THE ACQUISITION OF ADDRESSING TERMS IN MAINTAINING ACEHNESE LANGUAGE IN MEDAN.

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THE ACQUISITION OF ADDRESSING TERMS IN MAINTAINING ACEHNESE LANGUAGE IN MEDAN A THESIS Submitted to the English Applied Linguistic Study Program In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Magister Humaniora By YULITA HALIM Registration Number : 8136112089 ENGLISH APPLIED LINGUISTIC STUDY PROGRAM POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN 2015 ABSTRACT Halim, Yulita. Registration Number: 8136112089. The Acquisition of Addressing Terms in Maintaining Acehnese Language in Medan. A thesis. Postgraduate School, English Applied Linguistics Study Program. The State University of Medan.2015. This study deals with the acquisition of addressing terms in maintaining Acehnese language in Medan. It employs qualitative research design with a case study. This study aims to describe: (1) the factors affect the Acehnese people to maintain the addressing terms of Acehnese language in Medan, (2) describe how the Acehnese people in Medan maintain the addressing terms of Acehnese language, (3) the reasons of Acehnese people in Medan to maintain the addressing terms in Acehnese language. The subjects were 20 respondents. The instruments used in this study were questionnaire and interview. The data were analyzed by Seiddel’s data analysis. (1) There are four factors that influence Acehnese people in Medan to maintaining the addressing terms, namely: attitude, parents’ role, environment, and demography. There are 30% of respondents influenced by attitude and parents role, 5% respondents influenced by attitude and environment, 5% respondents influenced by environment and demography, 5% respondents influenced by environment and parents role, 5% respondent, influenced by environment, 15% respondents influenced by attitude, parents role and demography, 10% respondents influenced by attitude, parents role and environment, and 5% respondent influenced by environment, attitude, and demography in maintaining the addressing terms in Acehnese language. (2) There are three strategies of maintaining the addressing terms, namely; by using addressing terms in local language in social meeting, language acquisition planning with establish traditional organization and family language policy. (3) There are three reasons of maintaining the addressing terms, namely; Family tradition, Ethnic identity, Norm practice Acehnese. i ABSTRAK Halim, Yulita. NIM: 8136112089. Pemerolehan Kata Sapaan dalam Mempertahankan Bahasa Aceh di Medan. Tesis. Program Study Linguistik Terapan Bahasa Inggris, Sekolah Pasca Sarjana. Universitas Negeri Medan. 2015. Penelitian ini merupakan kajian tentang pemerolehan kata sapaan dalam mempertahankan bahasa Aceh di Medan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif dengan desain penelitian studi kasus, yang mengkaji: (1) faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi orang Aceh untuk mempertahankan kata sapaan dalam bahasa Aceh di Medan ,(2) menggambarkan bagaimana orang Aceh di Medan mempertahankan kata sapaan dalam bahasa Aceh. (3)Alasan-alasan orang Aceh di Medan dalam mempertahankan kata sapaan dalam bahasa Aceh. Subjek penelitian ini ada dua puluh orang. Penelitian ini menggunakan instrument berupa kuesioner dan interview. Kuesioner di gunakan untuk menggambarkan bagaimana orang Aceh di Medan mempertahankan kata sapaan dalam bahasa Aceh. Dan interview di gunakan untuk mendapatkan faktor-faktor dan beberapa alasan dalam mempertahankan kata sapaan. Data di analisis berdasarkan analisis Seiddel. (1) Ada empat faktor yang mempengaruhi orang Aceh di Medan dalam mempertahankan kata sapaan, diantaranya: sikap, peran orang tua, lingkungan dan demography. 30% responden yang di pengaruhi oleh sikap dan peran orang tua, 5% respondent yang di pengaruhi oleh sikap dan lingkungan, 5% responden yang di pengaruhi oleh lingkungan dan demography, 5% responden yang di pengaruhi oleh lingkungan dan peran orang tua, 5% respondent yang di pengaruhi oleh lingkungan, 15% respondent yang di pengaruhi oleh sikap, peran orang tua dan demography, 10% respondent yang di pengaruhi oleh sikap, peran orang tua dan lingkungan, 5% respondent yang di pengaruhi oleh lingkungan, sikap, dan demography dalam mempertahankan kata sapaan dalam bahasa Aceh. (2) Ada tiga strategi dalam mempertahankan kata sapaan, diantaranya; dengan menggunakan kata sapaan dalam bahasa daerah di dalam pertemuan sosial, perencanaan pemerolehan bahasa dengan mendirikan organisasi daerah, kebijakan bahasa didalam keluarga. (3) Ada tiga alasan dalam mempertahankan kata sapaan diantaranya; tradisi di dalam keluarga, identitas etnik, bentuk norma orang Aceh. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Alhamdulillahirabbilalamin, A deeply gratitude would be expressed to the Almighty god Allah SWT for the mercy in giving the full patient, strength, that has enable her to finish writing this thesis and also her appreciation and love to her father, H. Agus salim, Mother, Hj. Ulya Za, her father inlaw,H.Nasrudin, her mother inlaw Hj,Yusmanir, her husband, Rinaldi, her daughters, Putri Salsabila Rinaldi and Fatia Aura, and also for her son, M.Raihan, who always give her courage and endless pray to keep spirit and never give up to reach her dream. In the process of writing this thesis, the writer would like to confess a debt of deep gratitude to many people who have given care, attention and bright ideas. In this connection, she would like to express her very special gratitude to Prof.Dr.Busmin Gurning,M.Pd being her first adviser and Dr.Rahmad Husein,M.Ed, being her second adviser, who have inspired her with their love of language, their methodological, their helpful suggestion, and motivation. She would like to express the deepest thanks to the reviewers and examiners, Prof.Dr.Lince Sihombing,M.Pd and Dr.Siti Aisyah Ginting,M.Pd and Dr.Sri Minda Murni,M.S for their valuable inputs for completion of this thesis. Her great gratitude is also due Dr.Rahmad Husein,M.Ed and Dr.Sri Minda Murni,M.S, as head and secretary of English Applied Linguistics Study Program for their suggestions and administrative assistance. She also thanks from the bottom of her heart to all lecturers who have given her the valuable knowledge, their ideas, questions, and enthusiasm have been a source of inspiration during her iii study at the English Applied Linguistics Study Program of Postgraduate School. State University of Medan. She also would like to thanks to her sisters Lisa Elvida Halim,SE, Imelda Halim,SE.M.Si, dr.Eva Rahmi Halim,M.Kedneu and also her brother Saiful Halim,S.T,M.T , Gamal Halim,S.T who support her and endless pray. May Allah SWT bless you all. Amin. The last but not least, the researcher would like to thank to all the members of Aceh Sepakat Percut Sei Tuan who have become her respondents which is not mentioned in here one by one. Medan, Desember 17th 2015 The writer Yulita Halim Reg, no8136112089 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................................... iii LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................... viii LIST APPENDICES ...................................................................................................... x LIST OF CHART .......................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study ............................................................. 1 1.2 The Problem of the Study .......................................................... 5 1.3 The Objective of the Study ......................................................... 5 1.4 The Scope of Study ..................................................................... 6 1.5 The Significance of the Study ..................................................... 6 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Language Planning ...................................................................... 8 2.1.1 Acquisition Planning ........................................................... 9 2.2 Language Maintenance ............................................................... 11 2.3 Factors in Language Maintenance ...................................... ......... 12 2.4 Strategy for Language Maintenance ............................................ 15 2.5 The Reasons of Language Maintenance ............................ ......... .17 2.5.1 Language Attitude in Language Maintenance .................... 18 2.5.2 The Role of Parents in Language maintenance ..................... 20 2.6 Addressing terms ......................................................................... 23 2.7 Addressing Terms in Acehnese Language .................................... .25 2.8 Acehnese Society ........................................................................ . 30 2.9 Conceptual Framework ................................................................. . 31 v 2.10 Relevant Study .......................................................................... . 33 CHAPTER III METHOD OF RESEARCH 3.1 The Research Design .................................................................. 37 3.3 The Subject of The Study ........................................................... 38 3.4 The Technique of Collecting Data .............................................. 38 3.5 The Instrument of Data Collection ............................................. 39 3.6 The Technique of data analysis .................................................. 40 3.7 The Trustworthiness of the study ................................................ 40 CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS, RESEARCH FINDINGS, DISCUSSION 4.1 Data Analysis ............................................................................. 43 4.1.1 The Factor of the Acehnese people in maintain the addressing terms in Acehnese language in Medan .......... 45 4.1.1.1 Attitude ........................................................................ 45 4.1.1.2 Parents Role ................................................................. 49 4.1.1.3 Environment ................................................................ 52 4.1.1.4 Demography ................................................................ 54 4.1.2 Strategy of Addressing Terms of Acehnese Language Mainte nance ...................................................................................... 58 4.1.2.1 Using Addressing terms in Local Language in Social Meeting ........................................................................... 58 4.1.2.2 Language Acquisition Planning with Establish Traditional Organization ................................................................ . 61 4.1.2.4 Family Language Policy ................................................ . .63 4.1.3 The Reason of Acehnese People to maintain of Addressing Terms .................................................................................... .. 64 4.2 Finding .................................................................................. 67 4.3 Discussion ............................................................................. 68 vi CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1 Conclusions ............................................................................... 73 5.2 Suggestions ............................................................................... 74 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ . 75 APPENDICES ............................................................................................................ 79 vii List of Tables Pages Table 1 Degrees of Language Endangerment ......................................................22 Table 2 Kindship Terms in Acehnese Family ......................................................26 Table 3 The Maintenace of Addressing Terms in Aceh Language .....................42 Table 4 The Percentage of the Maintenance of Addressing Terms in Parents and Children... ....................................................... ............................................43 Table 5 Positive and negative attitude toward addressing terms in Acehnese language....................................................................................................45 Table 6 The effect of Acehnese people to maintain the addressing terms of Acehnese language in Medan ...................................................................45 Table 7 Parents role in maintaining and shifting the addressing terms ..................49 Table 8 Second generation and third generation in maintaining the addressing terms in completely and partly in Aceh language ...............................................49 Table 9 The effect of environment in maintaining and shifting of addressing terms..........................................................................................................51 Table 10 Second generation and third generation in maintaining the addressing terms influenced by environment ........................................................................52 Table 11 Demographyfactors.....................................................................................54 Table 12 Strategy of language maintenance by using addressing terms in vernacular language in social meeting.........................................................................57 Table 13 Second generation and third generation in maintenace the addressing terms in social meeting .......................................................................................58 Table 14 Strategy language maintenance by establishing traditional organization...60 Table 15 Strategy of language maintenance by wathcing movie in vernacular.........61 viii Table16 Strategy of language maintenance by making family language policy.....62 Table 17 The percentage of the reasons of maintenance of addressing terms ........ 63 ix LIST OF APPENDICES Pages Appendix A Informasi tentang informan ……………………………. …...79 Appendix B Questionnaire ………………………………………………..80 Appendix C Parents education background……………..………………...83 Appendix D Factors the maintenance of addressing terms ..................... …84 Appendix E Catatan interview ................................................................ ….90 x List of Chart Pages Chart 1 The factors of the maintenace ................................................................................ 57 xi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study Globalization and high community mobilization affect social life, almost all aspect of Acehnese influenced by globalization which is hard to control. It is not only lead the Acehnese community to a better life, such as the development of information and technology which enable to ease relation in society, but also supports negative effects on Acehnese, especially for Acehnese who live in Medan. The influence of globalization affects action, awareness, and attitudes some of Acehnese community to the use of their vernacular. This can be seen in the phenomena of less frequent of using Acehnese vernacular, where they tend to speak Indonesian rather than their own vernacular in daily interaction in working place,family, and public places. For instance, when the leader of community announces something, or even in an important community meeting they use Indonesian language. Acehnese when they speak to the same ethnic they will use Acehnese language. But recently, most of Acehnese when they speak to the same ethnic they use bahasa Indonesia. This is caused by the immigration of Acehnese to the Medan which spoke bahasa Indonesia. As a result, many of them are not able to speak or understand of Acehnese language, they are not able to use addressing terms of Acehnese language. This indication is very risky for the existences of Acehnese language. Especially the third generation. They didn’t understand with 1 2 the addressing terms system in Acehnese language. Guardado (2002 in Jung Becker, 2013:9) argued that language, identity, and culture are fundamentally linked and that first language loss can have a great impact on an individual’s identity formation. If one loses the heritage language, his heritage culture and ethnic identity may fade away (Ro & Cheatham, 2009 in Jung Becker, 2013:9). It will be happened in a small community which researched. In where, based on the observation of the researcher, many of Acehnese people in Medan, especially the third generation (children who were born in Medan) was a level danger because they had been influenced by the environment which is stayed by many ethnic group. This condition make the shifting of addressing terms in Acehnese Language. The sentences below are examples of addressing terms in Acehnese language: 1. “Bapak, Nyak, dan buat dek gam dan inong, di harapkan kehadirannya pada hari minggu untuk menghadiri acara Isra’ Mi’raj’ (Father , mother ,brother and sister, expected attendance on Sundays for celebrate Isra’ mi’raj) 2. “di kampong saya menggunakan kata yahcut untuk memanggil adik ayah” ( In my village I call yahcut for little brother of father) 3. “ ikut sepupu yang lain, kalo manggil kakak dengan sebutan cupo” (follow my cousin, if call sister with cupo) Based on the preliminary data above, Acehnese people in Medan had maintained their addressing terms in Acehnese language. From the example no1, 3 The Acehnese people in Medan still maintaining the addressing terms in Acehnese language in social meeting. Example no.2 and no.3 showed the Acehnese people in Medan still maintaining addressing terms influencing by environment. Language is an ethnic identity of one tribe. Furthermore Holmes (2001:61) states the same statement “ when the language seen as an important symbol of ethnich identity, it is generally maintained longer”, it can be understood the language user who were pretend his/her language as the important symbol of ethnic identity it will be the important reason to use and maintain the language in every domain. Ethnicity is concerned with origins and cultural behaviour. Ethnicity pertains to “peopleness”, that is actions, views or attributions pertaining to and belonging to a people. A group’s actions and views are manifested through a number of symbols. These include food, clothes, religion, customs, culture and language (Mukherjee and David 2011:45). The key point is for the language to be maintained, it needs to be passed on to, and acquired by, each successive generation. Because language is tied not only to communication with family but to cultural identity as well, it is often parents who decide to teach their mother tongue to their children (Fishman in Sahba Rohani and Christine Choi’s journal:2000). Over time, many minority languages has the experience to be shift. Moreover, maintaining the individual’s sense of cultural heritage is a strong argument for language maintenance. Language maintenance is generally applied to individuals or a community of speakers continuing to use their language in a situation of language contact, ie. where there is competition from one or more languages to be the sole language used in particular domains or 4 situations (Pauwels,2005). So, maintaining the language is important. It is supported by Holmes (2002), he said that language as a symbol of ethnic identity which must be maintained. Scoton (2006) language will acquire and retain to use when language have a high prestige in large community. It means that the prestige of language is one of the important thing in maintaining the language in multicultural society that has other dominant language use. Addressing terms has significant social functions: the recognition of the social identity, the social position, the role of addressee. It can be establish, maintain and reinforce all kinds of interpersonal relation. Meanwhile inappropriate use of addressing terms will result failure in establishing social relationship. Arif and Slamet in their’s journal (Terms of Address Used by Students of English Courses in Kampong Inggris Pare – Kediri :2014 ) found that the common address terms used by the students of English courses in Kampong Inggris Pare – Kediri, which influenced by social factors and they have low attitude. In this study, not only social factors but parents role also give influence in maintaining the addressing terms and Acehnese people in Medan have high positive attitude to maintaining their addressing terms. Siti Mukminatun and freinds in their journal “The Javanese Cultural Shift Seen Through The Use of Addressing Terms And Kindship System In The District of Yogyakarta Palace”, they found that The styles of nominal address used it he district of Yogyakarta Palace differentiated by high style, middle style, and low style. High style refers to address terms related to family domain, neighborhood domain, occupation domain, and kinship domain. The use of nominal address related to family domain 5 is matched with kinship relation and social stratification. Family domain focuses on social status, social stratification, age, and sex. Then, kinship domain emphasis on someone’s title and position in the kinship system. In this study, addressing terms of Acehnese people do not distinguish by high style, middle style, and low style but distinguish by attitude, parents’ role environment and demography. According to Fasold (1984 : 23), address forms are the speakers use to designate the person they are talking to them. Having strong and fast social change, addressing terms the maintenance of Acehnese language in Medan is relevant to use survive. Zulfadli (2010) supports that Acehnese vernacular maintenance is positive initiative to keep using Acehness vernacular is the identity for Acehnese people . Based on the above condition, the researcher would like to discover the addressing terms in Acehnese language maintenance occurring in Medan and how to maintain it. Thus, the second generation namely parents, who moved from their hometown to Medan, and the children as the third generation, who were born in Medan, had to work each other and the existing Acehnese community in Medan had support it. 6 1.2 The Problems of the Study Based on the background of the study, the problems are formulated as the following : 1) What factors affect the Acehnese people to maintain the addressing terms of Acehnese language in Medan? 2) How do they maintain the addressing terms of Acehnese language? 3) Why do they maintain the addressing terms of Acehnese language? 1.3 The Objectives of the study Based on the problems of the study above, the objectives of the study are to : 1) find the factors affecting the Acehnese people in Medan to maintain the addressing terms. 2) describe how the Acehnese people in Medan maintain the addressing terms of Acehnese language. 3) elaborate the reasons why the Acehnese people in Medan maintain the addressing terms in Acehnese language. 1.4 The Scope of study A study on language maintenance is closely related to language planning program. The maintenance of a language is meant to avoid its disappearance. It is a fact that the younger generation should be aware of their vernacular that has shifted in a big city. One of the vernacular is addressing terms which Acehnese 7 people. One of the communities is Acehnese people who exist in Medan is Aceh Sepakat . Therefore, the scope of this thesis is Maintaining of Addressing terms in Aceh Sepakat (second generation and the third generation) will be taken as the subjects. It is of prime important to protect its existences of the second generation ( namely parents), who move from their hometown to Medan, and the children as the third generation (children), who were born in Medan. 1.5 The Significance of the study Findings of the study are expected to be relevant and useful theoretically and practically. Theoretically, the findings will be an evidence of the present situation of the indigenous Acehnese language in Medan especially in the community of Aceh Sepakat. The findings will be as a comparative study of many endangered languages for those who are interested in an intensive study of language maintenance, and the finding hoped to be useful for the next researchers who will do an in depth research dealing about language maintenance or any research about Acehnese language. Furthermore, the findings would be useful for language planners improve their knowledge about the vernacular and how to maintain it as to protect from the extinct. Practically, since this research focuses on Acehnese language which is directly connected to Acehnese culture and existence, it is also hoped to be useful for all Acehnese people to realize that it is important to maintain their language in 8 order to kept the existence of their ethnic group. The result of the study will be considered to contribute information about language maintenance and the acquisition of addressing terms for lectures, researchers and government. Firstly, for the students they can enrich their knowledge about the maintenance of addressing terms. Secondly. The lecturers, students and Acehnese can use it to support the maintenance of addressing terms. The last for government, in this study help them make a well planned of language planning especially to keep maintaning the addressing terms of Acehnese language, so the addressing terms are not lost. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Conclusions The study which is concerned on the acquisition of addressing terms in maintaining Acehnese people in Medan was aimed to described the factors that influence the maintenance of addressing terms of Acehnese people in Medan, the ways of maintaining the addrressing terms of Acehnese language in Medan and the reasons of why Acehnese people in Medan maintain the use of addressing terms in their family: 1. Attitude factor, parents role factor, environment factor and demography factor are the factors which influencing the maintenance of addressing terms of Acehnese people in Medan, eventhough not all children maintain the addressing terms completely to his(her) parents. 2. The ways of maintaining the addrressing terms of Acehnese language in Medan there are by using addressing terms in vernacular language in social meeting, Language acquisition planning with establish traditional organization, and Family language policy, are found in this study. 3. There are three reasons, namely: family tradition, ethnic identity and Acehnese norm practice. Tradition in using addressing terms in one family made the addressing terms maintain longer, the children show that tradition as their reasons of the maintenance of addressing terms. Eventhough children are born in Medan, but when tradition is passing on to children in some family, the addressing terms is maintain longer. Then 73 74 children keep maintaining the addressing terms in order to show their identity as Acehnese generation. The last, the people maintain the addressing terms in order to show his(her) polite way to their parents. 5.2 Suggestions Dealing with finding, suggestions are stated as following: 1. Parents to encourage the positive attitude to their children in maintaining the addrressing terms in local languages, in order to preserve addressing terms and kept using by the next generation. 2. Other researchers to more do reaserch about addressing terms in Aceh language because Aceh language has various types, if this research variety a lot of people will know that Aceh language has various types. 3. Aceh Sepakat organization, to be more concerned to the maintenance of Addressing terms in Acehnese language because this organization can be utilized as much as possible so that the language and addressing terms in the Acehnese language is maintained and evolve so that the position and function as well as the role of the regional languages even more steady. 4. The Local Government of Aceh Province to more concerned to the maintenance of Aceh language by involving Aceh language as local content at school not only in primary or junior high school but also can be taught in senior high school and university. REFERENCES Ary,D.,Jacobs,L.C.&Razaviah,A.1979. Introduction to Research in Education. New York:Second Edition. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Baker,C.2001. Foundation of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Baron Hauwaert,S.2004. Language Strategies for Bilingual Families.Clevedon:Multili ngual Matters. Bogdan & Biklen.1992. 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ANALYSES OF NEGOTIATION OF MEANING (SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT)
0
8
70
ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS' MATHEMATICAL POWER IN TERMS OF STIFIN TEST
0
0
8
THE RELEVANCE OF IBN TAYMIYYAH ECONOMICS IN ADDRESSING POVERTY AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION
0
0
10
SYARAT-SYARAT KESIAPAN PENYELENGGARAAN PROGRAM BELA NEGARA THE TERMS OF THE READINESS IN ORGANIZING THE DEFENDING THE STATE PROGRAM
0
0
20
THE TRANSPARENCY OF INFORMATION IN TERMS OF CRIME CLEARANCE IN BANGKALAN POLICE RESORT AREA AS A CONTROL FOR POLICE PERFORMANCE BY SOCIETY
0
0
8
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COOPERATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING IN TEACHING VOCABULARY
0
0
13
THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING SLANG IN THE CLASS OF INDONESIAN AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
0
0
18
AN ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSLATION OF SEXUAL TERMS IN THE MOVIE “THE UGLY TRUTH”
0
0
89
Appendix I: THE DATA OF MALE LANGUAGE IN COSMETICS ADVERTISEMENT
0
0
9
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