lower back just on the rim of the sacrum. The student starts dropping back as you hold the pelvis forward and check that the student's legs are working strongly. Make sure they are breathing in the position and then instruct them to come back up under their own effort, only using the belt to prevent them falling back. Gradually take the student deeper, allowing some movement in the pelvis. The adjuster can also stand on the student's toes to prevent the heels lifting as they come up.

(11) BA C K BE ND I NG I Self Adjustments This set of photographs shows how to work towards Urdhva Dhanurasana using a wall. The principle is to push evenly into the wall to open the shoulders and lift the pelvis away from the ground. The legs must work strongly and the breath must be smooth. I 30 B A.:. B [ •• I.'· Stay In the first position until there is no effort to hold it for at least twenty even breaths, then move onto the next position, gradually moving further down the wall. In each position you should be able to come back up by moving the pelvis away from the wall without pushing through the hands.

(12) J J J J ] Before attempting any adjusting in the backbends, it is important that the student is adequately prepared. There is no point in, for example, helping someone drop back if they are not using their legs to give proper support for their back, or not working correctly to open the shoulders. The classic signs are legs bending almost immediately and pelvis tipped way off vertical. And most importantly, the breath must remain strong and smooth throughout. The following photos show a few simple ways of preparing for Urdhva Ohanurasana. ] J ] ] ] J J J B' I B I"' I.'· 129

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(17) URDHVA MUKHA PASCHIMOTTANASANA T his is the balance version of Paschimottanasana. It emphasizes the lifting and lengthening of the back and the forward movement of the sternum which was explored in Paschimottanasana. Without this action the asana is impossible because a rounded back will drag the body backwards. \ 124 PRIMA" SrRI!S As•"'

(18) ] URDHVA MUKHA PASCHIMOTTANASANA IAdjustments J ] ] ] ] ] 1 ] ] ] ] ] OBSERVE PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT • The student is hanging with soft legs and not pulling sufficiently on the feet • Push and lift with your right hand between the shoulder blades • This is achieved by pushing your knee against the back of your hand rather than directly with the knee • The left hand pulls the feet towards the head • Use a closing action between both your hands to bring the chest forward and lifted

(19) URDHVA MUKHA PASCHIMOTTANASANA Foundation Legs are straight and heels extended Hands wrap around the outside edges of the feet Balance on the sit bones, not the tall bone What to do Lift the sternum towards the legs Lengthen out of the lower back Either hold the outside edges of the feet or take a wrist Pull strongly through the arms to bring chest to legs Gaze to the toes

(20) _] SUPTA PADANGUSTHASANA C IAdjustments ------------------------- PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT o o ~ _] This adjustment encourages the proper action of the raised leg by fixing the hamstrings near their insertion This also prevents the pelvis on the side of the raised leg from lifting from the floor. Pa:H•or SERt£1 A~NS 121

(21) SUPTA PADANGUSTHASANA C Foundation Front leg stays on the floor and toes extend Raised leg stays close to the ear Top of the foot of raised leg goes to floor and toes extend What to do Extend through the front leg Move back of the knee to the floor 120 PR!MARV StRifS AIAOAI

(22) SUPTA PADANGUSTHASANA B IAdjustments _] .~ _] OBSERVE PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT • The side leg has not reached the floor • Use your foot to gently press down on the fixed leg • Now rotate the thigh of the opening leg using both hands PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT • This is an inward rotation as shown which drops the sit bone down and Ulider and brings the outside edge of the foot to the floor.

(23) SUPTA PADANGUSTHASANA B Foundation Both legs straight and heels extended Hold the big toe with the thumb and forefinger Hips remain level to each other and on the floor Sitting bones remain grounded Shoulders and shoulder blades remain in contact with the floor What to do Rotate the side leg medially until the entire edge of the foot is grounded Extend strongly through the other leg Gaze to the side

(24) :_] SUPTA PADANGUSTHASANA IAdjustments I\=:) "=:J OBSERVE AcTIvE ADJUSTMENT AcTivE ADJUSTMENT • The student does not have sufficient strength to lift towards the leg • Place one foot gently on the thigh of the leg on the floor to keep it down • Take hold ofthe foot ofthe upraised leg • Pull the leg towards you and ask the student to raise her head as close to the leg as possible • You can now slowly let go of the foot while asking your student to keep lifting the head to the leg P
(25) SUPTA PADANGUSTHASANA A Foundation • Hand is on the thigh of the leg on floor • Heel of this leg extends • Hold big toe of other leg with thumb and forefinger • Both legs are straight What to do Extend the leg on the floor forward to bring back of the knee towards the floor Engage abdominal muscles to lift head to leg rather than leg to head Keep both legs very active with heels extending and quadriceps engaged a Gaze to the toes

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(27) UPAVISHTA KONASANA his is similar to Badha Konasana except the legs are now straight and wide apart. Good adductor flexibility is required, and if it is present, the pelvis can tilt forward through its full range of movement without the thighs getting in the way. At this stage the hamstrings actually relax and the full expression of the asana is achieved. T

(28) UPAVISHTA KONASANA IAdjustments ,_] :=-:J '_] OBSERVE PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT PASSIVE • The student's feet are falling in • The student is allowing her legs to rotate inwards because she is letting her tailbone lift • This will prevent correct lengthening through the spine • Stand with your heels very close to the inside thighs • Move your feet back to fix the thighs in a more open position • The tailbone will now be prevented from lifting • Use both hands on the mid-back to push down and forward from the grounded pelvis • Alternatively, use your hands to roll the thighs back • Your knee can be carefully used to push down and forward on the lower back ADJUSTMENT

(29) UPAVISHTA KONASANA Foundation legs are straight and kneecaps are pulled up Kneecaps face directly up Hands hold outside edges of the feet with the thumbs pressing inside big toes Back retains its natural curvature Neck is relaxed What to do Lift and open the sternum Move forward from the hips lengthen the lower back Move the ribcage to the floor Pull up on kneecaps Roll the thighs back Curl the tailbone back and under Move the shoulderblades towards the tailbone Use the grip on the feet to pull and lengthen the torso forward Gaze between the eyebrows

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(31) BADDHA KONASANA forward bend which stretches the adductors but does not involve the hamstrings. To bring the knees to the floor in the upright position requires contraction of the external rotators- the Piriformis and the Quadratus Femoris and relaxation of their antagonists, the adductors. Some of the adductors have a very similar action to the hamstrings and can limit anterior tilting of the pelvis. This will show in the same way as tight hamstrings in Paschimottanasana. The back will be rounded due to forcing spinal flexion at the expense of hip flexion. Students showing a rounded back should not be pushed deeper into the forward bend as this will place undue strain on the lumbar region. A

(32) BADDHA KONASANA IAdjustments ~] J .J :~ _] -.J ADJUSTMENT OBSERVE PASSIVE • The student's knees are on the floor showing good abductor flexibility • She can be helped to lift and lengthen out of her pelvis and move closer to the floor • Hold the knees down gently using your legs • The left hand pushes down and forward while the right hand pushes back and down on the tailbone PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT • If the knees do not come easily to the floor do not press on them

(33) BADDHA KONASANA Foundation Soles of the feet together Shoulders away from the ears Neck Is relaxed What to do Bring the knees towards the floor Lift and lengthen through the spine Hold the tailbone back and down Move the shoulders away from the ears Press the feet together to activate the external rotators Gaze to the nose 108 P~I•AR> SPI£5 Asnn

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(35) W hen you enter a womb, you enter into a fresh body, and start the journey of desires. But if you die alert, in that alertness not only the body dies, all desires evaporate:' OSHO I06

(36) ·-] GARBHA pI NDASANA IAdjustments -] __ ] --] PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT • Squeeze knees closer to give more space for the arms .J PAss 1vE AoJus THE NT • Pull the shoulder while pulling on the wrist • This is safer than only pulling on the wrist • Use your legs to support the student from falling out of the asana • You can also stand behind and push the shoulders to bring the arms further through

(37) t'aamasana What to do Take the right leg first into Padmasana

(38) SUPTA Ku RMASANA IAdjustments ·:=~ ~ J PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT ~] • Work shoulders under legs by pushing down on the shoulders PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT • Squeeze upper arms towards each other • Keep lengthening through the spine PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT • Place left leg behind head first and fix it with your foot before taking the right leg across

(39) SuPTA KuRMASANA Foundation Start as Kurmasana What to do o Take the left leg over the neck first Keep extending the sternum forward Reach back and hold a wrist Gaze between the eyebrows

(40) BAKASANA IAdjustments _] ~ PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT _] • Fix your knees against her shoulders • Put your hands just above the rim of the pelvis • lift the hips high and encourage the student to pull her knees towards her armpits PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT You can assist to lift into Handstand • Continue the pull at the waist until her hips are above her shoulders PASSIvE ADJUSTMENT • Ask her to straighten her legs and push strongly through the hands to straighten the arms • You can also assist in bringing her from handstand into Bakasana, placing the knees high on the arms

(41) Arms shoulder width apart Knees high on the arms Big toes touching

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(43) ............. "' ... ..,, "!::1"• .. a .. •:ou~, ~ vvm a•:::ou :::ouuvv lf'av:~n tne stuaent wm e1tner nave oent legs or straight legs and a rounded back. Until the hamstrings have stretched, the student should be encouraged to lift and lengthen the back with the legs slightly bent, so the abdominals are still being worked. More flexible students should work on moving to the front edges of the sit bones. ~

(44) NAVASANA IAdjustments OBSERVE AcTivE • The student is not working to lift her sternum and maintain the lordosis in her back • Place your hands on her feet and push • Ask her to actively lift her sternum towards you • The reaction from pushing the feet provides the force to lift the back ADJUSTMENT

(45) n:t:l dlt: lt:Vt:l VVIUl Ult: t:yt::> The back retains its natural curve What to do

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(47) Leg is comfortably in Padmasana • Torso is upright What to do

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(51) Torso upright What to do Drop the sit bone of bent leg _. _

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(53) Torso faces the front Sit bone moves towards the floor

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(55) outstretched leg.

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(57) What to do Draw the shoulders away from the ears

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(61) Straight leg Is In line with the hip • Torso is level over the outstretched leg What to do

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(65) • ~noUiaers • Heel of straight leg is extended ana torso remain level over tne outstretcnea leg What to do

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(67) Shoulders directly above wrists Head hangs back

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(71) _j What to do Widen the shoulders away from the ears Move the shoulder blades towards the tailbone

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(73) _ _j The role of the breath In forward bending: The interaction between breath and movement is especially clear in forward bending: On the inhale, the spine lifts and lengthens, and the pelvis tips slightly back, which puts increased tension on the back muscles. On the exhale, the pelvis tips forward, flattens the spine and relaxes the back muscles. The diaphragm lifts, which compresses the heart and reduces the heart rate. These responses can be ex loited during adjusting. The adjustments are more effective when carried out on the student's exhale_

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(75) Feet are flat as if pushed against a wall, inside and outside edges in line Sit bones are spread with the weight slightly towards the front What to do

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(81) Arms are actively stretched but the shoulders are relaxed What to do

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(83) the internal and external rotators of the hip. '...___.#/I

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(85) Mrrn:o cue :oua1gnt over neaa Torso and collar bones face front What to do

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(89) ~-J fT _j ' What to do Drop the sitbones Extend up throu h the s ine ~]

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(91) leg straight and the chest open. The lifted leg can be bent to achieve this and straightened out over time. If the standing leg weakens or bends, all energy is lost and the asana collapses. __. _

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(93) -,. . ,.,._, ---1 ,._un•~ u~ "' •uua.;,c:u•a Grab the big toe with thumb and first two fingers What to do

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(95) should feel evenly grounded. The hands press evenly together and are moved towards the neck which helps to lift and broaden the shoulders. The back should not round, but lengthen over the front leg.

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(97) Neck relaxed What to do Pull hip of front leg back to stay in line with opposite hip __j _]

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(101) The neck is soft The back is flat

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(105) rolling open, before attempting to place the hand on the floor. Placing the arm inside the bent leg gives more leverage to rotate the torso. Placing the arm outside the bent leg works the legs harder and encourages the hips to open.

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(107) to fingertips Head and shoulders are above the front knee __J

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(111) Head, shoulders, and torso are in line with front leg • Head is above front leg, lower shoulder is directly above hand on the floor What to do

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(115) • legs are straight and kneecaps are pulled up • Weight is evenly distributed on both feet

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(117) diaphragm will be restricted and the breathing compromised. If the toes are being held, the legs can be bent just enough to take strain off the back and allow the pelvis to tilt forward. The student then has to work towards straightening the legs without losing length in the spine or straining the back. Taking the elbows out as shown flattens the upper back and allows the shoulders to lift r~>;,l

(118) WHEN NOT TO ADJUST • If the student is holding her toes but has to bend her legs, encourage her to straighten her legs without rounding her spine (see inset) • There is nothing to be gained from adjusting in this position PASSIVE ADJUSTMENT For more flexible students: • Stabilize using your hand on the sacrum Push forward and down on the mid-back • Use your leg or knee to push into your hand Lean in to use your weight to full advantage RES I STANCE ADJUSTMENT • Place your hands on the student's elbows and slowly start to push. • The student pushes her elbows against your resistance • Carefully match your push with the your student's • Keep elbows in line with the shoulders

(119) • Hold big toes with thumb and forefinger What to do

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(124) A0 H0 MUKHA SVANASAN A IAdjustments _] :J
(125) • Distance the feet from the hands so that by maximally stretching the legs the heels are almost on the floor What to do

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(127) -. ~ • legs are straight and parallel • legs begin hip-width apart

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(129) nGitU~ '!;IIUUIIU 'C'YCIII7 Ull UU:!' IIUUitiiiiUUit:' IU~C':t 1-'UI~ IUIYYGIU • The neck Is comfortable and not forced past its natural extension What to do

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(131) CHATURANGA 0ANDASANA ~] ~] T his asana means 'four-limbed stick posture' and the aim is to make the body as rigid as a stick, without collapsing In any area. This makes It a highly active asana where opposing forces must be used intelligently to counteract gravity. If you turn the page through ninety degrees you can see it is like Tadasana. The line shown in the photograph runs through the centre of mass of the body, keeping the weight of the torso, hips and legs evenly distributed. In Tadasana, the reaction from the floor keeps the body upright and allows the student to find correct alignment. In Chaturanga Dandasana, the student has to achieve this against the pull of gravity. To do this the body must be held rigidly, the pelvis must find Its neutral position, and the body has to be stretched out from a central point at the navel, with the upper body held steady while the heels are stretched in the opposite direction. This is what provides the necessary tension - like pulling on a rope- to maintain the body firm and steady. ~] _] 10 su~ SALITO~ Su••• N•••s.••

(132) CHAT URAN GA 0 AND AS AN A IAdjustments OBSERVE RESISTANCE • Losing energy through the core • Encourage her to engage abdomlnals and activate her legs • Verbally obtain good alignment • Press gently on mid back • Ask student to resist while keeping alignment ADJUSTMENT ACTIVE ADJUSTMENT • Pull back on ankles • Ask student to pull away from you

(133) CHATURANGA DANDASANA Foundation Tips of the fingers are in line with tops of the shoulders Elbows and hands are In line with the shoulders Forearms and upper arms approach a right angle to each other The feet are hip-width apart and parallel to each other The pelvis remains in a neutral position What to do Draw the shoulders back towards the tailbone Keep the neck relaxed _] Squeeze the elbows to the sides of the torso Hold Uddiyana Bandha without tilting the pelvis or lifting the sit bones Strongly extend back through the heels Stretch out from the navel in opposite directions _] Gaze between the eyebrows _] 5 L' ft 5 At U l .\ i J J N Sl Ill' A fj A l'f A) t. ~

(134) .=:J Surya Namaskar ~ ::J =:J ~ =:1 ::=1 =:1 ~ :=J ~ ~ =:1 CHAPTER 1

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(136) FOREWORD I~ BY MATTHEW SWEENEY I am honoured to write the foreword for Yoga The Art of Adjusting. The detailed art of adjusting Yoga postures has been accomplished in this book in a loving and practical format. It also comes at a fortuitous moment. With the rapid increase of Yoga teachers all over the globe during the last few years, greater understanding of the art of adjusting has been missing in the printed form. I think Brian Cooper has done an excellent job of covering the key points of adjusting most of the postures of the Primary Series of Ashtanga Yoga. He clearly explains the main focus of each posture, the direction to take with each posture and eventually how to learn to do each posture unaided without an adjustment. The visual aspects of each posture are conveyed precisely in a step-by-step format giving the reader practical insight Into the wonderful art of touch. Enjoy! YOGA THE ART OF ADJUSTING FOREWORD

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(138) 1-=:J THE ART OF ADJUSTING CONTENTS Foreword by Matthew Sweeney .......................... 05 Chapter 3 Primary Series Asanas ----------- Chapter 1 Surya Namaskar----------------- Dandasana ............................................................. 66 Chaturanga Dandasana ......................................... 08 Purvottanasana .................................................... 74 Urdhva Mukha Svanasana ..................................... 12 Ardha Baddha Padma Paschimottanasana .......... 76 Paschimottanasana .............................................. 70 Bhujangasana ........................................................ 14 Tr i ang Mukha i kapada Pasch imot tanasana ......... 80 Adho Mukha Svanasana ......................................... 16 Janu Si rsasana .................................................... 84 Marichyasana ........................................................ 88 Chapter 2 Standing Asanas - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Padangusthasana .................................................. 22 Trikonasana .......................................................... 26 Parivritta Trikonasana ...................................... 30 Pa rsva konasa na ..................................................... 35 Parivritta Parsvakonasana ................................ 38 Padot tan a sana ....................................................... 40 Parsvottanasana ................................................... 44 Utthita Hasta Padangusthasana ........................ 48 Utkatasana ............................................................ 52 Vi rabhadrasana 1 ................................................. 56 Marichyasana C .................................................... 90 Marichyasana D .................................................... 94 Navasana ................................................................ 96 Bakasana ................................................................ 100 Supta Kurmasana .................................................. 102 Garbha Pindasana ................................................ 104 Baddha Konasana .................................................. 108 Upavi shta Konasana ............................................. 112 Supta Padangusthasana A - C ........................... 116 Urdhva Mukha Paschimot tanasana ..................... 122 Chapter 4 Back Bending - - - - - - - - - - Vi rabhadrasana 2 ................................................. 60 Back Bending ........................................................ 130 Conclusion ............................................................ 135

(139) Acknowledgements The production of this manual has been a joint effort from a dedicated team of yoga teachers and students. I would like to thank Victoria Bosso, Vicki Maggs, Shelley Osman, Kat Shaw, Dee Gates, and Caroline Walsh for their enthusiasm and patience in modelling for the photographs. I am especially Indebted to Aileen Bertram for the design and layout, and to Bruce Mackay for his skilful photography. First published In Great Britain In 2006 by Harmony Publishing 25 Rodney Street Edinburgh EH74EL Scotland Copyright 0 2006 Brian Cooper 3rd Revised Edition 2010 Produced by Harmony Publishing Design by Aileen Bertram Photographer: Bruce Mackay Brian Cooper has asserted his moral right to be Identified as the author of this work. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in whole or part or any form. Printed and bound in Korea ISBN 978-o-9552412-9-1 Disclaimer This book Is Intended as an Instruction guide only. The author and publisher of this book are not responsible for any injury or consequences from using this book. You are advised to train with a qualified and competent teacher before using the techniques described. _]

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