AN ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN WRITING RECOUNT TEXT MADE BY STUDENTS OF AIR-LANGGA COURSE IN SENGKALING

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AN ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN WRITING

RECOUNT TEXT MADE BY STUDENTS OF AIR-LANGGA

COURSE IN SENGKALING

THESIS

  

By:

WITA WIDYARTI

201010100311273

  

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHING TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

2015

  

AN ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN WRITING

RECOUNT TEXT MADE BY STUDENTS OF AIR-LANGGA

COURSE IN SENGKALING

THESIS

  

This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements to achieve Sarjana

Degree in English Education

By:

WITA WIDYARTI

  

201010100311273

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHING TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

  

2015

MOTTO AND DEDICATION Sesungguhnya sesudah kesulitan itu ada kemudahan (Qs. Al-Insirakh: 6) Kata Hati adalah Kejujuran Sejati (Wita Widyarti) DEDICATION:

  I dedicate this thesis to : My beloved father and mother,

  My family, My friends,

  And my husband to be 

  TABLE OF CONTENTS COVER .................................................................................................................... i APPROVAL............................................................................................................ ii LEGALIZATION .................................................................................................. iii ORIGINALITY DECLARATION ........................................................................ iv MOTTO AND DEDICATION ............................................................................... v ABSTRACT........................................................................................................... vi ACKNOWLEDGMENT....................................................................................... vii TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................... viii

  CHAPTER I-INTRODUCTION

  1.1 Background of the Study..............................................................................1

  1.2 Statement of the Problem .............................................................................4

  1.3 Purpose of the Study ....................................................................................4 ....................................................................................

  1.4 Significance of the Study

  4

  1.5 Scope and Limitation ...................................................................................5 ..............................................................................

  1.6 Definition of the Key Terms

  5 CHAPTER II-REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  2.1 Defenition of Error .......................................................................................7

  2.2 Types of Error ...................................................................................................... 8 2.2.1 Linguistic Category ...................................................................................

  9 2.2.2 Surface Strategy Taxonomy .....................................................................

  9 ......................................................................................

  2.2.2.1 Omission 10 .......................................................................................

  2.2.2.2 Addition 10 ...............................................................................

  2.2.2.3 Misformation 12 .................................................................................

  2.2.2.4 Misordering 13 .........................................................................

  2.2.3 Comparative Taxonomy 13 ........................................................

  2.2.4 Communicative Effect Taxonomy

  13

  2.3 Grammar.....................................................................................................14

  2.4 Error Analysis ............................................................................................15 ................................................................................................................

  2.5 Writing

  15

  ........................................................................................

  2.5.1 Writing Process 16 .............................................................................

  2.5.2 Text Types of Writing 18 2.6 Recount Text ......................................................................................................

  18 CHAPTER III-RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  3.1 Research Design .........................................................................................21

  3.2 Research Subject ........................................................................................22

  3.3 Research Instrument ...................................................................................22 ..................................................................................................

  3.4 Data Collection

  23

  3.5 Data Analysis .............................................................................................23

  3.5.1 Identifying Errors ..............................................................................23 ....................................................................................

  24

  3.5.2 Classifying Errors ................................................................

  24

  3.5.3 The Frequency of Occurrence

  CHAPTER IV-RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

  4.1 Research Findings ......................................................................................26 ...............................................

  4.1.1 Classification and Description of Errors

  27 .......................................................................

  4.1.1.1 Error of Omission

  29 4.1.1.2 Error of Addition ........................................................................

  30 4.1.1.3 Error of Misformation ................................................................

  31 ..................................................................

  4.1.1.4 Error of Misordering

  32

  4.1.2 The Most Dominant Error Type that Appeared in Students’ Writing ..................................................................................................................... Task

  33

  4.2 Discussion ..................................................................................................35

  CHAPTER V-CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

  5.1 Conclusion..................................................................................................40

  5.2 Suggestions.................................................................................................41 ....................................................................................................

  5.2.1 Teachers 41 .....................................................................................................

  5.2.2 Students 41 .....................................................................................

  5.2.3 Next Researchers

  42 REFERENCES...................................................................................................... 43

  

REFERENCES

AbiSamra, Nada. 2003. An Analysis of Errors in Arabic Speakers’ English Writings.

  American University of Beirut. http://www.nadasisland.com/languageacq- erroranalysis.html (Febuary-14- 2015) Ary, Donald. 2006. Introduction to research in Education (Seventh Edition). New

  York: Thomson Highest Education Ary, Donald. Lucy Cheser Jacobs. Chris Sorensen. 2010. Introduction to Research in

Education (eighth Edition). Canada: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

  Australian National Curriculum Resources F-6, Graham, Stephen and Alison Davis.

  

http://australiancurriculumf-6resources.blogspot.com/2013/04/text-

(Febuary-14 -2015) types.html

  Brown, H. D. (Ed.). 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (fourth ed.). San Fransisco: Addition Wesly Longman, Inc.

  Brown, H. D. 2007. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (fifth ed.). New York: Pearson Education,Inc.

  Creswell, J. W. 2012. Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. United States of America: Pearson Education, Inc.,.

  Derewinka. 1990. In Indah, Dwi Nur. 2010. Improving Writing Recount Text by

  Using Photographs: A Case Study of The Eleventh Year Students of SMA Negeri 1 BatanganPati in The Academic Year 2009/2010. Unpublished

  Thesis. Semarang: IKIP PGRI Semarang. Dewi, Fenti Utia. 2011. An Analysis of Grammatical Errors in Writing Descriptive

  Paragraph Made by the Second Year Students of SMP Muhammadiyah 06 Dau Malang. Unpublished Thesis. Malang: Muhammadiyah University of

  Malang.

  Dulay, et al. 1982. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.

  Dulay, H and Burt, M and Krashen, S. 1982. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press.

  Harmer, Jeremy. 2007. How to Teach Writing (New Edition). Malaysia: Longman.

  Heaton, J. B. 2007. Writing English Language Text. New York: Longman group UK.

  Maulydiyah, H. 2008. Grammatical Errors in the First Year Students’ Writing Task

  of SMP Negeri 6 Malang. Unpublished s1 Thesis. Malang: State University of Malang.

  Oshima, Alice & Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic English Third Edition.

  New York: Pearson Education, Inc.

  Pardiyono. 2007. Pasti Bisa! Teaching Genre-Based Writing. Yogyakarta: CV Andi Offset.

  Rosyadi, M. Arifian. 2011. Learning Material Junior High School Grade VII, Teaching Material Development, Recount Text. https://arifianunnes3.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/recount-text-learning- material.pdf (January-22-2015)

  Thornbury, Scott. 2004. Natural Grammar. New York: Oxford University Press.

  Weigle, Sara Cushing. 2002. Assessing Writing. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU. Cambridge University Press. purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation, and definition of key terms. Each section is presented as follows:

  English is an international language, which becomes widely used throughout the world as formal or informal communication. As an international language, English has big advantages to learners in the whole world. Therefore, English is a subject, which is taught in many countries, and it is known as foreign language.

  English is introduced to students from elementary school up to university as well in many countries including Indonesia.

  The teaching learning process of English includes four basic skills. Those four basic skills are speaking, reading, listening, and writing. According to Hammer (2007), four basic skills of English are divided into two types. Receptive skill is a term used for reading and listening. These skills just involve understanding words or sentences or item recognition. Whereas, productive skill is the term for speaking and writing. Productive skill means that students have to produce language themselves. It can concluded that productive skill are more difficult than receptive skills. By applying productive skill, students can improve their English more actively.

  2

  Among the four skills above, writing is also important for communication after speaking because people can express their idea, opinion, critics on the paper that will be read by readers in writing. In fact, Writing is a complex subject, and many people claim that writing is hard to be done. It is because writing is a difficult subject and it requires special skills in the production. Those special skills are in the word choice, the use of structure, the mechanic, and the rhetoric.

  The complexity of writing often leads some students to make some errors in making written work. 0ne of the errors is grammatical errors. The grammatical errors done by students happen in several types of writing such as narrative, descriptive, recount, news item, exposition, procedure, etc. In this study, the researcher focuses on writing recount text. It is because recount text is still rarely to be researched and this text has always been a subject that should be learned in schools. This text often appears on national exams and the recount text is widely used in daily life, for examples diary, police reports, sports reports, journey, biography, autobiography, history and personal letter. Therefore, the researcher is interested in observing recount text. According to Pardiyono (2007),

  “Recount means an event that contains chronological or occurred activities in the past. It is focus on retelling the occurred experience in the past. Therefore, the social function is to retell activities for the purpose of informing or entertaining”.

  In Fentis’ study (2011), she found that there were 230 grammatical errors recognized from the composition in descriptive paragraph made by the second year students of SMP Muhammadiyah 06 Dau Malang. These errors were caused by overgeneralization in which the students made the deviant structure based on their

  3

  experience in the first language to the target language, ignorance of rule restriction, and incomplete rule application.

  There are many reasons why students often make grammatical errors in their wriring. It is supported by Maulydiyah (2008) who studied about grammatical errors in students’ writing task. She found that the grammatical errors occurred due to the existence of differences between grammar rules in English and those in Bahasa Indonesia. For example, English has concept of tense for verb and subject agreement, while Indonesian grammar does not have any. Then, in English, the formation of regular plural nouns and irregular ones are different but not in Bahasa Indonesia. Moreover, Bahasa Indonesia does not have gender pronouns and its pronouns are not as various as English where pronouns depend on their position in the sentence.

  In order to minimize the errors, students need to learn more about grammar itself. Nowadays, many courses can be used as a place for students to learn English specifically. Students can improve their knowledge and their ability by doing a course. It means that schools are not the main place to learn English any more.

  Based on the phenomena, the researcher is interested in analyzing grammatical errors in writing recount text at informal education like a course. A course that is chosen by the researcher is Air-Langga course.

  Air-Langga course is a course, which is located in Sengkaling-Malang. It is a fairly new course because this course was founded in 2010. Therefore, Air-Langga needs a lot of evaluation each year for the progress of this course.

  4

  Based on the reasons above, the researcher chose “An analysis of

  grammatical errors in writing recount text made by students of Air-Langga course in Sengkaling” as the title of this thesis.

  1.2 Statement of the Problem

  Considering the background of the study above, the problems are formulated as follows:

  1. What are the types of grammatical errors in writing recount text made by students of Air-Langga course in Sengkaling based on surface strategy taxonomy?

  2. What is the most dominant grammatical error in writing recount text made by students of Air-Langga course in Sengkaling based on surface strategy taxonomy?

  1.3 Purpose of Study

  Based on the statements of the problems above, the purposes of the study are:

  1. To define the types of grammatical errors in writing recount text made by students of Air-Langga course in Sengkaling.

  2. To investigate the most dominant grammatical error in writing recount text made by students of Air-Langga course in Sengkaling.

  1.4 Significance of Study

  The result of this study is expected to give some contributions in teaching English, especially about grammatical errors in writing recount text. Analyzing the

  5

  errors in writing recount text. It will help the teachers to use the appropriate method and strategy to teach the students. Besides the teachers can evaluate their material and develop appropriate teaching techniques.

  For the students, by analyzing their errors, the students will try to be careful in writing, especially recount text. The students will also understand how to write recount text. The last, the student will not make any errors in producing recount text in the future.

  For other researchers, the result of this study can be used as the reference for those who want to conduct the similar research and for the researcher himself. This study can give contribution to increase understanding related to writing, grammatical errors and recount text.

  1.5 Scope and Limitation

  This study focuses on the grammatical errors in writing recount text made by students of Air-Langga course and the researcher limits her study on the errors based on surface strategy taxonomy that are errors of addition, errors of omission, errors of misformation, and errors of misordering.

  1.6 Definition of Key terms

  To avoid misunderstanding, the definition of key terms is presented as follows:

  6 Error:

  A noticeable deviation from grammar of the adult native speaker reflecting the language competence of learners (Brown: 2000)

  Grammar: A description of the rules that govern how a language’s sentences are formed.

  (Thornbury 2004)

  Recount text:

  An event that contains chronological or occurred activities in the past. It is focus on retelling the occurred experience in the past (Pardiyono: 2007)

  Air-Langga course:

  A course that is located in Sengkaling-Malang. It was found in 2010. This course offered some classes for junior high school and elementary school students. This course focuses on teaching English, math, science, and social science.

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