AN ANALYSIS OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTIC ERRORS IN WRITING MADE BY ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSE STUDENTS OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG UNIVERSITY IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2015/2016

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AN ANALYSIS OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTIC

ERRORS IN WRITING MADE BY ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC

PURPOSE STUDENTS OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

UNIVERSITY IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2015/2016

THESIS

  

By:

ACHMAD FAUJI

201210100311043

  

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

2016

  

AN ANALYSIS OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTIC

ERRORS IN WRITING MADE BY ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC

PURPOSE STUDENTS OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

UNIVERSITY IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2015/2016

This thesis is submitted to meet one of the requirements to achieve

  

Sarjana Degree in English Education.

  

By:

ACHMAD FAUJI

201210100311043

  

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG

2016

  MOTTOS

  • Be like the flower that gives its fragrance to even the hand that crushes it-

  Achmad Fauji

  • la foi peut deplacer des montagnes quoique (faith can move mountains)-

  France Proverb

  DEDICATIONS

  This thesis is warmheartedly dedicated to: My sweet hearted parents Suliono and Siti Muda’ah

  My beloved little brothers Firman, Fatony and Arif My memorable University of Muhammadiyah Malang

  

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  In the name of Allah the Most Gracious and Most Merciful, the God Almighty, I express my great-sincere gratitude for His everlasting blessing and mercies so I can complete my thesis on due date.

  Importantly, I also would like to express my deep gratitude and appreciation to my first advisor Dr. Masduki, M.Pd. and my second advisor Rahmawati Khadijah Maro, S.Pd., M.PEd. in which they both always guide and support me to finish my thesis. It is always to be honor becoming student under supervising them because I got tremendous advice and new experiences. In addition, my very special thank goes to my parents who always devote prayers to me so that I have great days and beautiful life. Further, my great appreciation also belongs to my brothers that I love the most.

  Moreover, I sincerely thank to Mr. Arif and LC officers for helping me technically conducted the study. Further, best appreciation is addressed to my little families in Malang, Mas ardi’s family and Mas Maulana’s family that have helped me fully for over 3 years. I would like also express my wholehearted gratefulness and appreciation to my step big sisters Paola Zuniga and 董 晓琴, step big brothers Ali Ahsan and Mateusz Wronski who teach me many things as well as love and care about me everlastingly so I can keep my head up and stay strong during the storm. Besides, I specially thank to my special one Yuyung who always kindly, sincerely, supportively accompanies me during precious times.

  Furthermore, for my best friends Wahyu, Rifki, Hendro, Dwiki, my much- loved collegial mates Faruoq, Arif, Eka, Fifit, Dyah, Lia, Syahil, Abdullah, Adi, Dimas, Novan, Bang Ido, Rizky, and all nice translator partners, I would like to say big thank for this beautiful friendship and treating me like family in any ways.

  Malang, 09 August 2016 Achmad Fauji

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL ................................................................................................... ..... iii

MOTTO AND DEDICATION ...................................................................... ....... v

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ............................................ ..... vi

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................... .... vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................... ... viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................... ..... ix

LIST OF APPENDICES ............................................................................... .... xii

LIST OF THE TABLES ................................................................................ ... xiii

  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

  1.1 Background of the Study ........................................................................ 1

  1.2 Statement of the Problem ....................................................................... 4

  1.3 Purpose of the Study .............................................................................. 5

  1.4 Significance of the Study ....................................................................... 5

  1.5 Scope and Limitation ............................................................................. 5

  1.6 Definition of the Key Terms .................................................................. 6

  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  2.1 Definition of Morphology and Syntax ................................................... 7

  2.1.1 Morphology .................................................................................. 8

  2.1.2 Syntax ........................................................................................... 9

  2.2 Errors Analysis and Classifying ........................................................... 10

  2.2.1 Linguistic Taxonomies for Classifying Errors ........................... 12

  2.3 Writing Understanding ......................................................................... 16

  2.3.1 Definition of Writing .................................................................. 16

  3.6 Data Analysis ....................................................................................... 24

  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

  4.2 Discussion .......................................................................................... 38

  4.1.4 The Causes of Errors Concerning Morphological and Syntactic Errors Made by Students ......................................................... 36

  4.1.3 The dominant errors ................................................................ 36

  4.1.2 The Types of Syntactic Errors Made by Students of ESP ....... 30

  4.1.1 The Types of Morphological Errors Made by Students of ESP .......................................................................................... 25

  4.1 Research Findings ................................................................................ 25

  CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

  3.5 Data Collection ..................................................................................... 23

  2.3.2 Writing Process .......................................................................... 17

  3.4.2 Interview..................................................................................... 22

  3.4.1 Document ................................................................................... 22

  3.4 Research Instrument ............................................................................. 22

  3.3 Data ...................................................................................................... 21

  3.2 Research Subject .................................................................................. 21

  3.1 Research Design ................................................................................... 20

  CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  2.3.3 The goal of Writing .................................................................... 19

  5.1 Conclusion ............................................................................................ 41

  5.2 Suggestion ............................................................................................ 43

  

REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 45

APPENDICES ...................................................................................................... 47

  

LIST OF APPENDICES

  Appendix 1 The Tables of Complete Coding ........................................................ 47 Appendix 2 The Interview Script of Students ........................................................ 48

  

REFERENCES

th

  Ary et. Al. 2010. Introduction to Research in Education (8 edition) Belmont: Wadsworth.

  

nd

  Booij, G. 2007. The Grammar of Words (2 edition). New York: Oxford University Press.

  th Brown, H.D. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (4 edition).

  New York: Pearson Education

  th Brown, H.D. 2006. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (5 edition).

  New York: Pearson Education.

  nd Chomsky, N. 2002. Syntactic Structure (2 edition).Berlin: Werner HildenBrand.

  Corder, S.P. 1982. Error Analysis and Interlanguage. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dulay et. Al. 1982. Language Two. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dawson, C. 2009. Introduction to Research Method: A practical Guide for Anyone

  th Undertaking Research Project (4 edition). Oxford: How to Books Ltd. th Fromkin, Rodman, Hyams.2014. An Introduction to Language (10 edition).

  Boston: Wadsworth.

  th

  Frankel, Wallen. 2009. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (7 edition) New York: McGraw-Hill Gass, Mackey. 2005. Second Language Research: Methodology and Design. New

  Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Harmer, J. 2004. How to Teach Writing. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

  nd

  Hogue, A. 2008. First step in Academic Writing (2 edition) New York: Pearson Education.

  McCarthy, A. 2002. An Introduction to English Morphology: Words and Their Structure. Great Britain: Edinburg University Press.

  rd

  Oshima, Hogue. 2007. Introduction to Academic Writing (3 edition). New York: Pearson Education. Payne, T. E. 2007. Describing Morphosyntax. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  rd Roberts, N. 2011. Analysing Sentences: An Introduction to Syntax (3 edition).

  Great Britain: Pearson Education Limited.

  th Tallerman, M. 2015. Understanding Syntax (4 ed.). New York: Rouletge. th

  Yule, G. 2010. The Study of Language (4 edition). New York: Cambridge University Press.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This introductory chapter gives the information about the basic ideas related

  to the study being conducted. This chapter discusses the background of the study, statement of the problems, purpose of the study, significant of the study, scope and limitation, and the definition of key terms. All of the points mentioned above will be explained as follows.

1.1 Background of the study

  It is particularly known that teaching language is often linked with grammar and it directs to the further issues concerning morphological and syntactic aspects within it. Generally, people learn language by the way they speak. It is because they associated language with speaking matters. However, in the field of education, we learn through different ways in both implementing and studying theoretical review. Grammar is the notion of the language which means grammar is the element of teaching language that we cannot deny it exists on it. Sometimes, grammar can be difficult for students to catch due to its conceptualization and rules. Those set of rules should be equipped for young or foreign language learners in order to be the basic of well learning language. Fromkin, Rodman and Hyams (2014) state that every grammar is equally complex, logical, and capable of producing an infinite set of sentences of any thought. Grounded on the expert

  ’s statement above, we are actually able to teach language with those set of rules to the learners because it is complex and logical thought. Over simplifying grammar, it refers to morphology and syntax. If we assume grammar is the set of rules of language, then morphology and syntax are the basic rule of them because in morphology we will learn about structure and words formation while syntax is about combining phrases and phrases into sentences.

  Morphology is the rule of word formation process. As young and foreign language learners, they should know about this basic order of words formation process. It is important because the way language forms words might be different from other languages, in this case we learn English as target language. Sometimes students or young learners have thoughts that why word formation among languages are different. This case would be deeply discussed in morphological pedagogic in order to make clear the line of differences and its rules. By comprehending this general understanding surface of morphology, they are supposed to have references to make words formation and know where it comes from in order them to develop further writing or speaking skill.

  Syntax in general is the study of rules to combine words into phrases, and phrases into sentences. We cannot separate morphology and syntax in the study of language. In common institutions, they usually put morphology and syntax as one subject to study, it happens due to without reasons, but it is because those are unity that relates each other. Especially in writing area, this would often appear to be inspected when we talk about syntax. After learning about words formation, learners are supposed to combine phrases in order to make good and correct sentences. This basic writing would be seemingly simple but it needs further discussion because most of young or foreign language learners often make errors in this case. According to Chomsky (2002), syntax is the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages. So it is clear that syntax does also exist in languages, and the researcher wants to know and identify the errors within it.

  Morphology and syntax are beneficial basic lessons for young and foreign language learners. For young and foreign language learners, before they are lectured about theoretical and conceptualization of language, in this case we called grammar, they had better know about the basic and essential matters of them called morphology and syntax. By learning morphology and syntax at first, at least they know basic of language rules before they continue studying other matters in grammar such as noun clause, adjective close, gerund, etc. These basic rules concerning morphology and syntax will automatically direct them to develop language and get ready to other grammar rules.

  English for specific purpose (ESP) is seemingly to be best target for this research because the students of ESP almost have no background of knowledge in English in general. It is because most of them take other subjects instead of English but they have to deal with English at the beginning of two semesters. This case attracts the researcher to conduct further research in order to examine whether they have basic knowledge of morphological and syntactic aspects or not as well as identifying the errors and types. Furthermore, it would also give them feedback about the concept of learning language that they should know the very basic rule of learning language before lecturer drives them into other particular subjects.

  Besides those issues above, the researcher sees the opportunity to study more about it in order to reveal types errors as well as analyse it. The English for Specific Purpose learners in the University of Muhammadiyah Malang who are in writing class also seem to be perfect subjects because they are studying foreign language and they focus on writing skill. In this research, ESP writing class is taken because the researcher will identify through their papers test or homework and doing some interviews. All those reasons intrigue the researcher to conduct an analysis on English for Specific Purpose learners based on morphological and syntactic view.

1.2 Statement of the Problems 1.

  What are types of morphological and syntactic errors made by ESP students in Muhammadiyah Malang university academic year 2015/2016?

2. What are the dominant type of errors found in the study? 3.

  What are the causes of errors identified in the study?

  1.3 Purpose of the study 1.

  To know the types of morphological and syntactic errors made by ESP students in Muhammadiyah Malang University academic year of 2015/2016? 2. To know what are the dominant type of errors found in the study? 3. To know the causes of error identified in the study

  1.4 Significance of the study

  The significance of this study is firstly to identity and analyse the morphological and syntactic errors from ESP of students’ writing. Secondly, this study is also supposed to find the dominant errors in the study. Lastly, this study analyses about potential causes of the errors in writing made by English for Specific Purpose students of Muhammadiyah Malang University in writing class academic year 2015/2016. This study is aimed to give essential information to both the lectures and researcher. Meanwhile, there are many types of errors and causes of it.

  For lectures, they can use this study to develop better teaching. For the researcher, it can give the information about types of errors and what are the causes of it. The expectation on the purpose of the study can be optimal.

  1.5 Scope and Limitation

  The scope of this study is only to analyse types of morphological and syntactic errors, dominant errors as well as identifying the causes of errors in English for Specific Purpose learners at University of Muhammadiyah Malang. The researcher only limits the problem of the morphological and syntactic errors in ESP writing class academic year 2015/2016.

  1.6 Definition of the Key Terms 1.

  Morphology The study of the internal structure of word, and of the rules by which words are formed.

  (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams, 2014: 37) 2. Syntax

  The part of grammar that represents a speaker’s knowledge of sentences and their structure.

  (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams, 2014: 77) 3. Writing Symbolic representation of language through the use of graphic signs.

  (Yule, 2010:212) 4. Error The result of one's systematic competence (the learner's system is incorrect).

  (Brown, 2006:227)

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