THE EFFECT OF USING COOPERATIVE INTEGRATED
READING AND COMPOSITION ( CIRC ) METHOD ON
ACHIEVEMENT ON RECOUNT TEXT
Submitted as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
SABAR PARSAULIAN HARAHAP
Registration Number : 2101121041
ENGLISH AND LITERATURE DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS
ii Languages and Arts, State University of Medan.
In order to finish and complete this thesis, the writer was helped by many people through their guidences, supports, prays, comments, and suggestions. The writer would like to express his gratitude to:
1. Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom ,M.Pd, Rector of State University of Medan. 2. Dr. Isda Pramuniati, M.Hum., Dean, Faculty of Languages and Arts. 3. Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., Head of English Department.
4. Dra. Meisuri, M.A., the Secretary of English Department and his Examiners’. 5. Nora Ronita Dewi , S.Pd.,S.S., M.Hum ,Head of English Education Study
6. Dra. Masitowarni Siregar, M.Ed, the writer’s Thesis Consultant , who has given her time , support , guidance , and patience in finishing this thesis.
7. Drs. Lidiman Sahat Martua Sinaga , M.Hum , his Academic Consultant
8. Dr. Rahmad Husein, M.Ed, Drs. Lidiman Sahat Martua Sinaga , M.Hum , his Examiners’ , who has given the constructive comment , sound advice , and excellent knowledge in shaping up this thesis.
9. Dra. Hj.Tukmaida Daulae, the Headmaster of MTs S Al- Mukhtariyah Gunung
10.Nurkhotima, S.Pd., the English Teacher of MTs S Al- Mukhtariyah Gunung Raya. 11.His beloved father, mother and family, Bakhori Harahap , Patimah Siregar ,for their
12.His all friends,esspecially for Sorimuda Harahap, Sahminan Zaini Al-manar Harahap, Ridwan Harahap, Abdul Hasan Harahap, Mahadi Pane , Malkan Hasibuan , Ahmad Zakaria Siregar , for their togetherness , prayer, motivation, throughout his academic years.
The writer realizes that the content of this thesis is not perfect, so he warmly welcomes any constructive suggestions that will improve the quality of this thesis. He hopes it would be useful for those who are interested in this field of study.
Medan, September 2015 The writer,
Harahap ,Sabar Parsaulian . 21011210041. The Effect of Using Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition ( CIRC ) Method on Students’ Reading Comprehension Achievement on Recount Text. A Thesis. Faculty of Languages and Arts. State University of Medan. 2015.
This study was conducted to investigate the Effect of Using Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Method on Students’ Reading Comprehension Achievement on Recount Text. It was an experimental research. The subject was students of Grade VIII, Junior High School (Sekolah Menengah Pertama) MTs S Al- Mukhtariyah Gunung
Raya, which consisted of 60 students. The sample of this research was divided into two
groups: experimental and control groups. The data were acquired by using multiple choice test which consists of 40 items . The data were analyzed by using t – test . The calculation shows that t – observed (3.49 ) is higher than t – table ( 2.000 ) at the level of significance ( α ) 0.05 with the degree of freedom (df) 58 . It was found that alternative hypothesis ( Ha ) is accepted and null hypothesis ( Ho ) is rejected . It means that there is a significant effect of using cooperative integrated reading and composition method on students’ reading comprehension achievement on recount text.
4. Level of Reading Comprehension ... 11
5. Teaching Reading ... 12
6. The Assessment of Reading Comprehension ... 14
7. Genre ... 15
a) Recount Text ... 16
b) The Generic Structure of Recount Text ... 16
B. Method ... 17
1. Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition ( CIRC ) ... 18
2. Elements of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition( CIRC )…….. 19
3. The process of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition ( CIRC ).... 21
4. The Advantages and Disadvantages of ( CIRC ) ... 22
C. The Instrument for Collecting Data ... 26
D. The Procedures of Research ... 27
2. Treatment ... 27
a) Teaching Presentation for Experimental Group ... 29
b) Teaching Presentation for Control Group ... 30
3. Post-test ... 30
E. Scoring the Test ... 31
F. Validity and Reliability ... 31
1. Validity of the Test ... 31
2. Reliability of the test ... 32
G. Technique for Analyzing Data ... 33
CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION... 34
A. Data Analysis ... 35
1. Testing Reliability Of The Test ... 36
2. Data Analysis By Using t-test ... 36
B. Testing Hypothesis ... 38
C. Research Findings ... 38
CHAPTER V ... 40
A. Conclusion ... 40
B. Suggestion ... 41
List of Tables
3.1 Model of Research………. 25
3.2 The Procedures of the Research………..……… 27
3.3 Teaching Presentation for Experimental Group………....… 27
List of Appendices
APPENDIX A : The Score of Pre-Test and Post-Test of Experimental Group…. 44
APPENDIX B : The Score of Pre-Test and Post-Test of Control Group……… 45
APPENDIX C : The Score of the Reliability of the Test………. 46
APPENDIX D : The Calculation of T-test for Experimental Group…………... 48
APPENDIX E : The Calculation of T-test for Control Group……… 49
APPENDIX F : Percentage Points of t- distribution……….………… 51
APPENDIX G : Reading Comprehension Test……… 52
APPENDIX H : Answer Keys……….. 60
Reading is the ability to draw meaning from the printed page and interpret
the information approximately ( Grabe and Stoller 2002:9 ).Its an active cognitive
process of interacting with print and monitoring interpretation or understanding to
establish meaning by giving test .The main purpose for reading is to comprehend
the ideas in the material . Without comprehension , reading would be empty and
Reading is necessary when students further their study, especially at the
university level. They need good reading skill for acquiring knowledge and
learning new information. However, we can see that most students’ reading
abilities are not good enough to do so. Even reading comprehension skills of
students at the upper secondary level are below the 80 percent criterion.
(Youngjermjantra, 1994) This idea is supported by the finding of Aumpayap
(1990) that reading strategies are not taught much in the secondary level;
therefore, it is rather difficult for them to apply those strategies to improve their
In fact, reading comprehension is not as easy as people think. Based on the
experiences of the preliminary researchers, the students faced some difficulties in
reading comprehension. For example, the students read the text without
understanding the infomation from the text. They have difficulties in
comprehending, and getting the main idea . The writer concludes that there are
as, the students’ vocabulary is poor, reading activity is done as personal, the prior
knowledge of students is still low, so that they have difficulty to comprehend a
text, and also the teaching method that teacher uses to teach reading is less
creative or still uses conventional method, such as speech and demonstration
Traditionally, classes always consist of good students and weak students.
The weak students sit in isolation as they lose confidence in their ability to learn
English. Working in groups, therefore, is believed to help solve this problem.
Shy students who don’t like to speak in a large class are more comfortable
speaking out in smaller groups. Group members can complement each other’s
strengths and weaknesses in English. Each student has a different background and
ability in English, which he or she can bring to the group. For example, one
student might have a strong vocabulary that can supply to students with a solid
background in grammar. Furthermore, poor students will benefit from interaction
with better ones, and good students will feel proud that they play an important role
in helping their weaker classmates.
Based on the writers’ Field Practice Experience ( Praktek Pengalaman
Lapangan ) at SMP N 1 Perbaungan , it is not easy for the students to read well in
English . When they asked to read , they only read without comprehend the text
and also they have no self confidence to read . In this case, it is necessary to find
the method that can help students to enhance their reading comprehension for
students at junior high school. When the writer read some theories about teaching
problems namely Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition ( CIRC ) . It is
a part of cooperative learning method that organizes plan in classroom where
students work in small groups using cooperative inquiry, group discussion,
cooperative planning and project.
In addition , based on observation in grade VIII MTs S Al – Mukhtariyah
Gunung Raya and the data was found by interviewing the teacher ,the writer
found that the students got low score in reading comprehension. Many students
could not pass the Minimal Completeness Criterion (70) which is decided at the
school for English subject. Moreover, at the school still use conventional method
to teach reading, for examples, speech method and lecturing methot, it makes the
students do not motivate and encourage them in teaching learning process. The
data above indicates the achievement of students in reading comprehension is
still low. Beside that, many students were struggling in comprehending text.
Although, the text was explained several times, some of the them were really hard
to understand the content and they showed uninteresting feeling in the teaching
and learning process.
Cooperative learning is a pedagogical approach that promotes students
interaction working in small groups to maximize their learning and reach their
shared goal. It is suitable to be used in education system due to the National
Education Act which emphasizes cooperation in helping each other to acquire
knowledge. (Scaglion, 1992) This type of learning approach decreases
competitiveness and individualism but increases opportunities to actively
Bowen (2000) states that cooperative learning can be defined as a learning
approach in which small , mixed student groups form both in – the – class and out
– of – the – class environments to ensure students help each other in learning
academic subject in the scope of a common goal ; where their self esteem
increases and their communication , problem – solving and critical thinking skills
Johnson and Holubec (1993) state that cooperation is not assigning a job to a
group of students where one student does all the work and the others put their
names on the paper. It is not having students sit side by side at the same table to
talk with each other as they do their individual assignments as well. It is not
having students do a task individually with instructions that the ones who finish
first are to help the slower students. On the contrary, cooperative learning is a
teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of
ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their under- standing of a
subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is being
taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of
achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members
successfully understand and complete it .In Cooperative Integrated Reading and
Composition , teacher used recount text .
Agustini (2013) conducted a research and found that Cooperative
Integrated Reading and Composition can help the students to solve their problem
would like to conduct a research by using Cooperative Integrated Reading and
Gupta (2014) also conducted a research about Cooperative Integrated
Reading Composition (Circ): Impact On Reading Comprehension Achievement
In English Among Seventh Grades . She concluded that Cooperative Integrated
Reading and Composition is one of the effective method to improve students’
reading comprehension, and also made teaching learning process enjoyable and
more active. Durukan (2010) also conducted a research about Effects of
cooperative integrated reading and composition technique on reading-writing skills.
She / he concluded that Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition is one of the
effective method to improve students’ reading comprehension.
Based on the explanation above, the writers hopes Cooperative Integrated
Reading and Composition can be expected to help the students to solve their
difficulties in reading comprehension. There are some kinds of genre namely
recount, report, exposition spoof, analytical exposition, news item, anecdote,
narrative, procedure, hortatory exposition, disccusion, reviews and explanation.
In this study, the writer focuses on reading recount text as a subject on learning
Therefore, this study was designed and conducted to identify the effect of
using Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Method On Students’
B. The Problem of the Study
Based on the background of the study, the research problem was
formulated as follows:
“ is there any significant effect of Using Cooperative Integrated Reading and
Composition Method On Students’s Reading Comprehension Achievement On
Recount Text ?
C. The Objective of the Study
The objective of the research was to find out the effect of Using
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Method On Student’s Reading
Comprehension Achievement On Recount Text.
D. The Scope of the Study
This study was focused on Students’ Achievement in Reading on Recount
Text by Using Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Method .
E. The Significance of the Study
The result of the study was expected to be useful for :
1. The teachers: to solve the students’ problem in learning English, especially
2. The student’s become easily to comprehend the text and help the student’s
to share their ideas or opinion related to the text .
3. Other researchers: to use the findings as reference to develop further
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
Based on the research finding , it was concluded that there is a significant
effect of using Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Method on
student’s reading comprehension achievement on recount text . This conclusion was supported by the data analysis result in which t-observed ( 3.49 ) is higher
than t-table ( 2.00 ) at the significant level of 0.05 and the degree of freedom ( df )
at level 58 . Therefore , the alternative hypothesis ( Ha ) is accepted and null
hypothesis ( Ho ) is rejected.
Based on the conclusion , the researcher gives some suggestions for those
who are interested in teaching reading as follows:
1. English teachers are suggested to Apply Cooperative Integrated Reading and
Composition Method in their teaching learning process in order to improve
their students’ achievement in reading recount text.
2. Students should apply this learning method in comprehending a text
because it can make the students more easily to understand the text.
3. The readers who are interested in their studying related to this research
should explore this study to enlarge their understanding on how to improve
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