A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

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USING SONGS

TO TEACH PRONUNCIATION TO THE FIFTH GRADERS

OF SD NANGGULAN 1 KULON PROGO

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

  By Mahatma Primandaru

  Student Number : 081214127

  

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

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  This Undergraduate Thesis Is dedicated to :

Allah SWT

Myself

  My Beloved Mother

My beloved sisters

Anggoro suryo

Deliana Ciciliawati

  

My friends

And everyone who always supports me

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ABSTRACT

  Primandaru, Mahatma. 2013. Using Songs to Teach Pronunciation to the Fifth

  

Graders of SD Nanggulan 1 Kulon Progo. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma

University.

  This research investigated the use of songs in teaching pronunciation to the fifth graders of SD Nanggulan 1. The students did not accustomed to speak by using English language in their school and their daily life. This condition made them became hesitant to pronounce English. Moreover, they were afraid of making mispronunciation. As the result, most of the students faced difficulties in pronouncing some English words.

  Therefore, the researcher intended to overcome that problem by conducting the experimental research. The researcher used songs as the treatment to improve the students’ pronunciation. The researcher formulated a question that should be answered through this research. The question was: What is the effect of teaching pronunciation through songs on the students’ pronunciation?

  This research was based on experimental research. The participants of this research were 32 students. The researcher put the class into two groups, namely control group and experimental group. Then, the researcher conducted pre test for those two groups. In the following days, the researcher gave the treatment to the experimental group using two children songs, namely “Beautiful Day” and “Promise”. On the other hand, the researcher did not give any treatment to the control group. The researcher conducted the post test for those two groups in order to find out whether there was an improvement on the students’ pronunciation or not.

  Based on the research result, there was significant difference between the pre test and post test on the experimental group. From the result of the test by using “Beautiful Day”, the mean value of T test was 3.78, and for the “Promise”, the mean value of T test was 15.6. From the result, the researcher inferred that there was a significant difference between pre test and post test because the mean number of T obtained was higher than the mean number of T critical (1.753). From the result of the control group, the mean value of T test on the “Beautiful Day” was 0.57 and the mean value of T test on the “Promise” was 0.65. Both of the mean value results were lower than T critical (1.753), it could be concluded that there was no improvement between pre test and post test on the control group.

  The results of this research showed that there was a significant improvement on the pronunciation of the students who had been taught through songs. It could be concluded that by using songs in teaching pronunciation gave the better improvement on the students’ pronunciation. Songs could be used as the teaching materials to improved the students’ pronunciation.

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ABSTRAK

  Primandaru, Mahatma. 2013. Using Songs to Teach Pronunciation to the Fifth

  

Graders of SD Nanggulan 1 Kulon Progo. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma

University.

  Penelitian ini untuk mencari tahu mengenai penggunaan lagu dalam

pengajaran pengucapan untuk siswa kelas lima SD Nanggulan 1. Para siswa

tidak terbiasa untuk berbicara dengan menggunakan bahasa Inggris di sekolah

mereka dan kehidupan sehari-hari mereka. Kondisi ini membuat mereka menjadi

ragu-ragu untuk mengucapkan bahasa Inggris. Terlebih lagi, mereka takut

membuat salah ucapan. Hasilnya, sebagian besar siswa mengalami kesulitan

dalam mengucapkan beberapa kata dalam bahasa Inggris.

  Oleh karena itu, peneliti bermaksud untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut

dengan melakukan penelitian eksperimental. Peneliti menggunakan lagu sebagai

perlakuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan pengucapan siswa. Peneliti

merumuskan sebuah pertanyaan yang harus dijawab dalam penlitian ini.

Pertanyaan itu adalah: Apakah efek dari pengajaran pengucapan menggunakan

lagu terhadap kemampuan pengucapan siswa?

  Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental. Responden dalam

penelitian ini berjumlah 32 siswa. Peneliti membagi kelas tersebut menjadi dua

kelompok, bernama kelompok kontrol dan kelompok eksperimen. Kemudian,

peneliti melakukan pra tes di kedua kelompok tersebut. Di hari berikutnya,

peneliti memberikan perlakuan kepada kelompok eksperimen dengan dua lagu

anak-anak, bernama lagu “Beautiful Day” dan lagu “Promise”. Di sisi lain,

peneliti tidak melakukan perlakuan apa-apa untuk kelompok kontrol. Peneliti

melakukan tes akhir di kedua kelompok untuk melihat apakah ada peningkatan

kemampuan pengucapan siswa atau tidak.

  Dari hasil penelitian, terdapat perbedaan yang berarti dari pra tes dan tes

akhir untuk kelompok eksperimen. Dari hasil tes untuk lagu “Beautiful Day”,

nilai dari T tes adalah 3,78, sedangkan untuk lagu “Promise”, nilai T tes adalah

15,6. Kedua hasil tersebut berarti bahwa ada perbedaan yang menonjol antara

pra tes dan tes akhir karena nilai T yang diperoleh lebih tinggi dari T kritis

(1,753). Dari hasil pada group kontrol, nilai T untuk lagu “Beautiful Day”

adalah 0,57 dan nilai T untuk lagu “Promise” adalah 0,65. Kedua nilai T

tersebut kurang dari nilai T kritis yaitu 1,753. Hal ini berarti tidak ada

peningkatan yang terjadi untuk grup kontrol.

  Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada peningkatan

kemampuan pengucapan bahasa Inggris pada siswa yang mendapat pelajaran

menggunakan lagu. Ini bisa disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan lagu dalam

pengajaran pengucapan memberikan peningkatan yang baik pada pengucapan

siswa. Lagu dapat digunakan sebagai bahan ajar untuk meningkatkan

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to Allah SWT for His love and blessing in my life, especially during completing my thesis. Through weaknesses and strengths, happiness and sorrows, I could finish this thesis with His will. Secondly, I would like to express my gratitude to my beloved mother. I dedicate my thesis to her as she always accompanied me and motivated me until I finished my thesis.

  I would like to give my sincere thank to my supervisor, Drs. Barli Bram,

  

M.Ed., Ph.D. for the time, advice, motivation and guidance during the research

  and the thesis writing process. I also address my gratitude to J.S.M Pudji

  

Lestari, S.Pd., M.Hum for the time, advice, motivation, guidance, and support. I

  would thank to Drs. Sugeng for supporting and giving the permission to conduct the research in SD Nanggulan 1.

  I would also like to thank Deliana Ciciliawati for always supporting me in my study. I thank her for the time, advice and love that she gave to me. I thank my best friends in my campus, Mia, Berlin, Mike, Saka, Bela, Aji, Pyta, Yeni,

  

Dhian and Sandy for their laughter, cheer, help, concern, and love. Moreover, I

  thank my friends in my office, Ambar, Tulus, Pengky, Iwan, Mira, and Zully for always supporting me when I found many problems related to my thesis.

  I would thank all my friends in PBI, especially PBI 2008 students for being good friends during my years of study in PBI. I would also thank Mbak

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  my study in PBI. I would also thank my friends in Dimas Diajeng Yogyakarta for giving me support in finishing my thesis. My thankfulness also goes to everybody whose name I could not mention one by one for always helping and supporting me in all aspects.

  Mahatma Primandaru

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

  Page TITLE PAGE........................................................................................................... i APPROVAL PAGES ............................................................................................ ii DEDICATION PAGE ............................................................................................iv STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY .......................................................v

  PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI

  ......................................................vi ABSTRACT .........................................................................................................vii

  ABSTRAK

  ............................................................................................................viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................ix TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................xi LIST OF TABLES ..............................................................................................xiv LIST OF APPENDICES ......................................................................................xv

  CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION

  1.1 Research Background…………………………………………...................1

  1.2 Research Problem.........................………………………………................3

  1.3 Problem Limitation…………..........................................……….................4

  1.4 Research Objective.......................................................................................4

  1.5 Research Benefits.........................................................................................4

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  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  2.1 Theoritical Description ..................................................................................8

  2.1.1 Young Learners....................................................................................8

  2.1.2 Pronunciation..........................................................……......................9

  2.1.3 Teaching Media...................................................................................10

  2.1.4 Children Songs...............................................................…..................10

  2.1.4.1 How to Present Educational Children Songs in Classroom…....11

  2.1.4.2 Considerations and Principles in Choosing Children Songs…....11

  2.1.4.3 The Benefits of Songs for Young Learners................................13

  2.1.4.4 Learning Pronunciation by Using Song....................................14

  2.1.5 Review of Related Studies...................................................................16

  2.2 Theoretical Framework................................................................................18

  CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

  3.1 Research Method……………………………………………...................21

  3.2 Research Setting…………………………………………….....................24

  3.3 Research Participants………………………….…………….....................24

  3.4 Instruments and Data Gathering Technique…………………………….....24

  3.4.1 Test......................................................................................................24

  3.5 Data Analysis Technique............................................................................27

  3.6 Research Procedures...................................................................................28

  CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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  4.2.1 Experimental Group............................................................................ .35

  4.2.2 Control Group……………………………………………...................42

  4.3 Post Test………………………………………..………………..............42

  4.3.1 Experimental Group..............................................................................42

  4.3.2 Control Group.......................................................................................44

  4.4 T test..........................................................................................................46

  4.4.1 T Test for Experimental Group...........................................................46

  4.3.2 T Test for Control Group....................................................................49

  4.5 Analysis.....................................................................................................51

  4.5.1 Pre test....................................................................................................51

  4.5.2 Treatment...............................................................................................52

  4.5.3 Post test..................................................................................................55

  CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  5.1 Conclusions ……………………………………………............................58

  5.2 Recommendations ………………………………………………..............60 REFERENCES.......................................................................................................62 APPENDICES........................................................................................................64

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LIST OF TABLES

  Table Page

Table 4.1 Groups of the Research........................................................................30Table 4.2 Pre-Test Result of “Beautiful Day”(Experimental Group)...................31Table 4.3 Pre-Test Result of “Beautiful Day”(Control Group)............................32Table 4.4 Pre Test Result of “Promise”(Experimental Group).............................33Table 4.5 Pre Test Result of “Promise”(Control Group)......................................34Table 4.6 The Result of Tally Sheet of “Beautiful Day”......................................36Table 4.7 The Result of Tally Sheet of “Promise”...............................................37Table 4.8 The Experimental Group’s Result of “Beautiful Day”-Post Test..........42Table 4.9 The Experimental Group’s Resulf of “Promise”-Post Test..................43Table 4.10 The Control Group’s Result of “Beautiful Day”-Post Test.................44Table 4.11 The Control Group’s Result of Promise Song-Post Test.....................45Table 4.12 T Test of “Beautiful Day” for Experimental Group............................46Table 4.13 T Test of “Promise” for Experimental Group.....................................47Table 4.14 T Test of “Beautiful Day” for Control Group ....................................49Table 4.15 T Test of “Promise” for Control Group..............................................50

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  Appendix Page

  Appendix 1. Covering Letter for the Head of SD Nanggulan 1.............................64 Appendix 2. Lesson Plan........................................................................................66 Appendix 3. Teaching Materials.............................................................................79 Appendix 4. The Students’ Recording of the Pre Test and Post Test.....................82

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the researcher presents the research background,

  research problem, problem limitation, research objective, research benefits, and definition of terms.

1.1 Research Background

  The English language is one of the international languages which is necessary to be learnt (Brewster, Ellis, & Girard, 2002, p. 1). Mastering the English language can help us to communicate with so many people around the world. Learning English can be started as early as possible. Since 1990s, most people in Indonesia have learnt English since they were in elementary school. According to the government’s instruction, English is taught in elementary school starting from the fourth grade (Depdikbud, 1994:ii as cited in Sutiyono, 2001:1).

  Therefore, in SD Nanggulan 1, the English subject is taught from the fourth grade.

  Although the English subject is taught from the fourth grade, there were many students in SD Nanggulan 1 who pronounced English words incorrectly. It was because the students were not accustomed to practicing English in class or their daily life. They did not have enough chance to speak in the English class. As a result, the students became hesitant to speak in English as they were afraid of producing incorrect sounds. In language learning, how to pronounce words is

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  is important in language learning to be learnt. Due to the problems, the teachers need to make the students more active in speaking activities.

  The teachers need to use the appropriate methods and teaching materials to make the students active in the English class. Although the teachers have course books as the guidance in teaching and learning process, the teachers might look for another teaching materials (Brewster, Ellis, & Girard, 2002, p. 156). There are many teaching materials that can be used, such as songs, rhymes, games, posters, flashcards, CDs, the internet, and other CALL programmes (Brewster, Ellis, & Girard, 2002, p. 156). One of those teaching materials is song. The teachers can use song in the teaching and learning activities. In this study, the researcher chose songs as the teaching material in teaching pronunciation to young learners.

  In teaching English to elementary school learners, the teachers need to know their characteristics. Scott and Ytleberg (1990) explain that the children have a great motivation to learn what they like. In line with their nature, they love to play. The children will be enthusiactic in learning something they like. They can easily learn something new from other people, that is why they need a guidance to make them focus on what they need to learn (pp. 2-4). Based on Scott and Ytleberg’s explanation, the researcher inferred that the children love to learn something new which attract their attention. Furthermore, young learners like the activities which can explore their body movements. Moreover, Slattery and Willis (2001) explain that children usually like singing and performing (p.44).

  They will enjoy learning songs and rhymes. They will be enthusiastic when they

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  the words until they can remember the lyrics of the songs. This activity will increase the children’s ability in pronouncing English words.

  Based on Brewster, Ellis, and Girard (2002), “Children love songs, rhymes and chants and their repetitive nature and rhythm make them an ideal vehicle for language learning” (p.162). In addition, Philip (1993) explains that music and rhythm are an essential part of language learning for young learners (p. 100). It means that music and rhythm can be used in teaching and learning activities, especially in language learning. Music and rhythm will motivate and encourage the children to learn language.

  Using songs in learning pronunciation can bring a new atmosphere for children. It can enourage them to learn pronunciation enthusiastically. According to Lo and Li (1998), songs play an important role in motivating students to learn English. By using songs, the teacher can develop the children’s abilities in reading, writing, listening and speaking, as well as provide opportunities for learning pronunciation, rhythm, grammar and vocabulary. There are many activities which can do by using songs in the classroom. From the experts’ explanation, the teachers may use songs in teaching and learning activities to improve children’s pronunciation.

1.2 Research Problem

  The problem of the research can be stated as follows: What is the effect of teaching pronunciation through songs on the

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  1.3 Problem Limitations

  The researcher focuses on the use of songs in teaching English pronunciation to the fifth graders of SD Nanggulan 1. The researcher wants to find out the effect of using children songs in teaching pronunciation on the students’ pronunciation. Moreover, the researcher will teach the students how to pronounce vowels and consonants with the correct pronunciation through songs. Then, the researcher will analyze their pronunciation in pronouncing English vowels and consonants of the children songs.

  Furthermore, the researcher will use simple songs which are appropriate with the level of the students. In this research, the researcher will conduct tests to answer the problem formulation. There will be two tests in this study, those are pre test and post test. The tests are conducted in oral form because the researcher will test the pronunciation ability of the fifth graders in SD Nanggulan 1.

  1.4 Research Objective

  The objective of this research is finding out the effect of teaching pronunciation through songs on the students’ pronunciation. The researcher wants to find out whether the use of songs in teaching pronunciation give the effect on the students’ pronunciation or not. Moreover, the aim of this research is to know the use of songs in classroom to help the fifth graders in SD Nanggulan 1 in improving their pronunciation ability.

  1.5 Research Benefits

  Through this research, there are several benefits that could be

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  expected to give contribution for the English teachers, the elementary school students, and other researchers.

  a. English Teachers The results of the study are expected to be the option used by the teachers as the teaching materials to teach pronunciation for young learners. The teachers might use songs in teaching pronunciation with various ways. In the teaching and learning activities, it will be better if the teachers do not only explain the materials all the time in front of the class and let students listen what they heard. The teachers might use the appropriate teaching materials to support their teaching and learning process. Using attractive teaching materials like songs can make the teaching and learning process more lively and the students might have a new optional way in learning pronunciation.

  b. Elementary School Students From this research, the students are expected to have a new spirit to learn

  English pronunciation through songs. The researcher hopes that usings songs in teaching and learning activities will break the boredom of old-fashioned way of teaching. The students become more active in learning process. Moreover, the students will be enthusiastic to learn English pronunciation. When the students are well motivated, they will enjoy to learn and their pronunciation will be better.

  c. Other Researchers It is expected that the study will be useful for further research and enlarge the readers’ knowledge in using the children songs as teaching materials. The

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  interested in conducting another research related to songs and its effects for young learners.

1.6 Definition of Terms

  There are several terms related to this research. The descriptions of those terms are described below.

  a. Song According to Simms (1993), “a song is a short of piece in one concise movement for the medium of solo voice and piano” (p. 29). Moreover, Parto

  (1996) said that a song is a group of arrangements which consists of lyrics and elements of music like rhythm, melody, harmony and expressions” (p. 99). All the songs which are used in this study are children songs. It is because the object of this study is elementary school students, aged 10-11. The songs which are used in this study are related to the students’ level.

  b. Pronunciation According to Nunan (2003), pronunciation is sounds we make while speaking. The sounds we produce are used as a communciation tool (p. 112).

  Moreover, Jones (1958) describes pronunciation is the way people produce sound using organ of speech. In this thesis, pronunciation is the act or manner of the students in pronouncing English words.

  c. The fifth graders of SD Nanggulan 1 Kulon Progo The fifth graders means the students who are in the fifth grade of

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  elementary school. Moreover, Nanggulan is the subdistrict of the Kulon Progo regency.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Chapter two presents the discussion of theories and research related to the

  study in this thesis. The purpose of this chapter is to provide information of theories used in answering the questions of this research. In this chapter, there are two major areas of concern. The first part is the theoretical description and the second part is theoretical framework.

2.1 Theoretical Description

  In this part, the researcher disscusses the theories related to the use songs in teaching English pronunciation. This chapter will also discuss young learners, teaching media, and children songs.

2.1.1 Young Learners

  According to Philips (1993), young learners are children from the first year of formal schooling (five or six years old) to eleven or twelve years of age (p.

  5). Children, especially young learners, have many unique characteristics that make us interesting to discuss them. According to Scott and Ytlberg, young learners are able to work with others and learn from others (Scott & Ytlberg, 1990, pp. 2-4). Young learners can learn from their friends, teachers, parents, etc.

  Young learners are very active and also love to play (Scott & Ytlberg, 1990, pp.

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  sense of the world”. They will do something if their condition is good and they are happy in doing it.

  Based on the experts’ findings, the enthusiasm of the students is one of the most important things. The teachers have to know the characteristics of the students which really love to play. Moreover, the teachers need to use any interesting media and teaching materials to support the teaching and learning process.

2.1.2 Pronunciation

  In communicating to other people, the way how to pronounce words is really important. If the pronunciation is unclear, it may cause ambiguity in understanding the meaning. According to Kenworthy (1997), in pronouncing the words, intelligibility is really important to avoid ambiguity in communication.

  Intelligibility means “being understood by a listener at a given time in a given situation” (p. 13).

  In teaching and learning activities, the teachers have to be good models for the students in pronouncing English correctly and clearly. The teachers need to know and understand the problem faced by the students, so that the teachers can give the best solution related with the problem. Most of students are not accustomed to speaking English in their daily life. As a result, they feel less confident to make mistake when they speak in English.

  The teachers need to use the appropriate teaching materials to teach the students. In pronunciation, Kenworthy (1997, p. 4) suggests that it would be better

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  if the teaching materials contain the native language as they give clear example of native language and the students would imitate the sounds precisely.

  2.1.3 Teaching Media

  According to Arsyad (2006), teaching media is used to convey teaching messages (p. 4). In the view of National Education Association (in Arsyad, 2006, p. 5), media is of communication either printed or audio visual and the tools. Based on the above definition, it can be concluded that teaching media are needed for the teachers to help them in teaching-learning activity. Teaching media can be printed or audio visual and the tools. Teaching media is really important for the teacher to convey the material for the students.

  2.1.4 Children Songs

  In understanding the definition of children songs, we need to know about the definition of the song it self. According to Parto (1996), “a song is a group of arrangements which consists of lyrics and elements of music like rhythm, melody, harmony and expressions” (p. 99). In a song, there are harmony of lyric, music, melody, rhythm and also expression. In this study, the researcher used the children songs. Children songs are songs which related to the children’s characteristics.

  Based on Hornby (1995), ”Child is an individual who has not reached puberty” (p. 192). Then, the researcher inferred that children songs are songs which really attract the children’ enthusiasm to listen to them. The children songs consist of beautiful words of which the melody is really cheerful. Moreover, the children songs convey message for individuals who have not reached puberty.

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  2.1.4.1 How to Present Educational Songs in Classroom

  Knowing the procedure to present song in teaching and learning activities is really important. Hubbard, Jones, Thornton, & Wheeler (1983) suggest some procedures to present song. In using songs as the teaching materials, the teachers need to explain the lyric of the songs carefully and patiently. Moreover, the teacher explains the words clearly to make the students understand in pronouncing the lyric and also the meaning. Then, the teachers play the whole songs to make the students understand the rythm of the songs. When the students start to understand the rhythm, they will imitate what they heard from the songs.

  Furthermore, the teacher needs to bring the lively atmosphere into the class. The teacher might use gesture activities related to the songs to attract the students’ enthusiasm. If the students cannot understand clearly what they heard from the cassete, the teacher might play the song verse by verse. After the students start to understand the rythm and the pronunciation of the words, the teachers let them to practice singing (Hubbard, P., Jones, H., Thornton, B., & Wheeler, R., 1983, p.94).

  2.1.4.2 Considerations and Principles in Choosing Children Songs

  In using children songs in teaching and learning activities, the teachers need to choose the appropriate children songs. According to Hubbard, Jones, Thornton, & Wheeler (1983, pp. 93-94), there are some considerations and principles in choosing educational children songs. First, the teachers need to make sure if the songs are suitable for the language level of students (elementary,

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  students. When the songs are not appropriate with the age of students, the students might not enjoy to listen and sing the song. Third, the songs should be more appealing to the students. If the songs are interesting to them, they will pay attention to the songs (Hubbard, P., Jones, H., Thornton, B., & Wheeler, R., 1983, pp. 93-94).

  In addition, Tassoni, Beith, Eldridge, and Gough (2002) explain some principles in choosing children songs. First, the songs which are used in teaching and learning for young learners should be fun and easy to be learnt. The teachers need to choose the songs which have interesting rhytm so that the children will be enjoy to listen and sing the songs. The teachers have to avoid the songs which are too complicated for children, for example: the songs are too fast; the songs have many difficult words for children. Second, the songs should have a relevance to the children environment. The teachers might introduce the children’s environment through songs. The children will be easy to draw their imagination because what they heard from the songs are close to them. Third, the songs should be linked to the theme. The teachers have to make sure if the songs are related with the theme and the content of the learning materials. Furthermore, the songs which will be used in teaching and learning acitivities should be bright with clear image to attract children (Tassoni, P. , Beith, K. , Eldridge, H. & Gough, A., 2002, pp. 424 – 428).

  The teachers have to understand those considerations when choosing songs as the teaching materials. If the songs are not appropriate to the children’s

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  songs. When the children are not interested to listen to the song, it will be difficult for the teachers to teach English through songs.

2.1.4.3 The Benefits of Songs for Young Learners

  Using songs in teaching and learning activities give many benefits for children. Brewster, Ellis, and Girard (2002, pp. 162-163) explain that there are some postive impacts due to the use of songs, rhymes, and chants in teaching and learning activities. In linguistic resource, the use of songs can improve all aspects of pronunciation. The students will imitate how to pronounce many English words by singing and listening to the songs. The use of songs gives many benefits not only for linguistic aspect of children but also for other aspects. When the atmosphere of teaching and learning activities is enjoyable, it will affect on the children’s mood. The children’s mood will be increased. It means that the children’s psychological also obtain the positive impacts.

  If the children are in a good mood, they will do the activities happily and concentrate on what they do. After the listen to the songs, they will try to remember the lyrics of the songs. This activity will sharpen their ability in memorization. It means their cognitive aspect also obtain postive impacts.

  Moreover, The children usually share what makes them happy to their friends. In here, they will share what they have learnt by listening and singing to the songs.

  The children will be happy to sing together with their friends. The teachers can make a group discussion related to the songs which develop the social aspect of children (Brewster, Ellis, and Girard 2002, pp. 162-163).

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2.1.4.4 Learning Pronunciation by Using Song

  In learning pronunciation through songs, songs give some benefits to the children. Based on Philips (1993), “the children can remember language easily by listening to music and rhythm” (p. 94). According to Paul (2003), by listening and singing song, the students’ feeling to learn language is increased (p. 58).

  Moreover, Paul says that songs also help children to remember words and practice language more easily. The children also get more deeply into a lesson. Based on the explanation from Paul and Philips, the researcher inferred that song is a good learning material for the students to increase their pronunciation. By listening to the music and songs, the students will be easier to imitate the lyric of the songs.

  Using songs in teaching and learning actitivities give many benefits for children. Brewster, Ellis, and Girard (2002, pp. 163-164) explain the pronunciation benefits of using songs. There benefits are in four aspects, those are : a. Individual sounds and sounds in connected speech

  Songs and rhymes are useful for showing what happens to sounds in connected speech, for example, the way that certain sounds run on together : You’re not IT! Or All in together! Rather complicated consonant clusters in English are often simplified, especially where a word which ends in /t/ or /d/ is followed by consonant cluster (Brewster, Ellis,& Girard, 2002, pp. 163-164).

  b. Stress and rhythm Stress and rhythm can also be practiced in a very natural way by using songs or

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  help to develop a sense of rhythm in English. Weak forms, where the pronunciation of a word differs according to wheter it is stressed or unstressed, occur regularly in songs and rhymes (Brewster, Ellis,& Girard, 2002, pp. 163- 164).

  c. Intonation Intonation can also be practiced in songs and rhymes (Brewster, Ellis,& Girard, 2002, pp. 163-164).

  d. Ear training By using songs and ryhmes, the teachers can use ear training to help the children distinguish between different aspects of English pronunciation. To do this activity, the teachers might ask the children to listen and count how many times an individual sound or word occurs in a song or rhyme (Brewster, Ellis,& Girard, 2002, pp. 163-164).

  Based on the experts’ explanation above, there are four aspects related to pronunciation that get the good impacts of using songs in teaching and learning.

  By using songs, the teachers can teach the children about connected speech. Songs are useful for showing what happens to sounds in connected speech. The teachers might use songs to teach about stress, rhythm and also intonation. In here, repetition is really needed so that the students will be accustomed to pronounce words in a good stress and intonation.

  Intonation is really important, according to Brewster, Ellis, and Girard (2002, p. 77), there are some functions of intonation in English. The first function

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  function is to show the grammatical function of what is beid said, for example, wheter something is a statement or question. The last function of intonation in English is to show feelings and emotions.

  Due to the importance of teaching intonation for students, songs can be used as a teaching material which can attract the students’ enthusiasm. In the lyrics of children songs, there are so many expressions which have different intonation. The teachers might use them to be taught in attractive ways so that the children will be enthusiastic to learn. In addition, the teacher might do ear training to the students through songs. This activity will encourage the children to be focused on what they heard.

2.1.5 Review of Related Studies

  There was a research which investigated the implementation of the use of songs for teaching vocabulary to kindergarten students. This research had been conducted by Apsari (2012). This research was also an attempt to investigate the students’ response toward the use of songs in teaching and learning process. An English teacher and fifteen students of TK Kartika XV-5 Batujajar, Bandung Barat were selected to be the respondents of this study. The results of the study revealed that songs can be used effectively to improve students’ English vocabulary. Finally, media such as picture is required in order to convey the meaning of songs. The study also showed that the majority of students were interested in learning English vocabulary through songs. This results indicates that by using songs the students tend to be more active in the teaching and learning

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  Moreover, there was a journal which discussed that songs play an important role in the development of young children learning a second language.

  This research was conducted by Millington (2011). This study will discuss how songs can help learners improve their listening skills and pronunciation, and how they can be useful in the teaching of vocabulary and sentence structures. Millington also discussed how songs can reflect culture and increase students’ overall enjoyment of learning a second language. Finally, the paper explored how songs for children can be adapted to suit a particular theme or part of the curriculum a teacher might wish to teach (Millington, N., 2011, pp. 134-141).

  Based on a journal named “The Value of Songs and Chants for Young Learners” by Forster (2006, p. 63-68), using songs in the teaching-learning for the children can increase their English vocabulary, intonation and pronunciation. The use of songs, music and rhythm in teaching pronunciation will help the teachers in doing teaching and learning process. In using songs, the first thing that the teachers need to do is determining the age of the students. Then, the teachers have to make sure whether the songs and chants are appropriate for their age or not.

  Basically, children love music and songs. It will be better if the teachers include music and songs in basic communication acts or classroom situations. For the example, the teachers can lead the students to sing a children song or chant. The teachers need to give the example how to pronounce the lyric of the songs. Repetition is really good to improve the students’ memorization. From this activity, the children can improve their pronunciation and their vocabulary is also

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  Those three studies proved that songs can be use in teaching and learning activities. The children who had been taught through songs obtain the positive effects on their pronunciation, vocabulary mastery, and other aspects of language. Moreover, the students’ interest to learn language was also increased. In line with those three studies, in this research the researcher conducted a study through songs. The researcher focussed to find the effect on the students’ pronunciation when the students obtained the treatments through songs.

2.2 Theoretical Framework

  In learning language, there are four skills that need to be developed. Those skills are speaking, listening, reading and writing. The teachers have to teach those skills to make the students understand clearly about the language. One of the important skills in mastering the language is speaking. Ability to speak fluently and clearly are really needed to avoid miscomunication. The stundents also have to pay attention on their pronunciation. If the pronunciation is unclear, it may cause ambiguity in understanding the meaning. According to Kenworthy (1997), in pronouncing the words, intelligibility is really important to avoid ambiguity in communication. Intelligibility means “being understood by a listener at a given time in a given situation” (p. 13). From the expert’s explanation, we can understand that speaking with the good pronunciation is really important.

  In teaching English to the children, the teachers need to know the children’s characteristics due to the appropriate teaching materials that will be

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  have a great motivation to learn what they like. The elementary students will be enthusiactic in learning something which attract their attention. Based on Scott and Ytleberg’s explanation, we can understand that the teachers need to use the appropriate teaching materials to be taught. The teachers have to choose the teaching materials which can attract the students’ attention so that the students will enjoy to join the teaching-learning activities.

  In this research, the researcher focused on the teaching pronunciation to young learners. The researcher found that the fifth graders of SD Nanggulan 1 had a problem in pronunciation. They pronounced English words incorrectly and some of words were influenced by Javanese accent. One of the problems that made the young learners felt difficult to improve their speaking ability, especially in their pronunciation was because the students were not accustomed to practice English.

  The teachers needed to use the appropriate media and teaching materials to make the students more active in speaking activities.

  The researcher offered the use of songs as the teaching materials to attract the students to learn English pronunciation. The reason why the researcher used songs in teaching pronunciation was because basically the students love songs, rhymes and chants. According to Brewster, Ellis, and Girard (2002), “Children love songs, rhymes and chants and their repetitive nature and rhythm make them an ideal vehicle for language learning” (p.162). Moreover, the use of songs in teaching pronunciation will improve the students’ linguistic aspect, especially on their pronunciation (Brewster, Ellis, & Girard, 2002, p. 162).

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  In addition, Philip (1993) explains that music and rhythm are an essential part of language learning for young learners (p. 100). Based on a journal named “The Value of Songs and Chants for Young Learners” by Forster (2006, pp. 63- 68), using songs in teaching-learning for the children can increase their English pronunciation. Based on the experts’ explanation, the researcher inferred that songs, musics and rhythm could be used in teaching and learning activities, especially in language learning. Songs, music and rhythm would motivate and encourage the students to learn language.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses several things such as research method, research

  setting, research participants, instuments and data gathering technique, data analysis technique, and research procedure. Those things are very important for the researcher in conducting the study and obtaining the empirical data as the results of the study.

3.1 Research Method

  The researcher used the analysis of results from an experimental research to answer the research problem of this thesis. Experimental research has long been employed by linguists and educational researchers to discover whether one teaching or learning technique or other variables is more effective than another when applied to one or two groups of participants. According to Gay (1992, p. 298), in conducting experimental research, the researcher will have to manipulate at least one independent variable, control over relevant variables, and observe the effect on one or more dependent variables.

  According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2009) , “Experimental research is the only type of research that directly attempts to influence a particular variable, and when properly applied, it is the best type for testing hypotheses about cause- and-effect relationships” (p. 261). The independent variable in experimental

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  known as the outcomes of the study (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009, p. 261). Moreover, Fraenkel and Wallen (2009) explain that the researchers can manipulate the independent variable (p. 261). In other words, the researchers who conducts an experimental research decides what will happen to the subjects. The researchers can manipulate the methods if instruction, type of assignment, learning materials, rewards given to students, and types of questions asked by teachers. At the end of the research, the researcher observe or measure the groups receiving differents treatments. The researchers will see whether the treatment made a difference or not (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009, pp. 261-262).

  In an experimental research, three variables must be taken into account. The first one was the starting point, the second was the treatment, and the last was the outcome. After that, the researcher would compare between the starting point and the result point to see the effect after the researcher gave the treatment to the samples. Commonly, an experimental research has two or more groups of samples to be compared, although having only one group is possible (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009).

  In this research, the researcher wanted to know the effect of using songs in the classroom activities to the students’ pronunciation. That was the reason the researcher used the experimental method to answer the research problem. Through the experimental research, the researcher would find out the difference between the students who were given the treatment by using songs and those who were not given any treatment.

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  In this reseach, the researcher used static-group pretest-posttest design. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (2009, p. 266), the static-group pre test-post test design is a design that involves at least two nonequivalent groups. The groups which will be compared are already formed. There will be a pretest for those two groups. Moreover, one group will receive a treatment and the other one will not.

  The result of pre test and post test from those two groups will be analyzed to see the difference (Fraenkel&Wallen,2009, p. 266).

  The Static-Group Pre test-Post test Design

  Treatment group O

  X O Control group O O (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009, p. 266).

  In this research, the research put the class into two groups, namely experimental group and control group. Both of groups being measured or observed twice. The first measurement was the pre test, the second was the post test. The measurements were collected at the same time for both groups. In the pre test, the researcher asked both of groups did the pre test by reading aloud the pre-test paper. Then, the researcher analyzed the result of the pre test. After that, the researcher gave the treatment by using songs for the experimental group. On the other hand, the researcher did not give any treatment for the control group.

  After the treatment was given, the researcher conducted post test for both of groups. Then, the researcher compared the result between pre test and post test

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  3.2 Research Setting

  The experimental research of this study was conducted in SD Nanggulan

  

1, Jatisarono, Nanggulan, Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. The condition of the school

  was fairly quite and condusive to conduct a research. The researcher chose the fifth graders of SD Nanggulan 1. The class was quite condusive and it supported for the process of study.

  3.3 Research Participants

  The participants of the study were the fifth graders of SD Nanggulan 1 in the academic year 2012/2013. There were 32 students. It consisted of 15 males and 17 females. They were around 10-11 years old. Moreover, they had learnt English since they were in the fourth grade. Most of the students faced difficulties on pronouncing some English words.

  3.4 Instruments and Data Gathering Technique

  An instrument plays an important role in a study in the sense that the reliability of the instrument will influence the reliability of data obtained. The instrument used in this experiment was intended to measure the students’ achievement in English pronunciation. Therefore, the instrument used in this study is test.

3.4.1 Test

  Test is valuable measuring in a research. As Ary wrote (1979) “a test is a set of stimuli presented to an individual in order to elicit responses on the basic of which a numerical score can be assigned” (p. 179). Therefore, tests are very

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  achievement in mastering English pronunciation through songs. The songs which were used in this tests were “Beautiful Day” and “Promise”. In choosing the songs, the researcher referred to the theories from Hubbard, et al. (1983) and Tassoni, et al. (2002). According to the explanation from Hubbard, et al. (1983) and Tassoni, et al. (2002), there are some considerations in choosing children songs (see chapter 2, p. 12). In using songs as the teaching materials, the songs must be suitable for the language level and the age of the students (Hubbard, et al., 1983). “Beautiful Day” and “Promise” contained words which were common for the children. The children already known those words from their English teacher and English books.

  The songs which are used as the teaching materials should be more appealing to the students (Hubbard, et al., 1983). Moreover, the teachers need to choose songs which are fun and easy to learn (Tassoni, et al., 2002). Both of songs which were used by the researchers were easy to learn and fun.

  Furthermore, the lyrics of “Beautiful Day” and “Promise” contained words which were related to the children’s environment. In line with the theory from Tassoni, et al. (2002), the songs which are used in the teaching and learning activities should have a relevance to the children environment.

  In this research, the researcher conducted pre test and post test. The result of the achievement tests were used to indicate the students’ progress of English pronunciation by using English children songs. In the pre test, the researcher asked the students to read aloud the lyrics of “Beautiful Day” and

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  lyrics. It refered to the Basic Competence of reading aspect for the fifth graders of Elementary School: “Reading aloud words, phrases, simple sentences and texts using the appropriate pronunciation, stress, intonation”. Based on the basic competence, the lyrics of those two songs contained simple sentences which appropriate with their level. All of the students came forward one by one to read the lyrics of those two songs. The researcher recorded their voice to analyze their pronunciation in pronouncing those words.

  As it had been explained previously, the researcher put the class into two groups, named experimental group and control group. The next four activities were teaching pronunciation to the students in experimental group using children songs. The last activity was a post test. The post test was to know the progression of the students in English pronunciation before and after getting a treatment by using English children songs.

  In the post test, the researcher asked all of the students in the experimental group to came forward one by one to sing the songs. Due to the control group was not given any treatment through songs, in this post test all of the students in control group just read aloud the lyrics of those two songs. The researcher recorded their voice to analyze their pronunciation in pronouncing those words.

  In line with the objectives of experimental research, the researcher used T test to make comparison of the mean between pre test and post test. Based on the result of T test, the researcher would understand whether the treatment made a

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  difference or not. The result of the T test would support in answering the research problem of this study. The T test formula was described as follows.

  ∑ d =

  ∑ (∑ ) / Sd = t = d - µd

  Sd/√n

  Source: Fraenk, Wallen, and Hyun (2012)

3.5 Data Analysis Technique

  In this research, the researcher collected the data both of pre test data and post test data of the respondents. In the pre test , all of the students came forward one by one to read the lyrics of those two songs. The researcher recorded all of their voice to analyze their pronunciation in pronouncing those words. The researcher counted how many mispronounced words made by the students.

  In the post test, the researcher asked the students in experimental group one by one to sing the songs . The researcher recorded all of their voice and counted how many mispronounced words made by the students. For the control group, the researcher asked them one by one to read aloud the lyrics of the songs.

  The researcher recorded all of their voices and counted how many mispronounced words made by the them. Furthermore, the researcher analyzed the data by comparing the result between pre test and post test for those two groups. The

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3.6 Research Procedures

  The researcher conducted this research by planning several steps to do as follows: First, the researcher put the class into two groups, namely experimental group and control group. There were 16 students in experimental group and 16 students in control group. Before doing the pre test, the teacher taught them how to read the words correctly. Then, the researcher did the pre test for those two groups. Moreover, the researcher recorded all of their voice and analyzed the result of the pre test.

  Second, the researcher conducted the treatment for the experimental group. The treatment was using the children songs. There were four times of treatment by using songs. The objective on conducting the treatment was to increase students’ ability in pronouncing English. On the other hand, the researcher did not give any treatment for control group. Moreover, the researcher wanted to measure the difference of pronunciation between pre test and post test for those two groups.

  Third, the researcher conducted a post test to measure the students’ achievement in mastering English pronunciation through songs. The researcher recorded all of the students’ voice and analyzed the result. Then, the researcher did the T test for the pre test and post test in order to show whether the treatment made a difference or not. The result of the achievement tests are used to indicate

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CHAPTER IV RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter will discuss the results of the research, the comparison between

  control group and experiment group and the analysis of research. As mentioned in the previous chapter, the research was conducted to 32 students at SD 1 Nanggulan, Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. The researcher put the students into two groups, namely experimental group and control group. Then, the researcher made a treatment for experiment group and did not make treatment for control group. The researcher analyzed the data by comparing the result between pre test and post test for those two groups. The research was conducted through several steps as follows:

4.1 Pre Test

  The researcher conducted the research on March 16th, 2013. The researcher opened the teaching learning activities by introducing himself. After that, the researcher asked the students to introduce themselves in English. After all of the students introduced themselves in English, the researcher knew that students’ pronunciation was weak and they mispronounced many words. They applied Javanese accent and their mother tounge in pronouncing English words.

  They often made sound substitutions and sound deletions when they pronounced English words.

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  10 Ni Sd

  Then, the researcher asked all of the students one by one to come forward reading the first pre test paper which contained the lyric of “Beautiful Day”. The total words in the lyric were 82 words. The researcher recorded all of their voice

  After the researcher put the class into two groups, the researcher handed out the pre test paper to the students. There were two pieces of paper, the first paper contained the lyric of “Beautiful Day”, the other one contained the lyric of “Promise”. After all students got the paper, the researcher gave the examples of how to pronounce the words on the pre-test paper. After that, the researcher asked them to read aloud the words together.

  16 Sv Di

  15 Nd Yd

  14 Fa Am

  13 Fr Vi

  12 Zf Tr

  11 Dv Ft

  The researcher put the class into two groups, namely experimental group and control group. Those two groups were listed as follows:

Table 4.1 Groups of The Research No Experimental Group Control Group

  8 Ba Na

  7 Lr Dn

  6 Ar Nk

  5 Ant Fk

  4 An Mr

  3 Wl Bu

  2 Al Jt

  1 At If

  9 Da Rg

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  11

  7

  11 Dv

  10

  12 Zf

  9

  13 Fr

  14 Fa

  8

  10

  15 Nd

  8

  16 Sv

  9 Based on the experimental group’s result of the first pre test paper, most of

  the students were still confused to pronounce those words. They were not accustomed in pronouncing those words. Some of the students seemed hesitant in pronouncing the words. As the result they were lowering their voice.

  From the tabel above, the student who made the most mispronunciation was At. At mispronounced 14 words out of 82 words. Meanwhile, the student who made minimum mispronunciation was Ni. Ni mispronounced 7 words. Ni was quite confident in pronouncing the words. On the other hand, At was not really confident of what he said. Furthermore, some of words were influenced by Javanese accent.

  10 Ni

  to analyze their pronunciation in pronouncing those words. In the pre test, the researcher obtained the result as follows:

Table 4.2 Pre-Test Result of “Beautiful Day” (Experimental Group) No Experimental Group Mispronounced Words

  4 An

  1 At

  14

  2 Al

  10

  3 Wl

  12

  8

  10

  5 Ant

  9

  6 Ar

  12

  7 Lr

  11

  8 Ba

  9 Da

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  14 Am

  11 Ft

  9

  12 Tr

  10

  13 Vi

  8

  10

  10 Sd

  15 Yd

  8

  16 Di

  9 The students from the control group were confused with the words in the

  lyric. The condition was almost the same with the experimental group. They were confused to pronounce some words.

  From the tabel above, most of the students did more than 7 mispronunciation, except Na who only made 7 mispronunciation. Meanwhile, the student who made the most mispronunciation was Mr. In here, Mr mispronounced 12 words out of 82 words.

  After the researcher recorded the students’ voice in reading the first pre test paper, the researcher asked all of the students from both groups to come forward reading the second pre test paper which was the lyric of the “Promise”.

  8

  The researcher also did the pre test for the control group. In the first pre test paper, the researcher obtained the result as follows :

Table 4.3 Pre-Test Result of “Beautiful Day” (Control Group) No Control Group Mispronounced Words

  12

  1 If

  10

  2 Jt

  9

  3 Bu

  11

  4 Mr

  5 Fk

  9 Rg

  11

  6 Nk

  8

  7 Dn

  8

  8 Na

  7

  11

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  The total words in the lyric were 55 words. In the second pre test paper, the researcher obtained the result as follows :

Table 4.4 Pre Test Result of “Promise” (Experimental Group)

  

No Experimental Group Mispronounced Words

  1 At

  15

  2 Al

  11

  3 Wl

  10

  4 An

  16

  5 Ant

  13

  6 Ar

  12

  7 Lr

  11

  8 Ba

  10

  9 Da

  10

  10 Ni

  12

  11 Dv

  10

  12 Zf

  11

  13 Fr

  13

  14 Fa

  11

  15 Nd

  8

  16 Sv

  9 Based on the result of the second pre test paper, most of the students in

  experimental group did mispronunciation more than 8 words. Actually the total words in the second pre test paper was not as much as in the first pre test paper, but the students were not accustomed in pronouncing those words. Some words which considered as difficult words for the students to be pronounced were: pal, nice, faith, we’ll, fight, crossed, fingers, and leap.

  From the tabel above, the student who made the most mispronunciation was At. At mispronounced 15 words out of 55 words. On the other hand, the student who made minimum mispronunciation was Nd. Nd mispronounced 8

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  13

  9

  11 Ft

  9

  12 Tr

  10

  13 Vi

  14 Am

  9

  10

  15 Yd

  13

  16 Di

  9 From the tabel above, it could be seen that the students in control group

  made some mispronunciation. Actually, the problem that made them did the mispronunciation in many words was the same with experimental group. Due to the lack of understanding the words, they were not confident to pronounce some words.

  There were three students who mispronounced 13 words, they were Jt, Vi, and Wd. Meanwhile, Dn only mispronounced 7 words out of 55 words. Other students in control group mispronounced more than 7 words and less than 13 words.

  10 Sd

  The researcher also asked the control group to come forward and reading the second pre test paper. In the second pre test paper, the researcher obtained the result as follows :

Table 4.5 Pre Test Result of “Promise” (Control Group) No. Control Group Mispronounced Words

  4 Mr

  1 If

  10

  2 Jt

  13

  3 Bu

  11

  12

  10

  5 Fk

  11

  6 Nk

  9

  7 Dn

  7

  8 Na

  9 Rg

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  Based on the pre test result, all students of those two groups almost did the similar mistakes in pronouncing the words. The students were not accustomed to those words. Therefore, they were not confident enough to pronounce those words. As the result, they were lowering their voice. This result of pre test would be compared to the result of the post test.

4.2 Treatment

  Based on the pre test result, the researcher made several treatments to the experimental group by giving the special class for learning English pronunciation.

  On the other hand, the researcher would not give any treatment to the control group.

4.2.1 Experimental Group

  In learning English pronunciation, the researcher chose to teach the students by using songs. The researcher arranged four times class by using

  st

  English children songs. The first meeting was conducted on March 21 March, 2013. The songs were played to help them grasp the correct pronunciation.

  st

a. First Treatment on March 21 , 2013 (the allocation time : 60 minutes)

  The researcher gave the lyric of “Beautiful Day” to the students. Then, the researcher taught the students how to pronounce the lyric of the songs clearly.

  The researcher repeated the word by word patiently while the students were imitating what they heard from the researcher. The researcher did this action three

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  9

  8

  11 Dv

  9

  12 Zf

  10

  13 Fr

  14 Fa

  10

  10

  15 Nd

  8

  16 Sv

  9 Based on the tally sheet of the students, most of the students

  mispronounced more than 8 words. The researcher analyzed and discussed the result of the tally sheet together with the students. The students were very active to ask for the correct pronunciation.

  On the first day, there were several words of “Beautiful Day” which were considered as difficult words. Those words were shining, start, hear, we’re, bird and share. The students faced difficulties in pronouncing those words because they were not accustomed with those words. Their Javanesse accent also

  10 Ni

  lyrics of “Beautiful Day” and his friend listened to him while making tally sheet for the mispronounced words (see appendix 2, p. 71). They took turn doing the activity. Then, the result of the first meeting treatment was as follows:

Table 4.6 The Result of Tally Sheet of “Beautiful Day” No Name of students The mispronounced words

  4 An

  1 At

  9

  2 Al

  10

  3 Wl

  10

  11

  9

  5 Ant

  9

  6 Ar

  10

  7 Lr

  9

  8 Ba

  9 Da

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  10

  10

  10 Ni

  9

  11 Dv

  10

  12 Zf

  13 Fr

  10

  11

  14 Fa

  11

  15 Nd

  8

  16 Sv

  9 The researcher analyzed and discussed the result of the tally sheet together with the students. The situation of the class became more lively because the students were supporting each other in understanding for the right pronunciation. The researcher pronounced the words for few times while the

  9 Da

  Then, in the same day the researcher also conducted treatment by using “Promise”. The researcher gave the lyrics and taught them how to pronounce the lyric of the songs. The researcher repeated the word by word patiently while the students were imitating what they heard from the researcher. Then, the researcher also asked the students to work in pair and analyze their friends’ pronunciation.

  The result of the first treatment by using the “Promise” was as follows :

  3 Wl

Table 4.7 The Result of Tally Sheet of “Promise”

  

No Name of the students The mispronounced

words

  1 At

  10

  2 Al

  9

  9

  10

  4 An

  11

  5 Ant

  10

  6 Ar

  9

  7 Lr

  8 Ba

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  Based on the result, the students did mispronounciation in some words. Then, the number of the mistakes in pronouncing the lyrics were still high. There were several words of “Promise” which were considered as difficult words. Those words were pal, crossed, leap, faith, we’ll, fight, nice. The students were not accustomed with those words.

  In the end of the class, the researcher played the “Beautiful Day” and the “Promise”. The students were surprised and enthusiastic to listen those two songs.

  The students tried to sing the songs. Moreover, they enjoyed to sing the songs.

  Based on the result of both songs in the first meeting treatment, the researcher did not find high improvement of the students’ pronunciation. The researcher had to explore the activity through songs. Then, the researcher decided to conduct the second meeting on March 23, 2013.

  th

b. Second Treatment on March 23 , 2013 (the allocation time : 60 minutes)

  The researcher reviewed what the researcher had taught from the previous meeting. The researcher played those two songs to make the students remembered the songs. The researcher taught the students how to sing the songs, especially the rhythm of the songs. The students imitated what they heard from the researcher. Moreover, the students sang happily and they were so enthusiastic to sing the songs. Then, the researcher asked the students to make a group of four and they had to listen to the songs carefully. Then, each group had to sing the songs in front of the class. After all the groups sang in front of the class, the researcher asked them to sing the songs again until they remembered the lyrics of

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  the songs. The goal of this meeting was to make the students understand clearly how to sing the songs with the correct pronunciation.

  Based on the second treatment, the researcher still found the students’ mistakes in pronouncing the lyrics of the songs. When, they sang in front of the class, some students were not really serious to sing. They enjoyed making jokes with their friends. As the result, those students did so many mispronunciation.

  Then, the researcher asked them to listen carefully to the songs and pay attention to the pronunciation.

  The researcher also found the students who were influenced by Javannese accent. Those children were Ba, At, Ant, Da, Fr, and Wi. Those students could not pronounce the words of the songs correctly, for example they always made mistakes when pronouncing shining, start, we’re, share, fight, and faith. Then, the researcher decided to conduct another further treatment in the following days.

  th ,2013 (The allocation time : 60 minutes)

c. Third Treament on March 25

  In this meeting, the students were already familiar with the songs. When the researcher asked the students to sing the songs, some of the students could sing the song without looking at the lyrics. When the researcher found some students who did mispronunciation, the researcher corrected them by modelling the right pronunciation of those words.

  In this meeting, the researcher asked the students to work in pair. They had to listen to the song carefully and remember the lyrics of the songs. After they

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  lyrics. When the student found his or her friend did mispronunciation, he or she had to correct their friend’s pronunciation. The students would sing the song without looking at the lyrics and their partner listened to them while making tally sheet for the mispronounced words.

  From this activity, the students would understand their mistake by their friend’s suggestion. Moreover, the researcher also corrected the students who did mispronunciation. After all of the students finished to work in pair, the researcher played the songs again to make the students remembered in singing the songs with the correct pronunciation.

  st , 2013 (The allocation time : 90 minutes)

d. Fourth Treatment on April 1

  In this meeting, the researcher had a follow up activity to encourage the use of song in teaching pronunciation. The researcher organized spelling bee to increase the students’ ability in spelling the words. The researcher divided the students into 4 groups, each groups consisted of 4 students, namely:

   Orange: An, Fa, Zf, Ant  Apple: Ni, Ar, Ba, Da  Strawberry: Lr, Sv, At, fr  Melon: Nd, Wi, Al, Dv In this game, the researcher invited the students to compete to spell words quickly and accurately. This game was called the "Spelling Bee" game. After the researcher read a word, the students must compete to spell the word quickly by rising hand; and the fastest group was given an opportunity to spell the

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  word and end it by pronouncing the word. For the fastest group which could spell the word correctly would get 10 points, for a wrong answer would get no point.

  The researcher divided the game into 2 rounds. The first round played with 20 words which existed in the “Beautiful Day” such as see, the, sun, window,

  

shining, time, start, new, say, has, just, begun, alive, glad, that, share, day, you,

like, wanna. At first, the students seemed a little confused, but after the students

  understood the rules of the game, they started to enjoy the games. The students competed each others to get the points.

  The orange group won the first round with 70 scores. The second champion was reached by the apple group with 40 scores. The strawberry group gained 30 and melon group gained 20 scores. Because of the strawberry and melon group had the lowest score, they could not be continued in the next round.

  In the second round, the researcher used 17 words. The words used in this round were existed in the lyrics of the “Promise” such as Pal, me, good,

  

friends, know, nice, keep, fingers, leap, faith, now, fight, can, please, crossed,

take, forever. In this round, Orange as the winner with 90 scores while apple

  group reached 50 points.

  After the researcher conducted the spelling bee, the researcher reviewed the words which were used in the game. By conducting this activity, the students would understand how to spell and pronounce the words correctly. After the researcher conducted a spelling bee, the researcher asked the students to sing the songs for few times with the correct pronunciation.

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  In the last day of treatment, the students were confident to sing the songs. Most of them were able to memorize the lyrics of the songs. When the researcher asked them to sing, they were really excited and sang it enthusiastically.

4.2.2 Control Group

  The researcher did not do any treatment for control group. The researcher only taught the students how to pronounce the lyrics of the songs and gave the pre test. Then, the researcher conducted the post test on April 7th, 2013 for the experimental group and control group.

4.3 Post Test

  The post test was the last test of this research. The researcher conducted the post test for the experimental group and control group on April 7th, 2013. In the post test, the researcher recorded all of the students’ voice from those two groups.

4.3.1 Experimental Group

  For the experimental group, the researcher asked the students one by one to come forward and sing the songs. The researcher recorded all of their voice counted how many mispronounced words made by the students.

  Then, the result of the post test for experimental group was showed here:

Table 4.8 The Experimental Group’s Result of “Beautiful Day”-Post Test No Name of Students The Mispronounced

  Words

  1 Al

  3

  2 An

  2

  3 Ar

  2

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No Name of Students The Mispronounced

Words

  8 Ni

  2

  9 Sv

  4

  10 Wi

  3

  11 Zf

  3

  12 At

  7

  13 Ant

  6

  14 Ba

  7

  15 Da

  6

  16 Fr

  5 Based on the result, most of the students made an improvement. Their mispronounciation were decreased rather than from the result of the pre test.

  Only few students who still confused to pronounce some words, especially for the words : hear, bird, share. They pronounced “hear” as “her”; “bird” as “bed” and “share” as “ser”.

Table 4.9 The Experimental Group’s Resulf of “Promise”- Post Test

  

No Name of Students The Mispronounced

Words

  1 Al

  4

  2 Ar

  3

  3 Dv

  2

  4 Fa

  2

  5 Lr

  4

  6 Nd

  2

  7 Ni

  3

  8 Sv

  3

  9 Zf

  2

  10 Ba

  3

  11 At

  5

  12 An

  6

  13 Ant

  5

  14 Da

  7

  15 Fr

  6

  16 Wi

  5

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  From the result on the previous page, there was a big improvement which made by the students. Most of them were enjoyed singing the songs. In singing this song, their pronunciation were getting better rather than from the result of the pre test. The students could pronounce the words clearly.

  Beside that, there were some students who were still confused to pronounce faith and fight. Most of them pronounced those two words similarly.

  They mispronounced “faith” as “fet” and “fight” as “feit”.

4.3.2 Control Group

  The control group was not given any treatment through songs. Therefore, the students just read aloud the lyrics of those two songs in the post test. The researcher asked the students one by one to come forward and read aloud the lyrics. Then, the result of the post test for the control group was showed here:

Table 4.10 The Control Group’s Result of Beautiful Day-Post Test No Name of Students The Mispronounced

  Words

  1 Ft

  7

  2 Sd

  8

  3 Vi

  7

  4 Tr

  5

  5 Yd

  6

  6 Nk

  8

  7 Na

  7

  8 Am

  8

  9 Di

  7

  10 Mr

  10

  11 Bu

  10

  12 Dn

  9

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  13 Jt

  10

  10 Yd

  12

  11 Fk

  9

  12 Ft

  10

  10

  9

  14 Vi

  11

  15 Rg

  9

  16 Tr

  10 Based on the post test’s result above, most of the students were still confused in pronouncing the lyric. They did not make any improvement.

  Moreover, some of the students’ mispronunciation were increase rather than the result of the pre test. The students were so nervous in pronouncing those words.

  9 Bu

  Based on the post test’s result on the previous page, most of the students did not make any improvement on their pronunciation. The students were still confused to pronounce some words. Those words were just, alive, bird, glad, that,

  

hear; share, shinning, and share. They pronounced those words unclearly so that

  3 Di

  the researcher could not grab the meaning of the words. The students were also unconfident in pronouncing those words.

Table 4.11 The Control Group’s Result of “Promise”-Post Test No Name of Students The Mispronounced

  Words

  1 Dn

  4

  2 Am

  7

  7

  12

  4 Nk

  8

  5 Sd

  8

  6 Na

  8

  7 Mr

  8 If

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  11 Dv

  6

  3

  

9

  12 Zf

  36

  6

  4

  

10

  25

  13 Fr

  5

  2

  

7

  10 Ni

  4

  2

  6

  

8

  36

  

11

  4. 4 T Test

  3

  t = d - µd Sd/√n

  49 ∑ 94 612

  7

  2

  

9

  16 Sv

  25

  5

  

8

  7

  15 Nd

  49

  7

  3

  

10

  14 Fa

  16

  4

  9 Da

  

fingers, now, friend, pal, we’ll, and nice. They also could not differentiate to

pronounce “faith” and “fight”. They pronounced those two words similarly.

4.4.1 T Test for Experimental Group

  4

  

10

  9

  3

  

12

  3 Wl

  49

  7

  3

  49

  2 Al

  4 An

  7

  7

  

14

  1 At

  2

Table 4.12 T Test of “Beautiful Day” for Experimental Group No Name of Students Pre Test Post Test D d

  This research used T-Test as a way to make comparison between pre test and post test. The comparison of the mean of T test was usefull in making a decision about the treament that had been given by the researcher. The researcher did the T test for the pre test and post test’s result of those two groups.

  81

  

8

  6

  8

  

10

  8 Ba

  81

  9

  2

  

11

  7 Lr

  64

  4

  4

  

12

  6 Ar

  16

  4

  5

  

9

  5 Ant

  16

  4

  16 Sd =

  ∑ (∑ ) /

  3

  7

  6

  36

  6 Ar

  12

  4

  8

  64

  7 Lr

  11

  8

  5 Ant

  64

  8 Ba

  10

  3

  7

  49

  9 Da

  10

  5

  5

  13

  6 10 100

  =

  81

  ( ) /

  = √ . =√38.49 = 6.2 t = 5.87-0

  6.2/√16 = 5.87/1.55 = 3.78 Based on the result of the T test calculation, the T obtained was 3.78.

  Moreover, the T critical for this test was 1.753. The T critical came from df(n-1)  df(16-1)  df(15)  1.753 with 5% significance. It could be seen that T obtained fell in Ha area. Based on the result, it could be concluded that there was significant different between pre test and post test for experimental group by using “Beautiful Day” to increase the students’ ability in pronouncing English.

Table 4.13 T Test of “Promise” for Experimental Group No Name of Students Pre Test Post Test D d

  2

  1 At

  15

  6

  9

  2 Al

  16

  11

  3

  8

  64

  3 Wl

  10

  7

  3

  9

  4 An

  25 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

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  2 No Name of Students Pre Test Post Test D d

  13 Fr

  13

  5

  8

  64

  14 Fa

  11

  3

  8

  64

  15 Nd

  8

  2

  6

  36

  16 Sv

  9

  3

  6

  36 115 877 ∑

  t = d - µd Sd/√n

  ∑

  d = = = 7.18

  (∑ ) / ∑

  Sd =

  ( ) /

  = .

  √

  = =√3.36 = 1.83 t = 7.18-0

  1.83/√16 = 7.18/0.46 = 15.6

  Based on the T test calculation above, it could be seen that the T obtained was 15.6. Moreover, the T critical for this test was 1.753. The T criticial was from df(n-1) df (16-1)  df (15) 1.753 with 5% significance. We could infer that there was significant different between pre test and post test by using “Promise”

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4.3.2 T Test for Control Group

  14 Am

  8

  15 Yd

  1

  1

  9

  10

  8

  1

  8

  13 Vi

  1

  1

  9

  10

  7

  16 Di

  1

  = = 0.125 Sd =

  =√0.78 = 0.88 t = 0.125-0

  √ .

  =

  ( ) /

  =

  ∑ (∑ ) /

  ∑

  9

  t = d - µd Sd/√n d =

  12

  2

  1 ∑

  1

  8

  9

  12 Tr

Table 4.14 T Test of “Beautiful Day” for Control Group No Name of Students Pre Test Post Test D d

  2

  11

  5 Fk

  1

  1

  12

  12

  4 Mr

  11

  10

  3 Bu

  1

  9 10 -1

  2 Jt

  4

  10 12 -2

  1 If

  11

  1

  11 Ft

  7

  8

  8

  10 Sd

  11

  11

  9 Rg

  7

  1

  8 Na

  1

  8 9 -1

  7 Dn

  8

  8

  6 Nk

  9

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  13 Vi

  10

  14 Am

  1

  1

  12

  13

  10

  2

  10

  12 Tr

  1

  9 10 -1

  11 Ft

  1

  9 10 -1

  8

  4

  9

  1 ∑

  ∑ (∑ ) /

  = = 0.56 Sd =

  ∑

  t = d - µd Sd/√n d =

  17

  9

  1

  15 Yd

  8

  9

  16 Di

  1

  1

  12

  13

  10 Sd

  Based on the result of the T test calculation on the previous page, the T obtained was 0.57. Moreover, the T critical for this test was 1.753 which came from df(n-1)  df (16-1)df (15)1.753 with 5% significance. It could be seen that there was no significant different between the result of pre test and post test because the T obtained fell in Ho area.

Table 4.15 T Test of “Promise” for Control Group No Name of Students Pre Test Post Test D d

  4

  12

  12

  4 Mr

  11

  11

  3 Bu

  2

  11

  11

  13

  2 Jt

  10

  10

  1 If

  2

  5 Fk

  10

  9 Rg

  6

  1

  1

  9

  10

  8 Na

  1

  1

  7

  1

  7 Dn

  1

  1

  8

  9

  6 Nk

  1

  9

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  . √

  = =√11.94 = 3.45 t = 0.56-0

  3.45/√16 = 0.56/0.86 = 0.65 Based on the T test result above, the value of T obtained was 0.65.

  Moreover, the T critical for this test was 1.753 which came from df(n-1)  df (16-1) df (15) 1.753 with 5% significance. It could be seen that there was no significant different between the result of the pre test and post test due to the T obtained fell in the Ho area.

4.5 Analysis

  The researcher would analyze the pre test, treatment, and post test which had been done by the researcher. The researcher would corelate the result of the research with the theories used. The analysis was used to answer the research question of this study.

4.5.1 Pre test: In this pre test, the students were not asked to sing but only read the lyrics.

  Based on the reading the lyrics of both songs, the researcher made a record and displayed it in the previous pages. In the pre test most of students could not

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  pronounce the words in “Beautiful Day” and “Promise” lyrics correctly. Most of them were confused with the new words that they just knew in the lyrics.

4.5.2 Treatment In the treatment step, the researcher conducted 4 treatments using songs.

  The objective of the song treatments was to increase the students’ ability in pronunciation. In the first meeting of treatment, the researcher delivered the lyrics of the songs and asked the students to read it loudly. In fact, the researcher still found several mistakes in the pronunciation. Based on the Hubbart’s suggestion, in using song in classroom activities, the teachers need to explain the lyric of the songs carefully and patiently to make the students understand how to pronounce the lyric and also the meaning (Hubbard,et al., 1983). Then, the researcher taught the students how to pronounce the lyrics of the songs clearly. The researcher repeated the word one by one patiently while the students were imitating what they heard. Due to the students seemed bored with the treatment, the researcher had to change the situation of the class.

  Basically, young learners are very active and love to play. They are able to work with others and learn from others. They can learn from the teacher, friends, parents, etc (Scott & Ytlberg, 1990, pp. 2-4). Due to the experts’ explanation, in attracting the students’ enthusiasm, the researcher improved the situation of the treatment by asking the students to work in pair. The objectives of this activity was to change the situation of the class. The students had to write the

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  bussy to write down their partner’s mistakes. From this activity, they could learn from their friends. When a student made mistakes, his or her friend would discuss for the right pronunciation. The researcher also walked around to find the students who did mispronunciation. Then, the researcher reviewed the activity. In the end of the meeting, the researcher played those two children songs namely “Beautiful Day” and “Promise”. The reseacher let the students to listen to the songs. The students enjoyed to listen the songs and they tried to sing the songs. The atmosphere of the class became more lively. The researcher continued to taught deeply about the songs in the next meetings.

  In the second meeting, the researcher reviewed what the researcher had taught from the previous meeting. After that, the researcher played the “Beautiful Day” and “Promise”. Based on the suggestion from Hubbard, et al. (1983), in presenting songs in the class, the teacher plays the whole songs to make the students understand the rythm of the songs. If necessary, the teacher might use gesture activities related to the songs to attract the students’ enthusiasm. The teacher needs to bring the lively atmosphere into the class. Due to the expert’s suggestion, the researcher taught the students how to sing the songs, especially the rhythm of the songs. The students imitated what they heard from the researcher. After the students could sing the songs, they were asked to make a group of four and sing in front of the class. They were very enthusiastic to sing the songs and they could learn from their friends.

  In the third meeting, the students were already familiar with the songs. In

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  This kind of treatment was to attract the students’ motivation in singing freely without concerning on the lyrics. The students had a big enthusiasm in memorizing the lyric and pronouncing it as well as they could. This activity would also train their ability in memorizing. Then, the students were asked to work in pair and write down the misprounced words which made by their partner. They could learn from their partner’s suggestion. Furthermore, the researcher also corrected the students who did mispronunciation. By doing this kind of treatment. the situation of the class became more lively and they students enjoyed the activity. After all of the students finished to work in pair, the researcher played the songs again to make the students remembered in singing the songs with the correct pronunciation.

  In the fourth meeting, the researcher had a follow up activity to encourage the use of song in teaching pronunciation. The researcher organized the spelling bee game was to increase the students’ ability in spelling the words. The reason why the researcher conducted spelling bee was to improve the use of songs in another way. The purpose of the spelling bee was to provide the students with the opportunity to practice spelling the words aloud in front of their classmates. In the spelling bee game, the students had to spell the words loudly letter by letter and end it by pronouncing the words. The words used in this game were the lyrics of “Beautiful Day” and “Promise”. In the end of this game, the students discussed the words which were used in the game. Then, the students were asked to listen and sing the “Beautiful Day” and “Promise” to make sure whether their

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  spelling bee game. They work in group and they competed with other groups. There were four students in a group. They were cooperating with their own groups to win the game. The students were so enthusiastic to get the point.

  The students were confident to sing the songs. It was because the students were mastering the songs well. Most of them were able to memorize the lyrics of the songs. In line with the theory from Scott and Ytlberg, young learners are very active and also love to play (Scott & Ytlberg, 1990, pp. 2-4). This activity proved that the students loved to play and interact with their friends. The situation of the class became different rather than just listening to the teacher’s explanation.

4.5.3 Post test

  The researcher found that there was a significant difference between the results of pre test and post test on the experimental group and there was no significant difference between pre test and post test on the control group. For the experimental group, it could be seen that students could make a better improvement in pronouncing “Beautiful Day”; it was showed that the mean value of T test was 3.78, and for the “Promise”, the mean value of T test was 15.6. Both of the results had a meaning that there was a significant difference between pre test and post test because the mean number of T obtained was higher than the mean number of T critical (1.753). On the other hand, the control group could not make any significant difference in the mean of T test. It was showed that the number of the mean for “Beautiful Day” was 0.57 and the number of the mean of

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  test and post test for the control group. The control group could not make any improvement because there was no treatment for them.

  From the result of T test on the experimental group, the researcher inferred that the use of songs in teaching pronunciation brought the significant improvement on the students’ pronunciation. This result had correlation with the theory from Brewster, Ellis, and Girard (2002), the use of songs gives the benefits in linguistic aspect, especially on the children’s pronunciation (p. 162). Furthermore, basically children love songs, rhymes and chants which can be ideal vehicles for language learning (Brewster, Ellis, & Girard, 2002, p. 162). In addition, Philip (1993) explains that music and rhythm are essential parts of language learning for young learners (p. 100). From the experts’ explanation, the researcher inferred that songs were appropriate with the children’s characteristics. Those theories were in line with the result of the students who had taught through songs. The students’ pronunciation was getting better after obtaining the treatment through songs.

  Based on a journal named “The Value of Songs and Chants for Young Learners” by Forster (2006, pp. 63-68), using songs in teaching and learning activities can improve the ability of students to speak with correct pronunciation.

  From the journal, Foster explains that the teachers could include musics and songs in basic communication acts or classroom situations. This kind of activity would increase their pronunciation because they would be accustomed to imitate the correct pronunciation from the teacher and also from the songs. The Foster’s

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  by the researcher. The children’ pronunciation was getting better after the researcher gave the treatment through songs. Due to the songs were close to the children’s characteristic, songs could be used as the teaching materials which attracted the children’s enthusiasm to learn English pronunciation.

  Through this research, there was a research question that should be answered. The research question is to find the effect of teaching pronunciation through songs on the students’ pronunciation. Due to the result of T test, the researcher found the significant improvement on the children who had been taught through songs. Based on the research findings and theories, the researcher concluded that using songs in teaching pronunciation gave the significant improvement on the students’ pronunciation. The significant improvement was proven by the result of T test (as explained on the chapter 4, pp. 46-49). The students who had been taught through songs obtained the better pronunciation rather than the student who had not.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter discusses the conclusion and suggestion that are obtained

  from the research result. The researcher will explain about the conclusion regarding the result of the research. Then, the researcher will discuss about the suggestion for this research, so that the readers or the teachers might do another research to improve the ability of students in mastering English subject.

5.1 Conclusions

  As stated in Chapter I, there was a research problem that should be answer through this research. The research problem is: What is the effect of teaching pronunciation through songs on the students’ pronunciation? From the research findings, the researcher found that using songs in teaching pronunciation gave the significant improvement on the students’ pronunciation. The students’ pronunciation was getting better after obtained the treatment through songs.

  In this research, the researcher focused on the English pronunciation. In communicating to other people, the way how to pronounce words is really important. When the pronunciation was unclear, it might cause ambiguity in understanding the meaning. Moreover, most of the students in fifth grade of SD

  

Nanggulan 1 pronounced English incorrectly. Due to the lack of English

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  life. As a result, the students became hesitant to speak in English as they were afraid of doing mispronunciation.

  The researcher decided to use the songs in improving the students’ pronunciation. The reason of using songs in teaching and learning was related with the theory from Brewster, Ellis, and Girard. According to them, “Children love songs, rhymes and chants and their repetitive nature and rhythm make them an ideal vehicle for language learning” (Brewster, Ellis, & Girard, 2002, p. 162). From the experts’ explanation, the researcher infered that children love songs and teachers might use songs in the language teaching for children.

  Based on the findings of the research, the researcher concluded that teaching English pronunciation through songs could improve the students’ pronunciation.

  The use of songs in teaching pronunciation brought a significant improvement on the students’ pronunciation. It could be seen on the students who had been taught by using songs. They obtained a better improvement on their pronunciation. They were enjoyable joining the teaching and learning process. Learning English through songs was very exciting for the students because they were around the childhood era who had high attention on playing. On the other hand, the group who did not obtain any treatment could not make any improvement on the result of the tests. When the researcher asked them to pronounce those words, the students were not confident. It was because those words were still difficult for them to be pronounced.

  Furthermore, using songs in the classroom activities could be interesting

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  join the teaching and learning activities. When the students were well-motivated, they would learn easily. From the result of this research, the students could learn pronunciation easily because they were enthusiastic in listening and singing to the songs.

5.2 Recommendations

  Recommendations consist of three parts, namely recommendations for the English teachers, students, and further researchers.

  a. For English Teachers The researcher expects that teachers can explore all of their creativities in teaching English, especially for elementary students. The creativity is very important because the teachers teach students who are in childhood ages. Moreover, the teachers should know what makes them attracted in learning English since English is not their mother tongue.

  Using songs can be an alternative way to create a new atmosphere in the teaching and learning activity. Through the songs, the teachers can improve many activities which are fun for children. However, the teacher should choose the appropriate songs related to the students’ level class and also the basic competence.

  b. For Students Knowing that elementary students like songs, the students do not only enjoy the songs but also learn how to pronounce those songs. Furthermore, by listening to the songs, the students will increase their vocabulary of English. They

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  Learning English through songs can be fun learning for the students since they can interact with their friends. Moreover, singing songs can build their sense of language. The students will be accustomed to the use of the language in oral communication.

  c. For Further Researchers The researcher expects that this research can help other researchers in conducting the further research which is related to this research. Moreover, the further researchers might improve their creativity in teaching English through songs. The researcher hopes that the actions can be implemented in other places to help the other students in learning English. Songs can be the reference in English teaching since they can increase students’ attention in focusing the English materials.

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