Combining form in medical terms : job training repot

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  Copywriting Seminar and Workshop (Certified)

  2.1 Formal Education No Year Institution

  6 2010 AECS UPI speech contest (Certified ) 5 2011 Semiotics Seminar and Workshop (Certified) 6 2011 Public Speaking Seminar (Certified) 7 2011

  Translating and Interpreting workshop (Certified) 5 2010 Copywriting Seminar (Certified)

  1 2001- 2003 Alphabet Club (Certified) 2 2001-2003 AIA Arithmetic (Certified) 3 2006-2008 English First (Certified) 4 2010

  2.2 Informal Education No Year Institution

  English Department Indonesia University of Computer

  SMP Negeri 1 Sukabumi 4 2006 - 2009 SMA Negeri 1 Sukabumi 5 2009 - Now

  1 1995- 1997 TK Dewi Sartika 2 1997 - 2003 SDN Ir. H. Djuanda, Sukabumi 3 2003

   Educational Background

  29 1.

  E-mail : 2.

  Phone : 089654444114 g.

  Religion : Moslem f.

  Sex : Female e.

  Place and Date of Birth : Sukabumi, 10 December 1991 d.

  Address : Jl. Sekeloa no. 33, Bandung c.

  Name : Lady Sekar Mayang b.

   Student’s Profile a.

  • – 2006

   Competency

  There are some competencies that the writer has. They are as follows: a.

  English Correspondence b. Good at English both oral and written c. Operating Computer ( Ms.Office , Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia, and

  Internet) 4.

   Organization and Work Experiences No Year Organization

  Member of Viva Teater SMP Negeri 1 1 2004-2005 Sukabumi Member of Teater Epigonen SMA Negeri 1 2 2007-2008 Sukabumi Head of Himpunan Mahasiswa Sastra Inggris 3 2009-2010 UNIKOM 4 2010-2011 Staff of Menteri Kebudayaan BEM UNIKOM

  5 2011-2012 Member of UNIKOM Futsal Campus 6 2012- present Member of Protokoler team UNIKOM Member of Himpunan Mahasiswa Sastra 7 2012- present Inggris UNIKOM

  

30

JOB TRAINING REPORT

  Submitted to fulfill one of the course requirements

  

LADY SEKAR MAYANG

63709005

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LETTERS

UNIVERSITAS KOMPUTER INDONESIA

  

2012

  

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

  First of all, the present writer want to thank to Allah SWT who gives the strength and His bless to me to finish this report. The writer also wants to dedicate the deepest thanks and appreciation to: 1.

  Mrs. Retno Purwani Sari S.S., M.Hum. as the writer’s advisor. She helps and leads the writer to make a good academic writing. Thank you so much.

  2. Mrs. Asih Prihandini S.S., M.Hum. as the coordinator of job training.

  Thanks for guiding and conducting us in job training.

  3. Mrs. Diba Artsiyanti and Mr. Savitra Wibawa who lead the Global Linguist. Thanks for guiding the writer through the job training.

  4. My Family, thank you for the love and support you always give.

  5. Reisa, Ferra, Yolanda, Resti, Aldi, Anggit, and Siti thanks for the laugh and the joy you bring. Keep support each other.

  6. Riki Ginanjar, thanks for always there.

  However, this paper still has many weaknesses and needs the improvement so the writer expects the suggestion, advice and critic from the readers. Thank you.

  Bandung, 11th December 2012 The present writer ABSTRACT iv

  ABSTRAK v

  5 CHAPTER III: THE DESCRIPTION OF THE TOPIC

  2.2 Position and Coordination

  4

  2.2.1 Job Position

  4

  2.2.2 Coordination

  5

  2.2.3 Responsibilities

  6

  2.1 Description of Global Linguist

  3.1 Combining Form in Medical Translation

  6

  3.2 Data Analysis

  7

  3.3 The Discussion

  11

  3.4 Table of Form

  4

  4

  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi

  1.3 Objectives

  CONTENTS vii

  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

  1

  1.1 Background of the Topic

  1

  1.2 Scope

  2

  2

  3 CHAPTER II: THE BUSINESS OF GLOBAL LINGUIST

  1.4 The Significant of Knowledge

  2

  1.5 The Framework of Theory

  2

  1.6 Research Method

  3

  1.7 Place and Time

  12

  4.1 Conclusion

  15

  4.2 Suggestion

  15 REFERENCES

  16 APPENDICES

  17 CURRICULUM VITAE

  28 Accessed a Bauer, Laurie. 1983. English Word- Formation. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press Plag, Ingo. 2003. Word-Formation in English. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press Steadmans., 2005, Medical Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms, August 13.

  Retrieved on November 9, 2012 from

  

  16

  

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Topic

  Every speaker is capable of performing language in the way of language competence and language performance. Focusing on language competence, especially, it increases along with social interaction. People learn many on language. Ingo Plag argues that the average speaker knows thousands of words, and new words enter our minds and our language on a daily basis (2002:1). According to my observation, the increased language competence is mostly improved through word’s production. English as one of productive languages, is also developed through this activity commonly discussed in Morphology.

  It may be defined that word formation is the creation or the construction of new word. Plag defines word formation as words that are obviously composed by putting together smaller elements to form larger words with more complex meanings (2002:12). Word formation has many kinds of types. One of them is combining form.

  Combining form or neoclassical compound is the combining of lexemes to make a new word. Neoclassical compound, somehow, is usually adopted by Greek or Latin to compound the word to become a new word. Medical is one of the field mostly using neoclassical compound.

  2

  constructed to have a clearly understanding on the development of combining form in medical translation.

1.2 Scope 1.

  What kind of combining form appears in the translation of medical handout?

2. How is the combining form constructed?

  1.3 Objectives

  The purpose of this research is as in the following: 1.

  To determine the combining form of medical terms found in the translation of medical handout

  2. To discuss and analyze the construction of combining form found in medical translation

  1.4 The Significant of Knowledge

  It is expected that the reader will understand many kinds of combining form developed in medical terms.

  1.5 The Framework of Theory

  In this research, I use the theory of neoclassical compound in word formation which is also known as combining form in word formation.

  3 end in -o, we should treat -o as a kind of suffix. Or, alternatively, we could venture the hypothesis that -o is not a suffix attached to the initial combining form, but a prefix attached to the final combining form (Plag 2002:213)

  In order to make the research clearly understand, I use this method to determine the combining form then analyze it to know the construction of the combining form.

  1.6 Research Method

  The method used in this research descriptive analytic. In descriptive analytic, we collected some data then we analyze it to make the research in appropriate.

  Iy the output end of analysis can be decisive in the case that the project is seeking knowledge about a firmly defined question (uiah.fi, 2007)

  1.7 Place and Time

  I did this job training in Global Linguist. It is a translation agency addressed at Cipaganti Rahayu Regency F-27A Jl. Cipamokolan Bandung Timur. The manager gave me some paper work to be translated. Most of them are handouts for medical students. I have to translate them in the specified time. I worked for about two months, started from 19 July until 19 September 2012.

THE BUSINESS OF GLOBAL LINGUIST

  2.1 Description of Global Linguist

  English is an international language. In Indonesia itself, English is so required that many people learn to speak and write it. However, there are still many people unable to use English properly. It can be proved by many translation agencies established. Therefore, it makes translation become a promising career.

  As an English student, translation can be one of the options for us to make career. To practice and to gain the experience in this field, I went to Global Linguist to be the place of my job training.

  Global Linguist is one of the translation agencies in Bandung addressed at Cipaganti Rahayu Regency F-27A Jl. Cipamokolan Bandung Timur. The founders of the agency are Mrs. Diba Artsiyanti, S.S., M.Si. and her sister, Dianita, S.E.

  Global Linguist focuses not only on translation but also on English training for institutes.

  2.2 Position and Coordination

2.2.1 Job Position

  In Global Linguist, I had worked as a freelance translator. I worked with 2 other friends, Yolanda and Diny.

  5

  The Global Linguist has staffs that run the agency and help me during the job training

  1. Mrs. Diba Artsiyanti, as the head of the agency.

  2. Mr. Savitra Wibawa, as the manager and editor.

2.2.3 Responsibilities In the process of job training, the clients who need our help contact Mrs.

  Artsiyanti first. Then Mrs. Artsiyanti will give the clients ’s material to Mr. Wibawa. Mr. Wibawa will contact us and distribute the material to the three of us to be translated.

  During this job training, I have translated many materials. Most of them are medical handout for medical students. After finising the translation, we send our work back to Mr. Wibawa who will make an editing on typing of our worksheet before giving it back to our clients.

THE DESCRIPTION OF THE TOPIC

3.1 Combining Form in Medical Translation

  Medical is one of the fields that has many kinds of terminology adopted from Latin. These medical terms often appear in many forms. It usually appears in combining form. Combining form is lexemes which combine and form as a new word. Combining form is also known as Neoclassical formations. Neoclassical formations as forms in which lexemes of Latin or Greek origin are combined to form new combinations that are not attested in the original languages (hence the term Neoclassical). (Plag 2002:210). However, it also provokes the question whether the form is the construction of affixation or combining form, considering they may be both composed of the prefix and suffix. In his book, Ingo Plag (2002: 200) explains that the difference between affixes and combining forms now is that neither affixes nor bound roots can combine with each other to form a new word .

  According to the previous statement, it can be concluded that constructions formed through affixation or those through combining form are different. The difference may be identified by its constituents. Combining form, especially, is constructed by root and bound root. By applying Ingo Plag theory, the origin of the word formation can be determined. As a result, the meaning may be understood easily. Furthermore, this case will be discussed deliberately in the report.

  7

  Before starting analyzing the combining form that is found in my translation worksheet about medical, some of the medical terms suspected as combining form are listed. Here is the list: 1.

  Endochondral 2. Endocranial 3. Morphogenesis 4. Sphenoid 5. Craniofacial 6. Osteogeneous 7. Epiphyses

  The list above is just some of the medical terms I found in medical handout. I suspected them as combining form because most of them are constructed by the bound roots. For more specific analysis, it will be discussed in the next section below. The medical terms that appear above, will be analyzed based on combining form theory developed by Ingo Plag. Data I: Endochondral

  According to the word, it may be assumed that Endochondral is formed by bound End- and lexeme Chondral. Bound root End- defines as ‘within’ Chondral defines as pertaining toDictionary defines Endochondral as relating to, formed by, or being ossification that takes place from centers arising in cartilage

  8

  absorption and replacement by true bony tissue —compare.

  In the performance, bound root end- and lexeme Chondral blends to become Endochondral not Endchondral. It can be seen the appearance of medial –o-. Based on the theory of Plag, The final position of combining form Endochondral is not already a vowel, therefore this word takes

  • –o- in the forming process of combining form. So, the form process can be seen in the following:

  End- + Chondral  End[o]chondral  Endochondral Data 2: Endocranial

  Based on the dictionary, Endocranial means within the cranium or relating to the endocranium. It can be examined that Endocranial is constructed by bound root End- and lexeme Cranial. Endocranial takes

  • –o- in the construction because it does not have a vowel in the final position of the combining form. See the process below: End- + Cranial  End[o]cranial  Endocranial Data 3: Morphogenesis It may assume that Morphogenesis can be divided into bound root Morph- means form, shape or structure, and lexeme Genesis. The combination of this

  9

  • –o- between it, because the final position of combining form has no vowel. So the construction of the combining form will be: Morph- + Genesis  Morph[o]genesis  Morphogenesis Dictionary defines Morphogenesis as thelop its shape. Data 4: Sphenoid

  Sphenoid based on the dictionary means relating to, or being a winged

  compound bone of the base of the cranium. It is formed by bound root Sphene- and

  • –id. They combine together as a new form of word sphenoid. In this data, the form takes –o- because the final position of the combining form is not a vowel.

  Maybe it appearing the confusion because it can be seen literally the final position of the combing form is a vowel. However phonologically, bound root Sphene- is spell [sphen], therefore the form become sphenoid not sphenoid. It can be seen the process of combining form below: Sphene- + -id  Sphen[o]id  Sphenoid

  10

  Dictionary defines Craniofacial as something involves both the cranium and the face. Craniofacial is divided into bound root cranio- and word/lexeme facial. It is still used the theory that if the final position of the combining form has a vowel, it may not take

  • –o-. However if it does not have the vowel in the final position of combining form, it may take
  • –o-. In this data, the bound root has vowel in the final position. Therefore, in the forming of this word, the process is: Cranio- + facial  Craniofacial Data 6: Osteogenous Based on the dictionary, Osteogeneous or Osteogenesis is any of several types of collagen disorders, of variable inheritance, due to defective biosynthesis of type I collagen and characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, easily fractured bones; other defects are blue sclerae, wormian bones, and dentinogenesis imperfecta. It is formed by bound root Osteo- and lexeme generous/genesis. It does not
  • –o- because it has a vowel in the final position of combining form. The process of combining form is in the following: Osteo- + Geneous  Osteogeneous

  11

  In medical terms, Epiphyses means the rounded end of aadjacent bone(s). It is divided with bound root Epi- and lexeme physes. The final position of Epi- is a vowel. Therefore it does not take

  • –o- when it forms into the word. It is a bit different from the previous data. This data shows the appearance of
  • –o- in the word. The process of the combining form is in the following: Epi- + physes  Epiphyses

3.3 The Discussion

  Based on the analysis above, it can be seen that there is a distinction between the data that I have already served to you. In data 1 and data 2, the form changed. For example in data 1, the terms Endochondral which is formed by bound root End- and lexeme chondral becomes Endochondral not Endchondral. It takes

  • –o- between the bound root and lexeme. It also happens in data 2. Bound root Sphen- and
  • –id is formed Sphenoid not Sphenid. In data 2, the form takes –o- therefore it becomes sphenoid because even the bound root is Sphene-, phonologically, the following sound is a consonant (Sphen-, -id). However it does not happen in data

  7. Data 7 shows that the word does not take

  • –o- because the final position of the combining form has a vowel.

  12

  formations, but should be decided on for each combining form separately on the basis of distributional evidence. (Plag 2002: 215). After all, in determining combining form, we are not only examining the bound roots that construct it but we also examine it phonologically.

  3.4 Table of Form

  In order to make my explanation more clear, I make the table of form about the division of medical terms including the construction of the form and the definition based on the dictionary.

  Terms Bound root Lexeme Meaning

  Endochondral End- Chondral relating to, formed by, or being ossification that takes place from centers arising in cartilage and involves deposition of lime salts in the cartilage matrix followed by secondary absorption and replacement by true

  13

  —compare Endocranial End- Cranial 1. Within the cranium.

  2. Of or relating to the endocranium.

  Morphogenesis Morph- Genesis The

  auses

  anto develop its shape Sphenoid Sphen- -id of, relating to, or being a winged compound bone of the base of the cranium

  Craniofacial Cranio- Facial involving both the cranium and the face.

  Osteogeneous Osteo- geneous any of several types of collagen disorders, of variable inheritance, due to defective

  14

  collagen and characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, easily fractured bones; other defects are blue sclerae, wormian bones, and dentinogenesis imperfect

  Epiphyses Epi- -physes the rounded end of at itscent bone(s

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

  4.1 Conclusion

  According to the discussion above, I can conclude that the translator which actually is not an expert in medical may be confused to translate when they found medical terms. However, the meaning of the word can be understood without open the dictionary by learning the combining form. The medical terms can be analyzed as they are classified into combining form based on the combining-form theory developed by Ingo Plag.

  4.2 Suggestion

  After doing the analysis, it can be assumed that determining combining form, after all, is not easy as noticed. However, in order to gain understanding about combining form in medical terms more clearly, some steps are suggested to analyze combining form.

  The steps may lead the researcher to the fully examination. First, examine the word indicating as the combining form. Learn the lexeme constructing the word whether it has bound root or not. Second, divide it and make a classification from the bound root that constructs the combining form. Next step is to classify it phonologically or phonetically. Then the combining form that is constructed the medical terms can be identified.

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