[Janis Cannon bowers] Serious Game Design and Deve(BookFi org) pdf


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Summary: "With an increasing use of vido games in various disciplines within the scientific community, this book seeks to understand the nature of effective games and to provide guidance for how best to harness the power of gaming technology to

  successfully accomplish a more serious goal"--Provided by publisher. Video games industry- Editorial Advisory Board Gil Muniz, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, USAPerry McDowell, Navy Postgraduate School, CanadaDenise Nicholson, ACTIVE Laboratory, UCF, USARay Perez, Office of Naval Research, USA Doug Watley, BreakAway Ltd., USA List of Reviewers Lucas Blair, RETRO Laboratory, UCF, USA Sae Schatz, ACTIVE laboratory, UCF, USAJanan Smither, Dept.

RETRO Laboratory, UCF, USA

  117 Henry Kelly, Federation of American Scientists, USA The author addresses three key issues in educational game design: (1) designing the course of instruc- tion so that it is both rigorously correct and constantly engaging, (2) ensuring that the system adapts to the background and interests of individual learners, and (3) evaluating the expertise of learners in waysthat make sense to them and to future employers. Now we place our faith in the accuracy of mathematicaland logical algorithms rather than the mystical forces influencing the roll of the die, but we continue to construct games that can challenge our thinking and guide us to a better understanding of the world.

What is a Game?

  In his 1970 book entitled Serious Games, Clark Abt defined a game with these words, “reduced to its formal essence, a game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seekingto achieve their objectives in some limiting context. There is a psychological, social, andprofessional barrier that keeps people from accepting ideas that were “not invented here.” The barrier between “serious business” and “frivolous entertainment” is even higher, wider, and deeper than thosebetween industrial professions.

Game technoloGy

Currently it is difficult to determine whether computer hardware and software technologies are

  Board wargames of the 1950’s introduced the hexagonal tessellation of terrain, a concept that is still used in cellular communications models as an approximation to the circular areacovered by a tower. The financial incentives and the personal energy that drive the creation of new technologies in the game industry have led to technologies that are just too valuable to be excluded from other seriousindustrial applications.

Does Game technoloGy matter?

  Each year more people are able to peer through the science fiction veneer of a space game and see the powerfulcomputer science beneath. They understand the advantages of putting this technology to use, and doing so before a competitor does the same.

Harvard Business Review


  McDaniel, Fiore, and Nicholson then discuss the importance of narrative in serious games in their chapter, “ Serious Storytelling: Narrative Considerations for Serious Games Researchers and Develop- ers .” Specifically, they highlight the congruence between the game’s story and its learning content as a mechanism to enhance the player’s immersion in the game. In the chapter entitled, “De- velopment of Game-Based Training Systems: Lessons Learned in an Inter-Disciplinary Field in the Making ”, these authors begin with a number of theoretical justifications for using games in learning, and then describe the process they employed in developing the serious game.

Section 2: Applications of Serious Games

  is in dire need of improvement in his chapter, “How Games and Simulations can Help Meet America’s Challenges in Science Mathematics and Technology Education.” Fortunately, he contends that modern technology has the potential to make learning more productive, more engaging, and more closely tailored to the interests and backgrounds of individual learners. He goes on to address three key issues in educationalgame design: (1) designing the course of instruction so that it is both rigorously correct and constantly engaging, (2) ensuring that the system adapts to the background and interests of individual learners, and(3) evaluating the expertise of learners in ways that make sense to them and to future employers, using a game called “Immune Attack” as his example.

Section 3: Games in Healthcare

  In this study, the authors investigated the effectiveness of aprototype Alternate Reality Game (ARG) – called The Skeleton Chase First, in the chapter entitled “Establishing a Science of Game Based Learning,” Sanchez, Cannon-Bowers, and Bowers offer a simple framework for organizing variables important in the learning process and then discuss findings from psychology and education as a basis to formulate a research agenda forgame-based training. Unfortunately, the po-tential benefits of the use of games in education and training has been relegated to the use of largeand often very expensive game systems, designed to target entire learning systems or to serve ascapstone and cumulative experiences.

Mini-Games for Conceptual Information

Mini-Games for Procedural Information

  A good example of this type of game is the common children’s game “Memory.” In“Memory” the player has a field of cards laid out in front of them face down. Theyhave become a staple of the Party Game genre of entertainment games and are much more com-plex than their Conceptual counterparts but still maintain the easy to pick up and play, targetedinformation delivery, of the mini-game paradigm.

Cognitive Learning Theory

  Hisapproach to education was to allow students to make connections between new information andtheir existing knowledge themselves, continually adding to the existing knowledge structures. Atten- tion and existing knowledge provided the basisfor the depth of processing.

Social Cognitive Theory


  Hatano & Inagaki (1987, in Brown 1988) in a recipe for making sashimi uncovered levelsof mastery ranging from the ability to follow the recipe, or low level mastery to the ability to un-derstand the relationships between the steps and to understand why the recipe worked, or high levelmastery. Thisviewpoint provides valuable insight into instruc- tional design and the process of teaching andprovides substance to the assertion that the use of mini-games provides a significant opportunityto enhance learning by: Providing learners with smaller lower risk case 1 lunar Quest Seymour and Hewett showed that approximately50% or prospective engineers leave the discipline, regardless of GPA (1997).

Summary of Background Theory

  It is difficult to model real- istic physics in a MMOG due to network latencyissues; it is difficult to insure an identical learning experience between players due to the ability forplayers to assist each other; and it is difficult to grade a player on a deeper level than pass/faildue to the stringent questing rules found in anMMOG. Mini-Games with Major Impacts Given the importance of vocabulary knowledge in other developmental processes such as readingability and comprehension, and the need for iden- tifying and testing tools prior to the developmentof reading problems that have the potential to increase and/or facilitate vocabulary acquisition;this research program evaluated the utility of simulated learning experiences and mini-gamesin early vocabulary acquisition and retention.

Mini-Game 1 Squirrel Game

Mini-Game 2 Tracks Matching

Mini-Game 3 Lizard Food

  A shortanimation of the leaves falling and snow falling, while the squirrels sleep, and then they each comeout of their holes, either skinny and a little sad or healthy and happy, depending on how many nutsthey gathered before the winter. There is a set of animaltracks on the left side of the screen (horse, dog, bird, cow, fox), and a set of animals on the rightside of the screen.

Mini-Game 4 Matching Insects

  Results indicated that the VFT’s rich experi- ential learning environments filled with contextu-ally appropriate and semantic cues did increase the breadth of knowledge for vocabulary wordsas demonstrated on a writing exercise within the deeper level of understanding required for a wordto be used within a writing sample. After years of living within thewalls of the Pentagon, PFC Ratner has mastered the art of business financial management by spying,befriending, and sabotaging some of the world’s greatest minds in the acquisition process.

Game features

  While they certainly can be includedin a web-based course they can also be delivered in the context of a larger game or simulation, orcombined with other mini-games to build a training experience with greater depth and breadth thanwas previously possible. conclusion Testing involving both the current course and the enhanced courses outcomes in additionto their retention of the content within the mini- games will be accomplished during the Summerand Fall of 2009.

Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417–423. doi:10.1016/

  The chapter concludes with an analysis of the hybrid FPS/RPG game Fallout 3, an analysis included to show that even highly regarded and award-winning games are lacking in the narrative coherencenecessary to improve the level of dramatic immersion in virtual worlds.introDuction: GrenWin Grenwin the Goblin hacks down the door with the Goblin a rusty axe and crashes into the room. She may choose to simply give up, allowing the goblin to tear her avatar limbfrom limb, or she may decide to take advantage of the pathfinding limitations of the enemy artificialintelligence and find a way to “cheat” the system by standing one step behind the goblin’s reach anddelaying the conclusion of the scene indefinitely.

Lord of the Rings books and the

  Environment is an important aspect of the game world to consider as much of whatmotivates players to play games is their desire to explore unknown areas and take risks travel-ing through mysterious areas that they would not normally traverse in the real world. To move towards a morphology of theserious game story, we must acknowledge that such classification is constrained by a number ofinternal and external factors, including, but not limited to, the overall plot, the subplots, the learn-ing objectives, the environment, the technology and its associated capabilities, and the point ofview of both exposition and gameplay.

Tomb Raider or walking in zero gravity conditions

  The initial creation of the character isdone in a highly creative way, by allowing play- ers to take control of the character from his orher birth and then giving the players influence over a toddler, a teenager, and a young adult asthey learn the basic controls and allocate skill points to create a character they will later controlthroughout the game. For example, the paramilitary organization known as the Brotherhood of Steel professes a supremedesire to rid the Capital Wasteland of all super mutants, and yet when the player arrives withan intelligent super mutant in tow, none of them have anything to say about it and they continueto address the player as though nothing out of the ordinary was occurring.

Levelup 2003 Conference. Retrieved 11 Feb 2009

  While developers of a driving game may want to focus on the tracking capabilities and how best torepresent the motion of the character over time, a game teaching math would focus on the bestway to display numerals to be legible and easy to input to the device. If, for example, theuse of maps in WoW increases the gamers’ visual attention through their ability to divide attentionbetween the informational aspects of the map and the action of the game usability measures could beused to identify the most efficient design of these maps to maximize their training abilities in visualattention.

Discussion Once again, you are playing a simple driving game

  On the otherhand, slower reaction times may be due to the addition of more complicated interfaces, requir-ing the user to make more decisions to control the car, for example, which button is required tomove from one side of the road to the other. Usability analysis that targets these aspects pro- vides a unique opportunity to ensure that gamesare meeting their supposed purpose in a way users enjoy and prefer while minimizing the amountof resources and time developers must devote to near-endless iterations of the game.

Talib Hussain Kerry Moffitt

  We present here a description of the process that we followed, the tensions weencountered during the effort, and the lessons we learned on how to work in an interdisciplinarymanner to achieve an instructionally strong and enjoyable outcome. These prob- lems are due in part to the limitations of currentgaming technology - for example, commercial games typically do not provide the ability to cap-ture the relevant performance data at the right level of detail for tracking and assessment of traineeperformance.

DeVeloPment Process

  The scenario element analysis determined the typical timeline involved in a flooding controlmission and the specific elements of the different phases of the mission that suggested the potentialactions and variations to be included in a simulated scenario. These phases were broadly captured as:the discovery phase (the actions surrounding the event that identifies the need for flooding control),the preparation phase (actions in getting assigned and ready to combat the flood), the transit phase(actions taken en-route to performing flooding control), the casualty combat phase (the proceduresand options available while trying to control the flood), and the completion phase (what actionsare performed at the end of the situation).

Game Design

  Providing advance organizers, such as a The design specified several different types of feedback to be used in the game, such as:Natural consequences would be used, Following a traditional game technique, the notion of a “score” was initially suggested as aform of implicit feedback, and the use of specific warning messages in response to student errorswas suggested as a form of explicit feedback and guidance. In order toallow the students to experience the entire process in earliest levels, instructional designers advocatedthat some of the smaller steps in the process be provided to the learner or that the environmentbe structured in such a way that the player would not have to demonstrate more specific skills untilhigher levels of the game.

Gaming strategy vs. instructional strategy

  Issues that caused the greatest tension were the instructional design-ers’ and assessment experts’ desires for increased guidance and feedback explaining all the student’smistakes as they were made, explicit didactic information on every element of relevance in thescenario (e.g., a help lookup facility), and increased scaffolding, such as the use of a compass-like aidto assist in navigating around the ship. Counteringthis, the game designers wanted to minimize the amount of non-embedded information (i.e., notdelivered as a natural part of interacting with the environment and other characters) to reducenegative impacts on the player’s immersion and to maintain the sense of adventure.

Directive instruction vs. Guided Discovery

  The goal was for the player to learn touse the two elements well enough to navigate fore and aft and to recognize which side of the shipthey were on. Feedback in the form of natural consequences of actions can bepowerful; the trick is to ensure that the feedback is driven by the learning objectives and empha-sizes the cause and effect relationship between learners’ actions and the consequences so theyunderstand what has happened and why.

Developing an objective vs. Developing methods for assessing attainment of that objective

  Van Merrienboer and Kirschner (2007) for example make the following recommendationsfor assessing intent and accuracy: If the learner makes an error that conveys Development of Game-Based Training Systems If the learner makes an error that conveys The lesson learned is that objectives and assessments must be linked at the outset of thedevelopment process. A key lesson learned was that the focus on a data-driven approach to specifying the instruc-tional logic in the game greatly reduced the stress of making changes to the game and avoided the needfor any significant re-factoring of the code.

Designing for the novice While keeping the Gamer happy

  The gaming developers by nature preferred clear direction on the basic interaction modes desiredfor instruction and the basic structure of a game level so that the associated software interfacesand graphics could be created in a timely manner, and were content to leave easy-to-change datadetails (e.g., the specific dialog and instructional messages, or sequencing of activities within alevel) as part of an iterative refinement process led by the instructional designers. Since the process of combining the craft of game design and the science of learning has yet to beestablished, the lessons learned from this project may serve to inform the process and lead to an Development of Game-Based Training Systems Massive Multiplayer Online Gaming: A Research Framework for Military Training and Educa-tion.

Dau cardsim efficiently apply their knowledge, skills, and abili-

  ties (KSAs) toward a real world acquisition scenarioAn instance of UCF’s CardSim card game frame- while tackling various obstacles that arise during work, DAU CardSim is a multiplayer scenario-based the course of the project.card game designed to reinforce acquisitions skills Each game is played with one Scenario selected and teamwork. In addition to the Scenarios, the game consists of several different color-codedcard types that represent the players’ Roles andKSAs (see Figure 1): Experience (yellow) – These representâ—¦ players’ experience both in their over-all field and in their specific role.

Development requirements and objectives

  It is difficult to obtain comprehensive statistics on card game play, considering the approximately3,000 year history of card games and the existence of anywhere from 1,000 to 10,000 distinct gamesdepending on where lines of distinction are drawn(International Playing Card Society, 2006), but we can estimate that most people are familiarwith at least one game involving the use of cards. Steinman andBlastos (2002) conducted a study of learning outcomes from their immune system card gamewith three student groups of various ages—a group of 25 eighth graders, a second group of 18 tenthgraders and a third group of 8 first-year medical students—and found that the majority of studentsin all three groups significantly improved their test scores after use of the game.

Paper Prototyping and iterative Development

  Even simple paper prototypes can be invaluable in evaluating the coremechanics or entire structure of your game, giving the design team an opportunity to test drive theconcept, find the fun in the game—or realize that it is lacking in fun—and also to begin the processof game balancing early on when making adjust- ment is simple. creatinG Dau carDsim The beginnings of the CardSim framework began to form in 2005 and 2006 upon examination of thecasual game space, along with research showing that casual games could be more inclusive thantraditional video games, extending the traditional play base by covering a broader age range andgreater gender parity.

Lord of the Rings

  trading card game and a host of others; these games provided enough strategy, complexity andextensibility to support a larger knowledge domain that could be used to promote learning. The idea was compelling based on its portability, scalabilityand extensibility, which allowed us to map the same game framework to other knowledge baseswhile using the common infrastructure of cards, which was more broadly accepted within thetypical demographic of the military acquisition community.

Dau cardsim Design Process overview

  We wrote up the game design, the instructional treatment and the overall programming benefits,including the ability to expand to other delivery platforms (i.e. classroom, online, perhaps mobileand virtual worlds in the future) and presented this to DAU as part of a multi-year plan. In examining the cards in commercial games, we noticed a common style of design for the cards:utilizing a picture to represent the card, a text box with either flavor text or information on how toplay the card, and color-coding on the border of the card to identify the card type or associations.

Internal Playtesting with Early Paper Prototypes

  The obstacles were removed from the scenarios and added as adistinct card type in the deck to increase both the challenge of the game and the sense of realism DAU CardSim (since real work obstacles tend to arise randomly throughout the project). The next step was to dem- onstrate the game to other DAU instructors andsome students in order to test our thoughts about the game play and learning while getting a chanceto observe players who understood the acquisi- tions subject matter but were not already familiarwith the game.

External Playtesting with DAU Personnel

  We were also able to see directly, both from practice at the playtesting themselves andcommentary by the testers, how the implementa- tion dynamics for the game have a bearing on gameplay; we noticed that the physical logistics of the room and the time allotted for game play were allfactors that could greatly affect use of the game and needed to be taken into consideration. Playtesting revealed techniques to shorten this process by introducing a demomovie detailing the game play procedure, easier student instructions, and a standardized initialgame round delivered using a “starter deck” that would take everyone through the same set of cardsin a specific order and demonstrate the key basic game elements.

Flash Version Development

  DAU CardSim the game rules and deck structure already estab- lished freed us up in the early development phasesto focus on usability issues related to the inter- face. All assets required for play and the aspectswe wished to prioritize were lined up, enabling us to immediately begin organizing these assetsclearly on the screen and gearing the arrangement and functionality to reinforce important gameelements (e.g. integrating a text chat to support team communication and organizing Roles aroundthe edge to simulate the team sitting together at a table playing).

Expansion Deck Development and Rebalancing

  Papert — a pioneer of computer-empoweredlearning with the Logo programming environ- ment in the late 1960s — was an early and vocalcritic of this approach, reflecting on the typical“edutainment” game in a 1998 essay: The player gets into situations that require an appropriate action in order to get on to the nextsituation along the road to the final goal. As the market success of the Wii console has sinceconfirmed, the ability for players to pick up the controller and do more-or-less what they wouldexpect to do — swing a racket across one’s body or point at a target on the screen and pull the trigger— has increased curiosity and eased intimidation on the part of many casual game players.

Half Life 2) engine because

DecentraliZeD learninG anD assessment

  The results were encourag-ing: players already comfortable with Spanish enjoyed demonstrating their knowledge in anunconventional way, and those less familiar with the language were intrigued by the game’s prem-ise and interface to the point that they wanted to understand Spanish in order to progress to otherlevels and locations. Unlike manygames that simply layer content-based learning on top of tenuously related game-play, ours allowslearning to emerge naturally from the exploration of the game’s geography, the exposition of thegame’s narrative, and the execution of the game’s gesture-based mechanics.

Modern Language Journal, 50(2), 79–84

  For instance, say: ‘Abner, run to the blackboard!’After Abner has completed the action, say:‘Josephine, if Abner ran to the blackboard, run after him and hit him with your book.’”(emphasis in the original) (Asher et al., 1974,p. The characters, information, and tasks encoun-tered in a particular place at a particular time depend on several factors, includingcurrent social dynamic between the player and other non-player characters in the space,his or her demonstrated language aptitude, what locations the player has already visitedand what tasks he or she has already ac- complished.

Half Life 2, and its extensive

  model, sound and behavior library saved us considerable time developing a prototype,but the inconsistencies between the engine’s fundamental mechanics and our goals for thegame have led us to seek other tools as we move beyond the initial proof-of-conceptstage. The technology and management tools that have been used so successfully to increase both quality and productivity in other service enterprises can play a vital role in improving science andmathematics education and training.introDuction the number and the diversity of people needing to learn.

What’s at stake

  There are three key issues: (1) designing the course of instruction so that it isboth rigorously correct and constantly engaging,(2) ensuring that the system adapts to the back- ground and interests of individual learners, and(3) evaluating the expertise of learners in ways that make sense to them and to future employers. The report statesthat computer simulations can test a much more sophisticated range of expertise Gaining expertise appears to require both exposure to the logical structure of a body ofinformation and the basic facts, and an opportu- nity to translate this raw material into memorypatters that are permanent and accessible to each individual (Pliske, 2001).

Reproducing the Fun of Discovery, Playing Around

  In the first level ofthe game, for example, a simple bacterial infection can be cleared by training macrophages flowingin the blood stream to recognize the signs inside blood vessels indicating that an infection is near,escape from the vessel, follow a chemical signal to the site of the infection, and kill the bacteriawithout injuring host cells. Granted that muchwork at the frontiers of science and engineering involves abstractions that have little to do witha common sense understanding of the physical world (the phenomena of quantum mechanicsfor example), most scientists were attracted to the field by a keen interest in understanding howthe things around them work – natural curiosity that is all too often deadened by conventionalinstruction.

Theory of Flow

  The order of presentationneed not follow a rigid taxonomy of knowledge driven by the logic of the material, but may wellbegin with a complex but interesting task whose completion requires mastery of a number of moreelementary skills which will be acquired quickly once the learner understands their relevance andthe power they give in solving the problem at hand. The second is multiply-ing too fast to be cleared by the macrophage and requires the player to train macrophages to signalfor help and train neutrophils (another immune cell type) to recognize the signal and navigate tothe site of the infection.

The Role of Instructors

Multi-Player Participation, Collaboration

  A game that gets a player into a “flow” state has themconstantly aware of what they can and cannot How Games and Simulations can Help Meet America’s Challenges do and highly motivated to master the skills to move to the next level (something very close tocontinuous formative assessment). The simulations can test quite sophisticated skills including mastery of science and mathemat-ics content as well as skills much in demand in the modern workplace such as an ability to workeffectively in a team, communicate with others, acquire information from diverse sources, andmaking decisions under uncertainty.

GettinG Practical challenges

  One of the more intriguing features of game- based testing is that players expect to fail, and learnfrom failure exactly what they need to master to succeed in the next effort. Standard testing mechanisms also force all learners to face testing at precisely the same time In Immune Attack the “win condition” is set by clearing the patient of the infection – failuremeans that the patient dies.


  While a significantfraction of this is undoubtedly marketing costs, it’s clear that development and testing costs arefar beyond what is typically spent on textbooks (textbooks can cost several millions to produce). To take an extreme hypothetical case, it would cost about $72 billion a year to produce highquality game-like materials that could cover all the hours now spent by students in K-12.

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