The correlation between listening skill and pronunciation accuracy : a case study in the firt year of smk vocation higt school pupita bangsa ciputat school year 2005-2006

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THE CORRELATION BETWEEN LISTENING SKILL AND PRONUNCIATION ACCURACY ( A Case Study in The first Year of SMK (Vocational High School) Puspita Bangsa Ciputat, School Year 2005-2006) A SKRIPSI Presented to Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training In partial fulfillment of the requirements For Sarjana Degree (S1) By: HANISTIYA EKA DAMIATI 202014001008 ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA 1428 H/2007 M THE CORRELATION BETWEEN LISTENING SKILL AND PRONUNCIATION ACCURACY A SKRIPSI Presented to Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training In partial fulfillment of the requirements For Sarjana Degree (S1) By: HANISTIYA EKA DAMIATI 202014001008 Approved by: Advisor Drs. Sunardi Kartowisastro, Dip. Ed NIP. 150 022 779 ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA 1428 H/2007 M LEGALIZATION OF EXAMINATION COMMITTEE A skripsi titled “ THE CORRELATION BETWEEN LISTENING SKILL AND PRONUNCIATION ACCURACY (A Case Study at the First Year of SMK Puspita Bangsa Ciputat)” was examined in the examination session of the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training State Islamic University (UIN) Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta on September, 11th 2007. This skripsi has fulfilled for the degree (S-1) at the English Education Department. September, 24th 2007 Examination Committee The Head of Committee The Secretary of Committee Prof. Dr. Rosyada, MA. NIP. 150 231 356 Prof. Dr. H. Aziz Fahrurrozi, MA. NIP. 150 202 343 Examiner I Examiner II Drs. H. Munir Sonhadji, M.Ed. NIP. 150 050 682 Dr. H. Atiq Susilo, MA. NIP. 150 182 900 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. All Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds Who has bestowed guidance and strength upon the writer in completing this skripsi. Peace and blessing be upon of our Prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, companions, and his followers. In this time, the writer would like to express her great gratitude to Drs. Sunardi Kartowisastro, Dip. Ed., her advisor, who has given his time, advice, contribution, patience, and guide in correcting and helping her in writing this skripsi. Her beloved parents H. Muhammad Toha and Sumiatun, her brothers and sister who always give her support, motivations, and moral encouragement to finish her skripsi. Her gratitude also goes to: 1. Prof. Dr. Rosyada, MA. The Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training. 2. Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M. Pd. The Head of English Department. 3. All lectures in the English Department who have taught and educated the writer during her study at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.i 4. The principal of SMK (Vocational High School) Puspita Bangsa Ciputat, Drs. Mukija Hs, S.Pd, M.M., who has given an opportunity to carry out the research. 5. My uncle Abdul Mutholib, aunty Nunuk Sundari and sister Hardianik atin who always give me a chance to be better. i 6. Someone with honesty, Mustholih Siradj who always makes me conscious how to think about life and who is never bored with giving motivation in sadness, happiness and togetherness may Allah gives us goodness. 7. My best friends (Ameh, Dawi, Meita and Sanjoo) who are never bored to remain and support me to be the better one. 8. All my friends in English Education Department. And finally, the writer realizes that this skripsi is not perfect. Therefore, the writer would like to accept any constructive suggestion to make this skripsi better. May this skripsi be useful to the readers, particularly to the writer. May Allah bless them all for what they have done, so be it. Jakarta, February 2007 The writer ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .i TABLE OF CONTENTS .iii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A. Background of The Study .1 B. Objective of The Study .3 C. Problem of Statement .3 D. Method of The Study .4 E. Organization of The Study .4 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. The Nature of Listening 1. The Definition of Listening 6 2. Listening activities .7 B. Pronunciation 1. The Meaning of Pronunciation .11 2. Pronunciation Activities 12 3. Aspect of Pronunciation 13 4. Factors that Effect Pronunciation Learning .14 iii C. The Possible Correlation between Listening Skill and Pronunciation Accuracy .16 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Research Methodology 1. The Purpose of Study .17 2. The Place and Time of Study .17 3. The Technique of Sample Taking .17 4. The Technique of Data Collecting .18 5. The Technique of Data Analysis .18 CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDINGS 1. The Description of Data .20 2. The Data Analysis .20 3. The Interpretation of Data .25 4. The Test of Hypothesis .26 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion .28 B. Suggestion .29 BIBLIOGRAPHY .30 APPENDIXES iv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Language is important for human beings to communicate to each other. AS. Hornby said: “Language is human and non instinctive method of communicating ideas, feeling, and desire by means of system of sound and sound symbols.”1 Realizing how important English is, the government stated that English as the first foreign language to be taught in Indonesian schools; it is stated in the 1994 GBPP: “Bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa asing pertama di Indonesia yang dianggap penting untuk tujuan penyerapan dan pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, tekhnologi dan pembinaan hubungan dengan bangsa-bangsa lain.”2 English as the first foreign language in Indonesia and it has been taught from elementary school up to university, for many years. But now, it can be seen that there are so many private schools that have taught English in preschool age and Kindergarten. They use English as a medium of instruction in teaching and learning process. It shows that some students who study English as a foreign language are unable to apply English in oral practice. Based on the writer’s observation, she found that many learners have some difficulties in pronouncing English. The problem comes up apparently as the consequence of their native language influence. Beside that, their habits in learning English especially in listening, teacher gave lack of pronunciation exercises. The students 1 AS. Hornby, oxford advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974). P. 473 2 Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Kurikulum: GBPP Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris, (Jakarta: Depdikbud, 1993), p.1 also lack of practicing English in daily activities especially in listening and pronunciation. Pronunciation has often been viewed as a skill in second language learning that is most resistant to improve and therefore the least useful to learn nowadays, pronunciation tends to be emphasized in language learning, an explicit instruction in this aspect of language is considered as representing outmoded educational practice. Advocates of modern comprehension-based or communicatively oriented language curricula generally take the view that pronunciation should not be learnt explicitly but should rather be allowed to develop naturally as a by product of attempts by students to communicate. There has been little systematic research to discover if certain learning practices or conditions of training can have positive effects on pronunciation in language learning. New ways of learning pronunciation are still to be developed and tested, and there is a need for careful experimentation to determine the effectiveness of methods. Students are frequently given many activities to practice their listening activities, still the differences of the students’ pronunciation always exist in the writer’s opinion this different result is probably caused by their various activities at home. The fact shows that there are some students who have more time and chances in listening English than the others, it results the differences of their pronunciation. So that, the writer wants to find out about it at SMK (Vocational high school) Puspita Bangsa Ciputat. People who learn English may have some specific reasons. They may learn it because they are interested in culture and want to know more about the people who speak it and to know the place (s) in which it is spoken. They may learn it because they have to communicate with the communities that use English as their language. As students of SMK (Vocational high school) they have to master English to support their profession after finishing their study specially listening skill and pronunciation. B. Objective of the Study The objective of the study is there any correlation between listening skill and pronunciation accuracy. And examine the listening skill either by the songs, film, news, etc, which can help the students pronounce better. And for the teachers, they will know students’ listening skill by listening to their pronunciation. By giving the information about the correlation between listening skill and pronunciation accuracy, the writer hopes this paper can help the students to be aware that the higher listening skill will make them better in pronouncing English. So that, the students will be able to practice their English in various activities. C. Problem of Statement Referring to the explanation above, it cannot be said that the students who have studied English for several years are automatically able to use it, especially in pronouncing perfectly in their daily conversation or other activities. And listening as one of their routines might help. The writer believes that there is a correlation between listening skill and pronunciation accuracy. This skripsi will identify: Is there any correlation between listening skill and pronunciation accuracy? So for the method the writer will measure the students’ frequency of listening skill and their pronunciation accuracy. D. Method of the Study In this study, the data for materials are collected from libraries and field research. Many books have been read to support this writing. Data is collected from observation and interview the English teacher of the school. The research is done at the first grade of SMK (Vocational high school) Puspita Bangsa Ciputat. To obtain the data, the teacher gave the achievement test to the students such as the listening test and pronunciation test. Then the writer compared the result of the listening and pronunciation test. Both of them will be correlated by product moment correlation. E. Organization of the Study This skripsi is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction, which includes Background of the Study, Objective of the Study, Problem of Statement, Method of the Study and Organization of the Study. Chapter two is the Theoretical Framework, consisting of the Definition of Listening Skill, Listening Activities, the Meaning of Pronunciation, Pronunciation Activities, Aspects of Pronunciation, Factors that Affect Pronunciation learning, and Correlation between Listening Comprehension and Pronunciation. Chapter Three is Research Methodology, which include the Purpose of Study, the Place and Time of Study, the Technique of Sample Taking, the Technique of Data Collecting and the Technique of Data Analysis. Chapter Four Research Findings consisting of the Description of the Data, Data Analysis, the Interpretation of Data and the Test of Hypothesis. Chapter five is conclusion and Suggestion. In this chapter, the writer would like to give some conclusion and offer some suggestions that may have relation to the subject. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. THE NATURE OF LISTENING 1. The Definition of Listening Skill Many definitions can be found about listening from some experts. But the writer only chooses several of them which are important to talk about. “Listening is the process of becoming aware of the sound components and recognizing these components in sequences which have meaning.”3 Beside, listening involves more than just hearing or paying attention. It also involves thinking, language ability, and experiences that is essential for communication. Lundsteen has stated that “listening refers to the process by which spoken language is converted to meaning in the mind.”4 It means that listening occurs if there is a voice, which is heard. Roy O’Billet also has stated that “Listening is more than just hearing. To listen is to hear, to understand, and to evaluate. Teacher commonly notices that some students do not hear and that others hear but do not understand and evaluate what the student says, and the teaching – learning process is thereby correspondingly retarded.”5 3 Harry A. Green, Walter T. Petty, Developing Language Skill in Elementary School, (Alyn and Bacon inc, 1971) p. 153 4 Walter T, Petty and Julie M.J., Developing Children’s Language, (Boston and Allyn Inc, 1980), p. 181 Roy O’Billet, Teaching in junior and senior high school. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 63188941963. 5 According to the first defining statement in Webster’s third new International Dictionary, “listening is to make a conscious effort to hear, attend closely, so as to hear or to pay close attention; take advice.”6 Referring to explanation above, the writer concludes that listening is vital in the language, because it provides the process of thinking, language ability, and experiences that are essential in communicate to other. Without understanding input at the right level, any learning simply cannot begin. Listening is thus fundamental to pronunciation. 2. Listening Activities Although every oral communication situation is opportunity for developing listening skill and fostering good listening habits, on organized instructional program planned in detail and evaluated with adequate attention to objective should be part of every classroom. “Specific teaching activities should generally have these characteristics: a clearly defined purpose, preliminary attention to unfamiliar vocabulary and ideas, and some provisions for follow-up.”7 In this time teacher should have no difficulty designing listening activity to teach one or more listening skills. Obviously, listening activity is the first activity which a foreign student encounters in learning. Wilga M. Rivers said: “A perfectly legitimate case can be established for the order: hearing, speaking, reading, and writing, without resort to such unwarranted derivation from infant learning. Because the foreign language is a set of arbitrary symbols adopted 6 Webster’s New Dictionary Third College Edition, (Simon & Schuster Inc, 1988), p.788 7 Walter T. Petty and Julie M.J., op. cit., p. 182 by a certain community, with arbitrary standard of acceptable of pronunciation, it is obvious that the student should hear it correctly before endeavoring to reproduce it.”8 Theodore Huebner said, “ now listening seems, on the surface, to be a very simple, passive, receptive process. Actually it requires attention, concentration, and application if it is also to be affective.”9 He also said, “people must be trained to listen critically as well as conversationally: there must be an attitude of concentration as well as appreciation. And to make this listening effective, education must develop the critical and discriminating sense in child.”10 However, we must remember that merely listening is not really enough, because it is an activity which is applied in various ways. “The learners must not only listen to the casual moment, but must also remember, recognize later, and finally be able to reproduce it as well.”11 According to Mary Finocchiaro and Michael Bonomo in listening, the learners must hear and identify: 1. “The phonemic Sound of the language and, eventually, the personal or the dialectical variations of the phonemes as spoken by some native speakers; 2. The Sequence of Sounds and their groupings; the lengths of the pauses; the patterns of the stresses; and intonations; 3. The Function Words and their required sound changes depending on their position before other words; 4. The Inflections for plurality, tense, possession, etc; 5. The Sound Changes and function shifts (involving positional shift) brought about derivation; 6. The Structural Groupings (of verbal, of prepositional phrases, etc.); 7. The Word Order Clues of function and meaning; 8 Wilga M. Rivers, The Psychologist and the Foreign Language Teachers, (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1964), p. 103 9 Theodore Huebner, Audiovisual Techniques in Teaching Foreign Language (New York University Press, 1960), p.63 10 11 Ibid, p. 64 Ibid, p. 82 8. The Meaning of words depending on the context or on the situation being discussed; 9. The Formula, Introductory Words, and Hesitation Words which occur in speech; 10. The Cultural Meaning embedded in the message.”12 They also said to increase the listening skill the learners are suggested to practice such activities as follow: 1. “Listening to students’ pronunciation to correct by themselves: a. present sounds, sounds sequences, intonation patterns, and utterances with contrasting stresses and pauses; b. gives clues or ask questions to stimulate appropriate responses on pattern practice activities; c. tell a story; d. read a passage, poem or play; e. model a dialog; f. tell about an incident that happened to someone else; g. establish the situation for a dialogue, a film, a radio broadcast, etc; h. give a dictation (gradually increasing the number of the syllable the students are to retain before they write); i. give a listening comprehension exercise; j. give directions for tests; 2. Listening to other pupils while they are Yang Mempengaruhi Capital Flight Di Indonesia Periode 2002. 1-2006. 12 Nama Mahasiswa : Santi Dwi Astuti NIM : 030810101072 Jurusan : Ilmu Ekonomi dan Studi Pembangunan Konsentrasi : Ekonomi Moneter Disetujui Tanggal : 30 Januari 2008 Pembimbing I Pembimbing II Dra. Sri Utami, SU NIP. 130 610 496 Yulia Indrawati, SE, M.Si NIP. 132 296 911 Ketua Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi dan Studi Pembangunan Dr. M. Fathorrazi, SE, M.Si NIP. 131 877 451 vi JUDUL SKRIPSI ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI CAPITAL FLIGHT DI INDONESIA PERIODE 2002. 1-2006. 12 Yang dipersiapkan dan disusun oleh: Nama : SANTI DWI ASTUTI NIM : 030810101072 Jurusan : ILMU EKONOMI STUDI PEMBANGUNAN telah dipertahankan di depan Panitia Penguji pada tanggal : 14 MEI 2008 dan dinyatakan telah memenuhi syarat untuk diterima sebagai kelengkapan guna memperoleh gelar sarjana dalam Ilmu Ekonomi Studi Pembangunan pada Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember. Susunan Panitia Penguji Ketua, Sekretaris, Drs. Badjuri, ME NIP. 131 386 652 Dr. M. Fathorrazi, SE, M.Si NIP. 131 877 451 Anggota, Dra. Sri Utami, SU NIP. 130 610 496 Mengetahui / Menyetujui Universitas Jember Fakultas Ekonomi Dekan, Prof. Dr. H. Sarwedi, MM NIP. 131 276 658 vii Analyse The Factors Influencing Capital Flight In Indonesia Period 2002.1-2006.12 Santi Dwi Astuti Majors Of Economics and Development Study, Faculty Of Economics University Of Jember ABSTRACT This Research aim to know the influence of Real Effective Exchange Rate, Difference mount the rate of interest Indonesia-America, and Inflation rate to Capital Flight in Indonesia Data type used in this research is data of time series of years monthly 2002. 1-2006. 12. Data used this research is data of Real Effective Exchange Rate, Difference mount the rate of interest Indonesia-America, and Inflation rate from Statistical Center Body, internet, statistical [of] Indonesia Bank economics, magazine and journal of related to research and various literature of economics, etc. Analysis data used by test of normalitas data, Multiple linear regression, test the classic assumption and hypothesis examination with the test F and test t. Result of data analysis indicate that the Real Effective Exchange Rate, Difference of interest rate Indonesia-America, and Inflation by simultan have an effect on the significant to Capital Flight in Indonesia. While by partial, Real Effective Exchange Rate have an effect on the negativity and significant to Capital Flight in Indonesia its meaning each; every make-up of variable of Real Effective Exchange Rate own the influence to degradation of Capital Flight. Difference of interest rate of Indonesia-America have an effect on the negativity and significant to Capital Flight in Indonesia each; every make-up of variable of difference of interest rate of Indonesia-America own the influence to degradation of Capital Flight in Indonesia. Inflation do not have an effect on the significant to Capital Flight in Indonesia its meaning each; every improvement and or degradation of inflation variable statistically do not own the influence to increase and or degradation of Capital Flight. This research conclusion is Real Effective Exchange Rate, Difference of interest rate Indonesia-America, and inflation rate on the significant to Capital Flight in Indonesia. Keyword : Capital Flight, Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER), Difference of interest rate Indonesia-America (DINT), Inflation Rate (INF). viii Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Capital Flight Di Indonesia Periode 2002. 1-2006. 12 Santi Dwi Astuti Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi Studi Pembangunan, Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh Real Effective Exchange Rate, perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika, dan tingkat inflasi terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia. Jenis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah time series bulanan tahun 2002. 1-2006. 12. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data Real Effective Exchange Rate, perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika, dan tingkat inflasi dari Badan Pusat Statistik, internet, statistik ekonomi Bank Indonesia, majalah dan jurnal yang berkaitan dengan penelitian dan berbagai literatur lainnya. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah uji normalitas data, regresi linear berganda, uji asumsi klasik dan pengujian hipotesis dengan uji F dan uji t. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa Real Effective Exchange Rate, perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika, dan tingkat inflasi secara simultan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia. Sedangkan secara parsial, Real Effective Exchange Rate berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia artinya setiap peningkatan variabel Real Effective Exchange Rate memiliki pengaruh terhadap penurunan Capital Flight. Perbadaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia artinya setiap peningkatan variabel perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika memiliki pengaruh terhadap penurunan Capital Flight. Inflasi berpengaruh tidak signifikan terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia artinya setiap peningkatan ataupun penurunan variabel inflasi secara statistik memiliki pengaruh terhadap kenaikan ataupun penurunan Capital Flight. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah Real Effective Exchange Rate, perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika, dan inflasi berpengaruh signifikan terhadap Capital Flight di Indonesia. Kata Kunci : Capital Flight, Rael Effective Exchange Rate (REER), Perbedaan tingkat suku bunga Indonesia-Amerika (DINT), dan Tingkat Inflasi (INF) ix KATA PENGANTAR Syukur Alhamdulillah kehadirat Allah SWT yang dengan segala kebesaran dan kemurahan-Nya telah melimpahkan rahmat, bimbingan, serta kemudahan dalam setiap langkah sehingga penyusunan skripsi dengan judul “Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Capital Flight Di Indonesia Periode 2002. 1-2006. 12” dapat terselesaikan dengan baik. Skripsi ini disusun guna memenuhi salah satu syarat untuk memperoleh gelar Sarjana Ekonomi Ilmu Ekonomi, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Jember. Dengan terselesaikannya penyusunan skripsi ini, penulis menyadari sepenuhnya bahwa tidak akan terwujud skripsi ini tanpa bantuan, bimbingan dan motivasi maupun masukan yang positif dari berbagai pihak sejak awal hingga terselesaikannya skripsi ini, karena itu penulis mengucap terima kasih sebesar-besarnya kepada : 1. Prof. Dr. H. Sarwedi, MM selaku Dekan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember; 2. Dr. M. Fathorrazi, SE., M.Si selaku Ketua Jurusan Studi S-1 Ilmu Ekonomi Studi Pembangunan, Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember; 3. Dra. Sri Utami, SU selaku Dosen Pembimbing I atas ilmu pengetahuan, perhatian, motivasi dan kesabaran serta waktu yang telah diberikan dengan penuh ikhlas dalam membimbing penulis selama ini; 4. Yulia Indrawati, SE, M.Si selaku Dosen Pembimbing II atas ilmu pengetahuan, perhatian, motivasi dan kesabaran serta waktu yang telah diberikan dengan penuh ikhlas dalam membimbing penulis selama ini; 5. Seluruh Bapak dan Ibu Dosen Jurusan Studi S-1 Ilmu Ekonomi Studi Pembangunan, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Jember yang telah memberikan segala ilmu dan wawasan yang sangat berguna selama ini; 6. Seluruh staf dan karyawan Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember atas bantuan yang diberikan selama ini; 7. Sahabat dan teman-temanku atas kebersamaan dan kasih sayang yang tulus, bantuan dan nasehat-nasehatnya serta semangatnya yang sangat berarti; x 8. Semua pihak yang tidak dapat disebutkan satu per satu yang telah membantu penulis selama penyusunan skripsi ini. Penulis menyadari bahwa skripsi ini masih jauh dari sempurna, oleh karena itu saran dan kritik sangat diharapkan demi perbaikan dimasa mendatang. Akhir kata semoga skripsi ini dapat bermanfaat bagi para pembaca, khususnya rekan-rekan Fakultas Ekonomi terutama bagi penulis sendiri. Amin ya Robbal ’alamin Jember, 30 Januari 2008 Penyusun xi DAFTAR ISI Halaman HALAMAN JUDUL . ii HALAMAN PERSEMBAHAN . iii HALAMAN MOTTO . iv HALAMAN PERNYATAAN . . v HALAMAN PERSETUJUAN . . vi HALAMAN PENGESAHAN . . vii ABSTRACT . . viii ABSTRAK . ix KATA PENGANTAR . . x DAFTAR ISI . . xii DAFTAR TABEL . . xiv DAFTAR GAMBAR xv DAFTAR LAMPIRAN xvi BAB 1. PENDAHULUAN 1 1.1 Latar Belakang Masalah . 1 1.2 Rumusan Masalah . . 3 1.3 Tujuan dan Manfaat Penelitian . 4 1.3.1 Tujuan Penelitian . 4 1.3.2 Manfaat Penelitian penelitian ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa SMP negeri 2 Jember kelas VIII E dengan 31 siswa. Instrumen yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data adalah tes berupa tiga soal PISA konten Space and Shape unit Shape yang telah diterjemahkan kedalam bahasa Indonesia. Soal PISA dan pendoman penskoran yang digunakan adalah sebagai berikut : AMATI GAMBAR BERIKUT 1. Mana diantara gambar-gambar diatas yang memiliki daerah terluas. Apa alasanmu? 2. Jelaskan cara untuk memperkirakan luas gambar C 3. Jelaskan cara untuk memperkirakan keliling gambar C Pedoman Penskoran: Soal 1 Skor Penuh (1) : Bentuk B, didukung dengan penalaran yang masuk akal. B merupakan daerah terluas karena dua bangun yang lain akan dimuat di dalamnya. B. karena tidak memiliki lekukan di dalamnya yang mengurangi luas daerahnya. Sedangkan A dan C memiliki Gap/celah. B, karena merupakan lingkaran penuh, sedangkan bangun yang lain seperti lingkaran dengan beberapa bagian yang hilang, sehingga mengurangi luasnya. B, karena tidak memiliki daerah terbuka Dll. Tidak ada Skor (0): B, tanpa disertai alasan yang masuk akal Jawaban lain yang kurang masuk akal. Soal 2: Skor Penuh (2): Dengan cara yang masuk akal. Menggambar petak-petak yang memuat bangun tersebut dan menghitung petak yang menutupi bangun tersebut. Jika lebih dari setengahnya, maka petak tersebut dihitung satu petak Memotong bentuk tersebut menjadi bagian-bagian yang lebih kecil dan mengatur potongan-potongan tersebut menjadi bentuk persegi/persegi panjang kemudian menhitung sisi-sisinya lalu menentukan luasnya. Membangun bentuk 3D dengan alas berdasarkan bentuk tersebut, dan mengisinya dengan air. Hitung volume air yang digunakan dan kedalaman air pada model. Luas dapat ditentukan dengan volume air dibagi kedalaman air pada model Dengan membagi bangun ke dalam beberapa bentuk bangun datar beraturan. Kemudian dihitung luasnya dan dijumlahkan. Dan alasan-alasan lain yang masuk akal Skor sebagian (1) : Membuat lingkaran yang memuat bentuk tersebut, kemudian mengurangkan luas lingkaran dengan luas diluar bentuk tersebut dalam lingkaran. Namun siswa tidak menyebutkan bagaimana untuk mengetahui luas daerah diluar bentuk tersebut dalam lingkaran. Alasan-alasan lain yang masuk akal, namun kurang detail atau kurang jelas. Tidak ada Skor (0): Jawaban lain yang kurang masuk akal. Soal 3: Skor Penuh (1): Dengan cara yang masuk akal. Rentangkan seutas tali pada pinggir bentuk tersebut, kemudian mengukur panjang tali yang digunakan. Potong bentuk tersebut menjadi bagian-bagian yang lebih kecil, gabungkan bagian-bagian tersebut hingga membentuk garis, lalu tentukan panjangnya. Dan alasan-alasan lain yang masuk akal Tidak ada Skor (0): Jawaban lain yang kurang masuk akal. Sumber : diadaptasi dari Take The Test Sample Questions From OECD’s PISA Assesment. Selanjutnya, skor siswa yang didapat akan dimasukkan dan diolah dengan program komputer Ministep (Winstep Rasch) untuk mengestimasi kemampuan siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal PISA konten Shape and Space yang diberikan berdasarkan analisis model Rasch. Soal 1 dan 3 menggunakan penskoran model dikotomus (Benar/Salah), sedangkan soal 2 menggunakan penskoran model politomus (Partial Credit Model). Skor mentah tersebut dikonversi menjadi nilai logit. Semakin tinggi nilai logit siswa dan lebih dari 0.0 logit mengindikasikan kemampuan siswa yang semakin tinggi. Semakin tinggi nilai logit soal dan lebih dari 0.0 logit mengindikasikan semakin tinggi tingkat kesulitan soal. HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN Secara keseluruhan skor siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal PISA konten Shape and Space berbeda-beda Pada tabel 1 menampilkan skor mentah yang diperoleh siswa. Soal 1 mampu dijawab dengan benar oleh 17 siswa, soal 2 terdapat 2 siswa yang mampu menjawab dengan skor penuh, dan 6 siswa mampu menjawab dengan skor 1, sedangkan soal 3 terdapat 5 siswa yang mampu menjawab dengan benar Tabel 1. Skor Siswa dalam Menyelesaikan Soal PISA Konten Shape and Space NAMA SOAL NAMA NO SOAL NO (KODE SISWA) 1 2 3 (KODE SISWA) 1 2 3 1 01AT 1 0 1 17 17MW 1 0 0 2 02AO 0 0 0 18 18NA 0 0 0 3 03AN 0 0 0 19 19NR 1 0 0 NAMA SOAL NAMA NO SOAL NO (KODE SISWA) 1 2 3 (KODE SISWA) 1 2 3 4 04CA 0 0 0 20 20NA 1 2 0 5 05EA 1 0 0 21 21NS 0 0 0 6 06FY 1 1 1 22 22RR 0 0 1 7 07IN 1 1 0 23 23RF 0 0 0 8 08IE 1 0 0 24 24RA 0 0 0 9 09JN 1 1 0 25 25RW 0 0 0 10 10KH 1 1 1 26 26RL 0 0 0 11 11KT 1 0 0 27 27SA 0 0 0 12 12MI 1 1 0 28 28TA 1 2 0 13 13MA 0 0 0 29 29VT 0 0 1 14 14MR 1 1 0 30 30ZN 1 0 0 15 15MR 1 0 0 31 31PA 1 0 0 16 16MS 0 0 0 Selanjutnya skor siswa dengan pemodelan Rasch diolah dengan menggunakan program komputer ministep (Winstep Rasch). Berikut ditampilkan hasil statistic dari analisis model Rasch: Gambar 1. Tampilan Summary Statistics hasil pengolahan data ministep. Tampilan summary statistics diatas memberikan info tentang kualitas responden/siswa secara keseluruhan dalam menyelesaikan soal yang diberikan. Dari tampilan hasil pengolahan diatas diperoleh Person measure = – 0.10 logit dengan tidak mengikutsertakan Extrem Person (Responden/siswa yang mempuyai skor 0) yang kurang dari logit 0,0. Hal ini menunjukkan kemampuan siswa kurang dalam menyelesaikan soal PISA konten shape and space yang diberikan. Dengan mengikutsertakan siswa dengan ekstrem skor tentunya nilai person measure akan semakin kecil yaitu – 1.52 logit. Semakin tinggi nilai logit diatas 0.0 logit, semakin tinggi kemampuan siswa. Gambar 2. Tampilan Item Measure hasil pengolahan data ministep. Dari gambar 2, soal no 2 mempunyai nilai logit tertinggi yaitu +1.47 logit ini menunjukkan soal no 2 merupakan soal yang paling sulit dijawab oleh siswa, soal no 3 mempunyai nilai logit = 1.40 logit, dan soal no 1 mempunyai nilai logit = -2.87 logit. Soal 2 dan 3, nilai logit keduanya lebih dari 0.0 logit menunjukkan kedua soal ini merupakan kategori soal sulit. Dari tabel 1 menunjukkan untuk soal no 2 hanya terdapat 2 siswa yang mampu menjawab dengan skor penuh, dan 6 siswa mampu menjawab dengan skor 1. Untuk soal no 3 hanya 5 siswa yang mampu menjawab dengan benar. Sedangkan soal 1 mempunyai nilai -2.87 logit yang kurang dari 0.0 logit menunjukkan soal yang relatif mudah dikerjakan siswa, dari 31 siswa terdapat 17 siswa yang mampu menjawab dengan benar. SIMPULAN DAN SARAN Berdasarkan analisis data dan pembahasan diperoleh simpulan sebagai berikut : (1) Kemampuan siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal PISA konten shape and space berdasarkan analisis model Rasch masih kurang. Rata-rata nilai logit siswa - 1,52 logit yang kurang dari 0.0 logit. (2) Dari ketiga soal yang diujikan, dua soal dikategorikan sebagai soal sulit, dan 1 soal relatif mudah dikerjakan siswa. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, peneliti mengemukakan saran-saran sebagai berikut : (1) Bagi pendidik, siswa hendaknya sering diberikan soal-soal non rutin atau soal-soal pemecahan masalah seperti soal-soal PISA dalam pembelajaran matematika dikelas, baik sebagai tugas maupun ulangan harian. Hal ini bertujuan untuk melatih dan meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah siswa. (2) Bagi peneliti lain, penggunaan Item Respon Theory (IRT) dalam hal ini Rasch Model dapat dijadikan alternatif dalam pengolahan data penelitian kuantitatif untuk mengatasi kelamahan teori tes klasik, karena Rasch Model telah memenuhi lima prinsip model pengukuran. DAFTAR PUSTAKA Aini, R.N. & Siswono, T.Y.E. 2014. Analisis Pemahaman Siswa SMP Dalam Menyelesaikan Masalah Aljabar Pada PISA. Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika MATHEdunesa, vol 2, no 3, hal.158-164 BSNP Depdiknas.2006. Standar Isi Mata Pelajaran Matematika SD/MI dan SMP/MTs (Permendiknas Nomor 22 Tahun 2006). Jakarta: BSNP Depdiknas OECD. 2013. PISA 2012 Results in Focus. www.oecd.org OECD.2009. Take The Test Sample Questions From OECD’s PISA Assesment. www.oecd.org OECD.2015. PISA 2015 Draft Mathematics Framework. www.oecd.org Setiawan, H.,Dafik., dan Lestari, S.D.N. 2014. Soal Matematika Dalam PISA Kaitannya Dengan Literasi Matematika Dan Keterampilan Berpikir Tingkat Tinggi. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Matematika, Universitas Jember, 19 November 2014, hal.244-251. Shiel, G et al.2007. PISA mathematics: a teacher’s guide. Dublin :Department of Education and Science. Sulastri, R., et al.2014. Kemampuan Mahasiswa Program Studi Pendidikan Matematika FKIP Unsyiah Menyelesaikan Soal PISA Most Difficult Level. Jurnal Didaktik Matematika, Vol. 1, No. 2, September 2014, hal.13-21. Sumintono, B. & Widhiarso, W.2014. Aplikasi Model Rasch Untuk Penelitian Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial. Cimahi:Trim Komunikata Publishing House Wardhani, Sri dan Rumiyati. 2011. Instrumen Penilaian Hasil Belajar Matematika SMP: Belajar dari PISA dan TIMSS. Yogyakarta : Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan (PPPPTK) Matematika.

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