An error analysis in learning direct and indirect speech of imperative sentences: a case of study at SMK Perwira Jakarta
AN ERROR ANALYSIS IN LEARNING DIRECT ANDINDIRECT SPEECH OF IMPERATIVE SENTENCES
PdKeywords : Error Analysis, Reported Speech of Imperative Sentence This research is aimed to obtaining the clear information about the level of the students error in reported speech of imperatives sentence by using descriptiveanalysis method. First of all, the writer would like to express her greatest honor and love to her beloved family: her parents ( father As. Syakur and mother Siti Jawiyah) fortheir best support, prayer and motivation, and all members of the family who always give their love, care, and moral encouragement to finish her study.
LIST OF APPENDICES 1
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The Background of Study As international language, English takes an important rules in the world. Due to the important of understanding English as international communication
2 According to Marianne Celce Murcia and Diane Larsen “Grammar and rhetoric books generally recognize three ways for speaker and writer to attributestatements or thought to other people: direct quotation, indirect reported speech, 2 paraphrase.”Direct and indirect speeches are one of many grammatical categories which is important to be learnt by students. Douglas Brown, Principle of Language Learning and Teaching, (London, Longman Inc 3 The students often make mistakes and even errors in learningEnglishespecially in reported speech of imperative sentences, for example the students are still confused bychanges of tenses and pronoun that can occur inreported speech.
D. The Formulation of problem
Based on the background described above, this study intends to formulate the problems as follows: 1. What are the most common types of errors that students made in direct and indirect speech of imperative sentence?
2. What are the reasons of students’ error? 3
The Objective the studyBased on the formulation of problem above, the objective of this study as bellow: 1. To get the most common of types of errors made by students at SMK Perwira in direct and indirect speech of imperative sentence.
F. Significant of study
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. Error and Error Analysis 1. Concept of Error Dullay stated “Error are the flawed side of learner side of learner
The result of this study is expected can be benefit for the writer herself particularly to improve her perception of error analysis and for anyone who readsthis paper generally. Moreover for the students of English Education, they can read this paper as additional information of error analysis.
1 Its mean that there is something wrong in norms of speech of writing”
Also, errors are the inability of the students in using rules of the components and elements ofthe second language. Douglas Brown, Principle of Language Learning and Teaching, (London, Longman Inc 7 So almost the learners must make errors when they are learning English because it is difficult to separate error in the process of learning English.
2. Error Analysis
Accordingto Pit Corder as quoted by Brown: „A learner’s errors are significant [that] they provide the researcher the learner is employing in the discovery of the 6 language. So, the writer tries to conclude that error analysis isa way of looking at error made by the learner of the target language.
3. The Cause of Error
One of the first and most important studies conducted in the field of Error Analysis was the one done by Richards. English%20Training%20Center%20%20Error%20Analysis.htm 9 from different language background and showed the different types of errors relating to production and distribution of verb groups, prepositions, articles,and the use of questions.
10 Robinett Betty Wallace & Jacquelyn Schachter, Second Language Learning, the
Induced Errors: these errors are the result of being misled by the way in which the teachers give definitions, examples, explanations and arrangepractice opportunities. The writer concluded that the errors made by the students were both from the intralanguage andinterlanguage interference.
4. Types of Error
Dulay, Burt, and Krashen said that errors are the flawed side of learner speech or writing. Students cannot learn languages without first systematically 12 committing errors.
11 Carl James, Error in Language Learning and Use, (New York ,Longman Inc, 1998), p
Overgeneralization or system simplification this error is caused by the misuse of words or grammatical rules Error analysis does not regard as the persistence of old habits but rather as sign that learner is internalizing and investigating the system of thenew language. By learning reported speech definitely students will able to quote somebody’s words or thoughts, whether in direct or indirect speech and alsothe students will learn and understand the way to report speeches such as statements, questions and imperative.
14 George E. Wilson, Julia M. Burk, Let’s Write English, American Book Company, New
Martinet stated in their books A Practical English Grammar, “In indirect speech we give the exact meaning of a remark 17 or a speech, without necessarily using the speaker’s exact words.”Reported Speech also referred to as reported speechrefers to a sentence reporting what someone has said. It can be known from several definitions above that reported speech is to quote somebody’s idea or thoughts without exactly repeating the exactword produced by the speaker.
2. The Kind of Speech
When someone try to report what someone else says or has said(thinks or has tought) or what another said or thought on a previous occasion oneself two ways are open to one, either to give the exact words : directspeech , or to adapt the words according to the circumstances in which they are new quoted: indirect speech. Direct SpeechA sentence or several sentences that reports speech or thought in its original form, as phrased by the original speaker also called Direct or quoted 18 speech.
16 Betty SchrampherAzar, Understanding And Using English Grammar, (BinarupaAksara
(use of infinitive phrase) In indirect speech, words generally have referents appropriate to the context in which the act of reporting takes place, rather than that in which thespeech act being reported took place or is conceived as taking place. The two acts points are in time and place and the person speaking and also in theperson being addressed and the linguistic context.
C. Types of Pronoun 1
Personal pronounsPersonal pronoun describes the person speaking (I, me, we, us), the person spoken to (you), or the person or thing spoken about (he, she, it, they, 20 him, her, them). They refer to the subject of the preposition in which they stand, indicating that the action performed by doer passes back to him.
3. Reciprocal Pronouns
20 Curme George O, ENGLISH GRAMMAR, (NEW YORK, BARNER&NOBLE, INC)p.13-
Indefinite and general Relative PronounsThe meaning here is always indefinite or general, hence there can be no reference to a definite antecedent; but thesepronouns have same relative force as the relatives in 1, linking the subordinate clause in which they stand to the rest of the sentence.these pronouns are: who, what; whoever, whosoever, whoso, what (so)-ever; which, whichever. The changes are not automatic but they are depend on the context: TABLE 2.2 Typical changes of time expressions in indirect speech Direct Speech Indirect Speech Today That dayYesterday The day before The day before yesterday Two days before tomorrow The next day/the following dayThe day after tomorrow In two days’ time Next week/year, etc.
D. Reported Speech in Statement or Declarative Sentences
Even though the main verb of the main clause of the Direct Speech sentence is in PAST TENSE, the main verb in the Subordinate Clause is not changed in the Indirect Speech when that Verb expresses a regular habit, a 24 universal truth or a natural occurrence. The woman at the reception desk told me to take the elevator to the seventh floor and go to Suite 710. The receptionist told me to complete the form in blue or black ink. They asked me to sign in at the security desk. The building manager told us not to use the elevator in case of a fire.
a. Verbs followed by ‘if’ or ‘whether’ + clause:
ask say enquire seeknow wonderRemember 24 b. Verbs followed by a that-clause: add doubt reply admit estimate reportagree explain reveal announce fear sayanswer feel state argue insist suggestboast mention suppose claim observe tellcomment persuade think complain propose understandconfirm remark warn consider rememberdeny repeat c.
d. Verbs followed by a that-clause containing should + infinitive or subjunctive (bare infinitive)
26 The main verb in the subordinate clause in the Direct Speech Sentenceis changed into the “to-infinitive” form; consequently, the whole complex sentence is changed into a simple sentence in the Indirect Speech. Example:Billy said to me, “Give me your book!” (Direct)The words Billy, me and bookare not changed because Billy and me are in the main clause of the Direct Speech.
CHAPTER II I RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. The Purpose of the Research This study is entitled “An Error Analysis in Learning Direct and
Instrument of the research The writer used test as an instrument to obtain the data, she made the test about reported speech of Imperative sentence in her research. English written testThe writer gave the written test to get the data about the frequency of the error in the transform or change quoted commands to infinitiveclauses with the suitable tenses and pronouns in learning reported speech of imperative sentence.
2. InterviewThe writer interviewed an English teacher and some students who got low and high scores to reinforce the analysis and to find out thereasons why the students doing error in learning reported speech of imperative sentence.
F. Technique of Data AnalysisThe technique of data analysis used by the writer in this research is descriptive analysis technique (percentage), she used formula as follows:P = F X 100 % N P = PercentageF = Frequency of error made N = Number of sample which is observed 29 After the writer have the frequency and percentage of error, the writer looked for the average mark by using formula:P = F X 100 % N X n p = percentage f = frequencyN = Number of students n = Number of items
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS A. Data Description In this chapter, the writer will report the description of data. She gave the test to the thirty seven students of the first year of SMK Perwira Jakarta. However, there were 2 students absent when the writer gave the test. The test
Tenth, the writer discussed about the change quoted commands to infinitive Total 10 113 100% 35 To find out the average of total frequency error made by the students in change of pronouns, the writer uses formula:P = F x 100 %N X nP = 113_ x 100 % 37 X 10P = 113 x 100 %370P = 30%These are the items about the students’ error in the change of pronouns: First, the writer discussed about the change of pronoun your become my. English Written TestAfter the writer finished and analyze the data about the frequency of the error in the transform or change quoted commands toinfinitive clauses with the suitable tenses and pronouns in learning reported speech of imperative sentence, it can be concluded that in PartA there are 53% students who got error in the change of quoted commands to infinitive clauses with the suitable tenses.
3. The Types of Error
Some of them answer with “Jack told his brother gethis backpack and lunch ” they miss to-infinitive and Jack told his brother to get her backpack and lunch, they change wrong pronounbeing “her, his, they…” but the correct answer is “him”. Some ofstudents answer it with “Jack's mother said that he to be kind to his brother .” They didn’t change the tenses and keep thinking is should be always use to-infinity.
C. Data Interpretation
After classifying the items into area tested and analyzing the frequency of error in each item, the writer described the error into change quotedcommands to-infinitive clauses and pronouns in transformation direct speech into reported speech of imperative sentence in the percentage as follows: TABLE 4.4 The frequency of error in each item No. FIGURE4.3 Frequency of error made in the change of to-infinitiveThe changes of pronoun in transformation PrecentageCorrect AnswerPrecentage wrong Answer 5 10 15 20 25 30 Item Number (n) Frequencyof Error Made (F)Percentage 41 This are the chart of Part B, frequency of error made in the changes of pronoun.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion Based on the data analysis and interpretation, it can be concluded that
He ordered her to stay away from herHe ordered her to stay away from him False analogy 9 Mr Ali: "Come here please."Mr Ali told me to go to him Mr Ali told me to go to himCorrect 10 Sabine: "Meet me at the station!"Sabine told me to meet him at the station Sabine told me to meet her at thestation Fred told me to wash my handsCorrect 4 Fred: "Wash your hands!"Fred told me to wash His brother told him to warn him tenminutes before he left 10. Rudi said to not wait for him if he is lateRudi said to not wait for him if he is late Correct The policeman told me to move his carThe policeman told me to move my car Sabine told me to meet her at thestation False analogy 7 Mila: "Clean my bike!"Mila told me to clean her bike Mila told me to clean her bikeCorrect 8"Stay away from me !
Sabine: "Meet me at the station!"Sabine told me to meet___ at the station Answer Activity 1 1. to get his 2.not to make him 3.to hurry up 4.to leave him alone 5.to walk alone 6.he should be kind to his brother 7.should be ready 8.to warn him 9.him to set his alarm 10.to go ahead without him Answer Activity 2 1.
3. Apakah keadaan kelas cukup mendukung siswa untuk mempelajari Bahasa
Sulitkah mengajarkan Grammar kepada Siswa terutama saat menjelaskan materi Reported Speech of Imperative sentences? Bagaimana cara anda agar siswa dapat memahami pelajaran Bahasa Inggris terutama Reported Speech of Imperative sentences?
7. Kesalahan apa sajakah yang sering siswa lakukan dalam mempelajari
Bagaimana pendapat kamu tentang suasana belajar di kelas disaat gurumu sedang menerangkan materi reported of imperative? Bagaimana pendapat kamu tentang suasana belajar di kelas disaat gurumu sedang menerangkan materi reported of imperative?