Improping student's reading comprehension of descriptive text through textual teaching and learning (CTL)
ABSTRACT Zakiyah, Siti , 2011,
Based on the findingmentioned before, the writer concludes that the English teacher could implement the method of Contextual Teaching and Learning in order to motivate students inreading comprehension of descriptive text. Based on the findingmentioned before, the writer concludes that the English teacher could implement the method of Contextual Teaching and Learning in order to motivate students inreading comprehension of descriptive text.
AND LEARNING (CTL)
Based on the findingmentioned before, the writer concludes that the English teacher could implement the method of Contextual Teaching and Learning in order to motivate students inreading comprehension of descriptive text. All praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe, and Gratitude fully be toHim for the health and the strength that enable the writer to complete this‘skripsi’.
2. Principl es of CTL……………………….
The Setting and Subject of the Study………….. The design of the Study ………………………..
CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH FINDING
The Description of the Data …………………….. The Interpretation of the Data…………………….
CHPATER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A
66 LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 16 Language Feature of Descriptive Text ……………………… Table 4.1 The Result of Pre Questionnaire.............................................. 32 32 Figure 4.1The Result of Students’ Score in Pretest ………………… 54 54 Figure 4.2The Result of Studennts’ Score in Posttest I ……………..
LIST OF APPENDIXES
84Appendix 4 Guideline of Teac her’s Interview (Before CAR)……… 86Appendix 5 Guideline of Teacher’s Interview (After CAR)………. 92Appendix 8 Observati onal Notes in Cycle II……………………… 94Appendix 9 The Blue print Test of Pretest………………………… 96Appendix 10 The Bluepr int Test of Posttest I……………………..
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses and presents Background of the Study, Limitation
A. Background of Study
Based on Competency Standard (Standar Kompetensi) and BasicCompetency (Kompetensi Dasar), the second year students are expected to be able to understand and respond meaningful written texts in term of functionalwritten text and simple short essay in the form of descriptive and recount text 3 interact with people in the nearest environment. Asquoted by Nurhadi: “Contextual Teaching and Learning is the concept of learning where the teacher creates the real-world into the class and encouragesthe students making the connection between their own knowledge with is implementation in their daily life; meanwhile the students getknowledge and skill from the limited context, little by little, and from5 Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching (New York: Longman Publishing, 1991), p.193.
B. Limitation and Formulation of The Problem 1
The Limitation of the ProblemBased on the background above, the writer limits the study focus on the improving students’ descriptive reading through Contextual Teachingand Learning in the second year of 8-3 class at SMP Bakti Mulya 400Jakarta 2. The Formulation of the Problem In line with the background of the study, the writer formulates the research question as follows:” Can Contextual Teaching and Learningimprove the students’ descriptive reading in the second year of 8-3 class ofSMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta?
3 Class of SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta?” CObjective of the Study According to the formulation of problem above, the objective of this study is to know whether and to know how Contextual teaching and Learningcan improve the students’ descriptive reading in the second year students of 8- 3 class of SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta.
6 Nurhadi, Pembelajaran Kontekstual dan penerapannya dalam KBK, (Malang: Universitas Negeri malang, 2004, 2ed) p.136
D. The Significance of the Study
For the English teachers, the finding ofthis study is useful to give the alternative solution in teaching reading descriptive text through Contextual Teaching and Learning. This study is also expected to be a reference for other future researchers who have the sameproblem and interest in conducting the similar studies.
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This chapter covers some theories related to the study. The discussion
A. Reading 1. The General Concept of Reading
focuses on the General Concept of Reading, Kinds of Reading, Purpose ofReading, The Definition of Descriptive Text, Purpose of Descriptive Text,Schematic Structures of Descriptive, The Definition of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL), Principles of CTL, Components of CTL, Strategies ofCTL, The Strength and Weakness of CTL, and the last discussion about Teaching Reading Descriptive Text Through CTL. Based on the statement above, the writer conclude that to grasp the meaning or get information of the passage, a reader is sought to gain theability to interpreting the passage meaningfully where he or she needs prior knowledge to assist him or her in making sense of the author’smessage.
2. Kinds of Reading
In addition, Nuttalstated that “Intensive reading involves approaching the text under the4 guidance of a teacher or a task which forces the student to focus on the Lary Lawin, Paving the way in Reading and Writing: Strategies and Activities to Support Struggling Students in Grades 6-12, (San francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003), p.23.5 Jeremy harmer, How to Teach English, new edition (New York: Longman, 2007), pp.99-100. The aim is to arrive at an understanding, not only of what the text 6 means, but of how the meaning is produced.”In another hand, in intensive reading, as the term indicates, each vocabulary and structural item is explained and made as fact of our activelanguage, pronunciation, and intonation are stressed, and each concept allusion is clarified.
b. Extensive Reading
However, the reader can in fact often understand a text adequately without grasping every part of it; students have to be 7 enco uraged to develop this facility.”Based on the statement above, the reader should select a good reading material which the material related to extensive reading. Besides, the reader doesn’t need tounderstand each words because in this step the purpose of reading is merely needs to get an overall understanding of the passage or text.
3. Purpose of Reading
6 Christine Nuttal, Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Langauge, (London: Mcmillan, 2005),p.38
According to Francoise in his book stated that “there are two mainreasons of reading; reading for pleasure and reading for information (to find out something or in order to do something with information you 8 got).”Moreover, the essential purpose of reading generally is to get new information or pleasure. Reading for information may range from the scanning of documents and the reading of letters to in depth understanding of articles of books.
B. The Concept of Descriptive Text 1. The Definition of Descriptive Text
Based on Competency Standard (Standar Kompetensi) and BasicCompetency (Kompetensi Dasar), the second year students are expected to be able to understand and respond meaningful written texts in term offunctional written text and simple short essay in the form of descriptive 10 and recount text interact with people in the nearest environment. Meanwhile, According to Anderson and his sister stated that the purpose of descriptive text is to tell about subject by describing the characteristicwithout including personal opinions, the example of descriptive text are description of a particular building, description of a specific animal, 15 description of a particular place, and description of a specific person.
3. Schematic Structures of Descriptive Text
16 Identification mentions phenomenon to be describe, while
the description describes the parts, the qualities, and the characteristics of what has been described. The example of schematic structure of descriptive text: My Best Friend I have a lot of friends.
16 Rudi Hartono, Genres of Text, (Unpublished Paper) …, p. 7
John Dewey was the first proposed the application of th Contextual Learning was first proposed at the turn of the 20 century,Progressivism, which is believed that the students will best learn if what they have learned the materials which are related with they have alreadyknown and teaching learning process will be productive if the students are 20 active in the process of teaching. Based on the preceding definitions, the writer conclude that CTL is a conception of teaching and learning that helps students to get a betterunderstanding about the knowledge as they relate to the context of real life.
2. Principles of Contextual Teaching and Learning
The students are encouraged to know their strong and their weakness to organizethe learning goal and develop the strategies to achieve the goal. The question mustbe selected carefully in order to produce the high-thinking, responses, and the action thatthe students’ need and all of audiences in contextual learning.
3. The Components of Contextual Teaching Learning
This independent action is designed to connect academic Elaine B Johnson, Contextual Teaching and Learning… p.24 21knowledge with the context of students’ daily lives in ways thatachieve a meaningful purpose. Regarding the previous explanation the writer concludes that those components invite students to connect schoolwork with daily life in waysthat hold personal meaning.
4. The Strategies in Contextual Teaching and Learning
As explained before that Contextual Teching and Learning is a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subjectmatter content to real world situations and motivates the students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives. Itspurpose to know the students developing in learning is not from the test given but from the participation of the students in learning28 process whether inside or outside of the class.
5. The Strengths and the Weakness of Contextual Teaching and Learning
As an approach, Contextual Teaching and Learning has thestrength and weakness in the teaching learning process. On the other hand, the weakness of Contextual Teaching andLearning is taking time for the preparation; in preparing the lesson plan, teacher should recognize students’ diversity and then utilizedifference to create a rich learning environment.
D. Teaching Reading Descriptive Text Through Contextual Teaching and Learning
Before the implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning in teaching learning process, the writer prepares the suitable material. Ask the group to analyze the schematic structures and find the linguistic features of descriptive text.
CHAPTER II I RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presented to describe methodological activities to examine
A. The Setting and Subject of the Study
This school is chosen as the field of the study because the writer has teaching learning experience during teaching practice- Praktek Profesi Keguruaan Terpadu (PPKT), so the writer knows the real condition of this school, and the writer can identify the problems in teaching reading more enjoyable. The writer selects the second year of 8-3 class which consists of 23 students in the 2010-2011 academic years as the subjects of the study.
B. The Design of the Study
In conducting the research, the researcher wasassisted by English teacher of SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta. Whereas, the collaborator (called the English teacher) becomes the observer who observed the implementation of the action.
3 Wijaya Kusumah dan Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta: Indeks, 2009), p.20
The Procedure of the Study Figure 3.2 Design of Research Cycles (Adopted from Kurt Lewin Design)Analysis and findings Analysis : Analyzing the result of preliminary study Finding : Result of students’ reading comprehension of descriptive text was still low. Preliminary StudyInterviewing the English teacher, giving questionnaire and pretest to the students in the second year of SMPBakti Mulya 400 Jakarta .
2. The students were not actively involved in reading class
Then the researcher conducted an informal interview to the teacher related to the condition of teachers’ and students’ problem in teaching andlearning activities of English especially on reading comprehension. Based on the agreement between the writer and the teacher thatis each cycle consist of two meetings, the writer prepared 4 lesson plans to conduct the teaching activity.
4. Reflecting Phase
In the last phase, the writer and English teacher discuss about the implementation and data which they gathered. If problem is unfinished inthe first cycle or still might have found some problems, so they should plan again a second cycle with the same concept as the first one; re-planning, re-acting, re-observing.
D. Technique of Collecting Data
The qualitative data consists of observation within thephysical activity in the classroom and interview to be presented for the teacher and students. Observation An observation is done to monitor and record the data of the students’ performance during the teaching and learning processes.
It is to know about the students’ difficulties in reading skill, to know the realcondition in applying Contextual Teaching and Learning methods and how far the method5 can motivate the students in improving students’ Suharsimi Arikunto, Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 2009), pp. Each questionnaire consist of ten questions which cover 3 categories, they are; the students feeling towardunderstanding the reading descriptive text, the implementation of the method and the effects of Contextual Teaching and Learning toknowledge improvement and reading skill.
E. Technique of Data Analysis
The writer used of technique’s data analysis in this study is descriptive analysis (percentage) and the analysis qualitative data used in this research isthe observation of students’ activities during teaching learning processes and the interview before and after CAR, and the situation of classroom. In thiscase, the researcher collected the entire data which have gained, In analyzing the numerical data, the writer tries to get the average of students’ reading score per action within one cycle, in order to know how 6x X =N Note: _ X : Mean x : Individual score N : Number of studentsThen, the writer tries to get the class percentages which pass the KKM 70 (seventy) of English lesson at SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta.
P = X 100%N Note: P : The class percentage F : Total percentage scoreN : Number of studentsThe last , the writer analyzes the students’ reading score from pre- test up to post-test and she uses the formula: 8 6 Sudjana, Metoda Statistika, (Bandung: PT. Tarsito, 2002), p. Meltzer, the Relationship Between Mathematics Preparation and ConceptualLearning Gains in Physics: A Possible Hidden Variable in Diagnostic Pretest Score, (Iowa: Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2008), p.3.
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS This chapter presents the research findings and the discussion based on the
A. The Description of the Data 1. Findings of the Preliminary Study a. The Result of Pre Interview
analysis of data collected from the implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning to improve students’ comprehension of descriptive text in two cycles. The questions talk about general condition in English class, the problem havebeen faced the students in reading material, and the kinds of strategies that conducted by the teacher before previously implementation of ClassroomAction Research (CAR).
b. The Result of Pre ObservationBased on the observation was conducted by the writer on Tuesday, th
24 August 2010. It is to observe the process of teaching learning in students and teachers’ reading activities before implementation the action
In this class, the teacher use teacher center during the activity because the teacher actually dominated the classroom activity then it madethe students passive in the class and less motivation to learn reading material. Generally, the teacher read the text individually then the studentsrepeat after her, after that, if they did not know about the meaning of difficult vocabulary, the teacher asked them to check it into dictionary.
c. The Result of Pre Questionnaire
Referring to the result of the data, generally it was found that students still have low motivation in learning reading descriptive textand most of them have difficulties in comprehending the structures of descriptive text. Based on the preceding of the result above, it can be conclude that students’ comprehension and students’ motivation in learningreading English especially descriptive text is still low and there was need for the researcher to implement Contextual Teaching andLearning in order to improve students’ comprehension and motivation.
d. The result of Pre-Test
The test consists of 20 questions in multiple choice and the students have done for 30 minutes. Based on the result of the pre test, the data showed that the mean score of pretest was 55.21.
2. Findings of the First Cycle a. Planning
Then, they tried to modify the action in order students morecomprehend in reading descriptive text and in order 70% of students in the class could pass the KKM because in the result of posttest 1 showed only62.39% of students who passed the KKM. Moreover, based on the result of the first cycle, the writer and the teacher felt satisfied enough because they were able to improve students’ reading comprehension of descriptive text, although not 70% of studentspassed the KKM.
3. Findings of Cycle II a. Planning
After reviewing the previous lesson, the teacher got students to read the text and gave them some minutes to identify and to look up the c. Based on the result of the posttest 2, the mean score of the class in reading test gained 71.95 in which there were 17students who passed the Minimum Mastery Criterion d.
4. Discussion of the Data after Classroom Action Research (CAR)After implementation the action research, the writer gained four data; those were the result of and post interview, post observation, postquestionnaire and posttest, In this case, the writer gave the report concerning the data analyzing according to post interview, observation,questionnaire and the result of post-test. For further descriptions as following:
a. The Result of Post Interview
The Result of Post Observation The writer has taken the observation result after the implementation of the Classroom Action Research, this result of postobservation to support the implementation of Classroom ActionResearch. The following was the description of the result of post questionnaire can be seen thefollowing: Table 4.2 The Result of Post Questionnaire The Result of Students’ Answer Student’s Answer Yes Percentage No Percentage No 1 Students like the material of descriptive text.
d. The Result of Pre-Test, Post-Test I and Post-Test II
The aim of pre-test, posttest I and posttest II is to know about the improvement of students reading comprehension ofdescriptive text; it has taught in classroom action research. In numerical the data, the writer calculates the student mean of the score, calculates the class percentage and also calculates the percentage ofthe achievement score from pre-test, post-test I and post-test II.
1. Pre-testThe mean score of the pretest was computed such following:_ ∑xX = ── N _ 1270X = ─── 23 _X = 55.21 Based on that computation, the mean score of the class in pre- test before implementation the CAR was 55.21. On the other side, toknow the class percentage who passed the KKM using the formula as: FP = ── X 100% N 3 P =── X 100%
23 P = 13.04%
Based on the numerical data above, it is showed there are 3 students who pass KKM score (70), and there are 20 students have got From the percentage above, it is shown the achievement students’ reading at VIII grade SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta is stilllow. However to measure that improvement, it was needed to know the mean score of the class by using the formula as:_ ∑xX = ──N _ 1435X = ─── 23 _X = 62.39 From the absolute numerical data, it was known that the mean score of the class in the posttest 1 derived 62.39.
51.39 P = 13.00%In the first cycle of posttest 1, there were 8 students who passed the KKM (70). If it was calculated into class percentage, it wasderived 34.78% through the formula:FP = ── X 100% N 8 P =── X 100%
23 P = 34.78%
Based on the numerical data above, it showed 8 students have passed KKM score (70) and 15 students who got score underKKM (70) . In another word, the applyingContextual Teaching and Learning method in cycle one is enough effective to be used in students’ reading activity at VIII Grade SMPBakti Mulya 400 Jakarta, but the writer has to do cycle two because there were many students still got under KKM score (70).
3. Post-Test II
First the writer calculates the mean score of the class, second students’ achievement or In order to know the mean score of the class in post-test II, the writer uses the formula as below:_ ∑xX = ──N _X = 1655 23 _ X = 71.95Based on calculation above, it is showed the mean score of the class in post-test II is 71.95. It gained any improvement was 16.74 (71.95-55.21) from the pretest or having 30.32% from the pretest to the posttest II result.
55.21 P = 30.32%In the second cycle of posttest II, there were 17 students who passed the KKM. If it was calculated into class percentage, it wasderived 73.91% through the formula: ── X 100% N 17 P =── X 100%
23 P = 73.91%
The Interpretation of the Data This part covers the discussion of the teaching reading descriptive text through Contextual Teaching and Learning and then interpret the The finding of the study proved that Contextual Teaching andLearning can improve the students’ comprehension in reading descriptive text. Data of Interview The data gained from the pre interview with the English teacher indicated that the students’ comprehension in reading was poor because the students had some difficulty to understand the text, and the students’ participation in reading class was not too active.
4. Data of TestFrom the test, it was known the students’ average score of pretest is
55.21. It is the students’ reading score before they use Contextual
It means that that there are only 3 studentswho are able to pass the KKM (70) and there are 20 students who are not able to pass the KKM. It means that there are some students’ score improvement from the previoustest (pretest), that is 7.18 (62.39 Next, the mean score in the posttest of second cycle is 71.95.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION This chapter covers conclusion and suggestion from the writer. A. Conclusion Related to the research conducted at second grade students of SMP Bakti Mulya 400 Jakarta in academic year 2010/2011, the writer concludes
Second, based on the questionnaire result, it was found that most of the students were respondedpositively to the implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning in teaching reading descriptive text. Related to qualitative study; first, it is derived from the observation result in which the Contextual Teaching and Learning is successful inimproving students’ participation in teaching reading descriptive text.
To the English teacher should be selective in choosing the materials especially in reading skill and he/she should be creative in connecting thatmaterial to the students’ real life because material is one of the external factors which can motivate students to learn joyfully. To the further researcher, particularly those who have the same problem and interested in conducting research, it is suggested that this studycan be a reference.
IV. Indikator 1
Menentukan gagasan utama (main idea) dalam teks descriptive 2. Menemukan informasi spesifik (Scanning) dalam teks descriptive 4.
1. Menentukan gagasan utama (main idea) dalam teks descriptive 2
Menentukan gagasan pendukung (supporting detail) teks descriptive 3. Menemukan informasi spesifik (Scanning) dalam teks descriptive 4.
VI. Materi Pokok dan Uraian Materi
Social function of descriptive text is to describe a particular person, place or thing. Generic structures of descriptive text are: identification; identifies phenomenon to be described, and description; describes parts, qualities, characteristics. Task II: After reading the text above, write down the purpose, the schematicstructure and the language features of the text!
IX. Sumber dan Media Pembelajaran a. Sumber Belajar 1
Identitas Satuan Pendidikan : SMP Bakti Mulya 400 JakartaMata Pelajaran : Bahasa InggrisKelas/ Semester : VIII (Delapan) / GanjilTema : Personal LifeAspek/ Skill : Reading (membaca)Alokasi waktu : 2x40 MenitJenis teks : Descriptive textTahun Pelajaran : 2010/2011 XIII. Membaca nyaring bermakna teks tulis fungsional dan esei berbentuk descriptive dan recount pendek sederhana dengan ucapan, tekanan dan intonasi yangberterima serta merespon makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei pendek sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan berterima yang berkaitan dengan lingkungansekitar yang berbentuk descriptive dan recount.
XV. Indikator 6
Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa dapat: Appendix 1 71 6. Menentukan gagasan utama (main idea) dalam teks descriptive.
XVII. Materi Pembelajaran dan Uraian Materi Task I Read the passage below, underline the simple present tense that you found. Sherly Stephanie
Who is the name of Sherly’s mother? What is the generic structure of the first and the second paragraph?
XXII. Pedoman Penilaian a
Rubrik penilaianNo Uraian Skor Task I Jawaban benar 20 Jawaban tidak tepat Task II Jawaban benar 20 Jawaban tidak tepat Appendix 1 74 RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN READING st(The 1 Meeting of Cycle II ) XXIII. Membaca nyaring bermakna teks tulis fungsional dan esei berbentuk descriptive dan recount pendek sederhana dengan ucapan, tekanan dan intonasi yangberterima serta merespon makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei pendek sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan berterima yang berkaitan dengan lingkungansekitar yang berbentuk descriptive dan recount.
XXVI. Indikator 11
Materi Pokok dan Uraian Materi Social function of descriptive text is to describe a particular person, place or thing. Generic structures of descriptive text are: identification; identifies phenomenon to be described, and description; describes parts, qualities, characteristics. Linguistic features of descriptive text are: focus on specific participants, use simple present tense and adjectives to describing. Example of Descriptive Text Task I Read the passage below, underline the simple present tense that you found.
i. Kegiatan Penutup Menyimpulkan materi pembelajaran atau reflectional Menanyakan kesulitan siswa selama KBM Appendix 1 77 Menugaskan siswa untuk mencari teks berbentuk descriptive teks di majalah atau internet.
XXXI. Sumber dan Media Pembelajaran e. Sumber Belajar 7
Description Right at the tip of the peninsula is the quit part ofTanjung Benoa, with its village like alleyways and rows of traditional fishing boats and yachts. Task III: After reading the text above, write down the purpose, the schematicstructure and the language features of the text!
12. Silabus SMP (grade VIII) h
Camping is an outdoor activity by spending the night in a tent for several days or weeks and having a campfire at night. The boys are responsible to set up the tents and the girls love preparing the food.
1. How long do the students go for camping? a
What is the generic structure of the text above? It is centrally located within the country on the northwest coast of Java Island at the mouth of the Ciliwung River.
9. What is main idea of the second paragraph? a
Cooking is a good especially for girls because the girl will be a housewife in the future. Her eyes seem blue, like the color of the sky on asunny day, as her eyelids flicker up and down whenever she lies down.
1. How long does the doll width? a
This is one of the most precious details of the doll is.... Descriptive Report Every day they wear the school uniform, white and white for every Monday, white and blue for every Tuesday to Thrusday, Batik and blue for every Friday and the scoutuniform and the PMR uniform for every Saturday.
d. The students’ language
1-6 Krakatau Krakatau is one of the volcanoes of the Sunda volcanic arc. Krakatau is located in Sunda Strait, 40 km of coast of Java on the island of Rakata inIndonesia.
1. Krakatau is …… volcano
7-13 Often compared to a palace because of its Balinese architecture, and thousands of sculptures, carvings, and paintings which adorn its interior and grounds, Nusa Dua BeachHotel is a show place of Balinese and Javanese arts and crafts. Appendix 1 107Many geographers divide the more than 13,600 islands of Indonesia into three groups: (1) the Greater Sunda Islands, (2) the Lesser Sunda Islands, and (3) the Mollucas.
14. Where is Indonesian located? a
What is the island which located between Sulawesi and New Guinea? Which of the followings belongs to the first largest island in the world?
20. Which of the following is not true according to the text? a
Borneo is the third biggest island in the world. The mollucas is between Sulawesi and New Guinea.