GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN PARAPHRASING MADE BY STUDENTS OF WRITING IV CLASS OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT AT UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG.)

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GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN PARAPHRASING MADE BY

STUDENTS OF WRITING IV CLASS OF ENGLISH

DEPARTMENT AT UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH

MALANG

THESIS

By:

RIZKI AMBARWATI

  

201110100311210

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

  

2016

  

GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN PARAPHRASING MADE BY

STUDENTS OF WRITING IV CLASS OF ENGLISH

DEPARTMENT AT UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH

MALANG

THESIS

This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements to achieve

Sarjana Degree in English Education

  

By:

RIZKI AMBARWATI

201110100311210

  

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

2016

MOTTO AND DEDICATION

  

MOTTO:

  …Trully, Allah will not alter what in a tribe unless they try to change it by themselves (Ar Ra’d: 11) Hayya „alalsholah…

  Make haste toward prayer …

  Hayya „alalfalah… Make haste toward welfare

  …

  

DEDICATION

  This thesis is especially dedicated to my beloved parent Ibuk Sumini and Bapak Sugiono, My one and only adek Ajeng F. Muninggar.

  My best friends ever: Ria, Putri, Ajhe, and Andri My sister in arm in accomplishing thesis: Lailatun Najakh

  My translation partners: Paijo, Menyok, Linda, and Tia My all lovely classmates in Class D: Elin, Teteh Nenieh, Ami Verina. Mami Zeni, Muskam, Fannari, Fani, Ammar, Pak Dhe Helmi, Dedi, Sari.

  “I’m finally done with my thesis guys!!! Thanks a lot for your support”

ORIGINALITY DECLARATION

  The written work here enclosed is authorized by: Name : Rizki Ambarwati SIN : 201110100311210 Major : English Department Faculty : Teacher Training and Education Title of work :

  

GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN PARAPHRASING MADE BY STUDENTS OF

WRITING IV CLASS OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT AT UNIVERSITY OF

MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

  I hereby declare that this thesis has not been published and written by another person in any form of publication for achieving Sarjana Degree in other universities. This thesis was compiled by myself in my own words without committing any forms of plagiarism. Furthermore, as citation etiquette, all citations have been mentioned in the following bibliography.

  Malang, February 2016 The Writer Rizki Ambarwati

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

  Alhamdulillahirobbil ’alamin, salute and gratitude is offered to the Almighty

  Allah SWT who has given blessing and guidance to the writer in order to accomplish this thesis. Shalawat and salam are always for our prophet Muhammad S.A.W.

  First and foremost, the writer would like to express her sincere appreciation and gratitude to her thesis supervisors, Rinjani Bonavidi, M.Ed., Ph.D. and Riski Lestiono, M.A. for the continuous guidance, understanding, insight, corrections, support, and motivation. Without them, this thesis would not have been completed.

  Second, her special gratitude is given for Hastarin Widi Astuti, M.A who has been very kind for giving permission to conduct research in her class, and for the cooperation to be interviewed in accomplishing this research data. Moreover, the writer would like to say thanks to Khoiriyah and Lailatun Najakh for their encouragement and advice in accomplishing thesis. The writer also would like to say thank you to Yustin Dira for devoting her time to accompany the writer during collecting the data, and Shelfi for being a companion to complete the requirements of thesis defense enrolment. To the beloved best friends, Putri Rahma, Ajeng Diar, and Andri, the writer thanks to them for supporting her through boosting encouragement and patience friendship. Finally, thousands gratitude can hardly be expressed to the writer’s parent who have given their patience and best to support the writer both emotionally and financially.

  Malang, February 2016 Rizki Ambarwati

  

TABLE OF CONTENT

COVER .................................................................................................................. ii

APPROVAL .......................................................................................................... iii

  ................................................................................................. iv

  LEGALIZATION

MOTO AND DEDICATION ............................................................................... v

ORIGINALITY DECLARATION ...................................................................... vi

ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... vii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ...................................................................................... viii

TABLE OF CONTENT ........................................................................................ x

  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

  1.1 Background of the Study ................................................................................... 1

  1.2 Statement of the Problems ................................................................................ 4

  1.3 Purposes of the Study ....................................................................................... 5

  1.4 Significance of Study ....................................................................................... 5

  1.5 Scope and the Limitation .................................................................................. 6

  1.6 Definition of the Key Terms ............................................................................ 6

  CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  2.1 Errors and Mistakes .......................................................................................... 8

  2.2 Error Analysis .................................................................................................. 9

  2.3 The Classifications of Errors ............................................................................ 11

  2.3.1 Linguistics Category .............................................................................. 12

  2.3.2 Surface Strategy ..................................................................................... 12

  2.3.3 Comparative Taxonomy ......................................................................... 18

  2.3.4 Communicative Effect Taxonomy ......................................................... 19

  2.4 Grammar ........................................................................................................... 21

  2.5 Writing ............................................................................................................. 22

  2.6 Academic Writing ............................................................................................ 23

  2.7 Paraphrasing ..................................................................................................... 25

  2.8 The Nature of Feedback ................................................................................... 27

  2.9 Lecturer’s Strategies in Providing Feedback ................................................... 28

  CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  3.1 Research Design ............................................................................................... 30

  3.2 Object of the Study ........................................................................................... 31

  3.3 Data Collection ................................................................................................. 32

  3.3.1 Methods and Instruments ........................................................................ 33

  3.3.1.1 Document Analysis ...................................................................... 34

  3.3.1.2 Interview ....................................................................................... 34

  3.3.2 Procedures of Data Collection ................................................................ 36

  3.4 Data Analysis ................................................................................................... 36

  CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

  4.1 Research Findings …………………………………………………………….. 38

  4.1.1 The Kinds of Grammatical Errors in Paraphrasing Made by Students of Writing IV Class

  …………………………………………………………... 38

  4.1.2 The Lecturer’s Strategies in Providing Feedbacks towards Grammatical Errors Made by Students of Writing IV Class

  …................ 64

  4.2 Discussion …………………………………………………………………….. 66

  CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

  5.1 Conclusion ........................................................................................................ 71

  5.2 Suggestions ....................................................................................................... 72

  REFERENCES

  ………..…………………………………………………………. 74 APPENDICES ..

  ………..…………………………………………………………. 77

  

REFERENCES

Ary, Donald et.al. 2010. Introduction to Research in Education, Eighth Edition.

  Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Bailey, Stephen. 2011. Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students, Third Edition. London and New York: Rouletdge.

  Batko, Ann. 2004. When Bas Grammar Happens to Good People. NJ and Canada: The Career Press. Belmont, B.Y. Winifred and Sharkey, Michael. 2011. The Easy Writer Formal Writing for Academic Purposes, Third Edition. Australia: Pearson Ausralia. Brookhart, Susan M. 2008. How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students.

  Virginia USA: ASCD. Brown, H.D. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fourth Edition.

  White Plains, New York: Pearson Education, Inc. Brown, H.D. 2007. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fourth Edition.

  White Plains, New York: Pearson Education, Inc. Cook, Vivian. 2008. Second Language Learning and Language Teaching, Fourth Edition. London: Hodder Education.

  Creswell, J.H. 2012. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, Fourth Edition. New York: Pearson Education Inc.

  Dulay, H., Burt, M., and Krashen, S. 1982. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press. Eggenschwiler, J. and Biggs, E. Dotson. 2001. Writing: Grammar, Usage, and Style.

  New York: Hungry Minds Inc. Ellis, Rod. 2003. Second Language Acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press. Farooq, M. Shahid and Ul-Hasan, M. Uzair. 2012. Opinion of Second Language

  Learners about Writing Difficulties in English Language. A Research Journal of South Asian Studies. Vol. 27, No. 1, January-June 2012, pp. 183- 194. Accessed on 15th March 2015. Available at http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/ PDF/11.%20Dr.%20Muha mmad%20Shahid%20Farooq_January-June%202012.pdf Fatmawati, Eka. 2008. Errors Made by the Fourth Semester Students of English Department of University of Muhammadiyah Malang in Using Modal Auxiliary. Unpublished Thesis. Malang: UMM Press.

  Ferris, Dana. 2003. Response to Student Writing: Implication for Second-Language Students. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Fraenkel, Jack R., Wallen, Norman E., and Hyun, Helen H. 2012. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. 8th Ed. New York: McGraw Hill. Henning, E., Gravett, S., and Rensburg W. 2005. Finding Your Way in Academic Writing, Second Edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers. Jayanti, R. Rizki Tia. 2013. The Grammatical Errors in Composing Descriptive Text

  Made by English Department Students of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Program Class A at University of Muhammadiyah Malang. Unpublished Thesis: Malang: UMM Press. Kothari, C.R. 2004. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, Second Revised Edition. India: New Age International Publisher.

  Leacock, Claudia et.al. 2010. Automated Grammatical Error Detection for Language Learners. Toronto: Morgan and Claypool Publishers. Llach, Maria P. A. 2011. Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing.

  Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Pecorari, Dian. 2008. Academic Writing and Plagiarism. London and New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

  Richards, Jack S., Schmidt, Richard. Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Fourth Edition. Edinburgh: Pearson Education. Swales, John M. and Feak Christine B. 2001. Academic Writing for Graduate Students. USA: The University of Michigan Press. Trask, R.L. 2007. Language and Linguistics: The Key Concepts, Second Edition.

  New York: Rouletdge. Weigle, Sara C. 2002. Assessing Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of background of the study, statement of problems,

  purposes of the study, scope and limitation, significance of the study and the definition of key terms. Each point is presented as follows:

  1.1. Background of Study Learning language, especially English, cannot be separated from four language skills. Those are speaking, listening, writing, and reading. However, writing is claimed as a difficult skill compared to the other skills. According to Dixon and Nessel as cited in Farooq and Ul-Hasan

  (2012), “Writing is much difficult than listening, s peaking, and reading”. It does not only require the learners to concentrate and pay attention to the content, form, style, mechanic, vocabulary, and grammar but also need to pass through a sequence of steps. Through writing, people are easy to share ideas and thought in a piece of paper. People are also able to convey message from one to another through writing.

  Considering the fact that writing is claimed as a difficult skill, we need to pay attention to many things to have a good writing skill. However, among the things mentioned above, grammar is the most important one in writing. It is because grammar is a basis in learning language, especially English. Students cannot construct a good sentence without knowing the grammar although they have a lot of vocabularies in their mind. Without having a good grammar, the

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  sentences in students’ paragraph will also be difficult to be understood. Furthermore, the studen ts’ writing will also be misinterpreted.

  In writing, especially in academic writing, often lecturer concerns about

plagiarism issue. Therefore, i n order to have a good writing skill and avoid

  plagiarism, it is necessary for students to learn some important techniques in writing. One of important techniques is paraphrasing. Belmont and Sharkey (2011: 227) state that, “The aim of a paraphrase is to restate the original in your own words. This means that the vocabulary and the sentence structure used in the pa raphrase must differ significantly from that used in the original.” Every language learner needs to know how to do a good paraphrasing in order to be able to produce an effective writing product. It is because in writing, especially academic writing, stude nts need to provide someone else’s idea or definition of a certain topic to strengthen his or her writing. Along with citation, it is also important to learn how to paraphrase in a good way to avoid from plagiarism.

  Moreover, paraphrasing is also good to identify how deep the students understand the material from the source they read, and at the same time they are aware of idea that they are restating belongs to someone else.

  As a matter of fact, based on the researcher experience in taking Writing

  IV course, students tend to have some problems in paraphrasing such as problem in grammar. Students often make grammatical errors in their writing by considering the fact that English is grammatically different from their native language, which is Bahasa, and that the fact that writing is a difficult skill to

  3

  common, but it is hindered when elements of both languages are different (Cook, 2008, pp: 13).

  In line with grammatical errors made by the students, it is realized that teacher’s feedback for their grammatical error is important. It is because feedback, an important part of formative assessment, can help the students get information about where they are in learning and what to do next then it will develop their own learning (Brookhart, 2008, pp: 2). Therefore, giving a good feedback on students’ writing can minimize their error. It can also help students to be aware and correct their errors in writing. In addition, based on the researcher pre interview with one of the lecturers of writing IV whom the researcher met during her teaching and learning process in one of writing IV classes, it is justified that students in writing IV class made grammatical error in their writing assignment and lecturer’s feedback helped them to have better writing.

  Fatmawati (2008) conducted a research on grammatical errors made by the fourth semester students at University Muhammadiyah Malang. She found that the fourth semester students still made many grammatical errors in their writing. There were 64 (23.97%) errors in omission, 32 (11.96%) errors in addition, 77 (28.84%) errors in misformation, 94 (35.20%) errors in misordering. Additionally, Jayanti (2013) who conducted a research on grammatical errors made by English department students in composing descriptive text found that students still made errors in grammar which belongs to surface strategy taxonomy such as omission errors, misformation errors, misinformation errors, addition

  4

  From the findings, the researcher notices that it is still important to investigate the grammatical errors through students’ paraphrasing in writing.

  Bailey (2011) defines paraphrasing, “paraphrasing involves re-writing a text so that the language is substantially different while the content stays the same” (pp:

  33). Paraphrasing can help students avoid plagiarism. It also helps them to produce an effective writing. Therefore, they need to learn how to do a good paraphrasing. Moreover, a research in investigating the students’ grammatical errors in paraphrasing and the way the lecturer provided feedback to students’ grammatical errors in paraphrasing has not been often conducted. The researcher expects that this study will be beneficial as a referenc e in knowing the students’ common grammatical error especially in paraphrasing, and it is hoped that this study will vary the way lecturer provides feedback in teaching writing. Therefore, reflecting on those reasons, this research is entitled “Grammatical Errors in

  

Paraphrasing Made by Students of Writing VI Class of English Department

at University of Muhammadiyah Malang”

1.2. Statement of Problems

  1. What are grammatical errors in paraphrasing made by students of writing

  IV class of English department at University of Muhammadiyah Malang?

  2. How does the lecturer provide feedback for grammatical errors in paraphrasing made by students of writing VI class of English department at University of Muhammadiyah Malang?

  5

  1.3. Purposes of Study

  1. To investigate grammatical errors in paraphrasing made by students of writing IV class of English department at University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

  2. To find out the way the lecturer provides feedback for grammatical errors in paraphrasing made by students of writing VI class of English department at University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

  1.4. Significance of Study

  The result of this study can give a contribution especially for the students of English Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of University of Muhammadiyah Malang. The contributions are as follows:

  1. This study is expected to provide students with the information about common grammatical errors in writing. Thus, they will be more aware of grammatical error that the students commonly make and will be able to minimize it. The information will also encourage the students to learn more about how to make their writing better.

  2. This study may be beneficial and as a reference for the lecturer in understanding the students’ weaknesses in grammar. Then the lecturer will be able to help the students to minimize their grammatical errors. Besides, this study is also hoped to give information to vary the way lecturer in providing feedb ack to students’ grammatical error in teaching

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  writing and this will give impact on the betterment of students’ writing skill.

  3. This study is expected to be a beneficial reference and empirical data for the next researchers in conducting a similar research in the similar topic and field.

  1.5. Scope and Limitation

  The scope of this study is grammatical errors especially in surface strategy taxonomy in paraphrasing and the way the lecturer provides feedback for the grammatical errors. It is limited to grammatical errors in paraphrasing made by students of Writing IV class of English Department at University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

  1.6. Definition of Key Terms

  1. Error Error means a deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker that reflects on language learners’ proficiency. Error cannot be self-corrected but we can observe, analyze, and classify it (Brown, 2000:217-218).

  2. Writing Writing is a process that consists of several steps: prewriting, writing, and rewriting, or revising, and editing, and it is purposed to inform, persuade, or entertain (Eggenschwiler & Biggs, 2001:134).

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  3. Paraphrasing A paraphrase is your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form (Gravett, Rensburg, and Henning, 2005:50).

  4. Feedback Fee dback is teacher’s response to students’ work so they can have betterment in learning. Feedback provides information about where the students are in their learning and what to do next (Brookhart, 2008: 1-2).

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