AN ANALYSIS ON CODE SWITCHING USED BY THE HOSTS IN “BREAK OUT” SHOW AT NET TV

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  study, statement of problem, purpose of study, significance of study, scope and limitation, and definition of key terms. Each sections is presented as follows:

  Without language it is certain that all sorts of activities interact in society will not be effective. Considering the importance of language in performing all daily activities, certainly every member of the community is always involved in communication, both to act as a communicator as well as a communicant. Communication events can be a place or medium for expressing ideas, content of thought, purpose, reality, and so on. Therefore, language becomes one of the most important medium of communication both orally and writing.

  The important thing used to interact and communicate is language Everyday people use language to communicate with friends, family members, and other people.

  It means that language is the main property people need to communicate each other in order to give message and information. Nordquist (2013) stated that language is the human system of communication that uses arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols. Moreover, Samovar and Porter (2001:137) say that language is extremely important to human interaction because of its labeling, interaction, and transmission function. In connection with this, the labeling function

  

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  iself also serves to identify the name of the person, object, or action, or can be referred to communication. Interaction functions is concerned with sharing and communication of ideas and emotions.

  Suddenly, many people use two language or linguistic varieties within the utterance or during the conversation unconsciously. Bilingualism inevitably becomes the prominent factor for triggering people to easily do code switching. Myers-Scotton in Agneta & Ana (2010) defines code-switching as the alternation between two or more languages or varieties of a language in the same utterance or dialogue. In addition, Jendra (2010) argues code switching is a situation where speakers deliberately change a code being used, namely by switching from one to another Interestingly, this communicative behavior does not only occur in general domain or situation, but also in specific one, such as for the entertainment, both in written and audio visual. For example in magazine, newspaper, advertisement, broadcasting, such as in the performance of the hosts in Break Out TV show.

  Realizing the importance of English in the international world, the Indonesian people are also learning it. In many situations, the Indonesian people sometimes use a mix of two languages; they are English and Indonesian language in communicating. The use of two languages has become a trend among people in the world. People tend to use two languages to convey the message in order to make it more easily understood.

  Related to language phenomenon occurs in the global era, language as a social need has been much developed. Information technology and social media are influential in the use of language. Mass media is a means of information and communication which

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  is very important and needed in the modern world. Mass media consists of the various means by which information reaches large numbers of people, such as television, radio, movies, newspapers, and the Internet. This study focuses on the electronic media especially a television program. In a television program the use of language certainly has an important role to make the audience interested in watching the television program. The artists on the television program sometimes mix languages for particular purposes. Like in the Break Out television program in Net TV, that there are many switching into English in their performance using Bahasa Indonesia. This phenomenon is called code switching. It is interesting to analyze the phenomenon because the code switching often occurs in the society.

  The use of various language shows the education level of the society, the more language they are able to speak, the more educated they are. This phenomena force people to learn more than one language. The result of this phenomenon is that people and media usually talk in switched language and this affects the society, so nowadays people mix up the language in their daily life. Some people said that the phenomena of the various languages could increase the status in society especially for young people.

  That is why the writer chooses television program as the object of the analysis. The writer is interested in analyzing the use of code switching. This study is devoted to investigate code switching in television program.

  This study have been conducted by reviewing some thesis concerning code switching written by previous students. Ardhelia Fanny (2012) did the research on code switching of the novel ”Cinta” by Ollie. The findings of fanny’s study were 100 codes

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  switching used in novel “Cinta” by Ollie; there four kinds of code switching used in novel “Cinta” by Olly. They were; intra-sentential switching, inter-sentential switching, tag switching, and establish continuity the previous speaker and also the possible reason of the author in using code switching in novel “Cinta” by Olly; there were 8 reasons found. Another research finding is from Hidayati (2006). She found some kinds of code switching and the reasons of using it. First, the kind of code switching were: based on the topic changing (situational and metaphorical code switching); based on the scope setting (intra-sentential and inter-sentential code switching); based on language used. Second, the reasons why the psycholinguistics lecturer switched codes in her teaching were: to make clear in explaining the difficult terms or terminologies so that the situation more enjoyable in class. The other forms of code switching, such as insertion and alternation, appear to encourage positional simplification of second language acquisition, strategies that work against classroom discourse.

  However, those two previous studies of code switching are different from this present study, Ardhelia Fanny’s study was done to code switching used by the novel ”Cinta” by Ollie and Hidayati’s study was done to know code switching used by the psycholinguistics lecture. Meanwhile, this present study is code switching used in informal conversation; in verbal condition on an entertainment program at Net TV.

  Based on the above description, the writer focuses to analyze the code switching used, the types of code switching by applying Romaine theory (1995), which are tag switching, intra-sentential switching, and inter-sentential switching and to answer the functions of code switching by applying Apple and Muysken theory (1987), which are

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  referential function, directive function, expressive function, phatic function, metalinguistic function, and poetic function that used by the host of Break out TV show

  

at net. Moreover, the study is conducted because most people like this program,

especially teenagers and adults.

  1.2 Statement of problems

  Based on the background of the study above, the research problems are formulated as follows:

  1. What are the code switchings used by the host of the TV show?

  2. What are the types of code switching used by the host of the TV show?

  3. What are the functions of code switching occurs in some selected conversations by the hosts of the TV show?

  1.3 Purpose of study

  Based on the problems mentioned above, the purpose of the research are, as follows:

  1. To identify the code switchings used by the host of the break out TV show.

  2. To identify the types of code switching used by the host of the break out TV show.

  3. To figure out and analyze the functions of code switching occurs in some selected conversations by the host of the break out TV show.

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  1.4 Significance of the Study

  There are some significances of the study expected by the researcher of this thesis. They are as follows: a.

  It gives an example of the kinds of code switching used in informal conversation on TV program.

  b.

  The result of this study can enrich the knowledge of English Department students about how sociolinguistic phenomena exist.

  c.

  The research is expected to be helpful in giving references for the lectures of sociolinguistics as the supporting material in explaining code switching for sociolinguistic studies, especially in code switching study.

  d.

  The readers can get more understanding about the switch language happened in Indonesia which is not only from national language to local language, English, etc.

  But also occur between English and Indonesia in particular topic especially in TV program.

  1.5 Scope and Limitation

  The scope of this study discussed about the code switching used by the hosts of the Break Out TV show in one episode with the topic “friendzone”, especially the types and functions of code switching. Meanwhile, the limitation of this present study is on the code switching used (Bahasa and English, English and Bahasa) by the hosts of the Break Out TV show; Boy William and Sheryl Sheinafia.

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  1.6 Definition of Key Term The following definitions are intended to make the readers have the same understanding or perception for the same term used in this research. It is also intended to avoid ambiguity or misinterpretation. They are as follow: a.

  Language is the human system of communication that uses arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols (Nordquist 2013).

  b.

  Code-switching as the alternation between two or more languages or varieties of a language in the same utterance or dialogue (Myers-Scotton in Agneta & Ana 2010).

  c.

  Host is a person who receives or entertains other people as guests that usual attend in an event to which others invited.

  d.

  Net TV is one of the private television stations in Indonesia which broadcast information such as news, sport, songs, quiz, infotainment, reality show, and fashion.

  e.

  The types of code switching which are tag switching, intra-sentential switching, and inter-sentential switching, by applying Romaine theory (1995).

  f.

  The functions of code switching. It discussed a number of functions of code switching, namely, referential function, directive function, expressive function, phatic function, metalinguistic function, and poetic function, by applying Apple and Muysken (1987).

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  AN ANALYSIS ON CODE SWITCHING USED BY THE HOSTS IN “BREAK OUT” SHOW AT NET TV THESIS By: RACHMAD SOENARYO 201110100311085 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH MALANG 2015

  

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  Alhamdulillah, a deepest gratitude should go to Allah S.W.T, this research would have never been completed without great love, grace, blessing, and mercy from Him. The researcher should thank for the invaluable physical and spiritual guide from Allah SWT which has been lent for her during the process of this research. Shalawat and Salam are addressed to the final, chosen, religious messenger, the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. This thesis has been finished, under the assistance, guidance and love of some people. Therefore, the researcher would like to express her greatest gratitude and appreciation, especially to: 1.

  My first advisor, Dra. Thathit Manon Andini, M.Hum and my second advisor Dr. Sri Hartiningsih, M.M. for their suggestions, guidances, advices, encouragements and their times during the advising periods, even life lessons. May Allah always bestow them an endless blessings and protect them and their family.Aamin.

  2. My beloved parents “Mrs. Saodah and Mr. Bapak Maryoko H.S”, and also my brother “Waliyu Rachman Darmawan” who always pray, encourage, give love and compassion, giving material I need, work hard, always try to do the best, support me all the time and given a smile and happiness in my life for their sacrifice and motivation, without them I would never have the power to finish this thesis.

  3. My super best friends Yudistira Assrifudin, Syahid Jundullah, Hari Kurniawan, Gigih Tiyanto, Naila Arofatin, Rickarta Rejayasa, Gianinna and all of friends in B class, F class and even all friends that I know who always give their unconditional love, motivation, support, spirit, care, kindness, togetherness and a lot of great things that encourage me to complete this thesis especially when I was in situation laziness and tiredness in doing this thesis. Thank for being a part of my life.

  4. I am also thanks to my uncles, my aunties, for their support until I can finish my college, thank you for everything you have given.

  Pamone, Arynda, and Ary Fitri Aji who have been and will always be my greatest cousin all over the world, who share many things, who never feel tired of me in giving her love and support.

  TABLE OF CONTENT

APPROVAL……………………………………………………………………….i

LEGALIZATION………………………………………………………………....ii

MOTTO AND DEDICATIO..………………………………………………..….iii

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY……………………………...………......iv

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………..v

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS………………………………………………………..vi

TABLEOF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………vii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION……………………………...………………......1

  1.1 Background of Study……………………………………………………………1

  1.2 Statement of Problems………………………………………………………......5

  1.3 Purpose of Study………………………………………………………………...5

  1.4 Significance of Study……………………………………………………………6

  1.5 Scope and Limitation……………………………………………………………6

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ………………………8

  2.1 Sociolinguistics……………………….………………………………………....8

  2.2 Speech Community…………………………………………………….………..9

  2.3 Bilingualism…………………………………………………………………....10

  2 .4 Code…………………………………………………………………………....11

  2.5 Code Switching…..…………………………………………………………….12

  2.5.1 Types of Code Switching………………………………………………...........12

  2.5.1.1 Syntactical Perspective ……………………………………………………....13

  a. Tag- switching……………………………………………………………..13

  b. Inter- sentential switching…………………………………………………14 c. Intra- sentential switching…………………………………………………14

  2.5.1.2 Discourse Perspective……………………………………………………….15

  a. Situatio nal Code Switching…………………………………………….………....15 b. Metaphorical Code Switch ing………………………………………….…………15

  2.5.2 Function of Cod e Switching………………………………………………..….17

  1. Referent ial Function…………………………………………………....................17

  2. Directive Function………………………………………………………………..17

  a. Addressee Specificat ion…………………………………………………………18

  3. Expressive Function…………………………………………………...…………18

  4. Phatic Function……………………………………………………………….…..19

  5. Metalingus tic Function……………………………………………………….…..19

  6. Poetic Function………………………………………………………………...…20

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD……………………………………….....21

  3.1 Research Design………………………………………………………….….…..21 3.

  2 Research Object…………………….…………………………………….….….22

  3.3 Research Instru ment……………………………………………….....................22

  3.4 Data Collection……………………………………………………….................23

  3.5 Data Analysi s………………………………………………………………...….24

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FIN DINGS AND DISCUSSION…………...…..…25

  4.1 Research Fin dings……………………………………………………………....25

  4.1.1 The Code Switc hing used in Break Out……………………...............25

  4.1.2 The Types of Code Switching used in Break Out…………………………....29

  4.1.2.1 Code Switching from S yntactic Analysis……………………….….29

  4.1.2.1.1 Tag S witching………………………………………………….....30

  4.1.2.1.2 Intra-sentential Switching ………………………………...............34

  4.1.2.1.3 Inter-sentential Switching…………………………………….…..37

  4.1.2.2 Code Swit ching from Discourse Analysis……………..................................44

  4.1.2.2.1 Situational Switching……………………………………………...44

  4.1.2.2.2 Metaphorical Switch ing……………………………………….…..45

  4.1.3 Functions of Code Switching used in Break Out……………………….….....46

  4.1.3.1 Referential Fu nction…………………………………………….…..46

  4.1.3.1 Directive Function………………………………………………......47

  4.1.3.3 Expressive Fu nction………………………………………...............49

  4.1.3.4 Phatic F unction……………………………………………………...50

  4.1.3.5 Metalinguist ic Function……………………………………………..51

  4.1.3.6 Poetic F unction……………………………………………………...52

  4.2 Discussion………………………………………………………………….……54

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGSTION ……………….....................58

  5.1 Conclusio n………………………………………………………….……….......58

  5.2 Suggestio n………………………………………………………………….……59

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