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TRANSLATION MAPPING OF THE ENGLISH

PREPOSITIONS ABOVE, BEYOND, AND OVER IN JEANNE

DUPRAU’S CITY OF EMBER INTO INDONESIAN AND

THEIR EQUIVALENCE IN BACK TRANSLATION

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

  

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

  

By

YANI PURWANINGSIH

  

Student Number: 094214045

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS

FACULTY OF LETTERS

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

  

2013

  

TRANSLATION MAPPING OF THE ENGLISH

PREPOSITIONS ABOVE, BEYOND, AND OVER IN JEANNE

DUPRAU’S CITY OF EMBER INTO INDONESIAN AND

THEIR EQUIVALENCE IN BACK TRANSLATION

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

  

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

  

By

YANI PURWANINGSIH

  

Student Number: 094214045

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS

FACULTY OF LETTERS

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

  

2013

  “Being happy doesn't mean that everything is perfect. It means that you've decided to look beyond the

   imperfections.”

  “Language is the means of getting an idea from my brain into yours without surgery.” Mark Amidon

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I believe that this research report could never be accomplished without

help from others. It would be my pleasure to address my sincere appreciation to

all parties who were willing to give me their time and support during the writing

process of my undergraduate thesis.

  First of all, my deepest gratitude goes to Allah SWT for the blessings upon

me. I got many learning points during the long writing process before finally I

came to this piece.

  I would like to address my special thanks for my advisor, Harris

Hermansyah S., S.S., M.Hum., who has guided me and helped me in finishing this

study. I thank him very much for the time he has spent on giving me his thoughts,

advice, and suggestion. I am also indebted a gratitude to my co-advisor,

Adventina Putranti, S.S., M.Hum., for suggestion and willingness to do correction

on my undergraduate thesis. I am likewise grateful to my Main Examiner, Dr. Fr.

  

B. Alip, M.Pd., M.A., for his observations and corrections during my thesis

defense. Without their help, it would never come into being. I also thank all the

lecturers in the English Letters Department for the time and energy they spent

teaching, and for the love, patience, and motivation given to me during my study.

  I owe a great deal to my beloved husband for the incomparable love,

support, and encouragement, and to my parents whose love, prayer, and patience

were always gave me strength. A million thanks also go to my only little sister,

  Ulil, who was doing her undergraduate thesis at the same time with me. I thank her for being my motivation to finish this thesis sooner.

  I must give many thanks also for students of English Letters 2009, especially my close friends Richard, Vicka, Putri, and Vincentia “Vince” with whom I share most good and bad times.

  Lastly, I extend a million thanks for all parties who have supported me

during my study in Sanata Dharma University whose names I cannot mention

here, but I inscribe them in my heart.

   Yani Purwaningsih

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ......................................................................................................... i

APPROVAL PAGE ............................................................................................ ii

ACCEPTANCE PAGE ........................................................................................ iii

MOTTO PAGE .................................................................................................. vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................................................. vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................... ix

LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................. xi

LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................... xi

ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................... xii

ABSTRAK .......................................................................................................... xiii

  a. Objective Data ............................................................................. 22

  4. Data Validity .................................................................................... 25

  3. Population and Sample ..................................................................... 24

  b. Survey ......................................................................................... 24

  a. Document Analysis ..................................................................... 23

  2. Data Collection ................................................................................. 23

  b. Affective Data ............................................................................. 22

  1. Types of Data ................................................................................... 21

  

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................... 1

A. Background of the Study ........................................................................ 1 B. Problem Formulation .............................................................................. 5 C. Objectives of the Study ........................................................................... 5 D. Definition of Terms ................................................................................. 6

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE .................................................. 8

A. Review of Related Studies ...................................................................... 8 B. Review of Related Theories .................................................................. 13

  

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ................................................................ 20

A. Area of Research ................................................................................... 20 B. Object of the Study ............................................................................... 20 C. Method of the Study .............................................................................. 21 D. Research Procedure ............................................................................... 21

  C. Theoretical Framework ......................................................................... 18

  5. Theories of Back Translation ............................................................. 17

  4. Theories of Equivalence ..................................................................... 16

  3. Types of Preposition in Bahasa Indonesia ......................................... 15

  2. Prepositional Meanings ...................................................................... 14

  1. Prototype Theory ............................................................................... 13

  5. Data Analysis ................................................................................... 26

  

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ............................................................................. 29

A. Translation Mapping of Prepositions above, beyond and over in Indonesian ........................................................................................ 30

  1. Translation Mapping and the Meanings of Preposition above ......... 30

  2. Translation Mapping and the Meanings of Preposition beyond ......... 33

  3. Translation Mapping and the Meanings of Preposition over .......... 38 B.

The Translation’s Equivalence of Prepositions above, beyond and

over Seen through Back Translation Method ....................................... 48

  

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ........................................................................ 57

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................. 59

APPENDICES ................................................................................................... 62

Appendix 1: Data Collection

  • – The Group of Data with Preposition above ...................................................... 62 Appendix 2: Data Collection – The Group of Data with Preposition beyond ...................................................... 64 Appendix 3: Data Collection – The Group of Data with Preposition over .......................................................... 66 Appendix 4: The Translation Mapping of Preposition above ................... 74 Appendix 5: The Translation Mapping of Preposition beyond ................. 75 Appendix 6: The Translation Mapping of Preposition over ..................... 76

  Appendix 7: The Data for the Survey ....................................................... 79 Appendix 8: The Form of the Survey ....................................................... 80 Appendix 9: The Result of Back Translation from Respondent 1 (R1) ... 82 Appendix 10: The Result of Back Translation from Respondent 2 (R2) ... 84 Appendix 11: The Result of Back Translation from Respondent 3 (R3) ... 86 Appendix 12: The Result of Back Translation from Respondent 4 (R4) ... 88 Appendix 13: The Result of Back Translation from Respondent 5 (R5) ... 90 Appendix 14: The Result of Back Translation from Five Respondents ..... 92

  

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. The Example of the Group of Data with Preposition above ................. 23

Table 2. The Example of the Group of Data with Preposition above ................. 27

Table 3. The Example of the Meanings of Preposition above ............................ 27

Table 4. The Example of the Translation Mapping of Preposition above .......... 28

Table 5. The Example of the Result of Back Translation ................................... 28

Table 6. The Group of Data with Preposition above ........................................... 30

Table 7. The Meanings of Preposition above ..................................................... 31

Table 8. The Translation Mapping of Preposition above .................................... 33

Table 9. The Group of Data with Preposition beyond ......................................... 33

Table 10. The Meanings of Preposition beyond .................................................. 36

Table 11. The Translation Mapping of Preposition beyond ................................. 37

Table 12. The Group of Data with Preposition over ............................................. 38

Table 13. The Meanings of Preposition over ....................................................... 40

Table 14. The Translation Mapping of Preposition over ..................................... 47

Table 15. The Result of the Survey from Five Respondents ............................... 49

  

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Semantic Network of Preposition over ................................................... 9

Figure 2. The Diagram of Source Triangulation .................................................. 25

Figure 3. The Diagram of Methodological Triangulation .................................... 26

Figure 4. The Pie Charts of Back Translation Equivalence ................................. 56

  

ABSTRACT

PURWANINGSIH, YANI. Translation Mapping of the English Prepositions

above, beyond, and over in Jeanne DuPrau’s City of Ember into Indonesian

and their Equivalence in Back Translation. Yogyakarta: Department of English

Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2013.

  This study discusses the translation mapping of English prepositions above, beyond , and over in Jeanne DuPrau’s City of Ember into Indonesian and

their equivalents when they are translated back into English. The writer has an

expectation that the study will broaden reader s’ knowledge and understanding of

the prepositions above, beyond, and over, both in English and Indonesian, that

further might strengthen their translation skills.

  There are two problems analyzed in this study. The first problem is how

the mapping of the English prepositions above, beyond, and over in Indonesian. It

is analyzed to see how the translations and the meanings of the English

prepositions above, beyond, and over are classified in Indonesian. The second

problem is how the equivalence of the Indonesian translations seen using reverse

translation method. In this study, the writer focused on the equivalence of

preposition’s meaning and expression in both English and Indonesian.

  The study focused on the translation mapping and translation equivalence

of the English prepositions above, beyond, and over into Indonesian and vice

versa based on the existing theories on prepositions and some theories on

translation studies. The data used in this study were divided into two categories,

data in English as the first source text and Indonesian data as the target text. The

methodologies applied in this study were a combination of field and library

research. Field research was employed by giving a survey to certain respondents

to translate using the reverse translation method. The writer also conducted a

library research in order to get as much information as she needed for the study.

  Based on the study analysis, the following have been identified as the

answers to each problem. First, the mapping of English prepositions above,

beyond , and over into Indonesian has resulted in the same relationships and

expressions. Some theories on prepositions used in the study have been

determined to be applicable in both English and Indonesian. This indicates that

these two languages share similar characteristics and usages of prepositions. The

second result is respondents translated some Indonesian translations of those three

English prepositions back to English differently from its original text. Even

though some of them are translated differently and even untranslated, the

relationships, meanings and expressions they carry have remained the same. It has

also been proven that there are similar patterns or concepts prepositions have both

in English and Indonesian.

  

ABSTRAK

PURWANINGSIH, YANI. Translation Mapping of the English Prepositions

above, beyond, and over in Jeanne DuPrau’s City of Ember into Indonesian

and their Equivalence in Back Translation. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra

Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2013.

  Studi ini membahas mengenai pemetaan terjemahan preposisi above,

beyond, dan over yang ditemukan di buku City of Ember karya Jeanne Duprau ke

dalam Bahasa Indonesia dan sejauh mana ekuivalensi preposisi ini ketika mereka

diterjemahkan kembali ke Bahasa Inggris. Penulis berharap studi ini dapat

menambah pengetahuan dan pemahaman para pembaca maupun mahasiswa

mengenai preposisi above, beyond, dan over, baik di Bahasa Indonesia maupun

Bahasa Inggris, sehingga nantinya diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kemampuan

mereka dalam menerjemah.

  Terdapat dua permasalahan yang dibahas dalam studi ini. Masalah pertama

adalah bagaimana pemetaan preposisi above, beyond, dan over yang bertujuan

untuk mengetahui terjemahan dan arti dari preposisi tersebut dalam Bahasa

Indonesia. Masalah kedua yaitu seberapa ekuivalen terjemahan dari preposisi ini

ketika mereka diterjemahkan kembali ke Bahasa Inggris. Dalam studi ini, penulis

memfokuskan ekuivalensi pada arti yang dibawa oleh preposisi tersebut, baik di

Bahasa Indonesia maupun di Bahasa Inggris.

  Studi ini terfokus pada pemetaan terjemahan preposisi above, beyond, dan

over dan ekuivalensinya dalam Bahasa Indonesia dan juga sebaliknya berdasarkan

beberapa teori yang ada mengenai preposisi dan ilmu terjemahan. Data dibagi

menjadi dua kategori, data dalam Bahasa Inggris sebagai teks sumber dan data

dalam Bahasa Indonesia sebagai teks target. Metode yang digunakan adalah

perpaduan studi pustaka dan riset lapangan. Riset lapangan dilakukan dengan cara

melakukan survey terhadap beberapa responden untuk menerjemahkan

menggunakan metode back translation. Penulis juga melakukan studi pustaka

untuk mendapatkan informasi selengkap-lengkapnya yang dibutuhkan dalam studi

ini.

  Berdasarkan hasil analisis studi ini, berikut adalah jawaban untuk tiap

permasalahan yang dibahas. Pertama, pemetaan preposisi above, beyond, dan over

dalam Bahasa Indonesia menghasilkan adanya hubungan dan ekpresi yang sama.

Beberapa teori tentang preposisi yang digunakan dalam studi ini dapat diterapkan

di kedua bahasa ini. Hal ini mengindikasikan adanya karakteristik yang sama

antar keduanya. Hasil yang kedua adalah responden menerjemahkan balik

preposisi ini ke preposisi yang berbeda dari teks aslinya, bahkan ada beberapa

yang tidak diterjemahkan, namun sebagian besar tetap memiliki hubungan dan arti

yang sama dengan teks aslinya. Hal ini membuktikan adanya pola dan konsep

yang sama antara Bahasa Indonesia dan Bahasa Inggris.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study English prepositions such as at, of, after, up, beyond, over, in, from, by,

  

behind, above, to, for, during, about, and on are function words that might not

have any obvious meaning associated when they stand alone, but in fact, they still

have their own dictionary meanings. According to Frank (1972: 171) in Modern

English: A Practical Reference Guide , the preposition has the function of

connecting a noun or pronoun to another word, usually a noun, verb, or adjective.

  

They function not only as connectors but also have a general grammatical

function to indicate certain relationships between words or phrases in sentences

such as temporal, tandem, backdrop, scalar, logical, quantity, and spatial

relationships. Basically, the meaning of prepositions always shows spatial relation

(cf. Brugman and Lakoff 1988, Cienki 1989, Herskovits 1982, 1986; Janda 1985;

Vandeloise 1994). In English, each relationship might have several expressions or

meanings. The spatial relationship, for example, includes the expressions of

dimension or shape, distance, movement or direction, location, and position.

  In Bahasa Indonesia, from the definition in Sarikata Bahasa Indonesia (2009), preposition or kata depan means a word that connects a noun Lengkap

with other words. According to Alwi et al. (1998: 288), Indonesian prepositions

are used to indicate a relation of meaning between the front constituent and the

  2

back constituent. This shows that prepositions are quite important for indicating

the relationships between elements they connect and the expressions or semantic

meanings of phrases or sentences even though their existence is often less

noticeable than other word categories. In the British National Corpus list of the 30

most commonly used words in English, 8 are prepositions (Leech, Rayson, &

Wilson, 2001: 120). Since they have various expressions, however, a common

problem, in this case for Indonesian students, lies in determining the correct

meanings, the proper usages, and the translation of these English prepositions. An

English preposition can often be translated into several different Indonesian

prepositions.

  Translation is one way for people to know the others’ ideas or meanings

from different countries in the world by changing the “foreign” language into the

“native” language. There are some rules and strategies in translating so that the

meanings and messages will be transferred properly. One way to assess whether a

translation is good or not is by judging its equivalence, where the meaning carried

in the Source Language (SL) should remain the same or similar after it is

translated into Target Language (TL). An equivalent effect is defined as a similar

effect on the Target Text (TT) receivers as the Source Text (ST) is considered to

have on Source Text receivers (Newmark, 1988: 48). One common obstacle in the

process of learning foreign languages, including translating, is derived from the

differences between both languages. People often apply their mother tongue

systems into the foreign languages systems they learn. They also unconsciously

adjust the foreign language systems into their native language systems. Brown

  3

(1987: 153-154) states that the principal barrier in second language acquisition is

the interference of the first language system on the second language system. Other

than their highly idiomatic nature and polysemy, translating prepositions into the

second or foreign language is often considered a difficult task for students. This is

due to the different ways that the two languages treat prepositions. Gethin and

Gunnemark (1996: 18) note in their book, The Art and Science of Learning

Languages , "Prepositions are famous for being used in their own special and

'different' way in each language, and cause great difficulties to students all over

the world."

  Following are some cases with the preposition over taken from Jeanne DuPrau’s fictional book, City of Ember, and the Indonesian edition.

  

1. ST: She passed a line of customers waiting to get into the vegetable market,

their shopping bags draped over their arms. (DuPrau, 2003: 18) TT: Dia melewati antrean pelanggan yang ingin masuk ke toko sayuran,

dengan keranjang belanja menggantung di lengan mereka. (DuPrau, 2009: 21)

  2. ST: “I can leapfrog over the trash can!” (DuPrau, 2003: 19)

TT: “Aku bisa lompat kodok melewati tempat sampah!” (DuPrau, 2009: 21)

3. ST: Lina lived in Quillium Square, over the yarn shop run by her grandmother.

  (DuPrau, 2003: 21) TT: Lina tinggal di Alun-Alun Quillium, di atas toko benang yang dikelola oleh neneknya. (DuPrau, 2009: 24) The three examples above use the English preposition over that is

translated into Indonesian differently in each case. The first over is translated into

the simple Indonesian preposition di, the second over is translated into the

  4 Indonesian verb melewati, and the last over is translated into the complex Indonesian preposition di atas.

  Due to the w riter’s curiosity, this study is conducted to classify the translations of prepositions above, beyond, and over in Jeanne DuPrau’s City of

Ember into Indonesian based on the existing theories about both English and

Indonesian prepositions. Since prepositions are used in all kinds of texts, the work

City of Ember was selected as the source of the data in part due to its vivid and

clear, precise composition in English. The book is targeted mainly at children and

teenagers, so the complexity of writing (the reading level) is lower than in adult

fiction, which should simplify comparison of SL with TL and assessment of the

TL.

  The mapping process in this study is limited to the scope of semantic category, meaning it uses only those prepositions’ lexical or dictionary meanings

and focuses on finding their meanings when they are in the form of prepositional

phrase only. Further, this study will also look at how English native speakers who

are foreign learners of Indonesian back-translate those Indonesian prepositions as

a result of mapping into their own language and will also evaluate whether their

translations are equivalent to the original source text. In conceptualizing their

equivalence, the writer refers to the existing theories about English prepositions.

  The theoretical benefits of this study are that it provides the meanings’

classification of prepositions above, beyond, and over in Indonesian. By knowing

the problems and finding solutions, it will also develop the field of translation

studies itself. In practice, this study will broaden people’s, especially students’,

  5

knowledge and understanding of the prepositions above, beyond, and over, both in

English and Indonesian, which might further strengthen their translation skills.

  

The writer also expects that the results of this study can be useful for other

researchers to make further analysis dealing with fields of translation from other

points of view.

  B. Problem Formulation Based on the above background, the problems of this study are formulated as follows:

  1. How are the English prepositions above, beyond, and over in Jeanne DuPrau’s City of Ember mapped in Indonesian translation?

  

2. How is the equivalence of the English prepositions above, beyond, and over in

Jeanne DuPrau’s City of Ember seen using the back translation method? C. Objectives of the Study

  In accordance with the problems formulated above, this study has the

following objectives. The first objective is to see how the English prepositions

above, beyond , and over are translated into Indonesian and how their meanings

are classified based on existing theories about prepositions. The second objective

of this study is to review the equivalence of the Indonesian translations seen using

the back translation method.

  6

D. Definition of Terms

  There are some terms that the writer wants to define in order to avoid

misinterpretation and misunderstanding or differences in understanding certain

terms in this study.

  Translation Mapping. Ho-Abdullah and Amna Hasan, in The

Conceptual Mapping of the English Preposition in into Arabic , stated that the

conceptual mappings in the translation of English prepositions into Arabic fall

into three categories that allow the identification of the semantic mapping of the

English preposition in and its correspondence Arabic prepositions that later can be

invoked to characterize the meaning of the English preposition in. (2009: 604-

605) Derived from the definition above, the term translation mapping in this

study refers to the classification of the translations of prepositions above, beyond,

and over into Indonesian and their relationships as well as the meanings they

express in certain contexts that are analyzed based on certain existing theories

about both Indonesian and English prepositions.

  Prepositional Phrase. Mark Lester in Grammar in the Classroom stated

that Prepositional Phrase is a group of related words beginning with a preposition

and ending with a noun, noun phrase or pronoun that functions as the object of the

preposition. It usually functions as an adjective, if it modifies a noun, or an adverb

when it modifies an adjective or an adverb. (1990: 105-108)

  7 Translation. According to Eugene Nida and Charles Taber in their book

  The Theory and Practice of Translation , “translation consists of reproducing in

the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the language message, first

in the terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.”

  Equivalence. From the definition of transla tion above, “the term

equivalence is clearly the main point. In other words, the main problem of

translation is to find target language equivalent. Thus equivalence is variously

regarded as a necessary condition for translation”. (Baker, 1992: 5-6).

  Equivalent effect is defined as similar effect on the Target Text receivers

as the Source Text is considered to have on Source Text receivers (Newmark,

1988: 48).

  Back Translation. According to Harkness and Glusberg, in their study

of Questionnaires in Translation, back translation is considered a translation

assessment tool/procedure instead of a translation method. It involves the

translation of a text, which itself is a translation, back into the original/source

language and it is most commonly used and recommended as a way to assess

translation work (Werner and Campbell, 1970). They also suggest back translation

can be used for translator assessment.

  According to Mildred L. Larson in Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide , back translation is a way to check translation to Cross-Language Equivalence

quality by having someone else who is truly bilingual in the source and target

languages to take the translation and to write out the meaning he/she gets from it

back into the source language (1984: 490)

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part is a review of

  

related studies previously by other writers. It explains the topic of the studies and

which parts are relevant or even different to the topic of this study. The second

part is a review of related theories that are relevant to the present study. It consists

of the theories used in analyzing the matters discussed and how they suit this

study. The last part is the theoretical framework. It deals with the contribution of

the theories in solving the problems of the study.

A. Review of Related Studies

  

1. Reconsidering Prepositional Polysemy Networks: The Case of over by

Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans (2001) The first related study is Reconsidering Prepositional Polysemy

  

Networks: The Case of over by Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans (2001: 746),

provides sophisticated visual representations and creates a “semantic network” both textually and visually for the preposition “over” as follows:

  

Figure 1. Semantic Network of Preposition over

(Tyler and Evans, 2001: 746)

Based on the diagrams of the prototypes of the preposition over

illustrated in figure 1 above, the spatial relationship is established by at least

entities, one is the center of attention and likely to be movable, and the other is the

background and referenced to the first. Langacker (1987) stated that these two

entities are the object that is located, termed the trajector (TR), and the object that

serves as a reference point, the landmark (LM). The expressions these two entities

carry including covering, examining, repetition, trajectory, on-the other-side of,

completion, and over and above

  Essentially, this paper provides several criteria for ordering and ranking

linguistic evidence and thereby improves the reliability of judgments and

  

conclusions. To the extent practical, the present study will attempt to integrate

some of the findings and methodology exhibited in this paper, particularly

including a mix of different formats which aid both in performing analysis and

presenting the results intelligibly to readers. It is also relevant to the present study

in the way it expands the information about the prepositions over and provides the

map of the meanings that preposition has. In this study, however, the object is

only English preposition over, while the objects of the current study are English

prepositions above, beyond, and over. If Tyler and Evans focus on the polysemy

networks of preposition over, the present study discusses and analyzes further

how the prepositions above, beyond, and over are translated and mapped into

Indonesian.

  

2. The Conceptual Mapping of the English Preposition in into Arabic by Imran

Ho-Abdullah and Amna Hasan (2009) The research discusses the translation classification of the English

preposition in in Arabic. The writer classifies it into three semantic mapping

categories based on the four domains or relationships it has (spatial, temporal,

area, and state). The writer follows certain theories in mapping the four domains

of the source language and then finds the usage of them in the target language.

The three semantic mapping categories are Same Domain Mapping (SDM), Zero

Domain Mapping (ZDM), and Different Domain Mapping (DDM). The data the

writer uses are derived from 75 Iraqi students aged 15-17 years old who are

attending an Iraqi secondary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  In the conclusion, the writer points out that cross-linguistically,

prepositions are a part of English and Arabic language constituents that exert

influence on both languages. Therefore, using translation as a method might draw

attention to the manipulation of language and to the fact that translation to Arabic

may be mapped differently.

  In this research, the method of the study the writer used is similar to the

current study. It also has relevancy in the context of translating foreign

prepositions into native prepositions and in the way it involves some respondents

as one part of the methods the writer uses in conducting the study. While the

object of this research is the preposition in and the research mentions that the

differences in both languages that sometimes lead to errors in translation, the

writer of the current study will only translate the English prepositions above,

beyond, and over, map, and analyze them based on certain theories. The final

mapping result of this study is also different from the current study. This study

maps the translation of the preposition in based on the relationships it has, while

the present study maps the translation of the prepositions above, beyond, and over

based on their meanings in certain contexts.

3. Back Translation as Means of Giving Translators a Voice by Uldis Ozolins (2009)

  This study presents an overview of various aspects and challenges faced

in back translation (“blind” translation of the target language text back into the

source language to compare the target translation‟s fidelity with the original

source), both from a theoretical perspective and based on a specific medical

translation project that involved forward and back translation of detailed medical

  

surveys. The author presents common objections to the common methodology and

practice of back translation and attempts to demonstrate positive aspects that had

not been addressed in previous studies.

  Aside from issues specific to the medical field, the author lists several

aspects that are simultaneously benefits and complications of back translation,

namely inevitable shifts in meaning due to differing grammatical and conceptual

frameworks in different languages. Specifically mentioned are differences related

to tense, number, gender, “scales of intensity” (differing gradations with regard to

severity, probability, etc.), fundamental differences in phrasing (e.g., placement of

noun modifiers), and cases where idiomatic usage in either language requires the

addition or omission of words absent in the other (e.g., some languages lack an

equivalent to English “some”).

  This study is about Back Translation, which is also part of the present

study. It is relevant to the current study primarily because it provides examples of

issues that must be considered when performing and assessing back translations

and judging equivalence between source and target texts. However, the object of

both studies is quite different. The object in this study is related to medical field,

while the current study has the objects from linguistic field, the English

prepositions above, beyond, and over.

B. Review of Related Theories 1. Prototype Theory – a theory on spatial relationship of preposition

  Geeraerts (1989 and 1990) stated that prototypical categories in general

cannot be defined by means of a single set of criteria and sufficient attributes.

  

Based on this theory, words, in this case preposition as one type of function

words; do not have any obvious meaning when they stand alone, even though they

have their dictionary meanings. The meaning of prepositions only can be seen

after they appear with other words in certain contexts. In line with Geeraets,

Taylor stated that senses of the prepositions of English cannot be captured in one

or more core definitions consisting of a set of necessary and sufficient attributes

(cf. Taylor 1988: 300-301) as they are prototypically structured polysemous

lexical categories. Taylor mentioned that prepositions cannot be described by their

polysemous senses and meanings alone because those might be different in

different contexts.

  Further, Geeraerts (2007: 168) points out the four hypotheses which concern prototype:

  • Physiological, the sense is about something that is physically experienced.
  • • Referential, deals with the attributes or senses shared by the elements (words)

    that precede or follow the preposition.
  • • Statistical, related to the frequency of preposition‟s senses and also requires our

    ability to categorize. For example, despite the great exposure of a temporal sense

    caused by high frequency, we still perceive spatial relationship as the prototype of

    prepositions.

  • Psychological (mental representation).

  In analyzing the meanings of preposition above, beyond, and over,

prototype theory allows a flexible category by ruling out the classic approach

which supports necessary and sufficient conditions. The category of prepositions

may be fuzzily organized by human perceptions about the locative sense, which is

prototypical (physical), and the metaphorical (psychological) senses. The writer

will classify the meanings and senses of prepositions above, beyond, and over into

Indonesian based on from their meanings when they are formed with other words

that in certain contexts possible to be different. This writer will also consider the

other words‟ meanings that structure in the contexts.

2. Prepositional Meanings

  Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik

in A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language mention the references of

the prepositions above, beyond, and over (1985: 666) and determine their

meanings seen from the relation of the semantic categories to their usual syntactic

functions (1985: 673).

  In the case of preposition above, its reference is relative position (vertical position). It also can be an intensifying preposition with the meaning „more than.‟

References for the preposition beyond are orientation (on the far side of) and

exception (except (for)), while the preposition over has various references and

senses such as relative position (vertical position), relative destination, passage

(with verbs of motion, it expresses movement towards and then away from a

place), orientation (on the far side of), resultative (the state of having reached the

  

destination), static pervasive, motion pervasive, accompanying circumstances,

„more than,‟ duration, and subject matter (on the object of).

  Similar to the first theory by Geeraerts, the present study also uses this

theory to determine the meanings of the prepositions above, beyond, and over

carry in all data by looking at the words structured them.

  3. Types of Prepositions in Bahasa Indonesia

  

a. According to Alwi, et.al (1998: 288), in Indonesian there are two main types of

preposition, Simple Preposition (Kata Depan Sejati) and Complex Preposition

(Kata Depan Majemuk). Indonesian prepositions are used to indicate a relation of

meaning between the front constituent and the back constituent. i. Simple prepositions They are di, ke, and dari. These three simple prepositions are used to

relate words and show the relationships between words they connect.

Semantically, prepositions in Indonesian have some common meanings, they are:

  1. Place: di, ke, dari, sampai, antara

  2. Allocation: bagi, untuk, buat, guna

  3. Cause: karena, sebab, lantaran

  4. Participation or manner: dengan, sambil, beserta, bersama

  5. Participant: oleh

  6. Time: pada, hingga, sampai, sejak

  7. Situation: tentang, mengenai

  8. Possession: dari (Alwi, dkk, 1998: 295) ii. Complex Prepositions They are di atas, ke sana, dari sana, etc. They are simple prepositions followed by an adverb of place.

  

b. According to Ramlan (1987: 63-71), the preposition ke is used to indicate the

direction or movement to a targeted location while the preposition di shows a

stative location. According to Muslich (2010), the preposition di expresses the

spatial relationship of place or location where the object is located, the preposition

ke shows the spatial relationship of direction into a location or position, and the

preposition dari also has a spatial relationship that shows the source direction or

location and sometimes possession.

  Based on these types and classification of Indonesian prepositions, the

back translation of English prepositions above, beyond, and over in City of Ember

can be determined by the meanings or senses they have which are structured from

other words they connect.

4. Theories of Equivalence

  According to Nida and Taber, there are two types of equivalence, namely

formal and dynamic equivalent - they attempt to produce on their readers an effect

as close as possible to that obtained on the readers of the original. (cf. Nida's

dynamic eq.).

  Formal equivalence

  • – “a TL item which represents the closest equivalent

    of a SL word or phrase. It focuses attention on the message itself, in both form

    and content.

  ” It focuses on the message in the TL that has a similar structure

(word level) to its ST, which contributes a strong influence in determining its

accuracy. In Koller's framework of equivalence, formal equivalence is described

in the situation when SL and TL words have similar orthographic or phonological features (Koller in Hatim, 2001: 28) Dynamic equivalence

  • – “a translation principle according to which a

    translator seeks to translate the meaning of the original in such a way that the TL

    wording will trigger the same impact on the TL audience as the original wording

    did upon the ST audience.

  ” If formal equivalence focuses on the structure in order

to seek the closest message or translation of a text, dynamic equivalence focuses

on finding the TT message and effect on the TT readers as similar as in the ST. It

is not only about the accuracy of conveying the ST message but also the

naturalness of the TT.

  To assess the back translation equivalence of the prepositions above, beyond, and over, Nida's and Taber‟s formal equivalence is more suitable since it

sees the accuracy of a translation from the structure of the TT that should be as

close as possible to the ST.

5. Theories of Back Translation

  In a study of Questionnaires in Translation by Janet A. Harkness and

Alicia Schoua-Glusberg (1998), they point out that back translation is considered

a translation assessment tool/procedure instead of a translation method. It involves

the translation of a text, which itself is a translation, back into the original/source

language and it is most commonly used and recommended as a way to assess

translation work (Werner and Campbell (1970).

  According to Harkness and Glusberg, back translation functions as a way

to compare/contrast and assess the back translation with the source text so that the

quality of a translation can be revealed. They provide the steps or methods of back

translation, which are:

  

a. A source text in one language (Source Language Text One, SLT1) is translated

into another language (Target Language Text, TLT).

  

b. The TLT is translated back into the language of SLT1 by a second translator,

unfamiliar with the SLT1 and uninformed that there is an SLT1. This second

translation, the back translation, is SLT2.

  c. SLT1 is compared to SLT2.

  

d. On the basis of differences or similarities between SLT1 and SLT2,

conclusions are drawn about the equivalence of TLT to SLT1.

  The more identical SLT1 and SLT2 are, the greater the equivalence

between the TLT and the SLT1 is considered to be. It implies that the quality of

the translation is good. In the case of the prepositions above, beyond, and over, to

assess whether their back translations are equivalent or not, it is necessary to look

at their meanings or messages they carry both in the original source texts and their

back translations.

C. Theoretical Framework

  This study aims at answering the problems that have been stated

previously. In this part, the application of the theories on the study will be

explained. Theories on spatial relationships, the meanings of preposition, and

theories on types of Indonesian preposition are applicable to answer the first

problem question. There are four theories of preposition applied in this study.

They are the Prototype Theory by Geeraets (1989), Prepositional Meanings in A

Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language by Randolph Quirk, Sidney

  

Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik, and theories on Type of Indonesian

Preposition by Alwi, and Ramlan. Prototype Theory and Prepositional Meanings

in A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language are applied to determine

the meanings and expressions the prepositions above, beyond, and over carry,

while theories on Type of Indonesian Preposition by Alwi, and Ramlan are bases

for the writer to compare the meanings of the prepositions above, beyond, and

over after they are translated into Indonesian.

  The second question deals with the effects of the translation equivalence

of English prepositions above, beyond, and over which have been translated into

Indonesian back to the original language. The Theory of Equivalence by Nida and

Taber (1992) and Theory of Back Translation by Janet A. Harkness and Alicia

Schoua-Glusberg (1998) are applicable to assess the back translations'

equivalence since the definition of equivalence and back translation are required

as the basic understanding of the topic being discussed in this study.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Areas of Research In the field of translation studies, the current study applies the research

  

area of text analysis and translation which focuses on classifying and analyzing

the prepositions above, beyond, and over in the City of Ember as the source text

and their translations in Indonesian. These Indonesian translations will later be

translated back into English by some chosen respondents to find out whether or

not they exhibit good equivalence with their original texts.

B. Object of the Study

  The objects analyzed in this study are the English prepositions above, , and over in the Kindle (E-book) version of beyond

  Jeanne DuPrau’s City of Ember which was published in 2003 by Random House Children’s Books and

their Indonesian version which was translated by Sujatrini, Reno, and Rien

  Chaerani and published by Mizan Fantasi in 2009.

  Jeanne DuPrau’s City of Ember is a work of science fiction that is very powerful because it taps into one of humans ’ biggest fears, darkness. It is written

in 18 chapters and it was first published in 2003. The writer of the book portrays a

dying and isolated city surrounded by darkness. The two young characters, Lina

Mayfleet and Doon Harrow, are trying to save their lives and the people of Ember

by finding a way to leave their undergrounded city that is breaking down.

  C. Method of the Study The methods used in this study were both field and library research.

  

Library research was required to get all information through books and websites

about the focus of the study, including the theories relevant to the study. As part

of the library research, the writer read not only both the English and Indonesian

versions of City of Ember, but also a number of related studies and theories. The

knowledge gained from this process provided a strong foundation to construct the

survey to support the results of the study.

  The field research was employed in the form of a survey using the back

translation method to determine the equivalence of the English prepositions

above, beyond , and over, which were translated into Indonesian, with their

original texts. The respondents of this study were foreign students from speaking

English countries (specifically USA, Australia, and England), who have good

comprehension of Indonesian.

  The data in this study were primary data, meaning no data were taken

from other studies. The writer collected the data consisting of the English

prepositions above, beyond, and over and their translations only from the work of

City of Ember written by Jeanne DuPrau and its Indonesian version.

  D. Research Procedure 1. Types of Data The data in this study were divided into two groups:

  a. Objective Data The objective data were taken from Kindle (E-book) version of Jeanne

DuPrau’s City of Ember and its Indonesian translation. The original work was

published in 2003 by Random House Children’s Books. The work of fiction is

270 pages long. The Indonesian version of City of Ember was translated by

Sujatrini, Reno, and Rien Chaerani and published by Mizan Fantasi in 2009 and is

312 pages long.

  The data consisted of the English prepositions above, beyond, and over in

the form of prepositional phrases found in City of Ember. The total number of the

data points from this work was 108, which were divided into 13 data points with

the preposition above, 14 data points with the preposition beyond, and 81 data

points with the preposition over. All of these data points are in the form of

prepositional phrases only.

  b. Affective Data The affective data were the information gained from the respondents

through a questionnaire (Sutopo, 2002: 20). They were collected to determine the

equivalence of the prepositions above, beyond, and over with their original texts.

  In order to get the affective data, the writer conducted a survey with five

respondents. The purpose of the survey was to collect the back translation data.

  

The respondents were five native English speakers who learn and comprehend

both English and Indonesian so that the back translations they performed were

considered qualified. They came from different backgrounds, ages, and

nationalities. They were coded as R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5. R1 was a student and

  

also a teacher from the USA; R2 was a student from the USA; R3 was a British

student; R4 was an Australian student; and R5 was a student from the USA. They

were asked to translate 20 data points chosen from Indonesian back into English.

2. Data Collection

  In the study, data were collected in two methods; document analysis and field survey via questionnaire.

a. Document Analysis In collecting data for this study, the writer started with reading activity.

  The materials in this reading process were the E-b ook version of Jeanne DuPrau’s

fiction, City of Ember, and the Indonesian translation of City of Ember. First, all

data containing prepositions above, beyond, and over in the source text were

highlighted. The writer searched for their Indonesian translations and highlighted

them as well.

  The writer then identified the highlighted data that were related to the

topic in the study (prepositions that form prepositional phrase only) and classified

them into three different groups of prepositions. Next, the writer typed all data and

gave a number to each data point.

  For example, the data from the group with preposition above would be presented like in the table below.

  

Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text

  At least then she Setidaknya dia dapat

1/ST/Abv/1/12 1/TT/Abv/1/14

  could have stayed tinggal di atas tanah,

  above ground, with

  dengan ruang yang space and people luas dan orang-orang around her. di sekelilingnya

  

Table 1. The Example of the Group of Data with Preposition above In the numbering assigned to datum 1/ST/Abv/1/12, ‘1’ means the first data of all, ‘ST’ means it was data from the Source Text, ‘Abv’ referred to above, meaning it was data with the preposition above, and the other ‘1’ there means the first data from the group with the preposition above , while ‘12’ is the page where

the data was taken from. The numbering for datum 1/TT/Abv/1/14 has the same

explanation, except for the ‘TT’ there, which means Target Text.

b. Survey

  The following method in collecting the data was field survey. After all

data both in English and Indonesian were collected and mapped, the writer

conducted a survey with some English native speakers as the respondents and

asked them to translate the 20 selected Indonesian data points back into English.

  

The results of the survey, based on the theory applied, were used to look at the

equivalence of the English prepositions above, beyond, and over to their originals

through the reverse translation method.

3. Population and Sample

  The populations of this study were the prepositions above, beyond, and

over at the prepositional phrase level found in the Indonesian translation of City of

Ember by Sujatrini, Reno, and Rien Chaerani. The total population size is 108

data points. Next, 20 samples were purposively selected from the population for

analysis. They were chosen not based on the amount of data but to represent each

form of those English prepositions’ translations. This sample selection is called

internal sampling (Sutopo, 2002: 55) because qualitative research is concerned

with emphasizing deep and complete information rather than the amount of data.

4. Data Validity

  In order to guarantee the data validity, especially in the second problem,

triangulation techniques were done in this study. According to Metodologi

Penelitian Kualitatif: Dasar Teori dan Terapannya dalam Penelitian proposed by

Sutopo (2002: 78), the triangulation techniques applied in this study were source

triangulation and methodological triangulation.

  Source triangulation is a technique having or involving more than one

respondent to analyze, assess, or collect the same qualitative data. This was done

by presenting samples of the data chosen in a survey form and distributing them to

five respondents. They were asked to translate the data into Indonesian. The

survey involved participants from different backgrounds, though they all are

native speakers of English who have studied Indonesian. The fact that data

translated by different respondents produced different results led the writer to

attempt to find out the reasons for the differences. The following diagram

describes the application of source triangulation.

  R1, United States, Student, Teacher R2, United States, Student Sources R3, Britain, Student R4, Australia, Student

  R5, United States, Student Figure 2. The Diagram of Source Triangulation Methodological triangulation is a technique in qualitative research that

uses more than one method in collecting, assessing, or analyzing the same data.

  

The two methods applied in this study were survey and content analysis. In the

first method, the writer conducted a survey done by five respondents to find out

the equivalence of Indonesian prepositions in English. In the second method, the

writer compared and analyzed the results of the survey using some existing

theories about English prepositions. The following diagram explains the

application of methodological triangulation in this study.

  Document Analysis Methods

Survey

  

Figure 3. The Diagram of Methodological Triangulation

5.

   Data Analysis The data analysis was conducted on both the English and Indonesian versions of Jeanne DuPrau’s City of Ember. To answer the first problem, the

writer read the English version of the work and identified all the prepositional

phrases with the prepositions above, beyond, and over found in the E-book.

Similar steps were also done for the target text of City of Ember . The writer read

the book and mapped all the translations of the English data with the prepositions

above, beyond, and over from the source text. This process of mapping required

some additional activities such as dividing the data into three groups

  • – groups of

    data with the prepositions above, beyond, and over, and identifying the

relationships and expressions each preposition carries in each data point. In identifying the meanings of the preposition, it required looking at two other elements following and preceding it. They are presented in the form of tables. The writer then identified what categories determine the translations or why they are translated such a way based on the existing theories on Indonesian prepositions, before they are mapped and put into the table of translation mapping.

  

Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text

  1/ST/Abv/1/12 At least then she could have stayed

  above ground, with

  space and people around her.

  1/TT/Abv/1/14 Setidaknya dia dapat tinggal di atas tanah, dengan ruang yang luas dan orang-orang di sekelilingnya. 2/ST/Abv/2/17 On the street level were shops; above the shops were the apartments where people lived.

  2/TT/Abv/2/19 Di pinggir jalan terdapat toko-toko; di

  atas toko-toko ada

  apartemen tempat orang-orang tinggal.

  Table 2. The Example of the Group of Data with Preposition above Before going to the final mapping, the writer analyzed the meaning each

preposition carries. It is analyzed based on the other elements or words that structure

the sentence or phrase and also based on some existing theories on preposition.

Below is the example of the table of the meanings of preposition above.

  Number of Data Object precede the preposition Preposition Object follow the preposition Meaning

  1/ST/Abv/1/12

  Stayed above Ground On top of

  2/ST/Abv/2/17

  The apartments above The shops On top of

  Table 3. The Example of the Meanings of Preposition above The example of final mapping table of prepositions above, in Indonesian is presented in the form of the following table.

  English Indonesian Number of Data Indonesian Word Preposition Translation Class Above Di atas 1/TT/Abv/1/14 Preposition

  

Table 4. The Example of the Translation Mapping of Preposition above

In order to answer the second problem, the writer conducted a survey by

giving a form containing 20 selected Indonesian data points to five native English

respondents and asked them to translate the data back into English. The writer

then collected the survey forms, put them in the table, examined the results, and

discussed whether the equivalence is the same or different based on the theories

used.

  As the writer mentioned above, before analyzing the equivalence of back

translations that have been collected, the writer first put them in the form of table

as follows.

  

Number of R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 Above Beyond Over

Data 36/TT/Ovr/9/38 Over

  • - - Over Over Over Over

  5 32/TT/Ovr/5/21 Over Over Over Over Beyond -

  1

  4

  5

  • - - 5/TT/Abv/5/51 Above Above Above Above Above

  

Table 5. The Example of the Result of Back Translation

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The analysis in this study is divided into two main sections. Some tables

  

preceded by their explanation are required in the first section and one single table

that is directly followed by the discussion is required in the second section.

  The first section is mapping of the translation of English data contain

prepositions above, beyond, and over in Indonesian. It is divided into three sub

sections or groups, translation mapping of preposition above, preposition beyond,

and preposition over. Each sub section contains three tables preceded by the

description or explanation of what each table is about. The data are specified only

in the form of prepositional phrases which are taken from

  Jeanne DuPrau‘s

fictional work City of Ember. The total populations of the data are 108, including

13 data points with the preposition above, 14 with the preposition beyond, and 81

data points with the preposition over.

  The second section, as the writer mentioned above in one way of

collecting the data, is conducting a survey completed by some English native

speakers who have studied Indonesian. They are asked to translate 20 selected

Indonesian data points back into English. From the results of the survey, the

writer focuses on analyzing prepositions they choose and the meanings and

messages these prepositions carry in each data point. The writer collects these

  

translated data from respondents, puts them into a table, and examines their

equivalence to their original source texts.

A. Translation Mapping of Prepositions above, beyond and over in Indonesian

  Based on the data collection of the study the writer mentioned

previously, in the mapping process, the writer divides all the populations of data

found into three groups

  • – data containing the preposition above, beyond, and over

    from the source text and their Indonesian translations. The writer then identifies

    the relationships and expressions those prepositions carry in each data point, both

    in source and target text. The identification of their relationships and expressions

    is based on two existing theories on prepositions, a prototype theory from

    Geeraerts and a theory of prepositional meanings by Quirk et al. The specific

    translation of the prepositions is what the writer calls mapping, which are also

    presented in the form of tables.

1. Translation Mapping and the Meanings of Preposition above

  There are 13 data points with the preposition above found in the fictional

work City of Ember and all of them are translated into the same word in

Indonesian, di atas. In the table below, the writer puts one example of datum with

preposition above both in ST and TT.

  

Preposition Number Source Text Number Target Text

of Data of Data Above 1/ST/Abv/1 At least then she 1/TT/Abv/1 Setidaknya dia dapat

  /12 could have stayed /14 tinggal di atas tanah, above ground, with dengan ruang yang space and people luas dan orang-orang around her. di sekelilingnya.

  

Table 6. The Group of Data with Preposition above The meaning of prepositions in English cannot be captured in one or

more core definitions consisting of a set of necessary and sufficient attributes (cf.

  

Taylor 1988: 300-301), as they are prototypically structured polysemous lexical

categories. Based on Geeraerts ‘ prototype theory (2007: 168), there are four

hypotheses which concern prototype, one of them being referential. It deals with

the attributes or senses shared by the elements (words) that precede or follow the

preposition. The reference for preposition above according to Quirk et al. (1985:

666) is relative position. In those 13 data points, the preposition above expresses

the relative position vertically (vertical position) of two objects, one being that

represented by its complement. Combining both theories, the meanings of these

13 data points with the preposition above are presented in the table below.

  Number of Data Object precede the preposition Preposition Object follow the preposition Meaning

1/ST/Abv/1/12 Stayed above Ground On top of

(vertical position)

2/ST/Abv/2/17 The apartments above The shops On top of

(vertical position)

  

3/ST/Abv/3/26 Shelves above The refrigerator On top of

(vertical position)

4/ST/Abv/4/44 Storerooms above That On top of

(vertical position)

  5/ST/Abv/5/45 tons of earth and rock and buildings above Him On top of

  (vertical position)

6/ST/Abv/6/90 The shelf above The coatrack On top of

(vertical position) 7/ST/Abv/7/115 a foot above his upstretched hand On top of

  (vertical position)

  Number of Data Object precede the preposition Preposition Object follow the preposition Meaning

8/ST/Abv/8/136 The space above The buildings On top of

(vertical position) 9/ST/Abv/9/167 Shelves full of bottles of seeds above The table On top of

  (vertical position)

10/ST/Abv/10/239 Space above Her On top of

(vertical position)

11/ST/Abv/11/240 Appeared above It On top of

(vertical position)

  

12/ST/Abv/12/242 Ten feet above Their heads On top of

(vertical position) 13/ST/Abv/13/255 the silver circle above the highest branch of the tall plant.

  On top of (vertical position)

  

Table 7. The Meanings of Preposition above

In Indonesian, According to Alwi, et.al (1998: 288), Prepositions are

divided into two main types, Simple Preposition (Kata Depan Sejati) and

  

Complex Preposition (Kata Depan Majemuk). They are used to indicate a relation

of meaning between the front constituent and the back constituent. Di- is a simple

preposition that indicates place, while di atas is a complex preposition that is

formed of a simple preposition and an adverb of place. According to Ramlan

(1987: 63-71), the preposition di shows a stative location, while according to

Muslich (2010), the preposition di expresses the spatial relationship of place or

location where the object is located.

  Based on the theories of preposition from both sides, English and

Indonesian, prepositions above and di atas in those 13 data share similar

  

relationships and meanings. They both express spatial relationships and indicate a

place, vertical position, and location.

  From 13 data points with the preposition above found in the fictional

work City of Ember, all of them are translated into the same word in Indonesian,

di atas. Since all of the data are translated into the same Indonesian preposition, in

the translation mapping of preposition above below, the writer just present one of

them.

  English Preposition Indonesian Translation Number of Data Indonesian Word Class Above Di atas

  1/TT/Abv/1/14 Preposition

Table 8. The Translation Mapping of Preposition above

2.

   Translation Mapping and the Meanings of Preposition beyond Data with preposition beyond found in the work City of Ember are 14.

  

They are translated into several different words in Indonesian. In the table of the

group of data with preposition beyond below, the writer only presents some of

them that represent each case of the translation.

  Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Beyond 15/ST/Byn/ 2/25

  She had stood at the edge of the trash heaps and gazed into the darkness beyond the city —the Unknown Regions.

  15/TT/Byn/ 2/28 Dia telah berdiri di tepian tempat pembuangan sampah dan memandang ke kegelapan di luar kota —Daerah Tak Diketahui.

  16/ST/Byn/ 3/36 Maybe from there it would be possible to see beyond the city, into the Unknown Regions.

  16/TT/Byn/ 3/40 Mungkin dari sana dia akan bisa melihat ke luar area kota, ke Daerah Tak Diketahui.

  Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Beyond 20/ST/Byn/

  7/62 Out beyond the trash heaps, a figure appeared.

  20/TT/Byn/7 /71 Dari balik tumpukan sampah, muncul sesosok manusia.

  21/ST/Byn/ 8/94 The chewed bits were beyond saving —they were almost a paste.

  21/TT/Byn/8 /104 Potongan-potongan yang dikunyah tak dapat diselamatkan — potongan itu sudah seperti gumpalan lem.* 23/ST/Byn/

  10/244 But a few steps farther along, she found she could stand up straight again, and a few steps beyond that she turned a corner ,…

  23/TT/Byn/1 0/270 Namun, beberapa langkah di depan, Lina ternyata bisa kembali berdiri tegak, dan beberapa langkah sesudahnya dia melewati sebuah sudut,…

  25/ST/Byn/ 12/253 Down the slope was a tumble of dark, rounded shapes, and then another slope rose beyond that.

  25/TT/Byn/1 2/280 Di bawah lereng terdapat wujud- wujud gelap dan bulat, dan kemudian ada tanjakan lain di atasnya.

  26/ST/Byn/ 13/268 A few feet beyond their shoes was a sheer, dizzying drop.

  26/TT/Byn/1 3/299 Beberapa meter di depan kaki mereka tampak sebuah jurang terjal yang memusingkan.

  Table 9. The Group of Data with Preposition beyond To find out the meaning and relationship the preposition beyond carries

in those 14 data points, it is necessary to see other words that structure them.

  

Quirk et al. mention the references of the preposition beyond (1985: 666) and

determine its meanings seen from the relation of the semantic categories to their

usual syntactic functions (1985: 673). References for the preposition beyond are

orientation (on the far side of) and exception (except (for)). Geeraerts and Taylor

have stated in their Prototype Theory that prepositions cannot be described by

  

their polysemous senses and meanings alone because those might be different in

different contexts. Geeraerts points out four hypotheses which concern prototype:

physiological, referential, statistical, and psychological. Combining these two

theories, the meanings of 14 data with preposition beyond above, are presented in

the following table.

  

Number of Data Object Preposition Object follow Meaning

precede the the

preposition preposition

  14/ST/Byn/1/25 The darkness Beyond Ember Location, outside of (referential) 15/ST/Byn/2/25 The darkness Beyond The city Location, outside of (referential)

  17/ST/Byn/4/36 The lighted Beyond Harken Square Location, windows of outside of the buildings (referential) 18/ST/Byn/5/36 Nothing Beyond Them Location outside of (physiological sense) 27/ST/Byn/14/269 Immense Beyond The edges Location, outside of darkness (referential)

  

19/ST/Byn/6/58 Nothing Beyond The trash Location, on the

other side of heaps (referential) 25/ST/Byn/12/253 Rose Beyond That Location, On top of (referential)

  26/ST/Byn/13/268 A few feet Beyond Their shoes Position, in front of (physiological sense)

  16/ST/Byn/3/36 To see Beyond The city Direction, outside of (physiological sense)

  20/ST/Byn/7/62 Out Beyond The trash The source direction, from heaps the other side of

  Number of Data Object precede the preposition Preposition Object follow the preposition Meaning 21/ST/Byn/8/94 The chewed bits

  Beyond Saving Out of reach from (psychological sense)

  22/ST/Byn/9/174 Out Beyond Ember Movement/ direction to the outside of (referential)

  23/ST/Byn/10/244 A few steps Beyond That After (psychological sense) 24/ST/Byn/11/252 a land vast and spacious Beyond Any of their dreams Far from

  (psychological sense)

Table 10. The Meanings of Preposition beyond

  While in Indonesian, based on Alwi, et.al (1998: 288), Prepositions are

divided into two main types, Simple Preposition (Kata Depan Sejati) and

Complex Preposition (Kata Depan Majemuk). They are used to indicate a relation

of meaning between the front constituent and the back constituent. Di-, ke-, and

dari- are simple prepositions that indicate place, while ke luar, di luar, dari balik,

di atas , and di depan are complex prepositions that are formed of simple

prepositions and adverb of places.

  According to Ramlan (1987: 63-71), the preposition di shows a stative

location and the preposition ke- shows the direction or movement to a targeted

location, while according to Muslich (2010) the preposition di expresses the

spatial relationship of place or location where the object is located. The

preposition ke shows the spatial relationship of direction into a location or

position, and the preposition dari also has spatial relationship that shows the

source direction or location and sometimes possession.

  There are two data points with the preposition above that are translated ) ).

into tak dapat (21/TT/Byn/8/104 and sesudah (23/TT/Byn/10/270 Seen from

what Alwi and Ramlan state about Indonesian prepositions, both tak dapat and

sesudah are not included in their theories but based on the theories of preposition

from both sides, English and Indonesian, the translations of preposition beyond

into ke luar, di luar, dari balik, tak dapat, sesudah, di atas, and di depan in those

14 data points shared similar relationships and meanings. They both express

spatial relationships, orientation, and indicate a place or location, movement, and

source direction.

  Prepositional phrases with the preposition beyond found in the work City

of Ember form 14 data points. They are translated into several different words in

Indonesian such as ke luar (3 data), di luar (6 data), dari balik (1 datum), tak

dapat (1 datum), sesudah (1 datum), di atas (1 datum), and di depan (1 datum). In

the table of translation mapping of preposition beyond below, when preposition

above is translated into same word in several data, the writer only presents one of

them.

  Number of Data English Indonesian Indonesian Word Preposition Translation Class 16/TT/Byn/3/40

  Ke luar Preposition 14/TT/Byn/1/28

  Di luar Preposition 20/TT/Byn/7/71

  Dari balik Preposition 21/TT/Byn/8/104

  Tak dapat Modal Beyond

  23/TT/Byn/10/270 Sesudah Preposition

  25/TT/Byn/12/280 Di atas Preposition

  26/TT/Byn/13/299 Di depan Preposition

  

Table 11. The Translation Mapping of Preposition beyond

3. Translation Mapping and the Meanings of Preposition over

  The total number of the data with preposition over found in the fiction City of Ember are 81 and are translated into several different classes of word, suffix

  • i,

    and in some cases they are not translated. Below is the table of the group of data

    with preposition over and each case of its translation is represented by one data

    only in the table.

  1/4 When the lights were on, they cast a yellowish glow over the streets;…

  28/TT/Ovr/ 1/4 Ketika menyala, lampu-lampu itu memancarkan sinar kekuning-kuningan sepanjang jalan;… 29/ST/Ovr/

  2/6 … to cast the shadow of your head over the page you were writing on.

  29/TT/Ovr/ 2/7 …membuat bayangan kepalamu muncul di lembar yang sedang kau tulis.

  30/ST/Ovr/ 3/18 She leapt over cracks and potholes.

  30/TT/Ovr/ 3/20 Dia melompati celah dan lubang jalan.

  Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Over 28/ST/Ovr/

  32/TT/Ovr/ 5/21 ―Aku bisa lompat kodok melewati tempat sampah!‖ 33/ST/Ovr/

  6/21 Lina lived in Quillium Square, over the yarn shop run by her grandmother.

  33/TT/Ovr/ 6/24 Lina tinggal di Alun-Alun Quillium, di atas toko benang yang dikelola oleh neneknya.

  34/ST/Ovr/ 7/29 Now here was Mrs.

  Polster again, looming over Lina and pronouncing her message.

  34/TT/Ovr/ 7/33 Sekarang Lina kembali bersama Bu Polster, yang sedang berdiri di dekat Lina dan melafalkan pesannya.

  47/ST/Ovr/ 20/85 Fear had settled over the city.

  47/TT/Ovr/ 22/95 Rasa takut meliputi segenap kota.

  32/ST/Ovr/ 5/19 ―I can leapfrog over the trash can!‖

  Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Over 72/ST/Ovr/ 45/182

  He lay on his stomach next to the rock and inched forward until his head hung out over the edge of the path.

  72/TT/Ovr/ 48/200 Dia tengkurap ke dekat batu dan beringsut ke depan hingga kepalanya menjulur ke luar pinggiran jalan setapak.

  76/ST/Ovr/ 49/184 She unfolded it, and Doon looked over her shoulder.

  76/TT/Ovr/ 52/203 Dia membuka lipatannya, dan Doon mengintip dari belakang bahunya.

  91/ST/Ovr/ 64/220 There was a crash —someone must have fallen over the toppled chair or table.

  91/TT/Ovr/ 68/243 Ada suara benturan —pasti ada yang jatuh tersandung kursi atau meja yang terjungkal.

  105/ST/Ovr /78/264 A city with trouble, where people argued over solutions.

  105/TT/Ov r/82/293 Sebuah kota dengan masalah, di mana orang-orang berdebat mencari solusi.

  106/ST/Ovr /79/265 Poppy went to sleep, but Lina and Doon sat looking out over the land.

  106/TT/Ov r/83/295 Poppy tertidur, Lina dan Doon duduk sambil melihat ke arah dataran.

  

Table 12. The Group of Data with Preposition over

The meanings and relationships of the preposition over in those data are

various. To identify them, it is necessary to see other words that structure them.

  

As Geeraerts and Taylor have stated in their Prototype Theory, prepositions

cannot be described by their polysemous senses and meanings alone because those

might be different in different contexts.

  According to Quirk et al. (1985: 666), the preposition over has various

references and senses such as relative position (vertical position), relative

destination, passage (with verbs of motion, it expresses movement towards and

  

destination), static pervasive, motion pervasive, accompanying circumstances,

‗more than,‘ duration, and subject matter (on the object of, concerning, about).

  9 Swept Over Her Pervasive (covering) 61/ST/Ovr/34/15

  (movement) 57/ST/Ovr/30/12

  Passage, resultative 32/ST/Ovr/5/19 Leapfrog Over The trash can Passage

  56 Washed Over The land Pervasive 30/ST/Ovr/3/18 Leapt Over Cracks and potholes

  62 Swept Over The silver hills Pervasive, orientation 100/ST/Ovr/73/2

  4 All Over The city Pervasive 103/ST/Ovr/76/2

  2 All Over The table Pervasive (covering) 85/ST/Ovr/58/20

  8 Passed Over Doon‘s face Pervasive (covering) 83/ST/Ovr/56/20

  5 Came Over His face Pervasive 60/ST/Ovr/33/13

  The meanings and senses of preposition over based on Prototype theory and Quirk are classified as in the table below.

  56/ST/Ovr/29/12

  47/ST/Ovr/20/85 Had settled Over The city Pervasive 48/ST/Ovr/21/98 Came Over Her face Pervasive, covering

  Over The course of Ember‘s history Pervasive 45/ST/Ovr/18/77 Came Over Her Pervasive

  41/ST/Ovr/14/59 Washed Over Her Pervasive 42/ST/Ovr/15/66 Various clever people

  Over The page Pervasive (Covering) 37/ST/Ovr/10/39 Looking out Over The whole city Pervasive

  (Along-above) 29/ST/Ovr/2/6 The shadow of your head

  Number of Data Object precede the preposition Preposition Object follow the preposition Meaning 28/ST/Ovr/1/4 Glow Over The street Pervasive

  9 Stepped Over The rope Passage

  Number of Data Object precede the preposition Preposition Object follow the preposition Meaning 71/ST/Ovr/44/18

  31/ST/Ovr/4/18 Draped Over Their arms Relative position (above) 33/ST/Ovr/6/21 Quillium Square Over The yarn shop Relative position (above)

  46/ST/Ovr/19/77 Hovered Over The pencils Relative position (above) 49/ST/Ovr/22/99 A hand Over Her heart Relative position (around) 51/ST/Ovr/24/10

  43/ST/Ovr/16/68 Drew together Over Her eyes Relative position (above) 44/ST/Ovr/17/76 Bent Over The pencils Relative position (above)

  Relative position (above) 38/ST/Ovr11/46 His hands Over His ears Relative position (Covering)

  36/ST/Ovr/9/34 Bent Over The book of The City of Ember

  His father‘s shop Relative position (above)

  40/ST/Ovr/13/49 Two-bedroom apartment Over

  34/ST/Ovr/7/29 Looming Over Lina Relative position (around, near)

  57 Roamed Over The green- coated slopes Passage

  1 A finger Over Their convoluted surface

  6 Out Over The water Passage 102/ST/Ovr/75/2

  8 Came down Over His eyes Passage 94/ST/Ovr/67/23

  9 Dropped Over He ledge Passage 88/ST/Ovr/61/21

  3 Himself Over The rock Passage 77/ST/Ovr/50/18

  Relative position (above) 74/ST/Ovr/47/18

  7 Her hands Over The narrow ridge of her grandmother‘s body Passage,

  Passage 58/ST/Ovr/31/13

  3 His fingers Over What we‘ve written Relative position (above)

  Number of Data Object precede the preposition Preposition Object follow the preposition Meaning 52/ST/Ovr/25/10

  4 It Over Their heads Relative position (above) 82/ST/Ovr/55/20

  56 Arched Over Them Relative position (above) 107/ST/Ovr/80/2

  4 Spread out Over Their heads Relative position (above) 101/ST/Ovr/74/2

  1 High Over Their heads Relative position (above) 99/ST/Ovr/72/25

  Fallen Over the toppled chair or table Relative position 97/ST/Ovr/70/25

  3 Slung Over His shoulder Relative position 91/ST/Ovr/64/22

  2 Draped Over The back of a chair Relative position 84/ST/Ovr/57/20

  78/ST/Ovr/51/19

  6 The piece of paper Over The pasted- down scraps Relative position (Covering, above) 54/ST/Ovr/27/11

  4 Rubbed a hand Over His chin Relative position (around)

  4 Higher Over His eyes Relative position (above) 64/ST/Ovr/37/16

  63/ST/Ovr/36/16

  62/ST/Ovr/35/16 Dipping Over Sideways Relative position

  8 Part of the blanket Over Her lap Relative position (Covering), relative destination

  Instructions Relative position (Covering, above) 59/ST/Ovr/32/13

  2 The plain sheet of paper Over The

  67 Out Over His hands Relative position, pervasive

  Number of Data Object precede the preposition Preposition Object follow the preposition Meaning 55/ST/Ovr/28/11

  6 Dawdled Over His breakfast Orientation 80/ST/Ovr/53/19

  1 Driven Over It Orientation 104/ST/Ovr/77/2

  1 Watching Over Us Orientation 98/ST/Ovr/71/25

  96/ST/Ovr/69/25

  9 Knocked Over The table Orientation 92/ST/Ovr/65/22 Peered out Over the swarm of people Orientation

  9 Knocking Over Her chair Orientation 90/ST/Ovr/63/21

  Orientation 89/ST/Ovr/62/21

  9 A shadow Over the thrill of going to the new city

  6 The blind Over The window Orientation 87/ST/Ovr/60/20

  9 Towered Over Her Orientation 86/ST/Ovr/59/20

  9 Looking out Over The square Orientation 81/ST/Ovr/54/19

  4 Looked Over Her shoulder Orientation 79/ST/Ovr/52/19

  8 Written Over The years Duration 39/ST/Ovr/12/46 All Over The room Duration 50/ST/Ovr/23/10

  76/ST/Ovr/49/18

  5 Bending Over The glued down fragments Orientation

  4 Crouched Over The page Orientation 70/ST/Ovr/43/17

  3 Bent Over The document Orientation 69/ST/Ovr/42/17

  68/ST/Ovr/41/17

  9 Puzzled Over The patchwork of scraps Orientation

  67/ST/Ovr/40/16

  8 Hovered Over The colored pencils Orientation

  5 Glanced Over Her shoulder Orientation 66/ST/Ovr/39/16

  7 Pored Over It Orientation 65/ST/Ovr/38/16

  3 Looks Over Our shoulders Orientation 35/ST/Ovr/8/30 Watching Over Us Orientation 53/ST/Ovr/26/10

  64 Out Over The hills Orientation

  Object Number of Data Object follow precede the Preposition Meaning the preposition preposition 106/ST/Ovr/79/2

  Orientation, Out Over The land

  65 pervasive 108/ST/Ovr/81/2

  Looking Over The edge Orientation

  69

72/ST/Ovr/45/18 The edge of the Excess (pass,

Out Over

  2 path more than) 73/ST/Ovr/46/18

  Excess (pass, Her head Over The edge

  2 more than) 75/ST/Ovr/48/18 Excess (more Dangle Over The edge

  3 than) 93/ST/Ovr/66/23 Excess (pass, Hanging Over The edge

  5 more then)

95/ST/Ovr/68/24 The edge of the Excess (pass,

  Foot Over

  3 boat more then) On the object

  105/ST/Ovr/78/2 of, Argued Over Solutions

  64 concerning, about

  

Table 13. The Meanings of Preposition over

Based on the map of the preposition over in Indonesian, there are some

cases in which they are translated into different classes of word, and some of them

are even untranslated. However, they still carry the same meanings with their

source texts. 39 of 81 data with preposition over are translated into several

different Indonesian prepositions, sepanjang, di, melalui, ke atas, ke luar, di atas,

di dekat , ke, selama, ke arah, segenap, dari, and dari belakang. As Alwi, et.al

(1998: 288) mention, the Indonesian prepositions di-, ke-, and dari- are simple

prepositions that indicates place, while ke luar, di luar, dari balik, di atas, and di

depan are complex prepositions that are formed of simple prepositions and adverb

of places. According to Ramlan (1987: 63-71), the preposition di shows a stative

location, preposition ke- shows the direction or movement to a targeted location,

while according to Muslich (2010) the preposition di expresses the spatial

  

relationship of place or location where the object is located. The preposition ke

shows the spatial relationship of direction into a location or position, and

preposition dari also has spatial relationship that shows the source direction or

location and sometimes possession. There are some words that are not included in

the types of preposition mentioned by Alwi and Ramlan, sepanjang, melalui,

selama , and segenap, but when they are applied in the data, they carry similar

meanings to their source texts.

  There are 18 prepositions over which are translated into verbs, melewati,

menaungi , meliputi, menutupi, memandangi, memandang, menekuni, menekuri,

tersandung , mengamati, mendekati, mencari, and melihat. In Bahasa Indonesia,

according to James Neil Sneddon in Indonesian Reference Grammar,

memandang, mencari and melihat are simple transitive verbs that have verb bases

but have no affixes other than one of the voice affixes men- if active and di- if

passive (1990: 68). As transitive verbs, they express actions toward or over the

objects followed the verbs. He also stated that melewati, menaungi, meliputi,

menutupi , memandangi, menekuni, menekuri, mengamati, and mendekati are

transitive verbs with suffix

  • –i that have the most common function to indicate that

  

the object is the place where the action occurs or the person or place to which the

action is directed (1990: 84). The verb tersandung, according to Sneddon, is also a

transitive verb that behaves like intransitive verbs except it explicitly states that

the subject undergoes something unintended, the action often occurring suddenly

and unexpectedly (1990: 114). The meanings all these verbs have including

movement, passage excess (pass/more than), relative position (location) above,

  

covering, orientation, concerning or about. This means that even though they

change from prepositions in English into verbs in Indonesian, the meanings and

expression they carry remained the same.

  There are 8 prepositions over which are translated into Indonesian suffix

  • i. Similar to the case in which the English preposition over translated into

    Indonesian verbs, when it is translated into Indonesian suffix
  • i that is attached to

    a verb, it will form a transitive verb that requires an object. Further, it shows a

    meaning that the following object is a location of the action (Snodder, 1990: 84).

  Based on the mapping of the preposition over into Indonesian above,

there are 16 data points in which the prepositions are untranslated. Though the

English prepositions in these data were untranslated, the relationships and the

meanings of these data are still the same with their source texts. They can be

determined by analyzing the words that structure the whole sentences.

  The translations mapping of preposition over in Indonesian are sepanjang

(2 data), di (9 data), melewati (7 data), menaungi (1 datum), -i (8 data), menutupi

(1 datum), memandang (1 datum), menekuni (1 datum), menekuri (2 data),

tersandung (1 datum), mengamati (1 datum), mendekati (1 datum), melalui (2

data), ke atas (2 data), ke luar (2 data), di atas (11 data), di dekat (1 datum), ke (4

data), selama (1 datum), ke arah (2 data), mencari (1 datum), segenap (1 data),

dari (1 datum), dari belakang (1 datum), and melihat (1 datum). From 81 data, the

preposition over is not translated in 16 of them. Like in the case of two other

prepositions, above and beyond, when preposition over is translated into the same

Indonesian word in several data, only one of them is presented in the table.

  • -i

  68/TT/Ovr/41/182 Preposition Ke atas

  79/TT/Ovr/52/203 Preposition Melihat

  52/TT/Ovr/25/114 Preposition Dari belakang

  49/TT/Ovr/22/95 Preposition Dari

  109/TT/Ovr/82/293 Verb Segenap

  96/TT/Ovr/69/244 Preposition Mencari

  57/TT/Ovr/30/130 Preposition Ke arah

  51/TT/Ovr/24/109 Preposition Selama

  34/TT/Ovr/7/33 Preposition Ke

  36/TT/Ovr/9/38 Preposition Di dekat

  75/TT/Ovr/48/200 Preposition Di atas

  61/TT/Ovr/34/152 Preposition Ke luar

  92/TT/Ovr/65/242 Verb Melalui

  English Preposition Indonesian Translation Number of Data Indonesian Word Class Over Sepanjang

  73/TT/Ovr/46/192 Verb Mendekati

  95/TT/Ovr/68/243 Verb Mengamati

  71/TT/Ovr/44/190 Verb Tersandung

  70/TT/Ovr/43/187 Verb Menekuri

  84/TT/Ovr/57/221 Verb Menekuni

  54/TT/Ovr/27/117 Verb Memandang

  30/TT/Ovr/3/20 Suffix Menutupi

  45/TT/Ovr/18/77 Verb

  32/TT/Ovr/5/21 Verb Menaungi

  29/TT/Ovr/2/7 Preposition Melewati

  28/TT/Ovr/1/4 Preposition Di

  69/TT/Ovr/42/185 Verb

Table 14. The Translation Mapping of Preposition over

B. The Translation’s Equivalence of Prepositions above, beyond, and over Seen through Back Translation Method

  In this second section of analyzing data, the writer analyzes the back

translation done by five respondents as to whether or not they are equivalent to

their originals. The writer focuses on analyzing the prepositions they chose and

the meanings in the whole contexts. The survey was conducted in middle of June

2013. Respondents were asked to translate 20 Indonesian data that were chosen

from the map into their native language (back translation) in order to see their

equivalence to the original texts. The data used in the survey were chosen based

on internal sampling by Sutopo (2002: 55). They were purposively selected not

based on the amount of data but to represent each form of the translation of the

English prepositions above, beyond and over. To assess or determine the

equivalence, the writer follows Nida‘s and Taber‘s Formal Equivalence Theory.

  According to Nida's and Taber's theory, Formal Equivalence in a

translation is when a target text represents the closest meaning and same value to

its source text at the level of word or phrase. It focuses attention on the message

itself, in both form and content.

  The equivalence of the prepositions above, beyond, and over seen

through back translation method also focuses on the equal value of the

relationships and expressions. The table below shows the results of the back

translation done by five respondents. The number of the preposition chosen by the

respondents on each datum is classified to the column of each preposition.

  • - -
  • - 1

  Di seluruh ruangan,

  luar Kota

  Ember, kegelapan tak ada habisnya di segala penjuru.‖

  111/TT/Ovr/84/298 Red juice ran out over his hands.

  Cairan berwarna merah mengaliri tangannya.

  4

  39/TT/Ovr/12/53 All over the room, greasy-looking cans and tools littered the floor.

  kaleng-kaleng berminyak dan sejumlah peralatan tampak berserakan di lantai

  14/TT/Byn/1/28 Beyond Ember, the darkness goes on forever in all directions.‖

  2

  18/TT/Byn/5/41 She could see nothing beyond them but blackness.

  Lina tak dapat melihat ke luar daerah itu kecuali kegelapan.

  96/TT/Ovr/69/244 Lina approached it cautiously and peered out over the swarm of people assembling in Harken Square.

  Lina mendekatinya dengan waspada, dan mengintip ke

  arah massa yang

  berkumpul di Alun- Alun Harken.

  ―Di

  3

  4

  32/TT/Ovr/5/21 ―I can leapfrog over the trash can!‖

  Number of Data Data from the Source Text Data from the Target Text The Prepositions Chosen by Respondents in Back Translation Above Beyond Over

  36/TT/Ovr/9/38 She bent over The

  Book of the City of Ember and read a

  few sentences: Lina membungkuk

  di atas Buku Kota Ember dan membaca

  beberapa kalimatnya:

  5

  ―Aku bisa lompat kodok melewati tempat sampah!‖

  1 -

  4

  5/TT/Abv/5/51 So that meant he was fifty feet underground, with tons of earth and rock and buildings above him.

  Jadi itu artinya, dia kini berada lima belas meter di bawah tanah, dengan berton ton batu, tanah, dan bangunan

  di atasnya.

  5 - -

  51/TT/Ovr/24/109 Captain Fleery straightened up again and clapped a hand over her heart.

  Kapten Fleery kembali menegakkan tubuhnya dan menepukkan tangannya ke dadanya.

  • - 5 -
  • - -
  • - 1
  • - 5 -
  • - -

  • - 4 -
  • - -
  • - -

  Beberapa meter di

  3

  1

  1 34/TT/Ovr/7/33 Now here was Mrs.

  Polster again, looming over Lina and pronouncing her message.

  Sekarang Lina kembali bersama Bu Polster, yang sedang berdiri di

  dekat Lina dan

  melafalkan pesannya.

  4

  26/TT/Byn/13/299 A few feet beyond their shoes was a sheer, dizzying drop.

  depan kaki mereka

  di atas toko-toko

  tampak sebuah jurang terjal yang memusingkan.

  107/TT/Ovr/80/291 My eyes swept

  over the silver

  hills, … Mataku menyapu perbukitan berwarna perak,…

  1 -

  4

  9/TT/Abv/9/184 Above the table were shelves full of bottles of seeds, and boxes of string, wire, and various kinds of powders.

  Di atas meja

  terdapat rak-rak berisi botol benih, kotak senar, kawat, dan bermacam- macam serbuk.

  3 -

  ada apartemen tempat orang- orang tinggal.

  Di pinggir jalan terdapat toko-toko;

  1

  over her face.

  Number of Data Data from the Source Text Data from the Target Text The Prepositions Chosen by Respondents in Back Translation Above Beyond Over

  49/TT/Ovr/22/95 Fear had settled over the city.

  Rasa takut meliputi segenap kota.

  1 -

  3

  20/TT/Byn/7/71 Out beyond the trash heaps, a figure appeared.

  

Dari balik

  tumpukan sampah, muncul sesosok manusia.

  50/TT/Ovr/23/108 A look of puzzlement came

  Kebingungan tampak di wajahnya.

  2/TT/Abv/2/19 On the street level were shops; above the shops were the apartments where people lived.

  5

  25/TT/Byn/12/280 Down the slope was a tumble of dark, rounded shapes, and then another slope rose beyond that.

  Di bawah lereng terdapat wujud- wujud gelap dan bulat, dan kemudian ada tanjakan lain di

  

atasnya.

  3

  1

  1

  57/TT/Ovr/30/130 These were the books of Ember, written over the years by its citizens.

  Inilah buku-buku Kota Ember, ditulis selama bertahun-tahun oleh warganya.

  5

  • - -
  • - 5 -

  The Prepositions Chosen by Respondents in Back Data from the Data from the Number of Data Translation Source Text Target Text

  Above Beyond Over

  28/TT/Ovr/1/4 When the lights Ketika menyala, were on, they cast lampu-lampu itu a yellowish glow memancarkan sinar

  • - 5 -

  over kekuning-kuningan

  the streets; …

  sepanjang jalan;

  …

  

Table 15. The Result of the Survey from Five Respondents

In the first datum, 36/TT/Ovr/9/38 , five respondents back translated the

preposition di atas into over, which is the same as its original It shows that

Indonesian preposition di atas is back translated equivalently to its source text.

  In the second datum, 32/TT/Ovr/5/21 , four of five respondents back

translated the Indonesian verb melewati into the preposition over, which is

equivalent to its source text. One respondent (R5) back translated it differently

into the preposition beyond. It is not equivalent since the senses of prepositions

over and beyond are different when they are applied in the data. The preposition

over in ―I can leapfrog over the trash can‖ carries the meaning or sense of movement (above-across) or passage, while beyond has a meaning of ‗more than‘ when it is put in the same sentence.

  ,

  In the third case, datum number 5/TT/Abv/5/51 the preposition above

in the source text is translated into Indonesian preposition di atas. It is then

translated back into the English preposition above by all five respondents. This

means the back translation of preposition over in this third data is equivalent to its

original text.

  ,

  In datum number 51/TT/Ovr/24/109 three of five respondents back

translated Indonesian preposition ke into over. This is equivalent to the original

text. One of the respondents (R4) back translated it into above, which is also

equivalent to its original text since both over and above there have a similar

meaning, showing relative position (around/above). R5, however, does not put

any preposition required into this number of data. This is then considered non-

equivalent.

  Datum number 14/TT/Byn/1/28 . All five respondents back translated

Indonesian preposition di luar into beyond. This is exactly the same as or

equivalent to its original text.

  ,

  In datum number 111/TT/Ovr/84/298 the preposition used in the

original text is over. Four respondents translated it back into the same preposition,

while one of them back translated it into an unrequired preposition. This means

that four respondents translated it equivalently, while one of them did not.

  In the seventh datum, 39/TT/Ovr/12/53 , the source preposition used is

over. Only two respondents (R3, R5) translated it back into the same preposition.

  One of the respondents (R4) translated it into beyond, meaning ‗outside of.‘ This

is different than the meaning of the preposition over expressed in the context

(pervasive). The other two respondents (R1, R2) translated it into prepositions that

are not required in this study. This shows that only two respondents translated it

back equivalently, while three of them did not.

  , the

  In datum number 18/TT/Byn/5/41 preposition beyond from the

source text is translated into the Indonesian preposition ke luar. According to the

  

results of the survey, it was then back translated into the same preposition as its

original by all respondents.

  Datum number 96/TT/Ovr/69/244 uses the English preposition over,

which is translated into ke arah in Indonesian. In its back translation, four of five

respondents translated it back into preposition over, equivalent to its original text.

  

One of the respondents (R5) translated it back into a preposition that is not

required in this study and is considered not equivalent.

  In datum number 49/TT/Ovr/22/95 , the original preposition used in the

source text is over. After it is translated into the Indonesian preposition segenap,

only three of five respondents (R1, R4, R5) translated it back into preposition

over. R2 translated it into above and is considered not equivalent since the

meaning of preposition over and above are different when they are applied in this

data. The preposition over in ―Fear had settled over the city‖ has a pervasive

meaning, while above carries the meaning of relative position. R3 leaves the data

untranslated, and it is considered not equivalent as well.

  Datum number 20/TT/Byn/7/71 has the preposition beyond, which is

translated into the Indonesian preposition dari balik. From the results of the

survey, its back translations from four respondents (R1, R2, R3, R4) are

equivalent to its original, while one respondent (R5) translates it into a different

preposition used in this study and it is considered not equivalent.

  Datum number 50/TT/Ovr/23/108 contains the preposition over, which

is translated into the Indonesian preposition di. From the results of the survey

done by five respondents, all of them translated it back into the same preposition,

  

meaning the back translations of preposition over in this data are equivalent to its

original.

  In case of datum number 25/TT/Byn/12/280 , the original preposition

used in the source text is beyond. Only one of five respondents (R1) translated it

back into the same preposition. Three of them translated it into above. This

preposition, in fact, has a similar meaning to beyond when it is applied in the

same context. Both beyond and above carry the meaning of a location (on top of).

  

These three translations with preposition above are then considered equivalent to

the original preposition over in the source text. A respondent also translated it

back differently into over, which also expresses a similar meaning to the

preposition beyond, a relative position (above). This different preposition to its

original is also considered equivalent.

  In datum number 57/TT/Ovr/30/130 , the preposition over from the

source text is translated into the Indonesian preposition selama. Five respondents

who were asked to back translate it into English chose the same preposition as its

original, over. All five respondents back translated the preposition in this datum

equivalently.

  Datum number 2/TT/Abv/2/19 is back translated by five respondents

into three different prepositions. Three respondents (R1, R2, R4) back translated it

into the same preposition as its source, above. One of the respondents (R3)

translated it into beyond, while another one translated it into over. In this context,

both prepositions beyond and over have similar senses as the preposition above,

  

showing a relative position or location (above/on top of). Since the senses they

carry are the same to its original, they are considered equivalent.

  Datum number 34/TT/Ovr/7/33 contains the preposition over, which is

translated into the Indonesian preposition di dekat. On back translation, four of

five respondents (R1, R2, R3, R4) translated it back into over, equivalent to its

original. One respondent (R5) translated it into a different preposition that is not

required in this study and is considered not equivalent to the original text.

  The preposition beyond in datum number 26/TT/Byn/13/299 is

translated into the preposition di depan in Indonesian. Its back translation by all

five respondents is beyond, equivalent to its original text.

  ,

  In datum number 107/TT/Ovr/80/291 the preposition over from the

source text is not translated in its Indonesian target text. Nevertheless, four of five

respondents (R1, R3, R4, R5) translated it back into over, equivalent to its original

text. R2 back translated this datum and chose the preposition above, which is a

different expression than the preposition over. The preposition over in this datum

has the meaning of pervasive or orientation, while the preposition above expresses

relative position. This back translation from R2 is then considered not equivalent

to the original text.

  Data number 9/TT/Abv/9/184 contain the preposition above , which is

translated into the preposition di atas in Indonesian. R2, R3, and R4 back

translated them equivalently to its original, while R1 translated it into over. Both

prepositions above and over in this datum express relative position (above, on top

of), meaning these four back translation are equivalent to its original text. R5 back

  

translated the preposition over into a different preposition that is not required in

this study, so it is considered not equivalent.

  The last datum number 28/TT/Ovr/1/4 contains the English

preposition over, which is translated into sepanjang in Indonesian. All five

respondents back translated it into over, equivalent to its original text.

  Overall, the percentage of the equivalence of these three prepositions seen through back translation method can be visualized in the pie charts below.

  Preposition Preposition

  

Preposition

above over

  6.7

beyond

  % 18.

  4% 4%

  93.

  96 81. 3% % 6%

  

Figure 4. The Pie Charts of Back Translation Equivalence

Equivalent Translation Not Equivalent Translation The pie charts illustrate the results of the study in terms of the percentage

of equivalence of the three prepositions as seen from the back translation method,

with green representing equivalence and red representing non-equivalence. As can

be seen, preposition above was translated equivalently in 93.3% of cases, with the

numbers for preposition beyond being 96% and preposition over 81.6%.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In the mapping of English prepositions above, beyond, and over into Indonesian, the translations of each preposition group are different from one

  

another. The preposition above was only translated into the same Indonesian

preposition di atas with the same relationships and meanings in all data. The

prepositions above and over were translated into various different Indonesian

words as well as their meanings. In some cases, preposition over were not even

translated. Nevertheless, they express the same relationships and meanings as

their source texts. It shows their polysemy, meaning they have different meanings

when applied in different contexts. This also shows that these two languages,

English and Indonesian, share similar characteristics and usages of prepositions. It

proves that there is a concept or pattern that prepositions have in both English and

Indonesian.

  The back translation method the writer chose to see the equivalence of

the prepositions above, beyond, and over to the original texts shows that most of

these translations are equivalent. Some of the prepositions were back translated

differently from their original texts but still have the same relationships and

meanings. This proves that some English prepositions are synonymous. They are

different words, in this case different prepositions, but share the same or similar

meanings and are able to substitute one another.

  58 Based on the analysis results on the equivalence of prepositions above,

beyond, and over as seen from back translation method, it can be concluded that

the preposition over, which has more various meanings, is more likely to be

translated unequivalently. The prepositions above and beyond have less specific

meanings and in fact are translated more equivalently to their original texts.

Preposition above was translated equivalently in 93.3% of cases, with the

numbers for preposition beyond being 96% and preposition over 81.6%.

  This study ended up with a researchable idea that needs to be studied

further. In general, this study proves that aside from their polysemous

characteristic, the English prepositions above, beyond, and over are also

synonymous, that different prepositions applied with different elements in

different contexts are can have exactly the same relationships and expressions or

meanings.

  

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APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Data Collection - The Group of Data with Preposition above

The group of data with prepositions above found in the source text of City of

Ember by Jeanne DuPrau with their Indonesian translations by Sujatrini, Reno,

and Rien Chaerani (13)

  44 Above that were the storerooms, which occupied a layer at least twenty feet high.

  7/TT/Abv/7/ 128

  above his upstretched hand.

  If he’d had something to stand on, he could have reached it and tried to open it, but it was about a foot

  Rak di atas tumpukan mantel sama sesaknya dengan ruang di bawah,.. 7/ST/Abv/7/ 115

  6/TT/Abv/6/ 100

  90 The shelf above the coatrack was just as crammed as the space below,…

  6/ST/Abv/6/

  51 Jadi itu artinya, dia kini berada lima belas meter di bawah tanah, dengan berton ton batu, tanah, dan bangunan di atasnya.

  5/TT/Abv/5/

  45 So that meant he was fifty feet underground, with tons of earth and rock and buildings above him.

  5/ST/Abv/5/

  51 Di atasnya, adalah lokasi ruang-ruang penyimpanan, yang mengisi satu lapis lantai setidaknya setinggi enam meter.

  4/TT/Abv/4/

  4/ST/Abv/4/

  Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Above

  29 Di atas lemari es terdapat rak-rak yang menampung teko- teko dan kendi-kendi, ada pisau dan sendok lagi,…

  3/TT/Abv/3/

  26 Above the refrigerator were shelves holding more pots and jars, more spoons and knives,…

  apartemen tempat orang-orang tinggal. 3/ST/Abv/3/

  atas toko-toko ada

  19 Di pinggir jalan terdapat toko-toko; di

  2/TT/Abv/2/

  17 On the street level were shops; above the shops were the apartments where people lived.

  14 Setidaknya dia dapat tinggal di atas tanah, dengan ruang yang luas dan orang-orang di sekelilingnya. 2/ST/Abv/2/

  1/TT/Abv/1/

  space and people around her.

  above ground, with

  12 At least then she could have stayed

  1/ST/Abv/1/

  Jika ada sesuatu yang bisa dipijaknya, dia pasti bisa mencapai pintudan membukanya, tapi jarak pintu itu kira- kira tiga puluh senti di atas kepalanya.

  63 Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Above

  atas dan sekelilingnya.

  13/TT/Abv/1 3/282

  branch of the tall plant.

  above the highest

  Surely, when she had first sat down, the silver circle was just

  Langit-langit tampak halus dan hanyasekitar tiga meter di atas kepala mereka. 13/ST/Abv/1 3/255

  12/TT/Abv/1 2/268

  The ceiling was smooth and only about ten feet above their heads.

  Lalu sebuah cahaya menyala, dan wajah Doon yang berbayang muncul di atasnya. 12/ST/Abv/1 2/242

  11/TT/Abv/1 1/265

  Then a light flared up, and Doon’s shadowed face appeared above it.

  11/ST/Abv/1 1/240

  Keadaan masih gelap gulita, tapi Lina merasakan ruang di

  8/ST/Abv/8/ 136

  10/TT/Abv/1 0/264

  above and around her.

  The darkness was still complete, but Lina sensed space

  rak-rak berisi botol benih, kotak senar, kawat, dan bermacam-macam serbuk. 10/ST/Abv/1 0/239

  Di atas meja terdapat

  9/TT/Abv/9/ 184

  shelves full of bottles of seeds, and boxes of string, wire, and various kinds of powders.

  Above the table were

  9/ST/Abv/9/ 167

  …Lina mewarnai ruang di atas gedung- gedungnya, pensilnya bergerak maju mundur membentuk garis- garis pendek,…

  8/TT/Abv/8/ 151

  …Lina colored in the space above the buildings, her pencil moving back and forth in short lines,…

  Jelas, saat Lina pertama kali duduk, lingkaran perak itu berada persis di atas dahan tertinggi tanaman yang tinggi.

  64 Appendix 2: Data Collection - The Group of Data with Preposition beyond

The group of data with prepositions beyond found in the source text of City of

Ember by Jeanne DuPrau with their Indonesian translations by Sujatrini, Reno,

and Rien Chaerani (14)

  Out beyond the trash heaps, a figure appeared.

  18/TT/Byn/5 /41

  Lina tak dapat melihat ke luar daerah itu kecuali kegelapan. 19/ST/Byn/6 /58

  Beyond the trash

  heaps there was nothing at all —that is, only the vast

  Unknown Regions,… 19/TT/Byn/6 /66

  Di luar tumpukan

  sampah tak ada apa- apa sama sekali — hanya sebuah Daerah

  Tak Diketahui yang luas,… 20/ST/Byn/7 /62

  20/TT/Byn/7 /71

  She could see nothing

  Dari balik tumpukan

  sampah, muncul sesosok manusia. 21/ST/Byn/8 /94

  The chewed bits were

  beyond saving

  —they were almost a paste.

  21/TT/Byn/8 /104

  Potongan-potongan yang dikunyah tak

  dapat diselamatkan —

  beyond them but blackness.

  18/ST/Byn/5 /36

  Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Beyond

  Dia telah berdiri di tepian tempat pembuangan sampah dan memandang ke kegelapan di luar kota —Daerah Tak Diketahui. 16/ST/Byn/3 /36

  14/ST/Byn/1 /25

  “Beyond Ember, the darkness goes on forever in all directions.”

  14/TT/Byn/1 /28

  “Di luar Kota Ember, kegelapan tak ada habisnya di segala penjuru.”

  15/ST/Byn/2 /25

  She had stood at the edge of the trash heaps and gazed into the darkness beyond the city

  —the Unknown Regions.

  15/TT/Byn/2 /28

  Maybe from there it would be possible to see beyond the city, into the Unknown Regions.

  Harken, jendela- jendela berlampu dari gedung-gedung menghasilkan garis- garis petak catur,…

  16/TT/Byn/3 /40

  Mungkin dari sana dia akan bisa melihat

  ke luar area kota, ke

  Daerah Tak Diketahui. 17/ST/Byn/4 /36

  Beyond Harken

  Square, the lighted windows of the buildings made checkered lines,…

  17/TT/Byn/4 /41

  Di luar Alun-Alun

  potongan itu sudah seperti gumpalan lem.*

  65 Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Beyond

  25/ST/Byn /12/253

  27/TT/Byn /14/299

  Just beyond the edges was the immense darkness.

  tampak sebuah jurang terjal yang memusingkan. 27/ST/Byn /14/269

  depan kaki mereka

  Beberapa meter di

  26/TT/Byn /13/299

  A few feet beyond their shoes was a sheer, dizzying drop.

  Di bawah lereng terdapat wujud-wujud gelap dan bulat, dan kemudian ada tanjakan lain di atasnya. 26/ST/Byn /13/268

  25/TT/Byn /12/280

  beyond that.

  Down the slope was a tumble of dark, rounded shapes, and then another slope rose

  …sebuah lahan luas dan lapang di luar bayangan mereka, penuh dengan udara yang tampaknya bergerak,…

  22/ST/Byn /9/174

  24/TT/Byn /11/280

  …a land vast and spacious beyond any of their dreams, filled with air that seemed to move,…

  melewati sebuah sudut,… 24/ST/Byn /11/252

  sesudahnya dia

  Namun, beberapa langkah di depan, Lina ternyata bisa kembali berdiri tegak, dan beberapa langkah

  a corner,… 23/TT/Byn /10/270

  beyond that she turned

  But a few steps farther along, she found she could stand up straight again, and a few steps

  23/ST/Byn /10/244

  “Mungkin ini mengarah ke sebuah terowongan panjang yang mengarah ke luar Kota Ember,…

  22/TT/Byn /9/192

  “Maybe it leads to a long tunnel that goes way out beyond Ember,…

  Persis di luar batas, tampak kegelapan yang luar biasa.

  66 Appendix 3: Data Collection - The Group of Data with Preposition over

The group of data with prepositions over found in the source text of City of Ember

by Jeanne DuPrau with their Indonesian translations by Sujatrini, Reno, and Rien

Chaerani (81)

  “Do you think an Invisible Being is watching over us all the time?”

  33/TT/Ovr/6 /24

  Lina tinggal di Alun- Alun Quillium, di

  atas toko benang

  yang dikelola oleh neneknya. 34/ST/Ovr/7 /29 Now here was Mrs.

  Polster again, looming over Lina and pronouncing her message.

  34/TT/Ovr/7 /33

  Sekarang Lina kembali bersama Bu Polster, yang sedang berdiri di dekat Lina dan melafalkan pesannya. 35/ST/Ovr/8 /30

  35/TT/Ovr/8 /34

  over the yarn shop

  “Apakah menurutmu Kekuatan Tak Kasat Mata mengawasi kita sepanjang waktu?”

  36/ST/Ovr/9 /34

  She bent over The

  Book of the City of Ember and read a few

  sentences: 36/TT/Ovr/9 /38

  Lina membungkuk di

  atas Buku Kota Ember dan membaca

  run by her grandmother.

  Lina lived in Quillium Square,

  Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Over

  29/TT/Ovr/2 /7

  28/ST/Ovr/1 /4

  When the lights were on, they cast a yellowish glow over the streets;…

  28/TT/Ovr/1 /4

  Ketika menyala, lampu-lampu itu memancarkan sinar kekuning-kuningan

  sepanjang

  jalan;… 29/ST/Ovr/2 /6

  … to cast the shadow of your head over the page you were writing on.

  …membuat bayangan kepalamu muncul di lembar yang sedang kau tulis. 30/ST/Ovr/3 /18

  33/ST/Ovr/6 /21

  She leapt over cracks and potholes.

  30/TT/Ovr/3 /20

  Dia melompati celah dan lubang jalan. 31/ST/Ovr/4 /18

  She passed a line of customers waiting to get into the vegetable market, their shopping bags draped over their arms.

  31/TT/Ovr/4 /21

  Dia melewati antrean pelanggan yang ingin masuk ke toko sayuran, dengan keranjang belanja menggantung di tangan mereka. 32/ST/Ovr/5 /19

  “I can leapfrog over the trash can!” 32/TT/Ovr/5 /21

  “Aku bisa lompat kodok melewati tempat sampah!”

  beberapa kalimatnya:

  67 Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Over

  Alis matanya yang gelap bertaut

  Over the course of

  Ember’s history, various clever people had tried to invent a movable light, but all of them had failed.

  42/TT/Ovr/1 7/75

  Sepanjang sejarah

  Kota Ember, banyak orang pandai telah mencoba untuk menciptakan sebuah cahaya yang dapat bergerak, tetapi upaya mereka semua menemui kegagalan. 43/ST/Ovr/1 6/68

  Her dark eyebrows drew together over her eyes.

  43/TT/Ovr/1 8/77

  menaungi matanya.

  41/TT/Ovr/1 5/67

  44/ST/Ovr/1 7/76

  Once more the man lifted the lid and Lina bent over the pencils.

  44/TT/Ovr/1 9/85

  Sekali lagi pria itu membuka tutup kotak dan Lina membungkuk di atas pensil-pensil itu. 45/ST/Ovr/1 8/77

  “I’ll take two,” she said, and a faint, dazzly feeling came

  over her at the

  thought of what she was doing.

  45/TT/Ovr/2 0/86

  Bau udara merebak hangat dan lembut, dan seluruh kerinduannya untuk tempat ini kembali menerpa dirinya. 42/ST/Ovr/1 5/66

  Warm, furry-smelling air washed over her, and all her love for this place came rushing back.

  37/ST/Ovr/1 0/39

  39/TT/Ovr/1 2/53

  …and for a second he wondered what it would be like to be up there, looking out

  over the whole city, laughing and waving.

  37/TT/Ovr/1 0/43

  …dan sesaat Doon ingin tahu bagaimana rasanya berada di atas sana, memandang seluruh kota sambil tertawa dan melambai-lambai. 38/ST/Ovr11 /46

  Doon clapped his hands over his ears and stepped forward.

  38/TT/Ovr/1 1/53

  Doon menutup kedua telinganya dan melangkah maju. 39/ST/Ovr/1 2/46

  All over the room, greasy-looking cans and tools littered the floor.

  Di seluruh ruangan,

  41/ST/Ovr/1 4/59

  kaleng-kaleng berminyak dan sejumlah peralatan tampak berserakan di lantai. 40/ST/Ovr/1 3/49

  He lived with his father in a two- bedroom apartment

  over

  his father’s shop in Greengate Square,..

  40/TT/Ovr/1 3/56

  Dia tinggal bersama ayahnya di sebuah apartemen dengan dua kamar tidur di

  atas toko ayahnya di

  Alun-Alun Greengate…

  “Saya ambil dua,” ujarnya, dan sedikit rasa takjub melanda dirinya saat memikirkan apa yang tengah dia lakukan.

  68 Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Over

  54/TT/Ovr/2 9/123

  52/TT/Ovr/2 7/117

  Lina kembali menyelipkan selembar kertas itu

  menutupi potongan-

  potongan kertas yang telah dilem. 53/ST/Ovr/2 6/107

  With her elbows on either side of it and her chin resting in her hands, she pored over it.

  53/TT/Ovr/2 8/118

  Dengan kedua siku terbuka dan dagu bersandar di tangan, dia memandangi kertas itu. 54/ST/Ovr/2 7/112

  She placed the plain sheet of paper over the Instructions and put the box on top.

  Dia meletakkan lembaran kertas kosong di atas kertas Instruksi dan menaruh kotak itu di atasnya. 55/ST/Ovr/2 8/118

  52/ST/Ovr/2 5/106

  These were the books of Ember, written

  over the years by its citizens.

  55/TT/Ovr/3 0/130

  Inilah buku-buku Kota Ember, ditulis

  selama bertahun- tahun oleh warganya.

  56/ST/Ovr/2 9/125

  A look of surprise came over his face.

  56/TT/Ovr/3 1/139

  Lina slid the piece of paper back over the pasted-down scraps.

  …dan dia akan menunjuk-nunjuk tulisan kami sambil berkata,…

  46/ST/Ovr/1 9/77

  Kebingungan tampak di wajahnya. 49/ST/Ovr/2 2/99

  Lina’s hand hovered over the pencils.

  46/TT/Ovr/2 1/86

  Tangan Lina mengambang di atas pensil-pensil tersebut. 47/ST/Ovr/2 0/85

  Fear had settled over the city.

  47/TT/Ovr/2 2/95

  Rasa takut meliputi segenap kota. 48/ST/Ovr/2 1/98

  A look of puzzlement came over her face.

  48/TT/Ovr/2 3/108

  Captain Fleery straightened up again and clapped a hand over her heart.

  51/TT/Ovr/2 6/114

  49/TT/Ovr/2 4/109

  Kapten Fleery kembali menegakkan tubuhnya dan menepukkan tangannya ke dadanya. 50/ST/Ovr/2 3/103

  He counts us late if we come in even two minutes after eight, and he looks over our shoulders as we’re writing,…

  50/TT/Ovr/2 5/114

  Dia menganggap kami terlambat jika kami hanya datang dua menit lewat dari pukul delapan, dan dia selalu mengintip

  dari belakang saat kami menulis.

  51/ST/Ovr/2 4/103

  …and he runs his finger over what we’ve written and says,…

  Sebuah tatapan terkejut muncul di wajahnya.

  69 Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Over

  Barton Snode leaned heavily against the wall and rubbed a hand over his chin.

  Itu adalah cara dia berjalan, agak miring

  ke

  samping,… 63/ST/Ovr/3 6/164

  As they spoke, interrupting each other to make sure they got in all the details, the guard’s eyebrows gradually lifted higher and higher over his eyes.

  63/TT/Ovr/3 9/180

  Saat mereka bicara, sambil saling menyela untuk memastikan mereka menceritakan semua detailnya, alis si penjaga perlahan terangkat semakin tinggi. 64/ST/Ovr/3 7/164

  64/TT/Ovr/4 0/180

  It was that way he walked, sort of dipping over sideways,…

  Barton Snade bersandar ke tembok dan mengusap-usap dagunya. 65/ST/Ovr/3 8/165

  Lina glanced over her shoulder.

  65/TT/Ovr/4 1/182

  Lina melirik melalui bahunya. 66/ST/Ovr/3 9/168

  She had felt it in Looper’s shop as she hovered over the colored pencils.

  66/TT/Ovr/4 2/185

  Dia pernah merasakannya di dalam toko Looper saat dia tergoda

  62/TT/Ovr/3 8/176

  Tatapan ketakutan terpancar di wajah Doon. 62/ST/Ovr/3 5/160

  57/ST/Ovr/3 0/129

  Dengan hati-hati dia menggerakan tangannya ke atas tubuh neneknya sampai ke pundak. 59/ST/Ovr/3 2/138

  A long leg stepped

  over the rope, and the

  person it belonged to turned and walked away.

  57/TT/Ovr/3 2/143

  Sebuah kaki panjang melangkah melewati tali, dan orang itu membelok dan berjalan menjauh. 58/ST/Ovr/3 1/137

  Carefully she moved her hands over the narrow ridge of her grandmother’s body until she came to her shoulders.

  58/TT/Ovr/3 4/152

  Lina tucked one foot underneath her and pulled part of the blanket over her lap.

  61/TT/Ovr/3 7/174

  59/TT/Ovr/3 5/152

  Lina melipat satu kaki ke bawah tubuhnya, dan menarik sebagian selimut ke pangkuannya. 60/ST/Ovr/3 3/139

  She squeezed her grandmother’s shoulders gently, and as she stood up a wave of terrible loneliness swept over her.

  60/TT/Ovr/3 6/154

  Lina meremas bahu neneknya dengan lembut, dan sat dia berdiri gelombang kesepian menerpanya.

  61/ST/Ovr/3 4/158

  A look of horror passed over Doon’s face.

  melihat aneka pensil warna.

  70 Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Over

  … and he eased himself carefully over the rocks, feeling for the first rung with his foot.

  He lay on his stomach next to the rock and inched forward until his head hung out over the edge of the path.

  72/TT/Ovr/4 8/200

  Dia tengkurap ke dekat batu dan beringsut ke depan hingga kepalanya menjulur ke luar pinggiran jalan setapak. 73/ST/Ovr/4 6/182

  She lay down and pulled herself forward until her head was over the edge.

  73/TT/Ovr/4 9/200

  Dia berbaring tengkurap dan beringsut ke depan sampai kepalanya

  melewati bantaran.

  74/ST/Ovr/4 7/183

  74/TT/Ovr/5 0/201

  71/TT/Ovr/4 7/200

  …dan perlahan-lahan dia menuruni bebatuan, sambil merasakan anak tangga pertama dengan kakinya. 75/ST/Ovr/4 8/183

  Lina inched backward, just as Doon had, letting one foot dangle over the edge…

  75/TT/Ovr/5 1/201

  Lina beringsut ke belakang, seperti yang dilakukan Doon, sambil membiarkan satu kakinya terulur

  melewati

  tepian,… 76/ST/Ovr/4 9/184

  She unfolded it, and Doon looked over her shoulder.

  76/TT/Ovr/5 2/203

  Satu jarinya menelusuri permukaan yang berlekuk-lekuk. 72/ST/Ovr/4 5/182

  He ran a finger over their convoluted surface.

  67/ST/Ovr/4 0/169

  menekuri dokumen kembali.

  She puzzled over the patchwork of scraps for a long time,..

  67/TT/Ovr/4 3/187

  Clary cukup lama

  menekuni sobekan-

  sobekan kertas yang ditambal,… 68/ST/Ovr/4 1/173

  They bent over the document again.

  68/TT/Ovr/4 4/190

  Mereka membungkuk

  69/ST/Ovr/4 2/174

  sobekan kertas yang direkatkan… 71/ST/Ovr/4 4/181

  Once again they crouched over the page, their heads close together.

  69/TT/Ovr/4 5/191

  Sekali lagi mereka membungkuk

  menekuri halaman

  kertas tersebut, kepala mereka berdekatan. 70/ST/Ovr/4 3/175

  They were bending again over the glued- down fragments…

  70/TT/Ovr/4 6/192

  Mereka kembali membungkuk

  mengamati sobekan-

  Dia membuka lipatannya, dan Doon mengintip dari belakang bahunya.

  71 Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Over

  Dia membawa sarung bantal menggembung yang diselempangkan di bahunya. 85/ST/Ovr/5 8/204

  82/TT/Ovr/5 8/223

  Dia tak pernah meninggalkan stoking terjuntai di bagian belakang kursi,…

  83/ST/Ovr/5 6/202

  …or her sewing spread out all over the table.

  83/TT/Ovr/5 9/223

  …atau jahitannya tergeletak di atas meja. 84/ST/Ovr/5 7/203

  He had a bulging pillowcase slung over his shoulder.

  84/TT/Ovr/6 0/225

  They have signs up about us all over the city!”

  82/ST/Ovr/5 5/202

  85/TT/Ovr/6 1/225

  Mereka memasang pengumuman tentang kita di seluruh kota!”

  86/ST/Ovr/5 9/206

  …the only light came from beneath the blind over the window.

  86/TT/Ovr/6 2/228

  …satu-satunya sumber cahaya hanya berasal dari balik kerai jendela. 87/ST/Ovr/6 0/209

  …that it cast a shadow over the thrill of going to the new city.

  87/TT/Ovr/6 3/231

  She never left her stockings draped over the back of a chair,…

  wanita itu memalingkan wajahnya ke samping,…

  77/ST/Ovr/5 0/189

  79/TT/Ovr/5 5/217

  …and the flaming stick dropped over the ledge and into the river.

  77/TT/Ovr/5 3/208

  …dan batang menyala itu jatuh ke langkan lalu masuk ke sungai. 78/ST/Ovr/5 1/194

  …though the ceiling was low —they could see it just over their heads.

  78/TT/Ovr/5 4/215

  …meskipun langit- langitnya rendah — mereka bisa melihatnya persis di atas kepala mereka.

  79/ST/Ovr/5 2/196

  Doon dawdled over his breakfast of carrot sticks and mashed turnips,…

  Doon pelan-pelan menyantap sarapannya yang terdiri dari batangan wortel dan lobak yang ditumbuk,…

  memandangnya, dan

  80/ST/Ovr/5 3/199

  For a few minutes he stood by the window, looking out over the square…

  80/TT/Ovr/5 6/220

  Selama beberapa menit Doon berdiri terpaku di dekat jendela, sambil melihat ke luar alun- alun…

  81/ST/Ovr/5 4/199

  The guard towered

  over her, and she

  twisted her head sideways… 81/TT/Ovr/5 7/221

  Si penjaga menunduk

  …sehingga pikiran itu memberati keasyikan pergi ke kota baru.

  72 Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Over

  Sambil membawa lilin, Lina melangkahkan kakinya melewati pinggiran sampan

  melewati

  tepi… 94/ST/Ovr/6 7/236

  They heaved the boat up and stretched sideways to swing it out over the water.

  94/TT/Ovr/7 1/261

  Mereka mengerek sampan dan menariknya ke samping untuk mengayunkannya ke atas air. 95/ST/Ovr/6 8/243

  Holding a candle, she put one foot over the edge of the boat…

  95/TT/Ovr/7 2/270

  … 96/ST/Ovr/6 9/251

  93/TT/Ovr/7 0/261

  It makes me feel as if they’re watching over us.”

  96/TT/Ovr/7 3/278

  Itu membuatku merasa seolah-olah mereka sedang mengamati kita. 97/ST/Ovr/7 0/251

  The ceiling was high over their heads.

  97/TT/Ovr/7 4/278

  Langit-langit menjulang di atas kepala mereka. 98/ST/Ovr/7 1/251

  In some places, the ground beneath their feet was rutted in parallel grooves, as if a wheeled cart of some kind had been driven over it.

  98/TT/Ovr/7 5/278

  Doon, yang tengkurap dengan kepala terjulur

  …Doon, who lay on his stomach with his head hanging over the edge…

  88/ST/Ovr/6 1/218

  With her arm, she made a wide swipe and knocked over the table next to the chair as well.

  His eyebrows came down over his eyes, making them into dark slits.

  88/TT/Ovr/6 5/242

  Alisnya menurun

  mendekati matanya

  hingga tampak seperti irisan yang gelap. 89/ST/Ovr/6 2/219

  She leapt up, knocking over her chair.

  89/TT/Ovr/6 6/243

  Lina melompat, menjatuhkan kursi. 90/ST/Ovr/6 3/219

  90/TT/Ovr/6 7/243

  Lina mendekatinya dengan waspada, dan mengintip ke arah massa yang berkumpul di Alun- Alun Harken. 93/ST/Ovr/6 6/235

  Diayunkannya lengannya lebar- lebar, sehingga menjatuhkan meja di samping kursi juga. 91/ST/Ovr/6 4/220

  There was a crash — someone must have fallen over the toppled chair or table.

  91/TT/Ovr/6 8/243

  Ada suara benturan — pasti ada yang jatuh

  tersandung kursi atau meja yang terjungkal.

  92/ST/Ovr/6 5/220

  Lina approached it cautiously and peered out over the swarm of people assembling in Harken Square.

  92/TT/Ovr/6 9/244

  Di beberapa tempat, tanah di bawah kaki mereka terdapat jejak berupa jalur-jalur sejajar, seolah-olah sejenis gerobak telah ditarik lewat.

  73 Preposition Number of Data Source Text Number of Data Target Text Over

  Sebuah kota dengan masalah, di mana orang-orang berdebat mencari solusi. 106/ST/Ov r/79/265

  over

  the hills,… 104/TT/Ovr/ 81/293

  Mereka duduk memandangi perbukitan,…

  105/ST/Ov r/78/264 A city with trouble, where people argued

  over solutions.

  105/TT/Ovr/ 82/293

  Poppy went to sleep, but Lina and Doon sat looking out over the land.

  Mataku menyapu perbukitan berwarna perak,…

  106/TT/Ovr/ 83/295

  Poppy tertidur, Lina dan Doon duduk sambil melihat ke arah dataran. 107/ST/Ov r/80/267

  Red juice ran out over his hands.

  107/TT/Ovr/ 84/298

  Cairan berwarna merah mengaliri tangannya. 108/ST/Ov r/81/269

  Doon crouched on his hands and knees, looking over the edge.

  108/TT/Ovr/ 85/300

  104/ST/Ov r/77/264 They sat looking out

  My eyes swept over the silver hills,… 103/TT/Ovr/ 80/291

  99/ST/Ovr/ 72/254

  The sky arched over them, higher than they could have imagined,…

  …and leaves that spread out over their heads.

  99/TT/Ovr/7 6/281

  …dan dedaunan yang tersebar di atas kepala mereka. 100/ST/Ov r/73/256

  The color seeped out of the sky and washed

  over the land.

  100/TT/Ovr/ 77/283

  Warnanya terpancar ke langit dan menyapu dataran. 101/ST/Ov r/74/256

  101/TT/Ovr/ 78/283

  lereng berlapis hijau,… 103/ST/Ov r/76/262

  Langit melengkung di

  atas mereka, jauh

  lebih tinggi daripada yang pernah mereka bayangkan,…

  102/ST/Ov r/75/257 They roamed over the green-coated slopes, running,…

  102/TT/Ovr/ 79/285

  Mereka berjalan

  melewati lereng-

  Doon membungkuk bertumpu pada tangan dan lututnya, melihat melalui bibir jurang.

  74 Appendix 4: The translation mapping of preposition above found in the source text of City of Ember by Jeanne DuPrau into Indonesian (13) English Preposition Indonesian Translation Number of Data Indonesian Word Class Above

  Di atas 1/TT/Abv/1/14 Preposition

  Di atas 2/TT/Abv/2/19 Preposition

  Di atas 3/TT/Abv/3/29 Preposition

  Di atas 4/TT/Abv/4/51 Preposition

  Di atas 5/TT/Abv/5/51 Preposition

  Di atas 6/TT/Abv/6/100 Preposition

  Di atas 7/TT/Abv/7/128 Preposition

  Di atas 8/TT/Abv/8/151 Preposition

  Di atas 9/TT/Abv/9/184 Preposition

  Di atas 10/TT/Abv/10/264 Preposition

  Di atas 11/TT/Abv/11/265 Preposition

  Di atas 12/TT/Abv/12/268 Preposition

  Di atas 13/TT/Abv/13/282 Preposition

  75 Appendix 5: The translation mapping of Preposition beyond found in the source text of City of Ember by Jeanne DuPrau into Indonesian (14) English Preposition Indonesian Translation Number of Data Indonesian Word Class Beyond

  Ke luar 14/TT/Byn/1/28 Preposition

  Di luar 15/TT/Byn/2/28 Preposition

  Ke luar 16/TT/Byn/3/40 Preposition

  Di luar 17/TT/Byn/4/41 Preposition

  Ke luar 18/TT/Byn/5/41 Preposition

  Di luar 19/TT/Byn/6/66 Preposition

  Dari balik 20/TT/Byn/7/71 Preposition

  Tak dapat 21/TT/Byn/8/104 Modal

  Ke luar 22/TT/Byn/9/192 Preposition

  Sesudah 23/TT/Byn/10/270 Preposition

  Di luar 24/TT/Byn/11/280 Preposition

  Di atas 25/TT/Byn/12/280 Preposition

  Di depan 26/TT/Byn/13/299 Preposition

  Di luar 27/TT/Byn/14/299 Preposition

  • -i

  • -i
  • - 37/TT/Ovr/10/43
  • -
  • Di
  • - 41/TT/Ovr/15/67
  • Sepanjang
  • - 45/TT/Ovr/20/86
  • Di atas
  • - 51/TT/Ovr/26/114
  • Menutupi
  • -i

  53/TT/Ovr/28/118 Suffix Di atas

  52/TT/Ovr/27/117 Verb

  50/TT/Ovr/25/114 Preposition

  49/TT/Ovr/24/109 Preposition Dari

  48/TT/Ovr/23/108 Preposition Ke

  47/TT/Ovr/22/95 Preposition Di

  46/TT/Ovr/21/86 Preposition Segenap

  44/TT/Ovr/19/85 Preposition

  43/TT/Ovr/18/77 Verb Di atas

  42/TT/Ovr/17/75 Preposition Menaungi

  40/TT/Ovr/13/56 Preposition

  39/TT/Ovr/12/53 Preposition Di atas

  38/TT/Ovr/11/53

  36/TT/Ovr/9/38 Preposition

  35/TT/Ovr/8/34 Suffix Di atas

  34/TT/Ovr/7/33 Preposition

  33/TT/Ovr/6/24 Preposition Di dekat

  32/TT/Ovr/5/21 Verb Di atas

  31/TT/Ovr/4/21 Preposition Melewati

  30/TT/Ovr/3/20 Suffix Di

  Di 29/TT/Ovr/2/7 Preposition

  Sepanjang 28/TT/Ovr/1/4 Preposition

  76 Appendix 6: The translation mapping of preposition over found in the source text of City of Ember by Jeanne DuPrau into Indonesian (81) English Preposition Indonesian Translation Number of Data Indonesian Word Class Over

  54/TT/Ovr/29/123 Preposition

  • - 60/TT/Ovr/36/154
  • Di
  • - 63/TT/Ovr/39/180
  • -
  • Melalui

  69/TT/Ovr/45/191 Verb Mengamati

  82/TT/Ovr/58/223 Preposition Di atas

  81/TT/Ovr/57/221 Verb Di

  80/TT/Ovr/56/220 Preposition Memandang

  78/TT/Ovr/54/215 Preposition

  77/TT/Ovr/53/208 Preposition Di atas

  76/TT/Ovr/52/203 Preposition Ke

  75/TT/Ovr/51/201 Verb Dari belakang

  74/TT/Ovr/50/201 Suffix Melewati

  73/TT/Ovr/49/200 Verb

  72/TT/Ovr/48/200 Preposition Melewati

  71/TT/Ovr/47/200 Suffix Ke luar

  70/TT/Ovr/46/192 Verb

  68/TT/Ovr/44/190 Verb Menekuri

  67/TT/Ovr/43/187 Verb Menekuri

  66/TT/Ovr/42/185 Verb Menekuni

  65/TT/Ovr/41/182 Preposition Melihat

  64/TT/Ovr/40/180

  62/TT/Ovr/38/176 Preposition

  61/TT/Ovr/37/174 Preposition Ke

  Ke 59/TT/Ovr/35/152 Preposition

  Ke atas 58/TT/Ovr/34/152 Preposition

  Melewati 57/TT/Ovr/32/143 Verb

  Di 56/TT/Ovr/31/139 Preposition

  Selama 55/TT/Ovr/30/130 Preposition

  77 English Preposition Indonesian Translation Number of Data Indonesian Word Class Over

  • -i
  • -i
  • - 79/TT/Ovr/55/217
  • Ke luar

  83/TT/Ovr/59/223 Preposition

  • -
  • - 86/TT/Ovr/62/228

  • Mendekati
  • - 89/TT/Ovr/66/243
  • -
  • Tersandung
  • -i
  • - 98/TT/Ovr/75/278
  • Di atas
  • - 100/TT/Ovr/77/283
  • Di atas
  • -i
  • - 103/TT/Ovr/80/291
  • -i

  107/TT/Ovr/84/298 Suffix Melalui

  106/TT/Ovr/83/295 Preposition

  105/TT/Ovr/82/293 Verb Ke arah

  104/TT/Ovr/81/293 Suffix Mencari

  102/TT/Ovr/79/285 Verb

  101/TT/Ovr/78/283 Preposition Melewati

  99/TT/Ovr/76/281 Preposition

  97/TT/Ovr/74/278 Preposition

  96/TT/Ovr/73/278 Suffix Di atas

  94/TT/Ovr/71/261 Preposition Melewati

  95/TT/Ovr/72/270 Verb

  93/TT/Ovr/70/261 Verb Ke atas

  92/TT/Ovr/69/244 Preposition Melewati

  91/TT/Ovr/68/243 Verb Ke arah

  90/TT/Ovr/67/243

  88/TT/Ovr/65/242 Verb

  87/TT/Ovr/63/231

  Di 85/TT/Ovr/61/225 Preposition

  Di 84/TT/Ovr/60/225 Preposition

  78 English Preposition Indonesian Translation Number of Data Indonesian Word Class Over

  108/TT/Ovr/85/300 Preposition

  79 Appendix 7: The data for the survey chosen from the source text of City of

  Ember by Jeanne DuPrau (20)

NUMBER OF DATA SOURCE TEXT

  2/ST/Abv/2/17 On the street level were shops; above the shops were the apartments where people lived. 5/ST/Abv/5/45 So that meant he was fifty feet underground, with tons of earth and rock and buildings above him. 9/ST/Abv/9/167 Above the table were shelves full of bottles of seeds, and boxes of string, wire, and various kinds of powders. 14/ST/Byn/1/25

  “Beyond Ember, the darkness goes on forever in all directions.” 18/ST/Byn/5/36 She could see nothing beyond them but blackness. 20/ST/Byn/7/62 Out beyond the trash heaps, a figure appeared. 25/ST/Byn/12/253 Down the slope was a tumble of dark, rounded shapes, and then another slope rose beyond that.

  26/ST/Byn/13/268 A few feet beyond their shoes was a sheer, dizzying drop. 28/ST/Ovr/1/4 When the lights were on, they cast a yellowish glow over the streets;… 32/ST/Ovr/5/19

  “I can leapfrog over the trash can!” 34/ST/Ovr/7/29 Now here was Mrs. Polster again, looming over Lina and pronouncing her message. 36/ST/Ovr/9/34 She bent over The Book of the City of Ember and read a few sentences: 39/ST/Ovr/12/46 All over the room, greasy-looking cans and tools littered the floor. 47/ST/Ovr/20/85 Fear had settled over the city. 48/ST/Ovr/21/98 A look of puzzlement came over her face. 49/ST/Ovr/22/99 Captain Fleery straightened up again and clapped a hand over her heart. 55/ST/Ovr/28/118 These were the books of Ember, written over the years by its citizens. 92/ST/Ovr/65/220 Lina approached it cautiously and peered out over the swarm of people assembling in Harken Square.

  103/ST/Ovr/76/262 My eyes swept over the silver hills,… 107/ST/Ovr/80/267 Red juice ran out over his hands.

  80 Appendix 8: The Form of the Survey

  Dear respondent, Thank you for agreeing to take this survey. The data collected will be used for my bachelor’s thesis on the English prepositions above, beyond, and over at Sanata Dharma

  University. Before starting the survey, please fill out the following information. I will use a coding method in analyzing the data, so that your name will not be used in my thesis directly. First name: Country of origin: Status (student, professional, etc.): Total time spent in Indonesia:

  Please translate the Indonesian sentences provided below into English, using one of the prepositions above, beyond, or over for the section highlighted in bold and italics. Note that some of these sections do not necessarily use prepositions in Indonesian (e.g., verb melewati, or suffix

  • –i in verb mengaliri) but can be translated into English using above, beyond, or over.

  Number 18 is methaporical and can also be translated with one of those prepositions.

  If you prefer, feel free to type and submit the translations directly via e-mail to vina.oke@gmail.com.

  1. Lina membungkuk di atas Buku Kota Ember dan membaca beberapa kalimatnya.

  ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. “Aku bisa lompat kodok melewati tempat sampah!” ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  3. Jadi itu artinya, dia kini berada lima belas meter di bawah tanah, dengan berton ton batu, tanah, dan bangunan di atasnya.

  ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Kapten Fleery kembali menegakkan tubuhnya dan menepukkan tangannya ke dadanya. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 5. “Di luar Kota Ember, kegelapan tak ada habisnya di segala penjuru.” ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. Cairan berwarna merah mengaliri tangannya. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  7. Di seluruh ruangan, kaleng-kaleng berminyak dan sejumlah peralatan tampak berserakan di lantai.

  ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8. Lina tak dapat melihat ke luar daerah itu kecuali kegelapan. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  9. Lina mendekatinya dengan waspada, dan mengintip ke arah massa yang berkumpul di Alun-Alun Harken.

  ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 10. Rasa takut meliputi segenap kota. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 11. Dari balik tumpukan sampah, muncul sesosok manusia. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  81

  12. Kebingungan tampak di wajahnya.

  ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  13. Di bawah lereng terdapat wujud-wujud gelap dan bulat, dan kemudian ada tanjakan lain di atasnya.

  ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 14. Inilah buku-buku Kota Ember, ditulis selama bertahun-tahun oleh warganya. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  15. Di pinggir jalan terdapat toko-toko; di atas toko-toko ada apartemen tempat orang-orang tinggal.

  ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  16. Sekarang Lina kembali bersama Bu Polster, yang sedang berdiri di dekat Lina dan melafalkan pesannya.

  ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 17. Beberapa meter di depan kaki mereka tampak sebuah jurang terjal yang memusingkan. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  18. Mataku menyapu perbukitan berwarna perak,… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  19. Di atas meja terdapat rak-rak berisi botol benih, kotak senar, kawat, dan bermacam- macam serbuk.

  ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  20. Ketika menyala, lampu-lampu itu memancarkan sinar kekuning-kuningan sepanjang jalan;… ………………………………………………………………………………………………

  Thank you very much for your time and effort! Regards, Vina

  82 Appendix 9: The Result of Back Translation from Respondent 1 (R1)

  Dear respondent, Thank you for agreeing to take this survey. The data collected will be used for my bachelor’s thesis on the English prepositions above, beyond, and over at Sanata Dharma University.

  Before starting the survey, please fill out the following information. I will use a coding method in analyzing the data, so that your name will not be used in my thesis directly. First name: Kasey Country of origin: America Status (student, professional, etc.): Student and Teacher Total time spent in Indonesia: 29 months Please translate the Indonesian sentences provided below into English, using one of the prepositions above, beyond, or over for the section highlighted in bold and italics. Note that some of these sections do not necessarily use prepositions in Indonesian (e.g., verb melewati, or suffix

  • –i

  in verb mengaliri) but can be translated into English using above, beyond, or over. Number 18 is methaporical and can also be translated with one of those prepositions. If you prefer, feel free to type and submit the translations directly via e-mail to vina.oke@gmail.com.

  1. Lina membungkuk di atas Buku Kota Ember dan membaca beberapa kalimatnya.

  Lina bent over Buku Kota Ember and read a couple of sentences.

  2.

  “Aku bisa lompat kodok melewati tempat sampah!” I can frog jump over the trash can!

  3. Jadi itu artinya, dia kini berada lima belas meter di bawah tanah, dengan berton ton batu, tanah, dan bangunan di atasnya.

  If that is the meaning, he is 15 meters under the ground, with tons of earth and buidlings above him.

  4. Kapten Fleery kembali menegakkan tubuhnya dan menepukkan tangannya ke dadanya.

  Captain Fleery raised his body back up and slapped his hand over his chest. 5. “Di luar Kota Ember, kegelapan tak ada habisnya di segala penjuru.” Beyond Kota Ember, the darkness won’t go away at any angle.

  6. Cairan berwarna merah mengaliri tangannya.

  The red liquid (blood) flowed over his/the/her/its hand.

  7. Di seluruh ruangan, kaleng-kaleng berminyak dan sejumlah peralatan tampak berserakan di lantai.

  In all the rooms, the oily props (?) and all the tools are scattered over the floor.

  8. Lina tak dapat melihat ke luar daerah itu kecuali kegelapan.

  Lina was not able to see beyond the area, only darkness.

  9. Lina mendekatinya dengan waspada, dan mengintip ke arah massa yang berkumpul di Alun-Alun Harken.

  Lina came closer with caution, and peaked over the masses that gathered at the Harken town square.

  10. Rasa takut meliputi segenap kota.

  83

  The feeling of fright covered over the whole city.

  11. Dari balik tumpukan sampah, muncul sesosok manusia.

  Beyond the pile of trash appeared the form of a man.

  12. Kebingungan tampak di wajahnya.

  Confusion came over her face.

  13. Di bawah lereng terdapat wujud-wujud gelap dan bulat, dan kemudian ada tanjakan lain di atasnya.

  Under the slope there were dark and round forms, and after there was a steeper slope beyond it.

  14. Inilah buku-buku Kota Ember, ditulis selama bertahun-tahun oleh warganya.

  These are the books of Kota Ember, written over the years by the people.

  15. Di pinggir jalan terdapat toko-toko; di atas toko-toko ada apartemen tempat orang-orang tinggal.

  On the edge of the street there are shops, above the shops are apartments where people live.

  16. Sekarang Lina kembali bersama Bu Polster, yang sedang berdiri di dekat Lina dan melafalkan pesannya.

  Now Lina comes back with Bu Polster who is now standing over Lina and pronouncing her message.

  17. Beberapa meter di depan kaki mereka tampak sebuah jurang terjal yang memusingkan.

  A few meters beyond their feet is sheer ravine which is dizzying.

18. Mataku menyapu perbukitan berwarna perak,… My eyes sweep the silver hills. (My eyes are looking over the silver hills).

  19. Di atas meja terdapat rak-rak berisi botol benih, kotak senar, kawat, dan bermacam-macam serbuk.

  Over the table there were raks with bottles filled with germs, a box of string, wire, and a variety of powder.

  20. Ketika menyala, lampu-lampu itu memancarkan sinar kekuning-kuningan sepanjang jalan;… When on, those lamps radiate yellow rays over the street. Thank you very much for your time and effort! Regards, Vina

  84 Appendix 10: The Result of Back Translation from Respondent 2 (R2)

  Dear respondent, Thank you for agreeing to take this survey. The data collected will be used for my bachelor’s thesis on the English prepositions above, beyond, and over at Sanata Dharma

  University. Before starting the survey, please fill out the following information. I will use a coding method in analyzing the data, so that your name will not be used in my thesis directly. First name: matthew Country of origin: USA Status (student, professional, etc.): student Total time spent in Indonesia: 2 years

  Please translate the Indonesian sentences provided below into English, using one of the prepositions above, beyond, or over for the section highlighted in bold and italics. Note that some of these sections do not necessarily use prepositions in Indonesian (e.g., verb melewati, or suffix

  • –i

  in verb mengaliri) but can be translated into English using above, beyond, or over. Number 18 is methaporical and can also be translated with one of those prepositions.

  If you prefer, feel free to type and submit the translations directly via e-mail to vina.oke@gmail.com.

  1. Lina membungkuk di atas Buku Kota Ember dan membaca beberapa kalimatnya.

  Lina leaned over the book a read a few sentences 2. “Aku bisa lompat kodok melewati tempat sampah!” I can leapfrog over the trash

  3. Jadi itu artinya, dia kini berada lima belas meter di bawah tanah, dengan berton ton batu, tanah, dan bangunan di atasnya.

  So she is 15 feet below the ground with dirt and building above it 4. Kapten Fleery kembali menegakkan tubuhnya dan menepukkan tangannya ke dadanya. Captain fleery stod back up and clasped his hands over his chest 5. “Di luar Kota Ember, kegelapan tak ada habisnya di segala penjuru.” Beyond the city of Ember here is darkness in all directions 6. Cairan berwarna merah mengaliri tangannya. Red liquid running down his hand

  7. Di seluruh ruangan, kaleng-kaleng berminyak dan sejumlah peralatan tampak berserakan di lantai. throughout the room the cans looked greasy and there was a number of equipment scattered on the floor

  8. Lina tak dapat melihat ke luar daerah itu kecuali kegelapan.

  Lina could not see beyond that area theat was darkness

  9. Lina .mendekatinya dengan waspada, dan mengintip ke arah massa yang berkumpul di Alun-Alun Harken.

  Lina approached carefully and peered over the crows that assembled at harkin square 10. Rasa takut meliputi segenap kota. The taste of fear is above the city 11. Dari balik tumpukan sampah, muncul sesosok manusia.

  85

  From beyond a pile of garbage someone appeared 12. Kebingungan tampak di wajahnya. Confusion over her face

  13. Di bawah lereng terdapat wujud-wujud gelap dan bulat, dan kemudian ada tanjakan lain di atasnya.

  Under the slopes are dark and fat beings and above it others climb 14. Inilah buku-buku Kota Ember, ditulis selama bertahun-tahun oleh warganya. These are books from ember written over years by the citizens

  15. Di pinggir jalan terdapat toko-toko; di atas toko-toko ada apartemen tempat orang-orang tinggal.

  On the side of the road are shops, above the shops are places where people live

  16. Sekarang Lina kembali bersama Bu Polster, yang sedang berdiri di dekat Lina dan melafalkan pesannya.

  Now Lina is back with ms Polster who is standing over Lina and reading a message 17. Beberapa meter di depan kaki mereka tampak sebuah jurang terjal yang memusingkan. A few meters beyond their feet is a cliff that makes you dizzy 18. Mataku menyapu perbukitan berwarna perak,… My eyes looked above the colored hills

  19. Di atas meja terdapat rak-rak berisi botol benih, kotak senar, kawat, dan bermacam-macam serbuk.

  Above the table are shelves with bottles seed boxes, strings, wire, and an assortment of powder.

  20. Ketika menyala, lampu-lampu itu memancarkan sinar kekuning-kuningan sepanjang jalan;… When lit the lamps give a yellow light over the street

  Thank you very much for your time and effort! Regards, Vina

  86 Appendix 11: The Result of Back Translation from Respondent 3 (R3)

  Dear respondent, Thank you for agreeing to take this survey. The data collected will be used for my bachelor’s thesis on the English prepositions above, beyond, and over at Sanata Dharma University.

  Before starting the survey, please fill out the following information. I will use a coding method in analyzing the data, so that your name will not be used in my thesis directly. First name: Joshua Zukas Country of origin: Britain Status (student, professional, etc.): Student Total time spent in Indonesia: 3 months Please translate the Indonesian sentences provided below into English, using one of the prepositions above, beyond, or over for the section highlighted in bold and italics. Note that some of these sections do not necessarily use prepositions in Indonesian (e.g., verb melewati, or suffix

  • –i

  in verb mengaliri) but can be translated into English using above, beyond, or over. Number 18 is methaporical and can also be translated with one of those prepositions. If you prefer, feel free to type and submit the translations directly via e-mail to vina.oke@gmail.com.

  1. Lina membungkuk di atas Buku Kota Ember dan membaca beberapa kalimatnya.

  Lina bent over the Buku Kota Embar and read some sentences.

  2.

  “Aku bisa lompat kodok melewati tempat sampah!” I can leap frog over the rubbish bin.

  3. Jadi itu artinya, dia kini berada lima belas meter di bawah tanah, dengan berton ton batu, tanah, dan bangunan di atasnya.

  So that means he is now 15 meters below ground, underneath tons of rock, and a building above.

  4. Kapten Fleery kembali menegakkan tubuhnya dan menepukkan tangannya ke dadanya.

  Captain Fleery returned to enforcing his body and put his hands over his chest 5.

  “Di luar Kota Ember, kegelapan tak ada habisnya di segala penjuru.” Beyond Kota Embar, the darkness hadn’t stopped in each corner 6. Cairan berwarna merah mengaliri tangannya.

  Red fluid flooded over his hand

  7. Di seluruh ruangan, kaleng-kaleng berminyak dan sejumlah peralatan tampak berserakan di lantai.

  (All) over the room, cans of oil and a pieces of equipment were scattered on the floor.

  8. Lina tak dapat melihat ke luar daerah itu kecuali kegelapan.

  Lina could see nothing beyond that area other than darkness

  9. Lina mendekatinya dengan waspada, dan mengintip ke arah massa yang berkumpul di Alun-Alun Harken.

  Lina approached with care, and peeked over at the masses gathering in Alun-Alun Harken 10. Rasa takut meliputi segenap kota. ??? 11. Dari balik tumpukan sampah, muncul sesosok manusia. Beyond the scrap heap an image of a man appeared

  87

  12. Kebingungan tampak di wajahnya.

  The image of confusion appeared over his face

  13. Di bawah lereng terdapat wujud-wujud gelap dan bulat, dan kemudian ada tanjakan lain di atasnya.

  Below the slopes are dark rounded forms, and then there are other ramps above them.

  14. Inilah buku-buku Kota Ember, ditulis selama bertahun-tahun oleh warganya.

  These are Kota Embar books, written over the years by citizens.

  15. Di pinggir jalan terdapat toko-toko; di atas toko-toko ada apartemen tempat orang-orang tinggal.

  At the edge of the street are shops, beyone the shops are apartments where people live.

  16. Sekarang Lina kembali bersama Bu Polster, yang sedang berdiri di dekat Lina dan melafalkan pesannya.

  Now Lina is going back together with Mr. Polstor, that is stood over Lina and reciting passages.

  17. Beberapa meter di depan kaki mereka tampak sebuah jurang terjal yang memusingkan.

  A few meters beyond their feet was a dizzying cliff.

18. Mataku menyapu perbukitan berwarna perak,…

  My eyes swept over the sliver hills

  19. Di atas meja terdapat rak-rak berisi botol benih, kotak senar, kawat, dan bermacam-macam serbuk.

  Above the table there are shelves of bottles seed boxes, strings, wire, and an assortment of powder.

  20. Ketika menyala, lampu-lampu itu memancarkan sinar kekuning-kuningan sepanjang jalan;… When lit, the lights emit a yellowish light over the street

  Thank you very much for your time and effort! Regards, Vina

  88 Appendix 12: The Result of Back Translation from Respondent 4 (R4)

  First name: Edwina Country of origin: Australia Status (student, professional, etc.): Student Total time spent in Indonesia: 2.5 months

  Based on my understanding of bahasa Indonesia, I found it made more sense to translate some of the sentences using words other than ‘above’, ‘beyond’ or ‘over’. In these cases I

have written my preferred translation in blue. I have also written a second translation using

‘above’, ‘beyond’ or ‘over’ in red. However, the meanings are quite different.

  1. Lina membungkuk di atas Buku Kota Ember dan membaca beberapa kalimatnya. Lina bent over the Book of the City of Ember and read a few sentences.

  2.

  “Aku bisa lompat kodok melewati tempat sampah!” "I can leapfrog over the trash!"

  3. Jadi itu artinya, dia kini berada lima belas meter di bawah tanah, dengan berton ton batu, tanah, dan bangunan di atasnya. So that means she is now fifteen feet underground with tons of rocks, earth, and buildings above her.

  4. Kapten Fleery kembali menegakkan tubuhnya dan menepukkan tangannya ke dadanya. Captain Fleery lifted his body and clapped his hands above his chest. 5. “Di luar Kota Ember, kegelapan tak ada habisnya di segala penjuru.” Beyond the City of Ember, the darkness is endless in every direction.

  6. Cairan berwarna merah mengaliri tangannya. Red liquid flowed over his hands.

  Di seluruh ruangan, kaleng-kaleng berminyak dan sejumlah peralatan tampak berserakan 7.

  di lantai.

  Beyond the room, oil cans and equipment appeared scattered on the floor.

  8. Lina tak dapat melihat ke luar daerah itu kecuali kegelapan. Lina could not see anything beyond that place except for darkness.

  9. Lina mendekatinya dengan waspada, dan mengintip ke arah massa yang berkumpul di Alun-Alun Harken. Lina approached cautiously and peered over the crowd that gathered in Harken Square.

  10. Rasa takut meliputi segenap kota. Fear covered over city.

  11. Dari balik tumpukan sampah, muncul sesosok manusia.

  Beyond a pile of garbage, a human figure appeared.

  12. Kebingungan tampak di wajahnya. Confusion spread over her face.

  13. Di bawah lereng terdapat wujud-wujud gelap dan bulat, dan kemudian ada tanjakan lain di atasnya. Beneath the slopes, dark and round forms can be found, and then there is another climb over it.

  14. Inilah buku-buku Kota Ember, ditulis selama bertahun-tahun oleh warganya. These are the books of the City of Ember, written over the years by its citizens.

  15. Di pinggir jalan terdapat toko-toko; di atas toko-toko ada apartemen tempat orang-orang tinggal. On the roadside there are shops; above the shops there are apartments where people live.

  89

  16. Sekarang Lina kembali bersama Bu Polster, yang sedang berdiri di dekat Lina dan melafalkan pesannya. Now Lina had returned together with Mrs Polster, who was standing over Lina and pronouncing her message.

  17. Beberapa meter di depan kaki mereka tampak sebuah jurang terjal yang memusingkan. A few meters beyond their feet appeared a dizzying steep ravine.

18. Mataku menyapu perbukitan berwarna perak,… My eyes swept over silver hills.

  19. Di atas meja terdapat rak-rak berisi botol benih, kotak senar, kawat, dan bermacam- macam serbuk.

  

Above the table were shelves containing bottles of seeds, boxes of string, wire, and an assortment

of powder.

  20. Ketika menyala, lampu-lampu itu memancarkan sinar kekuning-kuningan sepanjang jalan;… When lit, the lamps emit a yellowish light over the street.

  • –i

  …So that means it's now fifteen meters below ground with tons of rock, soil, and construction above* it…*above is a little strange here too, I would say on top of 4. Kapten Fleery kembali menegakkan tubuhnya dan menepukkan tangannya ke dadanya.

  8. Lina tak dapat melihat ke luar daerah itu kecuali kegelapan.

  ……All over the room, oily cans and some equipment were strewn across the floor……………………………………

  7. Di seluruh ruangan, kaleng-kaleng berminyak dan sejumlah peralatan tampak berserakan di lantai.

  …The red liquid runs over* his hands ……*I'd say 'runs down his hands instead.

  the Ember City, the darkness extends to every corner ………………………… ……*outside is a better choice…………………………………………………… 6. Cairan berwarna merah mengaliri tangannya.

  Beyond*

  …Captain Flerry straightened back up and clapped his hands to his chest………………………… … above, beyond, or over do not fit here.……………………………………………… 5. “Di luar Kota Ember, kegelapan tak ada habisnya di segala penjuru.” ……Beyond* the Ember City, the darkness is endless everywhere. Or

  3. Jadi itu artinya, dia kini berada lima belas meter di bawah tanah, dengan berton ton batu, tanah, dan bangunan di atasnya.

  90 Appendix 13: The Result of Back Translation from Respondent 5 (R5)

  ………………………………………………………………

  …Lina bent over the book Ember City and read a few sentences. ………………………… 2. “Aku bisa lompat kodok melewati tempat sampah!” ……I can leapfrog beyond* the trash area! ……*beyond is actually a little strange here, I would say past

  1. Lina membungkuk di atas Buku Kota Ember dan membaca beberapa kalimatnya.

  If you prefer, feel free to type and submit the translations directly via e-mail to vina.oke@gmail.com.

  in verb mengaliri) but can be translated into English using above, beyond, or over. Number 18 is methaporical and can also be translated with one of those prepositions.

  Please translate the Indonesian sentences provided below into English, using one of the prepositions above, beyond, or over for the section highlighted in bold and italics. Note that some of these sections do not necessarily use prepositions in Indonesian (e.g., verb melewati, or suffix

  University. Before starting the survey, please fill out the following information. I will use a coding method in analyzing the data, so that your name will not be used in my thesis directly. First name: Megan Country of origin: United States of America Status (student, professional, etc.): Student Total time spent in Indonesia: About 10 months

  Dear respondent, Thank you for agreeing to take this survey. The data collected will be used for my bachelor’s thesis on the English prepositions above, beyond, and over at Sanata Dharma

  …Lina could see nothing beyond that area except for

  91

  darkness.…………………………………………………………

  9. Lina mendekatinya dengan waspada, dan mengintip ke arah massa yang berkumpul di Alun-Alun Harken.

  …Linda cautiously came closer, and looked into the crowd gathered in Harken Square.……

  above, beyond, or over do not fit

  here.………………………………………………………………… 10. Rasa takut meliputi segenap kota. …A sense of fear covers over* the entire city. …………………………… …*Sounds more natural to just say 'A sense of fear covers the entire city.' ……… 11. Dari balik tumpukan sampah, muncul sesosok manusia. …From behind a pile of garbage, a human figure appeared. …… above, beyond, or over do not fit here.………………………………………………………………………………………… 12. Kebingungan tampak di wajahnya. …There was confusion all over his face.

  13. Di bawah lereng terdapat wujud-wujud gelap dan bulat, dan kemudian ada tanjakan lain di atasnya.

  …… Under the slopes were dark, round forms, and then were are other hills above* it.…………………………………………………………………………………………

  14. Inilah buku-buku Kota Ember, ditulis selama bertahun-tahun oleh warganya.

  …The Ember City books were written over several years by its ci tizens…………………………………………………………………………

  15. Di pinggir jalan terdapat toko-toko; di atas toko-toko ada apartemen tempat orang-orang tinggal.

  …On the side of the road there are shops, and over (or on top of) the shops are apartments where people live.……… ……………………………

  16. Sekarang Lina kembali bersama Bu Polster, yang sedang berdiri di dekat Lina dan melafalkan pesannya.

  Now Lina is coming back together with Mrs. Polster, who is standing near Lina and reciting her message. above, beyond, or over do not fit

  17. Beberapa meter di depan kaki mereka tampak sebuah jurang terjal yang memusingkan.

  …A few meters beyond their feet... in front of is more natural here 18. Mataku menyapu perbukitan berwarna perak,… …My eyes swept over the silver hills………………

  19. Di atas meja terdapat rak-rak berisi botol benih, kotak senar, kawat, dan bermacam-macam serbuk.

  …… On top of the table are shelves of bottles seed boxes, strings, wire, and an assortment of powder.…… ………… ……… above, beyond, or over do not fit.

  20. Ketika menyala, lampu-lampu itu memancarkan sinar kekuning-kuningan sepanjang jalan;… … When lit, those lamps emit a yellowish light over the entire street.

  Thank you very much for your time and effort! Regards, Vina

  92 Appendix 14: The Result of Back Translation from Five Respondents Number of Data R1 R2 R3 R4 R5

  36/TT/Ovr/9/38 Over Over Over Over Over 32/TT/Ovr/5/21 Over Over Over Over Beyond 5/TT/Abv/5/51 Above Above Above Above Above 49/TT/Ovr/22/109 Over Over Over Above 14/TT/Byn/1/28 Beyond Beyond Beyond Beyond Beyond 107/TT/Ovr/80/298 Over - Over Over Over 39/TT/Ovr/12/53 - - Over Beyond Over 18/TT/Byn/5/41 Beyond Beyond Beyond Beyond Beyond 92/TT/Ovr/65/244 Over Over Over Over 47/TT/Ovr/20/95 Over Above - Over Over 20/TT/Byn/7/71 Beyond Beyond Beyond Beyond 48/TT/Ovr/21/108 Over Over Over Over Over 25/TT/Byn/12/280 Beyond Above Above Over Above 55/TT/Ovr/28/130 Over Over Over Over Over 2/TT/Abv/2/19 Above Above Beyond Above Over 34/TT/Ovr/7/33 Over Over Over Over 26/TT/Byn/13/299 Beyond Beyond Beyond Beyond Beyond 103/TT/Ovr/76/291 Over Above Over Over Over 9/TT/Abv/9/184 Over Above Above Above 28/TT/Ovr/1/4 Over Over Over Over Over

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