PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE RACIAL DISCRIMINATION REVEALED THROUGH THE MAJOR CHARACTER AND SETTING IN KATHRYN STOCKETT’S THE HELP AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By LYSTIANI KARATIKA SARI Student Number: 074214037 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGAMME DEPARTEMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE RACIAL DISCRIMINATION REVEALED THROUGH THE MAJOR CHARACTER AND SETTING IN KATHRYN STOCKETT’S THE HELP AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By LYSTIANI KARATIKA SARI Student Number: 074214037 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGAMME DEPARTEMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 i

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ii

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI iii

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIK Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama : Lystiani Karatika Sari Nomor Mahasiswa : 074214037 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul: THE RACIAL DISCRIMINATION REVEALED THROUGH THE MAJOR CHARACTER AND SETTING IN KATHRYN STOCCKETT’S THE HELP Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengolahnya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencatumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Dengan demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogayakarta Pada tanggal: 10 Juli 2014 Yang menyatakan (Lystiani Karatika Sari) iv

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I honestly declared that this thesis, The Racial Discrimination revealed through the Character and Setting in Kathryn Stockett’s The Help, which I have written, does not contain the work or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in quotations and references as scientific paper should. Yogyakarta, 10 July 2014, Lystiani Karatika Sari v

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI You have to endure caterpillars if you want to see butterflies ( Anonymous) Every dark light is followed by a light morning (Anonymous) Knowledge and skills are tools, the workman is character (Anonymous) The future starts today,not tomorrow (Pope Jhon Paul II) Live only once, to live with optimism (anonymous) do not ever give up in face of life, because god is always helping people around you though (anonymous) vi

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI This thesis is dedicated to Jesus Christ and Mother Mary My Beloved and Caring Mother and father, My sisters, My family, My beloved boyfriend Yohanis Manggau And Sanata Dharma University vii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEGEMENTS First of all, I thank Jesus Christ and Mother Mary for Their great blessings and everlasting love for me. I also thank Their never leaving me in my good and bad times. Without Their guidance I would never be able to face my weakness. I thank my advisor, Ni Luh Putu Rosiandani, S.S, M.Hum for the guidance and help during my thesis writing. I would like to thank her for her willingness to read, and reread my thesis and then give suggestions to improve it every week. Then, I thank my co-advisor, Dewi Widyastuti, S.Pd., M.Hum., for her suggetions to enrich my thesis. Then, my deepest gratitude dedicate to my big family who always stands behind me to support me every time I needed them. I would like to thank my beloved father, Drs. Marselis S., and my beloved mother, Yulianik, for strengthening me in walking through my choice to each pray they send to Jesus and Mother Mary every time. Then, I also thank my sisters (Marselina Ajeng L. & Marsela Ayu P.) for loving me and supporting me. I am very lucky to have them as my family. I really thank God for giving me a man, Yohanis Manggau, who always supports me in an extraordinary amazing way and loves me just the way I am. I also thank my best friends Winda, Sari and Helen who help and support me in every condition. Lystiani Karatika Sari viii

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ............................................................................................................ i APPROVAL PAGE .................................................................................................. ii ACCEPTANCE PAGE ............................................................................................. iii LEMBAR PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH .............................. iv STATEMENT OF ORINALITY…………………………………………………… v MOTTO PAGE ......................................................................................................... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................................................... viii ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................... x ABSTRAK ................................................................................................................. xi CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ............................................................................ A. Background of Study .................................................................................... B. Problem Formulation .................................................................................... C. Objectives of Study ...................................................................................... D. Definition of Terms ...................................................................................... 1 1 5 5 6 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEWS ......................................................... A. Review of Related Studies .......................................................................... B. Review of Related Theories ........................................................................ 1. Theory of Character and Characterization ............................................. 2. Theory of Setting .................................................................................... 3. Theory of Racial Discrimination ........................................................... C. Review on History of the Racial Discrimination ...................................... D. Theoretical Framework .............................................................................. 8 8 11 11 14 17 19 24 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ........................................................................ A. Object of the Study ..................................................................................... B. Approach of the Study ................................................................................ C. Method of the Study ................................................................................... 26 26 27 28 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ..................................................................................... A. The Description of The Major Characters .................................................. 1. Aibileen Clark ....................................................................................... 2. Minny Jackson ...................................................................................... 3. Yule May .............................................................................................. B. Setting of The Novel ................................................................................... 1. Setting of Place ..................................................................................... a. The Neighborhood............................................................................ b. Elizabeth Leefolt’s House ................................................................ c. The Public Facilities ........................................................................ 2. Setting of Time ..................................................................................... 3. Social Setting ........................................................................................ C. Form of Racial Discrimination to The Black ............................................. 1. Segregation ........................................................................................... 2. The Racial Discrimination to the black people ..................................... 3. The Racial Discrimination in Econimic Life ........................................... 30 30 31 33 36 37 37 38 39 39 40 42 43 44 47 48 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ................................................................................ 53 ix

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................... 54 APPENDIX: Summary of Kathryn Stockett’s The Help....................................... 57 x

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT LYSTIANI KARATIKA SARI. Racial Discrimination Revealed through the Major Character and the Setting in Kathryn Stockett’s The Help. Yogyakarta, Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2013. In this thesis, the writer analyzes a novel written by Kathryn Stockett entitled The Help. The Help is her first novel, which was published in 2009. This novel describes three black maids’ experiences that get the racial discrimination from their masters. The racial discrimination that happens to Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May is their separation from public facilities. They have to use the colored facilities. For example: bus, barber, etc. They also experienced verbal abuse from their masters. In this research, there are three problems that are used to guide the study. The first problem is to identify the characteristics of the major characters. The second problem is to describe the setting in The Help and the third problem is to explore how the racial discrimination revealed through the characters and the setting of the novel. There are three theories applied in this thesis. There are theory of character and characterization, theory of setting and theory of discrimination. The approach that is used to analyze this novel is socio-cultural historical approach. The method that is used in the study is the library research method. The sources applied in this study are primary and secondary sources. The primary source is the novel, The Help and the secondary sources are books and articles. The applied theories in the analysis are the theory of character and characterization which are applied for the first problem. Theory of setting is applied for the second problem, and theory of racial discrimination is applied for the third problem. After completing the analysis, the writer finds out the characteristic of three black maids from their experiences on the racial discrimination. The racial discrimination can be seen through the setting. The third is about the racial discrimination toward the black people. The racial discrimination can be seen through the separation of public facilities between the white people and the black people. The perspective of the white people about the racial discrimination can be the reason of oppression toward the black people. xi

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK LYSTIANI KARATIKA SARI. Racial Discrimination Revealed through the Major Character and the Setting in Kathryn Stockett’s The Help. Yogyakarta, Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2013. Dalam skripsi ini penulis menganalisis sebuah novel karangan Kathryn Stockett yang berjudul The Help. The Help diterbitkan pada tahun 2009. Novel ini menggambarkan pengalaman hidup tiga pelayan wanita kulit hitam yg mendapatkan diskriminasi ras dari majikan mereka. Diskriminasi ras yang terjadi pada Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson dan Yule May adalah pemisahan penggunaan fasilitas umum. Mereka mempraktekkan pembedaan penggunaan fasilitas umum bagi kulit berwarna, contohnya: posisi tempat duduk di bis, rumah sakit, dan lainnya. Mereka juga mendapatkan perlakuan kekerasan secara verbal dari majikan mereka. Ada tiga rumusan masalah yang dibahas dalam penelitian ini. Rumusan pertama berisi tentang bagaimana tokoh tiga pelayan wanita di deskripsikan. Rumusan kedua menggambarkan bagaimana latar dalam The Help dideskripsikan, dan rumusan ketiga adalah bagaimana diskriminasi ras dapat terungkap melalui tiga tokoh utama dan latar. Metode yang digunakan dalam skripsi ini adalah metode studi pustaka. Sumber-sumber yang dipakai dalam skripsi ini terdiri dari novel The Help, bukubuku dan artikel. Teori-teori yang digunakan dalam skripsi ini adalah teori tokoh dan penokohan, yang digunakan untuk menjabarkan rumusan masalah pertama, teori latar, digunakan untuk menjawab rumusan masalah kedua, teori diskriminasi ras, digunakan untuk menjelaskan rumusan masalah ketiga. Setelah melakukan menyelesaikan analisis, penulis menemukan sifat - sifat dari tiga pelayan wanita kulit hitam yang dapat dilihat melalui pengalaman diskriminasi ras yang mereka terima dari majikan. Pengalaman tentang diskriminasi ras itulah yang membentuk sifat- sifat dari tokoh- tokoh utama. Diskriminasi ras juga dapat dilihat melalui latar dalam novel. Rasial diskriminasi juga dapat dilihat melalui pemisahan fasilitas publik antara orang kulit putih dan kulit hitam. Sudut pandang dari orang kulit putih tentang diskiriminasi ras juga merupakan alasan dalam penindasan terhadap orang kulit hitam. xii

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study There are many ways for human beings to express their ideas, thoughts, and experiences, one of them is in the form of literature. Literary works help the readers to connect the cultural context, recognize and learn more about human’s dreams and struggles in different situations and conditions. In Theory of Literature, Rene Wellek and Austin Warren state that the work of literature represents life as a reality. Besides, reading a literary work will bring people to an aesthetic experience and give readers the knowledge or new ideas (1956: 95). Many people believe that literary works entertain the reader. Literature also conveys important message to society. Literature is not created to be static but literature is created to be dynamic. Literature can be a form of ideas related to the history, culture and society. Literature also records social realities which are portrayed by many writers and authors through their works. Society exists, then it is portrayed in literature. Literature and society are a unity. The readers’ knowledge about history and social condition in certain time is enriched by reading literary works. The readers of literary works can learn about things happening in the past, what kind of human behavior and values existing in a certain society. Literary works can play the role as historical document that records social realities, which are artistically portrayed by the author (Wellek and Warren, 1956: 102). 1

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 Every human being in the world is created equal, but they were also created different from one to another, for example in characteristics, races sex appearances and so on. People have their own perspective to those differences. The perspective can be positive or negative. If it is a positive perspective, people can accept the differences but when it is a negative perspective, people cannot accept it and try to treat each other. Discrimination is the biggest controversy in the human’s life. The racial discrimination is caused by the different physical appearance based on their race. Races are distinguished from this individual’s viewpoint. The only properties that count are the immediately visible ones: skin color, body hair, facial configuration (Todorov in Back, 2000: 65). The black people and the white people have different physical appearance. The black people have dark skin, dark and kinky hair, wide mouths, and thick lips while the white people have opposite characteristics from the black people. The white people have light skin, blonde and straight hair, small mouth, and thin lips. The different physical characteristics sometimes make some people think that they are better, or even superior from the other groups. The white people think that they are better than the black people. The black people are assumed as uneducated, uncivilized, rude and unintelligent. These differences of the black people make them receive unequal treatment from the white people. Discrimination is also the unfair treatment to the black people because the history of slavery. The black people arrived in the United States of America as

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 immigrants. They were bought firstly from Africa as slaves in America colonies in 1619. They were kidnapped from their origin. The first black Africans were bought to Virginia in 1619, just 12 years after the founding of the Jamestown settlement. At first, many were regarded as indentured servants who could earn their freedom. By the 1660s, however, as the demand for plantation labor in the southern colonies grew, the institution of slavery began to harden around them (Hasday, 2007: 4). They had to work in the plantation and get very low salaries. The black people have no rights for their life. They were treated like animal. The slave holders controlled them with savage punishments to keep them obedient to the master. The master frequently did not treat them as human beings. The segregation begins in the 1950s. The government makes the separation of public facilities between the white people and the black people. Davis in The History of Jim Crow: Creating Jim Crow states that: In general the Jim Crow era in American history dates from the late 1890s, when southern states begin systematically to codify in law and state constitutional provisions the subordinate position of African Americans in society. Most of these legal steps were aimed at separating the races in public spaces (public schools, parks, accommodations and transportation) and preventing adult black males from exercising the right to vote (Hasday, 2007: 12) The segregation makes the black people have no right. They cannot get the equal rights in the society. They gets the unequal treatment from the white people and the law. The Help is a novel that reflects the black maid’s experience of racial discrimination. This novel tells about the Black maids, Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May who work for the white people in the South. They get separation in their master’s house. They are living in the segregation. The

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 segregation of black people and the white people have been written in Jim Crow Law. The segregation included in the using of public facilities (school or education, housing, bathroom, transportation), marriage, etc. The segregation of the public facilities resulted in the prohibition of black people to use the white people public facilities. The black people should use the colored public facilities. If they break the rule, they will get punishment. Set in Stockett’s native Jackson, MS, in the early 1960s, the first novels adopts the complicated theme of blacks and whites living in a segregated South. A century after the Emancipation Proclamation, black maids raised white children and ran households but were paid poorly, often had to use separate toilets from the family, and watched the children they cared for commit bigotry. (Library Journal.com, 2012) The novel tells about the complicated theme of the black people and the white people living in segregation in the South. It describes how the black people live in poverty. The Help is chosen to be the object of this study because the black people often suffer the racial discrimination from the white people. The black people also suffer the separation to use public facilities in the society. They get the unequal treatment because their race is different. Officially, the black people have been declared to be free, but in the reality they are not free men yet. The racial discrimination is experienced by three black maids (Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May). Racial discrimination is a common issue which still can be found in the present time.

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 B. Problem Formulation Related to the background of the research, there are three problems which have been formulated in this study. 1. How are the major characters described in the novel? 2. How is the setting described in the novel? 3. How is the racial discrimination revealed through the characters and the setting in Kathryn Stockett’s The Help? C. Objectives of the Study The discussion is mainly to answer the three main problems stated in the problem formulations above. These objectives of the study are represented as follow. First is to describe the character and the characterization of the major characters. They are Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May. They are three black maids who suffer the racial discrimination from their masters. The racial discrimination is experienced by them. Second is to describe how the setting reflects the racial discrimination. The separation of public facilities is the racial discrimination. Setting of place, the writer describes the difference of environment of life between the white people and the black people. Setting of time, the writer describes the historical time (Civil rights movement, the murdered of Medgar Evers, the member of NAACP and Ku-Klux Klan). Social setting, the writer describes the segregation of bathroom between the black maid and the master in the white’s house. The

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 segregation of bathroom is a kind of discrimination in society of Jackson. The black maid cannot use the same bathroom with their master. Third is to describe the racial discrimination revealed through the major characters and the setting. The racial discrimination can be reflected by the maid’s experiences, the character and the characterization. The separation of public facilities, legal discrimination and institutional discrimination can be reflected by the setting. D. Definition of Terms To make clear some terms which are used in the research title, some terms are defined as follows. 1. Racial Discrimination Based on Todorov’s Race and Racism. Theories of Race and Racism A reader, races are distinguished from this individual’s viewpoint. The only properties that count are the immediately visible ones: skin color, body hair, facial configuration (Todorov in Back, 2000: 65). Based on Feagin’s Racial and Ethnic Relations, discrimination is “actions carried out by members of dominant groups, which have differential and harmful impact on members of subordinates groups” (1977: 14-15) According to Cashmore in Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies, Racial Discrimination also known racialism, this is the active or behavioral expression of racism and is aimed at denying members of certain groups equal access to scarce and value resources. It goes beyond thinking unfavorably about

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 groups or holding negative beliefs about them: it involves putting them into action (2004: 345) 2. Social Setting Genette in Narrative Discourse defined social setting refers to everything related to the society’s life in a certain place, which is being described in the story. It includes the customs, tradition, belief, ideology, the way of thinking and behaving, and perhaps the social status of the character (1980: 33, 35).

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW This chapter consists of three basic points. The first point is the review on the related studies, including the comment by the people about the novel.The second point is the review on related theories. It describes the theories which are used to this study. There are four theories that are used in this study: theory of character and characterization, theory of setting, and theory of racial discrimination. The last point is theoretical framework. A. Review of Related Studies The publication of literary works has often stimulated people’s interest to read. They also give comment and responses on the author and the work itself. Many kinds of readers’ responses toward the literary works are bearing some criticism. In Theory of Literature, Rene Wellek and Austin Warren mentions that “the criticism can be in the forms of appreciation, analysis, comment, or judgment, and either objective or subjective suggestion” (1995: 336). The writer presents a criticism in the form of appreciation to the study of literary works, in this case, The Help. This part also consists of some related studies that support the analysis. The writer took the topic of racial discrimination to explore about how the black people receive unequal treatment from the white people. The Help tells the story about the black people who become the victims of racial discrimination conducted by the white people. In the story, the main 8

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 characters, Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May, experience some bad treatments from their master, the white, as they work as a maid. The thesis which is written by Karina Prisdiani entitled the Racial Discrimination in the 20th Century United States of America, says that This thesis discusses one of August Wilson’s plays entitled Fences.This play addresses the issue of racism toward the blacks practiced by the whites in American society. Fences tells the conflict of African American man (Troy Maxson) that has to deal with and fights against racism. Troy Maxson has three conflicts. There are the conflict between Troy and his employer, the conflict of Troy and major baseball league, and the conflict between Troy and his son. By the conflict between Troy and his employer, it can be seen that the blacks usually get lower job than the whites. The discrimination toward the blacks also can be seen from Troy’s condition in major baseball league. The last conflict is Troy’s disappointed to baseball league can be seen through the conflict between Troy and his son. All of Troy’s conflicts as seen in August Wilson’s Fences may reveal the racial discrimination toward the blacks in 20th United States of America (Prisdiani, 2011: x). From the quotation, Prisdiani mentions that Troy Maxson is treated not unfairly by the whites represented by his employer and the major baseball league. Troy’s conflict with his employer shows the racial discrimination that the blacks usually get lower job from the whites. The next racial discrimination toward the blacks can also be seen from Troy’s condition in major baseball league. The other related study is racism towards the Aborigines as reflected in the setting in Sally Morgan’s My Place by Kartika. She states that This thesis discusses an autobiographical novel of Sally Morgan. This study focuses on the racial practices of racism towards the Aborigine which is reflected in the setting. The practices of racism happening in a certain time are racist government’s policies and that the practice of racism is getting milder from time to time. The government made a very strict racist policy in the early 1900s and in the 1950s the policy began to change by giving equal rights for the Aborigines. The condition of Aborigines living in the hard situation classifies them to the lower class while the

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 condition of the white which are rich and powerful as they get advantages by the racist policy grades them as the upper class (Kartika, 2004: x). From the quotation, Kartika states that the Aborigines receive racial discrimination because the policies are arranged by the goverment. The government creates racist policy in the early 1900s to the 1950s. The practice of racism toward the Aborigines happens in many aspects in the society. The goverment policy legalizes the treatment of Aborigines as the lower class citizens while the condition of the white as powerful upper class citizens. This circumstance makes the whites look down on the Aborigines because they feel superior and that they have higher status in society. The other related study is the reaction of the African Americans in the 1960s seen through the main characters in Kathryn Stockett’s The Help by Rintan Kusumaningtyas. She states that The thesis discusses the reaction of the African Americans to the unequal treatment. The Help reflects the black’s life in the 1960s, where the unequal treatment can also be revealed. The blacks became the inferior communities in America. The blacks were still treated unequally even though their freedom was declared. The white still treats the blacks inferiorly. This study shows their unequal experiences in the law, the stereotype of the black’s characteristics and the inferiority. This study focuses to find out how the blacks reacted differently by resisting or accepting.. Some of blacks reacted bravely toward the treatments and the rest of them remained silent. (Kusumaningtyas, 2012: x). From the quotation, Kusumaningtyas states that the African Americans are the inferior communities in America. The black people are still treated unequally by the white people although their freedom was declared. The unequal treatments still pervaded the lives of the black people. The treatments trigger their reactions on the surface and the black people also have different reaction in responding to

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 the unequal treatments. Some of the blacks reacted bravely toward the treatments and the rest of them remained silent. Kusumaningtyas’s thesis is different from this thesis where this thesis discusses: The racial discrimination revealed through the major character and setting in Kathryn Stockett’s The Help. Kusumaningtyas points out the reaction of the African American toward the unequal treatment. How the black people shows their different reaction to resisting or accepting. This thesis, dealing with the racial discrimination revealed through the major character and setting in Kathryn Stockett’s The Help is different from those theses in some way. This thesis focuses on the racial discrimination toward the black maid revealed through the black maid’s characters and the setting. The racial discrimination can be seen in the black maid’s experience toward the separation in their master’s house. The racial discrimination also can be seen in the setting (setting of time, place and society). B. Review of Related Theories Basically, theories are needed as a tool to analyze and support the analysis. There are some theories which will be used in this study. The theories are theory of character and characterization, theory of setting, and theory of the racial discrimination. 1. Theory of Character and Characterization One of the important elements in a work of literature is a character. Characters hold an important role in literature since literature mostly talks about humanity. Character is significant in literary works. The readers need to know the

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 character of literary work. Abrams in A Glossary of Literary Terms- Seventh Edition states that: Character is a person presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional and emotional qualities that are expressed in what they say the dialogue and by what they do the action. The ground in a character’s temperament and moral nature for his speech and his actions constitutes his motivation (1999: 20). From the above quotation, the term “character” might refer to the person or figure in a work of literature. Abrams tries to explain that character is the element in literary works that gives information about the people involving in that literary works. For this novel, character is an important element in literary works because character is the main actors in the story. The position, motivation and struggle can be analyzed through the character’s dialogues and actions. According to Baldick in his book The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, character is different from characterization. “Characterization is the way in which a character is presented. Therefore, character is the result while characterization is the process” (1991: 83). Although character is different from characterization, they are related to each other and cannot be separated. When talking about character and characterization, the readers know that they have connection and they cannot be separated. Murphy, in his Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students, shows nine ways of presenting characters in literary works (1972: 161173):

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 a. Personal description The author gives a description on a person’s appearance and clothes. The readers are given the details about the appearance of the characters. For example parts of the body, skin color, hair, and the clothes he or she wears. b. Character as seen by another The author gives a description about the characters through the opinions, comments, views, and attitudes of the other characters. The readers can get a reflected image of the character. c. Speech The author can give us information about the character through what the person says. For example, whenever a person speaks, whenever he is in a conversation with another, whenever he puts foward an opinion, he is giving us some clue to his character. d. Past life The author can provide a clue to events that help to shape characteristics by giving the reader the character’s past life. It enables the readers to analyze the motivation that the characters have when he or she has particular characteristics or does something special. e. Conversations of others Through the conversations of other people and the things they says about him/her. f. Reactions

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 Person reacts to various situations and events can also give the reader a clue to a person’s character. g. Direct comment The author directly describes and gives comments on the characters. This is the easiset way for the reader to understand about characteristics of a person because the reader will know what exactly the author wants to reveal. h. Thoughts The author can give the direct knowledge to the readers of what a person is thinking about. Such thing cannot be seen but can be represented through the character’s speech and attitudes. i. Mannerism The author can describe a person’s mannerism, habits, or idiosyncrasies which may also tell us something about his character (1972: 161- 173). That is how the author makes the readers aware of the personalities and the characteristics of the people that the author writes about in his or her books. The readers will understand why the characters do a certain thing and by doing that the emotional feeling of the readers will be also concerned when they read the story. 2. Theory of Setting Setting is one of the important parts of a literary work especially novel. As Gill states in Mastering English Literature, setting can cover the places in the literary work, the social life, the behavior of the society, or the atmosphere (1995: 148). It means that the setting is not always about the place but it can be about the social setting of the literary work. It can also show the mood of the characters,

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 situation of the character or symbolically it can reflect personality (1995: 149). There is also a relation between setting and events. Sometimes the atmosphere in the novel can reflect the feeling of the characters. It also can reflect the situation that is encountered by the characters in the novel. These words make clear the relation between setting and events. The seasons and the landscape are not pleasant, incidental decorations of the novel; they shape and reflect the feelings of the characters (Gill, 1995: 150). As stated by Gill, the setting can also reveal the writer’s point of view about the world or a certain society. They create the atmosphere, landscape, the condition of houses to convey the condition of the society and their perspective about the world. There are some novelists who create settings for the purpose of giving their views about the world. Such a novelist creates landscape, townscape, interiors of houses and the weather in order to convey his or her particular feelings and views about life. A reader can look at these, to put it, what the author thinks about things (Gill, 1995: 153). As noted before that the setting can reveal the condition of a certain society, Langland states in her book entitled Society in the Novel that the society is a concept and a construct in fiction. In the past, the society itself is considered as an imitation of an outside world (1984: 4). From the theory above, it can be seen that the setting is not just a matter of the place or the time when an event takes place. It also deals with the situation of a place, the social behavior, etc where an event occurs. The setting also deals with the society. In addition, the society in the novel itself is known as the representation of the real world. Then, the setting also has a relation with the outside world and it is the imitation of the real world.

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 Murphy argues that the awareness of the setting of the story will help towards the understanding of the book (1972: 143). Murphy’s explanation of setting is as follows: a. Time Murphy states that there are four kinds of setting of time. The first is the Present Time. In the setting of present time, a writer may choose to write a book about his own time, about the things that are happening around him (1972: 143). The second is Past Time. In this setting of time a writer may select “to go backwards in time” to write about the past events, to clarify the past of his reader (1972: 144). The third is the Future Time. In the Future of time a writer may use his imagination to take his reader into the future (1972: 144). b. Place Murphy states that there are three kinds of setting of place. The first is Familiar Place. A writer may decide “to set his story in a place which he considers familiar to many of his readers” (1972: 145). He can choose either from experiences or by close acquaintance. The second is Unfamiliar Place. The writer tries “to set his story in a place that is likely to be fairly unfamiliar to many of the readers of his own nation (1972: 147). Simms in The Longman Dictionary of Poetic Terms utters that the setting is the environment including physical place, historical period, and cultural class of literary work and describe the physical manifestation of the place in which the action occurs. A general setting creates the entire frame of the work and specific settings are attached to the various episodes within the work (1989: 2227).

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 From the theory above, the writer considers that the setting is not just a matter of the place or the time when a phenomenon happen. The setting also deals with the situation of place, the social behavior where an event occurs. 3. Theory of Racial Discrimination Based on the International Encyclopedia of Ethics, the definition of discrimination is different treatment based on physical and social affiliation. It has a negative impact on the human’s moral behavior (Roth, 1995: 231). The clear example of discrimination can be seen in the United States. There are several races that experienced discrimination such as racial, sexual, and religious discrimination. Besides there is also discrimination against certain cultural groups, and against the disabled. There are a lot of kinds of discrimination that can be found in the US. And, the cruelest discrimination is the discrimination against the African – American (Roth, 1995: 231- 232). In International Encyclopedia of Ethics, Joan Ferrante’s Sociology: A Global Perspective (1992), discrimination is “the unequal treatment, whether intentional or unintentional, of individuals or groups on the basic of group membership that is unrelated to merit, ability, or past performance” (1995: 232). Ferrante tries to say that discrimination is also an unequal treatment because it does not have relation to the marriage status, the people’s ability and their past experience. It can be said that the discrimination is only a physical appearance. In Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic, Cashmore says that racial discrimination also known racialism, this is the active or behavioral expression of racism and is aimed at denying members of certain groups equal access to scarce

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 and value resources. It goes beyond thinking unfavorably about groups or holding negative beliefs about them: it involves putting them into action (2004: 345). From the quotation, racial discrimination is known as racialism. Racial discrimination is the active or behavioral expression or action of racism to conduct the other. The white people have negative beliefs to the black people. They thought that the black people are criminal persons. There are two types of discrimination; those are legal discrimination and institutional discrimination. Legal discrimination is the treatment of the law toward the citizens which is unequal, while the institutional discrimination (racism) is the unequal treatment based on the race in social custom. The institutional discrimination includes segregation between race, redlining by financial institutions, and the continuous practice of low- paying job experienced by the minority group member. The minority itself means any group whose position is in the disadvantage point (Roth, 1995: 232). We can see whether a person or a group of people is in the lower position from the reaction or their behavior toward certain group of people that considers as the majority people. Therefore, the writer knows that the minority are treated unequally by the majority in the legal and institutional discrimination. Racism can develop the segregation. Segregation is a condition when people from different race and ethnic groups are separated physically and socially by custom or by law. Segregated societies carefully regulate the types of contact allowed between the dominant and the minority groups. For example, subordinate

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 group members are not allowed to live where the dominant group live (Light, Keller and Calhoun, 1989: 287: 288). C. Review on History of the Racial Discrimination The literary work which is analyzed is The Help. The Help is a novel that reflects the racial discrimination toward the black people. The writer will review the history of the racial discrimination toward the black people. The history of the black people as slave to understand the chronology of the black people life in the United States. The history begins in the 17th to the 18th century. The life of Black people in USA begins when they are kidnapped from their origin, Africa, by the white people. They are forced to work as slaves for the colonist in Europe and America. In short, they are sold as slaves, in which they are not subject but object that they had no voice to speak up their rights (William, 1998: 35). They have no rights for their life. The slave-masters do not consider them as human beings, so it is hard for the slaves to get a proper life. The master forbides the slaves to possess property, to leave the master’s house without permission, to be out of the dark, to congregate with other slaves except in church, to carry firearms, to strike with white men even for self-defence, etc. They are forbidden to testify in court against white people. If a slave master kills a slave during punishment, it is not considered as a crime. It is terrible for the slaves in America (Current, 1979:340). The black people are treated rudely by white people. The black people get injustice in their life.

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 The end of the slavery was marked by the civil war. Then three amendments made to the United States Constitution. It was very important to the civil rights movement. In the Thirteenth Amendment, the slavery is abolished. The freedom can be owned by the slave. The Thirteenth Amendment ratified on December 6, 1865, abolished slavery. Section 1 states: neither slavery or nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction (Hasday, 2007: 8-9). Then, the Fourteenth Amendment explains about the protection of the rights of freed slaves and the Fifteenth Amendment explains about the protection of black’s voting rights. It states: The fourteenth Amendment, ratified on July 9,1868, protected the rights of freed slaves: all persons born or naturalized in the United States and the subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. The fifteenth Amendment, ratified on February 3,1870, protected blacks’ voting right: the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude (Hasday, 2007: 9). The three amendments are law that protect the black people’s life. The black people can get their freedom. In 1896, Plessy vs. Ferguson had written about the “separate but equal”. Although there is constitution that promised ‘all men are created equal’ that does not work for black. That constitution was made only for the white. This practice lasts for long, but after Emancipation Declaration, the slavery is abolished. Although black is now called ‘citizen’ they still had no right. Many white people

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 feel that they suddenly become poor after the slavery abolishment. They have to cope with poverty and they cannot accept that the ex-slaves now should be citizens and equal to their former master. The whites blame the blacks for their misery and they tend to hate the black. The white people who mostly hate the black try to make the black ‘stay in their place’. (studentshelp.de.2003) As time goes by, there was another form of discrimination toward the black people in the United States during the 1930s until 1950s called segregation. The segregation almost covered all aspect of life-form education to the use of public properties and places (Thernstrom and Thernstrom, 1997: 61) Segregation covered many aspects in the black people’s life. Segregation was closely related to Jim Crow Law, a law which separated the black people and the white people in society especially public facilities. Davis in The History of Jim Crow: Creating Jim Crow states that: In general the Jim Crow era in American history dates from the late 1890s, when southern states begin systematically to codify in law and state constitutional provisions the subordinate position of African Americans in society. Most of these legal steps were aimed at separating the races in public spaces (public schools, parks, accommodations and transportation) and preventing adult black males from exercising the right to vote (Hasday, 2007: 12) From the quotation above, Jim Crow Law began systematically to codify in law and state constitutional provisions the subordinate position of African Americans in society. Jim Crow also were aimed to separate the public facilities for the black people and the white people. They should use the public facilities which are designed based on their race. Water fountains were designated “For Whites Only” or “For Colored Only.” Restaurants, theaters, restrooms, stores,

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 buses, trains, and others public facilities were delineated based on whether you were white or black (2007: 35). Jim Crow controlled the white people and the black people. Jim Crow also brought the pain and the misery for the black people. The segregation in the bus station, in the South, the black people should allow to sit in the area of the bus which is designated for them. They cannot sit in the same place with the white people. Segregated city buses were the norm in the South. White passengers entered the front of the bus, paid their fare, and always had a seat on the bus as long as other whites did not take up all the seats. Upon paying the fare at the front of the bus, black passengers- 40,000 daily riders versus 12,000 white riders-had to exit and reenter using the rear bus door. Black passengers were only allowed to sit in the area of the bus designated for blacks, which was in the rear section (Hasday, 2007: 36-37). In 1967, the Supreme Court held against the law of intermarriage. The marriage is anyone is right and marriage as one of the vital personal rights is essential to the pursuit of happiness by free men. According to Alexander Tsesis’s book entitled The Thirteenth Amendment and American Freedom, it states that: The Supreme Court held that laws against intermarriage violate the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses in the 1967 case of Loving v. Virginia. The Court found, in large part based on the Due Process Clauses, that a Virginia statute that prohibited racial intermarriage was constitutional. The Court recognized the right to marry as one of the vital personal rights essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men. Prohibitions against intermarriage are related to slavery and subservience (2004: 122) The Ku-Klux Klan is the group of white people or racist organization. They did the racial practice toward the black people. Ku – Klux Klan terrorizes the black people. They did lynching, castrations and destruction to the black people.

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 A racist organization, originating at the end of the American Civil War in 1865, taking its name from Kulkos. The Klan chose an assortment of methods to achieve its aim. The Klansmen used to clothe themselves in white robes and hoods and terrorize blacks: there were regular lynchings, castrations, and destruction of blacks’ properties (Cashmore, 2004: 233). In May 1961, black and white activists began ‘freedom rides’, travelling in small groups to the South to test local segregation laws. The inspiring leader of the movement was Martin Luther King Jr., a courageous and eloquent orator who founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Wiegar, 2009: 301). In December 1964, Martin Luther King Jr. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his civil rights work. The prize is awarded “to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congress” (Hasday, 2007: 99) Martin Luther King declares his principle of nonviolence in the civil rights movement. This is one step to fight. In 1960s, the black people were united in the civil rights movement. They want to get their freedom and justice in their life. “On February 21, a grand jury indicted King and 24 other ministers for conspiring to boycott (Hasday, 2007: 42). They did boycott to change the segregation in the bus. The black people ride the bus in Montgomery. The next day, after successfully boycotting the Montgomery City Line bus company for 381 days, black passengers were once again riding the buses in Montgomery. The end of the bus boycott, however, was by no means the end to the fledgling civil right movement. (Hasday, 2007: 43).

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 The black passengers ride the buses in Montgomery. They boycott the Montgomery City Line company for 381 days. The boycott did not means the end of the civil rights movement. In April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated by James Earl Ray in Memphis, Tennessee. Martin Luther King Jr. had traveled to lead a march for better wages and working conditions for sanitation workers. Reaction to his murder was swift and violent – race riots broke out in more than 100 cities throughout the country (Hasday, 2007: 103). 1968 was the time when the segregation ended. It is proven by President Johnson is approval to more civil rights legislation. “The 1968 Civil right Act prohibited discrimination in the sale, rental and financing of housing. Additional legislation has been passed since the days of the civil rights movement” (Hasday, 2007: 103). The civil rights act shows that discrimination is prohibited in the sale, the rental and the financing of housing. This is the end of segregation in the United States . D. Theoretical Framework This part explains the contribution of the theories and reviews in solving the problems of the study. Theories are needed as the basic idea or concept to answer the problems formulated in previous chapter. Theory of character is used to analyze the first problem. The theory of character and characterization helps the writer to describe the major character, Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson, Yule May in The Help. Murphy, as stated in his book Understanding Unseen, said that there are a few of ways that the writer uses to make his characters are understandable

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 and come alive for the readers. In The Help, the first way is using the personal description, the second way is using the character as seen by another, the third way is using past life, the next is direct comment and the last is thought. The second is theory of setting. This theory is used to answer the second problem. In the second problem, theory of setting helps the writer to understand when the racial dicrimination in The Help happens. By the setting, the racial discrimination that happen can be described clearly. The third theory that is used to answer the third problem is theory of racial discrimination. Theory of racial dicrimination helps the writer to see how the black characters receive the racial discrimination from the white people in the United States. The fourth is the historical background of the racial discrimination in 1960s that the writer uses to understand how the racial discrimination happens to the black people and it can be revealed through the major characters and the setting in The Help.

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of the study is the novel The Help. This novel is written by Kathryn Stockett. The writer uses the first novel published by the Penguin Group which was printed in New York in 2009. The Help has totally 464 pages and it consists of 34 chapters, acknowledgments and readers guide. This thesis tries to explore the form of racial discrimination that is shown through the major characters and the setting in the novel. The character and the racial discrimination of black people can be acquired through their experience. The setting also reflects the form of racial discrimination in the novel. The Help tells the story about Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May, the black maids who work for the White family in Jackson, Mississippi. The story tells about the experience of the black maids who get the racial discrimination from their master. The form of racial discrimination in the novel is the separation of the bathroom between the master and the black maids. The master separates the bathroom because they thought that the black maid brought the disease to their family. Most of the white people do the segregation in their house. Skeeter Phelan is a white lady who has different opinion about the racial discrimination toward the black people. She does not do the racial discrimination and she also helps the blacks to fight for their equal status. This story is in 1960s when the segregation happened and African-Americans are treated unequally 26

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 because they are black. The black people try to fight against the racial discrimination in social life. B. Approach of the Study In analyzing Stockett’s The Help, the writer uses the socio-cultural historical approach. In order to know the relation between the work of the literature and its background knowledge. The sociocultural-historical approach is an appropriate approach. The point of the sociocultural-historical approach is seeing a literary work from its relation with social history of a certain time and place. This approach deals with the history and the society when the author lives and creates the story. The sociocultural-historical perspective relates the society and the history to the events occur in the story (Rohberger and Samuel H.Woods, 1971: 9 - 10). Mary Rohrberger and Samuel H. Woods in Reading and Writing about Literature, states that: Critics whose major interest is the Sociocultural- historical approach insist that the only way to locate the real world is in reference to civilization that produced it. They define the civilization as the attitudes and actions of a specific group of people and point out that literature takes this attitudes and actions as its subject matter (1971: 9). The quotation above means that the approach concerns about the society’s condition, the history of the story and the reflection of the society at that time. By using the Sociocultural-historical approach in analyzing the book, the writer analyzes the racial discrimination that happened in the United States as seen in the characters and the setting in The Help.

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 C. Method of the Study This study is a library research because this research used the written sources as the data, theories and information are collected from the books and other writings related to study which support the subject matter of the study as the materials. The primary source is Kathryn Stockett’s The Help. Furthermore, to analyze the novel, there are some important books as secondary sources. Some of the books are Glossary of Literary Terms (1991) from M. H. Abrams that contains that theory of character, theory of characterization and theory of setting from M. J Murphy in Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students, Mastering in English Literature is from Gill, The Longman Dictionary of Poetic Term from Michael Simms, International Encyclopedia of Ethics from Joan Ferrante’s Sociology: A Global Perspective, International Encyclopedia of Ethnics from John K. Roth’s is about racial discrimination and Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies from Ellis Cashmore. The writer took some steps in conducting this research. The first step, the writer decided the literary work that would be analyzed and the topic that is going to be analyzed in this study. Then the writer reads the novel carefully. The second step, the writer collected the data, references, theories and studies related to the novel The Help. The third step, the writer tried to answer the problem in the problem formulation. The writer used some theories to support the paper. The writer applied theory of character and the characterization to explain about the major characters in The Help. Then theory of racial discrimination is applied in order to describe how the major characters got unequal treatment in society.

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 Theory of setting is applied to explain the society’s condition, the history of the story and the reflection of the society at that time. After completing all of the steps, the writer drew a conclusion to finish this study.

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In this chapter, the writer intends to answer the questions which are stated in the problem formulation in Chapter I. This chapter consists of three parts. The first part discusses the major characters in the novel. The second part discusses the setting described in the novel. The third part discusses the racial discrimination is revealed through the characters and the setting. A. The Description of the Major Characters The people who are described in a literary work are called characters. Character is one important element in a work of literature since literature mostly talks about humanity. The readers need to know the character of literary works. In Glossary of Literary Terms-Seventh Edition by Abrams, he states that the character is: the persons presented in dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional and emotional qualities that are expressed in what they say the dialogue and by what they do the action. The ground in a character’s temperament and moral nature for his speech and his actions constitutes his motivation (1999: 20). From the quotation above, Abrams tries to explain that character is the element in literary works that gives information about the people who are included in that literary works. Character is an important element in the literary works because without characters, the story cannot be made. In this sub chapter, the writer analyzes four major characters in The Help; they are three black maids and the master. The black maids are Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson, and Yule 30

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 May. The master is Mrs. Hilly Holbrook. She is a white person who does the racial practice to the black maids. 1. Aibileen Clark Aibileen Clark is fifty three years old. Through Murphy’s theory on personal description characterization method, the writer describes the personal description of Aibileen Clark. She is an old black woman. She is depicted as a black woman because she has dark brown and shiny skin. “Her skin is dark brown and shiny against her starchy white uniform. Her eyebrows are gray even though her hair is black” (Stockett, 2009: 81). The quotation above explained that Aibileen as a black woman, she also an old woman. A character can be seen by the past life, as said by Murphy in Understanding Unseen: An Introduction of English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Student. The writer sees Aibileen’s past life to figure out Aibileen’s character. Aibileen comes from the family who work as the maid. Her grandmother and her mother also work as a maid for their whole life. Aibileen Clark works as a black maid since she was a teenager. Aibileen’s mother also works as a maid and her grandmother is a slave. When Aibileen was teen, she was forced to drop out of her school in Junior High to help support the family. She knows her situation at that time and what she should do. Miss Skeeter Phelan is a white lady who is against the racial practice toward the black maids. When Aibileen and Miss Skeeter Phelan make the interview, she tells the truth to Skeeter about her past life. “Mama was a maid. My grandmother was a house

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 slave. Then Miss Skeeter said, Did you..ever have dreams of being something else?. No, no ma’am, I didn’t, Aibileen says.” (Stockett, 2009:147). This statement shows that Aibileen’s past life. Her grandmother and her mother is a maid. Aibileen also is a maid. She works as a maid to help her mother. She needs some money for her family. She is a strong woman. She accepts her job and she did not shame works as a maid. As a maid, Abileen has a lot of experience about the housework in the white people’s house. She knows how to take care of the baby, cooking and cleaning. She did the entire thing in her life. She knows to put the baby, ask to stop crying, etc. She does her housework very well. Taking care a white babies, that’s what I do, along with all the cooking, and the cleaning. I done raised seventeen kids in my life time. I know how to get them babies to sleep, stop crying, and go in the toilet bowl before they mamas ever got out a bed in the morning (Stockett, 2009: 1) Aibileen is a hardworking woman. She works for Mrs. Elizabeth Leefolt. She works in Mrs. Leefolt after she lost her son. Aibileen works very hard to cleaning, cooking and takes care of her master’s daughter but she gets low salary from her master. Her salary is sufficient for her daily needs. “I work for Miss Leefolt eight to four, six days a week except Saturday. I get paid forty three dollars ever Friday, which come to $172 a month” (Stockett, 2009, 16). From the quotation, the writer knows that Aibileen works hard for Miss Leefolt, she works at eight until four in six days but she cannot get a proper salary. Her master just pays $172 a month for Aibileen. The other proof that Aibileen is a hardworking woman revealed in the beginning of novel which is Aibileen tells about her work in Mrs. Leefolt’s house:

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 “only two bathrooms, which is a relief cause I worked in houses where they was five or six. Take a whole day to clean up the toilets. Miss Leefolt don’t pay but ninety five cents an hour, less than I been paid in years. But after Treelore died, I took what I could” (Stockett, 2009: 4). The quotation above describes that Aibileen is a hard worker. She should clean two bathrooms as much as five and six times every day. But Miss Leefolt still gives the low salary to Aibileen. Mrs. Leefolt just pays ninety five cents an hour. Aibileen takes this job to fulfill her needs after her son died. Aibileen Clark is a poor black woman. She lives in the house alone. Through Murphy’s theory on speech characterization method, the writer describes that Aibileen is a poor woman because her salary cannot help to rent a proper house. Her salary also cannot fulfill her needs. “I live on Gessum Avenue, where I been renting since 1942. You could say Gessum got a lot a personality. The houses all be small, but every front yard’s different-some scrubby and grassless like a baldheaded old man. Others got azalea bushes and roses and thick green grass. My yard, I reckon it be somewhere in between” (Stockett, 2009: 16). The quotation above describes that Aibileen’s house is a proof that Aibileen’s life is poor. Aibileen lives on Gessum Avenue. She lives in a small house. She does not have a yard in her house. Her yard is between her neighbor’s yard. 2. Minny Jackson Minny is a black maid who works for Miss Hilly Holbrook, the chairman of the white club society in the Jackson. Through Murphy’s theory speech characterization method, the writer knows Minny’s physical appearance from Aibileen’s speech. Minny has a big and short body. She also has shiny black curls hair. She is seventeen years younger than Aibieen. “Minny short and big, got

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 shiny black curls. She setting with her legs splayed, her thick arms crossed. She seventeen years younger than I am” (Stockett, 2009: 13). Minny is an uneducated woman. She cannot continue her study because she should help her mother. Minny knows her family problem. Her sister have heart problem and her father is a good drunk. They cannot help her mother. Then, Minny understands that her mother needs her help so she decides to quit from the school. She quits in the eighth grade but her mother wants Minny to stay until ninth grade. I was about to quit school and start my first real job. Mama wanted me to stay on and go to ninth grade-she’d always wanted to be a school teacher instead of working in Miss Woodra’s house. But my sister’s heart problem and my no-good drunk daddy, it was up to me and mama. I already knew about housework. After school, I did most of the cooking and the cleaning. (Stockett, 2009:39) Although Minny is an uneducated woman, Minny is a smart cook. Minny has culinary skill. She can cook well. In this part, the writer applies the theory of characterization which is speech. It is revealed through Mrs. Walter’s comment. “Minny cooks fine, say ole Miss Walter. “I’m just not so hungry like used to be” (Stockett, 2009: 7). This statement shows that Minny has skill in cooking. She is the best cook in the Hinds County. Minny makes ten caramel cakes in the auction. Her culinary skill can show that Minny is smart in cooking. Minny near bout the best cook in Hinds County, maybe even all a Mississippi. The Junior League Benefit come around ever fall and they be waiting her to make ten caramel cakes to auction off. She ought a be the most sought-after help in the state (Stockett, 2009: 7) Minny is a strong woman. She always fighting and she also never give up in her life. She tries to solve her problem. The writer understands Minny’s

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 characteristic by analyzing the speech of Aibileen. “She always been a strong woman, always fighting. After Treelore died, she carry supper over to me ever night for three months straight” (Stockett, 2009: 28). After Aibileen lost her son. She does not want to life. Minny as a friend, she asks Aibileen to move on. Minny takes care to Aibileen. Minny always keeps Aibileen and she gives support Aibileen. Minny wants Aibileen to be a strong woman like her. Minny’s strength is also shown through another characterization method. It is shown through speech method. Through what Minny says the writer can find the fact that she is strong. But they don’t know what a pathetic mess I turn into when Lerroy’s beating on me. I’m afraid to hit back. I’m afraid he’ll leave me if I do. I know it makes no sense and I get so mad at myself for being so weak! How can I love a man who beats me raw? Why do I love a fool drinker? One time I asked him, “why? Why are you hitting me?” “If I didn’t hit you, Minny, who knows what you become”. I was trapped in the corner of the bedroom like a dog. He was beating me with his belt. It was the first time I’d ever really thought about it. (Stockett, 2009: 420) Minny’s husband, Leroy often beats Minny. He beats Minny when he is drunk. She cannot leave Leroy because she loves him and she is afraid what he will do if she leaves. Minny realizes that she is a strong but when she can weak when she thinks of Leroy. But she struggles to find the strength to walk away. Minny is a brave woman. She gets her bravery when she decides to help Miss Skeeter in “The Help”. In this case, the writer uses the theory of characterization which is speech that is written by Murphy. It is seen from this quotation. “I do it. I just want make a sure she understand, this ain’t no game we playing here” (Stockett, 2009: 168). Minny decides to tell her story about the

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 white people. “The Help” is a book which is about the black maid’s perspective and attitude toward her master. In ‘The Help’, Minny speaks out her mind in front of the white ladies. She tells about how the white ladies treat their black maid. She is not afraid of them. Her bravery can be shown in Aibileen’s speech. She states that: We done something brave and good here. And Minny, maybe she don’t want a be deprived aanya the things that go along with being brave and good. Even the bad. But I can’t pick up on the calm she feeling” (Stockett, 2009: 437). From the quotation, it is clear that Minny is described as a brave woman. She is not afraid to speak out. In her part story, Minny tells about Mrs. Hilly Holbrook. She tells how her ex-master treats her. She also tells Aibileen and Miss Skeeter about ‘the pie’ story. ‘The pie’ story can protect Minny, Aibileen and the other maids from Mrs. Hilly Holbrook. “Minny made us put the pie story in to protect us. Not to protect herself, but to protect me and the other maids” (Stockett, 2009: 437). 3. Yule May Yule May is a new maid who works for Mrs. Hilly Holbrook, the leader of League Benefit. She works in that house after Mrs. Hilly fired Minny as her maid. Yule May is a beautiful woman. She is depicted as a beautiful woman because her body is tall and slender. The fact about Yule May’s beauty is shown in some ways. It can be seen through Murphy’s theory on characterization: character as seen by another method, the writer can find the fact Yule May is a beautiful woman. It supported by Miss Sketeer’s speech. “She’s tall, slender, almost regallooking and has a much better than Hilly” (Stockett, 2009: 15). The quotation

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 above explained that Miss Skeeter’s opinion toward Yule May is Yule May has a beautiful appearance. She is a beautiful woman. Yule May is an educated woman. She can finish her study in Senior High School although she does not continue her study in college. The other hands, Aibileen and Minny, they cannot finish their study because they should help their mother and work as maid in the white house. Aibileen cannot finish her study in the seventh grade to help her mother. “I been writing my prayers since I was in junior high school. When I tell my seventh grade teacher I ain’t coming back to school cause I got to help out my mamma” (Stockett, 2009:22). Minny also cannot finish her study, she quits from her school and help her mamma. “I was about to quit school and start my first real job. Mama wanted me to stay on and go to ninth grade” (Stockett, 2009:39). From the statement, the writer knows that Yule May is a lucky woman because she can finish her study. “Yule May, Mrs. Hilly’s maid. I hear she educated, went through most a college. Course we got plenty a smart people in our church with they college degrees. Yule May, she probably the most educated maid we got in our parish” (Stockett, 2009: 213). This statement explains that Yule May is an educated woman. She can finish her study. She is a black maid who finishes her study in school. B. Setting of the Novel Setting is one of the important parts of a literary work especially novel. As Gill states in Mastering English Literature, setting can cover the places in the literary work, the social life, the behavior of the society, or the atmosphere (1995:

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 148). It means that the setting is not always about the place but it can be about the social setting of the literary work. It can also show the mood of the characters, situation of the character or symbolically it can reflect personality (1995: 149). There is also a relation between setting and events. Sometimes the season atmosphere in the novel can reflect the feeling of the characters. It also can reflect the situation that is encountered by the characters in the novel. “These words make clear the relation between setting and events. The seasons and the landscape are not pleasant, incidental decorations of the novel; they shape and reflect the feelings of the characters” (Gill, 1995: 150). From the quotation above, Gill tries to explain that setting is the element in literary works that gives information about the social life, the behavior of the society and the atmosphere. Besides, setting can describe the mood of the characters, situation or reflect the personality and the feeling of the characters. 1. Setting of Place a. The Neighborhood The place in the novel where the actions occur is in Jackson, Mississippi. The author describes the racial discrimination can be shown in the neighborhood between the white people and the black people. The neighborhood between the white people and the black people are separated. The author describes the Belhaven is a beautiful place and the white people live in the Belhaven. It is proven by Aibileen’s speech in the novel. “Six days a week, I take the bus across the Woodrow Wilson Bridge towhere Miss Leefolt and all her white friends live, in a neighborhood call Belhaven. Right next to Belhaven be the downtown and the state capital. Capitol building is real big, pretty on the outside but I never been in it” (Stockett, 2009: 12).

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 This statement shows that the white people’s neighborhood is the better place for live. The Belhaven location is near the state capital. The Belhaven is also near to the downtown. The black people live in the other side of the town. The author describes the black people’s neighborhood is dirty and small place. “But the colored part a town, we one big anthill, surrounded by state land that ain’t for sale. As our numbers get bigger, we can’t spread out. Our part a town just gets thicker” (Stockett, 2009: 13). The writer can see that the black people’s neighborhood is dirty and small like the big anthill. The black people live in the state land where it is not for sale. They have not the opportunity to be the owner of the house where they live in. b. Elizabeth Leefolt’s House The racial discrimination also happens in the white people’s house. In Mrs. Leefolt’s house, Mrs. Leefolt builds the colored bathroom for Aibileen. The colored-bathroom builds in the carpot. “After while, Miss Leefolt huff and go out the carpot. I figure she looking at where she gone build me my new colored bathroom” (Stockett, 2009: 11). The writer can see that the master does the unequal treatment to Abileen. The master separates the colored – bathroom for Aibileen in her carpot. c. The Public Facilities In the public facilities, the write people did the racial discrimination to the black people. The writer finds the racial discrimination in the colored – hospital. It is shown by Aibileen in following quotation:

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 “He say, well you better tell them he your high yellow cause that colored doctor won’t operate on a white boy in a negro hospital”. And then the white policeman grab me and say, Now you look a here” (Stockett, 2009: 154). The quotation above shows that the hospital between the white people and the black people is separated. The white people cannot use the black people’s hospital. The black people also cannot use the white people’s hospital. The colored doctor cannot help the white boy in the colored – hospital. If the doctor helps the white boy, the police will grab and punish him. The racial discrimination also happens in the library. It is shown by the officer in Jackson. It is experienced by Aibieen. She states that: “The colored library must be pretty bad. There was a sit-in trial at the white library a few years ago and it made the paper. When the colored crowd showed up for the sit-in trial, the police department simply stepped back and the German shepherds loose” (Stockett, 2009: 157). The quotation above shows that the library between the white people and the black people is separated by the government. The black people have to use their own colored library, they cannot use the white people’s library. 2. Setting of Time The novel has the historical time, the historical time is about the civil rights movement and the segregation. The civil rights movement and the segregation are explained in Review on Historical Background in chapter II. Simms in The Longman Dictionary of Poetic Terms utters that the setting is the environment including physical place, historical period, and cultural class of literary work and describe the physical manifestation of the place in which the action occurs. A general setting creates the entire frame of the work and specific

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 settings are attached to the various episodes within the work (1989: 2227). From this statement, the writer concludes that the historical time is also an important thing to explain about the characters and the events in the novel. In the civil rights movement, Mr. Martin Luther King declares his principle against the segregation and the racial discrimination to black. The declaration of the opposition to segregation and the racial discrimination of Martin Luther King spreads to Mississippi that makes the white people feel uncomfortable and disagree with him. The black people also feel afraid of the white if the white people begin to attack them. It is proven in the novel: “Martin Luther King, dear. He just announced a march on D.C. and invited every Negro in America to join him. Every white person, for that matter. This many Negro and white people haven’t worked together since Gone With the Wind” (Stockett, 2009:162). In Jackson, Mississippi, the race riot and racial segregation happen to the first black student, Mr. James H. Meredith, he gets racial practice in the university. Then the riot has continued to other place in the United States. In the novel, the author tells about the murder of Medgar Evers, the member of NAACP (the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), he is a black man. When Medgar Evers is dead, in Jackson, Mississippi, the situation becomes precarious. “KKK shot him. Front a his house. A hour ago”, said Minny to Aibileen. Minny said they brought Medgar Evers to the hospital. The KKK was here, five minutes away, to hunt down a colored man. “I was just informed,” the announcer say,panting, “that Medgar Evers dead”. Then, “take your brothers and your sisters in the bedroom. Get in bed. And stay back there”. It always sound scarier when hollerer talk soft” (Stockett, 2009: 199)

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 The quotation above shows the murder of Medgar Evers, it is a terrible thing that makes black people feel unsecured and afraid of the white people. They feel the white people would hunt them down, beat and kill them. Ku-Klux Klan is “the white citizens council” accomodating the white people’s hatred toward the black people and they did some threats, burnings and lynchings to reach their misery and hatred. The “Ku- Klux Klan”, the “White Citizens Council” and many other racist organizations were founded to keep the black man “in his place” using threats, burnings and lynchings to reach this aim. But there were also new laws made in the South – the Black Codes were introduced,which limited the movement and the rights of the freedmen and tried to establish the old master – slave relationship. To keep the blacks from registering to vote, poll taxes were raised, comprehension test were held and the grandfather – clause was put into practice.(studentshelp.de.2003) Then the situation looks better than before after the President talks to the Mayor Thompson in Jackson, Mississippi. The white and the black feel safe and calm. “Few days later, the mayor come on the radio again. “Jackson, Mississippi, is the closest place to heaven there is and it’s going to be like this for the rest of our lives” he said (Stockett, 2009: 200-201). The writer can see the situation is better after the President and the mayor Thompson resolve the problem of death of Medgar Evers. After that the white and the black people can do their activities again. 3. Social Setting Genette in Narrative Discourse defined social setting as everthing related to the society’s life in a certain place, which is being described in the story. It

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 includes the customs, tradition, belief, ideology, the way of thinking and behaving, and perhaps the social status of the character (1980: 33, 35). In The Help, the bathroom is kind of discrimination evidence in society, especially in the white people’s house. Mrs. Hilly Holbook is the white lady who agrees with the segregation of bathroom for the black maid. It is proven in Mrs. Hilly Holbrook’s note for the newsletter of Jackson. She states: Hilly Holbrook introduces the Home Help Sanitation Initiative. A disease preventive measure. The bathroom installation in your garage or shed, for homes without such an important fixture. 99% of all colored diseases are carried in the urine. White can become permanently disabled by nearly all of these diseases because we lack immunities coloreds carry in their darker pigmentation. Protect yourself. Protect your children. Protect your help. (Stockett, 2009: 161). The writer sees that Mrs. Hilly Holbrook beliefs the black maid as the source of diseases. They can bring some diseases from their urine. Then she orders the other white ladies in Jackson to build the colored bathroom for their black maid. C. Racial Discrimination revealed through the major character and the setting. In this novel, The Help which is written by Kathryn Stockett, there are the black maids and Mrs. Hilly as the center of the story. The black maids experience discrimination by the white lady, Mrs. Hilly Holbrook. According to Roth in the book Handbook of the International Encyclopedia of Ethics states that:

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 The definition of discrimination is differential treatment based in the physical and social affiliation. It has a negative impact on the human’s moral behavior. There are two types of discrimination; those are legal discrimination and institutional discrimination. Legal discrimination is the treatment of the law toward the citizens which is the unequal, while the institutional discrimination (racism) is the unequal treatment based on the race in the social custom. The institutional discrimination includes segregation between race, redlining by financial institutions, and the continuous practice of low-paying job experienced by the minority group member. The minority itself means any group whose position is advantages (1995: 231-232). In The Help, the black maids experience the racial discrimination. They get the unequal treatment from the master. They are treated inhumanly by the white people and they cannot do anything to fight against it. The racial discrimination consists of two types, they are the legal discrimination and the institutional discrimination. 1. Segregation. In Jim Crow, the unfair justice toward the black people is seen clearly. Based on The Encyclopedia of Ethics International, it is considered as the legal discrimination. Legal discrimination is the treatment of the law which is unequal (1995: 232). The black people at that time usually experience the unjust treatment. They often are blamed for something they never commit, and they also cannot fight say something against the white people although the one who is wrong is the white people. In The Help, the setting of time is in the 1960s. This is time, when the goverment controlled the black people by limiting their space, better known as the Jim Crow era. The goverment makes some rules for the black people. The black people receive the racial discrimination in law by the goverment. They must obey

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 the rules. The Jim Crow Laws is about segregation between the white people and the black people. The Jim Crow Laws mandates and also comments the discrimination in the court. Most of the white people are strict to the law. According to Hernan Vera and Feagin in the book Handbook of the Sociology of Racial and Ethnic Relation, racial discrimination is obvious in law: “The decision in Plessy v. Ferguson paved the way for widespread legal segregation by affirming that separate facilities for blacks and whites could be “separate but equal”. This legal fiction increasingly included racially segregated public schools, other public facilities, and many other aspects of public life. The U.S constitution and federal court decisions created contemporary forms of the racist institutions that are still functioning today” (Thompson-Miller and Feagin, 2006: 456-457). The quotation shows that the law tries to separate the public facilities for the black people and the white people. The legal segregation include the public facilities (school, bus, library,etc) and the other aspects of public life. The black people have to use the colored facilities and the white people have to use the white facilities. In The Help, the writer finds the form of segregation between the white people and the black people. The segregation is revealed through the setting. The first is the separation of bathroom for the black maid and their master. Mrs. Leefolt builds the colored-bathroom for Aibileen in her carpot. “After while, Miss Leefolt huff and go out to the carpot. I figure she looking at where she gone build me my new colored bathroom” (Stockett, 2009: 11). This statement shows that Aibileen’s master, Mrs. Leefolt does unjust treatment for not using the same bathroom as Aibileen. She builds the colored-

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 bathroom in the garage. The black people are not allowed to use the same bathroom as the white people. The black should use their own bathroom. The second segregation is revealed through the setting. The writer finds the unjust treatment in the colored-hospital. It is shown by Aibileen in the following quotation: “He say, well you better tell em he your high yellow cause that colored doctor won’t operate on a white boy in a negro hospital”. And then the white policeman grab me and say, Now you look a here” (Stockett, 2009: 154). The writer can sees that the hospital between the black people and the white people is separated. The black people have to use the colored – hospital. The colored doctor has to help the colored patient. He cannot help the white patient in the colored – hospital. The third is in The Help, the segregation can also be revealed from this quotation. It is shown by the officer in Jackson. It is experienced by Aibileen. She states that: “the colored library must be pretty bad. There was a sit- in trial at the white library a few years ago and it made the paper. When the colored crowd showed up for the sit- in trial, the police department simply stepped backand turned the German shepherds loose” (Stockett, 2009: 157). The quotation above shows that the library between the black people and the white people is separated by the government. It is shown in Jim Crow Laws, the black people had ‘only to use for colored’ library or use their own colored library. They can not use the white people’s library.

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 In The Help, the writer finds the segregation in the law. The white people try to separate the black people in the white people’s public facilities. It is proven in the novel: “No person shall required any white female to nurse in wards or rooms in which negro men are placed. It shall be unlawful for a white person to marry anyone except a white person. Any marriage in violation of this section shall be void. No colored barber shall serve as a barber to white women or girls. The officer in charge shall not bury any colored persons upon ground used for the burial of white persons. Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them” (Stockett, 2009: 176). The quotation above shows that most of public facilities are separated. The black people space is limited by the law. The white people and the black people are not allowed to share the water fountains, movie houses, public restrooms, ballpark, etc. 2. The Racial Discrimination to the black people The other racial discrimination happen to the black people is the verbal abuse from the white people. The white people often underestimate the black people. They think that the black people as uneducated, a lazy person, and criminal persons. The black people only receive the verbal abuse and they cannot fight the white people. In The Help, the major characters get the verbal abuse from the white people. The writer finds Minny Jackson gets the verbal abuse from the white man in the sexual harassment. It shown by the white man’s utterance to Minny. The white man states that: “Nigger can’t catch me! Nigger too fat to run!’ ‘Didn’t hurt!’ he jiggles in his hand between his legs, hitching up is knees.

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 “Have a little pecker pie, nigger? Come on, get you some pecker pie”(Stockett, 2009: 314). This quotation shows that Minny is treated unequally by the white man. The white man tries to make fun of Minny’s appearence by calling a fat nigger. He treats Minny in bad manner by making fun of sexual issue. In the slavery era, the black women are considered to be prostitutes because the black women or the black maids should fulfill the sexual needs of their masters. The writer finds the other verbal abuse, it is Mae Mobley’s teacher. She thinks that the black people are not smart enough to get the higher education. She underestimates the black people. She tries to set the children minds about the black people. It is proven in the novel: “Miss Taylor says kids that colored can’t go to my school because they are not smart enough. I come round the counter then. Lift her chin up and smooth back her funny-looking hair” (Stockett, 2009: 399) 3. The Racial Discrimination in economic life This kind of discrimination is the discrimination that makes the black people lives in the poverty. This discrimination is included in the institutional discrimination. Based on The International Encyclopedia of Ethic, the institutional discrimination includes the segregation between race, redlining by financial institution, and the continuous practice of low- paying job experienced by the minority group members (Roth, 1995: 232). The white people make discrimination to the black people in the job experience. The black people are forced to do the hard worker and they only get the low salary. They did not have a change to get better condition because of their inferior status. They are also uneducated.

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 In The Help, Aibileen works for Mrs. Leefolt. Aibileen works extremely hard, but Aibileen gets low salary from her master. It is proven by Aibileen’s speech. “I worked in houses where they was five or six. Miss Leefolt don’t pay but ninety- five cents an hours, less than I been paid in years” (Stockett, 2009: 4) Aibileen also explains that she works for six days except Saturday. She only gets forty three dollars and she gets to $ 172 in a month. “I work for Miss Leefolt eight to four, six days a week except Saturday. I get paid forty three dollars ever Friday, which come to $172 a month” (Stockett, 2009: 16). This statement shows that the black maid should work hard in their job. They work every day but they just get the low salary. Their money is not enough to fulfill their needs.

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION After analyzing The Help, the writer comes to the last part of the thesis, which is the conclusion. In this thesis, the writer focuses on the form of racial discrimination that is revealed through the major characters and the setting in The Help. The major characters are Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson, Yule May and Hilly Holbrook. The black maids (Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May) experience racial discrimination from the white lady, Mrs. Hilly Holbrook. The black people always suffer racial discrimination in their life. The black people try to fight against the racial discrimination in the society. First, the writer tries to find the characteristic of the major characters, Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May. Every major character has different characteristics. Their experiences of racial discrimination also make their characteristic. The writer uses theory of character to understand their characteristics and the writer also sees their experience of racial discrimination to understand the characteristics. Aibileen Clark is a black maid. She comes from the family who work as a maid. Her mother and her grandmother also work as a maid for their whole life. Aibileen Clark is described as a passive, hardworking and poor woman. She works for Mrs. Elizabeth Leefolt. She gets the racial discrimination from her master. Aibileen Clark experiences the racial discrimination when her master builds the colored bathroom for Aibileen. The colored bathroom is built in the 50

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 carpot. The reason of her master to build the colored bathroom is her master wants to keep her family from the black people’s disease. She thinks that the black people bring diseases for her family if they use the same bathroom. Aibileen just accepts the racial discrimination for her master. She neither shows her anger nor tries to fight her master. Yule May is a new maid who works for Mrs. Hilly Holbrook. Mrs. Hilly Holbrook is the chairman of the white club society in Jackson. Yule May works in that house after her master fired Minny as her maid. Yule May experiences the racial discrimination when she enters the jail. Her master accuses Yule May of stealing her ugly ruby ring. Her master never wears the ring again after she knows it is not a ruby but a garnet. Yule May finds the ring then she wants to sell the ring to finance her twin boys in college. Yule May is a smart and educated woman because she can finish her study in Senior High School. In the other hand, Aibileen and Minny cannot finish their study because they have to help their mother and work as a maid. Yule May cannot continue her study in college because she does not have enough money. Although she is a black woman who is smart and educated, she is not able to find better jobs other than working as a maid. Yule May also just accepts the racial discrimination from the white people. Minny Jackson is a black maid who works for Mrs. Hilly Holbrook. Minny Jackson experiences about the racial discrimination when she works for Mrs. Hilly Holbrook. Her master usually speaks roughly to Minny. Her master often threatens Minny to fire her from her job. Mrs. Hilly Holbrook builds the colored bathroom for Minny. She does not permit Minny to use the same bathroom. Then

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 Minny is fired because her master finds that Minny uses her bathroom. Her master accuses Minny as a criminal. She tells all of the people in Jackson that Minny steals her jewelry. Her master also persuades the other white ladies not to give Minny a job. On the other hand, Minny is a brave woman because she is brave to state her mind directly to Mrs. Hilly. She is a woman who can speak out her mind to white ladies. She is not afraid of them. Minny disagrees when Mrs. Hilly Holbrook labeled her as a thief and she tries to prove that she is innocent. Second, the writer tries to examine the setting in the novel. The writer uses theory of setting (setting of place, time and social setting). The writer also uses a historical time to understand the racial discrimination that happens in United States. In this novel, the setting of place tells the neighborhood between the white people and the black people are separated. the setting of place also tells about the segregation to the black people in the public facilities and in the white people’s house. The setting of time indicates that the historical time is during the civil right movement and the segregation. The civil right movement, Mr. Martin Luther King declares his principle against the segregation and the racial discrimination to black people. After Mr. Martin Luther King declares his principle, most of the black people try to fight for their rights. The black people ask the equal right with the white people in society. Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May are the black maids who fight for their rights to their master. Then the novel tells about the murder of Medgar Evers, one of the members of NAACP (the National

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 Association for the Advancement of Colored People). Medgar Evers is a black man. He is one of the black people who fight against the racial discrimination. Medgar Ever is a black man who is against the segregation and the racial discrimination toward the black people. Third, the writer tries to reveal the racial discrimination toward the black people. The racial discrimination can be seen in the black maid’s experience and character. The racial discrimination also can be seen in the setting. The form of racial discrimination is the segregation and separation. The black people get the segregation and separation from the white people. In The Help, the writer finds some segregation. The black people cannot use the same public facilities with white people. The first is about the bathroom. Mrs. Hilly Holbrook and Mrs. Elizabeth Leefolt as the masters treat their black maids unfairly. Mrs. Elizabeth Leefolt builds the colored bathroom for Aibileen in her garage. She does not permit Aibileen to use the same bathroom. The second, the writer finds the unjust treatment in the colored-hospital. Aibileen master’s son gets an accident. She brings the boy in the colored hospital. When she enters the hospital, the doctor does not want to operate the white boy. The white boy should go to the white hospital. Besides the colored hospital, the writer finds the third unjust treatment. It is in the library. The library between the black people and the white people are separated by the government. The colored library looks bad. Jim Crow also explains that the white people cannot marry the colored people, only the white people. The white people and the black people are not allowed to share the same water fountains, movie houses, public restrooms, ballpark, etc.

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms – Seventh Edition. New York: Cornell University, 1999. Baldick, Chris. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Cashmore, Ellis. Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge Ltd. 2004. Current, Richard N. American History: A Survey, Volume I to 1877. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Inc.,1979. Feagin, Joe. Racial and Ethnic Relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.S: Prentice-Hall, 1978. Ferrante, Joan. Sociology: A Global Perspective. Belmont California: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Inc., 1992. Gill, Richard. Mastering English Literature 2nd edition. London: MacMillan Press LTD, 1995. Genette, Gerald. Narrative Discourse. Oxford: Cornell University Press, 1980. Hasday, Judy L. The Civil Rights Act of 1964: An End to Racial Segregation. New York: Chelsea House, 1957. Kartika. “Racism Towards The Aborigines As Reflected in The Settings in Sally Morgan’s My Place”. Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2004. Kennedy, Stetson. Jim Crow Guide to the USA. London: Camelot Press, 1959. 54

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 Langland, Elizabeth. Society in the Novel. London: The University of North Carolina Press, 1984. Light, Donald, Suzanne Keller and Craig Calhoun. Reading and Review for Sociology 5th Edition. United States of America: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1989. Murphy, M.J. Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Allen & Unwin. Ltd., 1972. Packard, Jerrold. American Nightmare: The History of Jim Crow. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002. Prisdiani, Karina. “Racial Discrimination in the 20th Century United States of America Seen From Troy Maxson’s Conflicts in August Wilson’s Fences”. Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2011. Kusumaningtyas, Rintan. “The Reaction of The African Americans in the 1960s Seen through the Main Characters in Kathryn Stockett’s The Help”. Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University. Rohberger, Mary and Samuel H. Woods, Jr. Reading and Writing about Literature. New York: Random House, 1971. Roth, John K. International Encyclopedia of Ethnics. London: Salem Press Inc., 1995. Simms, Michael. The Longman Dictionary of Poetic Terms. New York: Longman, 1989. Stockett, Kathryn. The Help. New York: The Penguin Group, Inc., 2009. Thernstrom, Stephan and Abigail Thernstrom. 1st ed. America in Black and White. New York: Touchstone,1999.

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 Thompson- Miller, Ruth and Joe R. Feagin. Building a Theory of Racial Violence: Violence and Legal Segregation. Under Review, 2006. Todorov, Tzvetan. Race and Racism. Theories of Race and Racism A Reader. Les back and John Solomons. USA: Routledge. 2000 Unbekannt. Racism and Discrimination against Blacks Vera, Hernan and Joe R. Feagin . Handbook of the Sociology of Racial and Ethnic Relations. New York: Springer LLC, 2007. Wellek, Rene & Warren, Austin. Theory of Literature. New York: Hartcourt Brace & World, Inc., 1956. Wiegar, Steve. U. S. History for Dummies 2nd Edition. Indianapolis Indiana: Wiley Publishing, 2009. William II, Louis. No Easy Walk. Downers Grove: Interversity Press, 1998.

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX Summary of Kathryn Stockett’sThe Help The Help is Kathryn Stockett’s first novel, which is published in 2009. The Help describes three black maids’ who work in the white Southern homes in the early 1960s in Jackson, Mississippi. During they work in the white’s house, they often get the racial discrimination from their master. Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May get the racial discrimination because of their race. The black people have dark skin, dark and kinky hair, wide mouths and thick lips while the white people have opposite characteristics from the black people. The white people think that they are better than the black people. The black people are assumed as uneducated, uncivilized, rude and unintelligent. Aibileen comes from the family who work as the maid. Her grandmother and her mother also work as maids for their whole life. Aibileen Clark works as a black maid since she was a teenager. Aibileen’s mother also works as a maid and her grandmother is a slave. When Aibileen was a teenager, she was forced to drop out of her school in Junior High to help support the family. She works for Mrs. Elizabeth Leefolt. Her master does the racial discrimination to Aibileen. She builds the colored bathroom for Aibileen in the carpot. Mrs. Leefolt makes ‘the colored bathroom’ to keep her family from the colored’s disease. She thinks that Aibileen bring the disease for her family. Aibileen has a closed relationship with Mae Mobley, she is a child of her master. She really takes care of Mae Mobley. 57

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 58 Aibileen has a son, Treelore. She losts him because Treelore gets the accident. He gets the accident when working at the Scanlon-Taylor mill.Aibileen has a small house. She is a very poor woman. She has no enough money to rent a big house for her although she works very hard in her master’s house. Her master just pays low salary to Aibileen. Mrs. Leefolt just pays $172 a month. The salary is lower than she got before. Aibileen has a good friend, Minny Jackson. Minny is a black maid who works for Miss Hilly Holbrook, the chairman of the white club society in the Jackson.Mrs. Hilly Holbrook is a wicked woman. She really hates black maid. She thinks that the black people are disease for white people. She asks other white ladies in Jackson to protect their family. The protection is the separation between the guest and the other bathroom for the black maids in the white house. Mrs. Hilly Holbrook lives with her husband, her children and her mother. Mrs. Holbrook never respects her mother. Shealso does not care about her mother. She wants to put her mother into the nursing home because her mother is old. During her work for Miss Hilly, Minny get the unjust treatment. Miss Hilly usually speaks roughly to Minny. She often says to fire Minny from her job.In the Holbrook’s house, Miss Hilly makes the colored bathroom for Minny. One day, Minny uses her master’s bathroom and is caught found by her master. She is very angry and fired Minny. After firing Minny, she accuses Minny as a criminal, she tells all of the people in Jackson that Minny steals jewelry.Miss Hilly can persuade the other white lady not to give Minny a job. Since Minny has

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 a bravery to state her mind directly to Miss Hilly, she labels Minny as a criminal to makeMinny into trouble. The white lady easily believes that Minny is a thief. Yule May is a new maid who works for Mrs. Hilly Holbrook, the leader of League Benefit. She works in that house after Mrs. Hilly fired Minny as her maid. She is an educated woman. Although she is a black woman who is smart and educated, she is not able to find better jobs other than working as a maid. She gets unjust treatment from her master. Mrs. Hilly Holbrook accuses Yule May steals her ruby ring. Then her master sends Yule May to jail.But Miss Skeeter knows that Mrs. Hilly Holbrook never wear the ring again. The ring is not a ruby but a garnet. Then Mrs. Hilly Holbrook throws away that ring. Then Yule May finds the ring when she cleans the house. The Help shows about the civil rights movement and the murder of Medgar Evers, the member of NAACP (the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). In the civil rights movement, Mr. Martin Luther King declares his principle against the segregation and the racial discrimination to black. The declaration of the opposition to segregation and the racial discrimination of Martin Luther King spreads to Mississippi that makes the white people feel uncomfortable and disagree with him. The black people also feel afraid to the white if the white people begin to attack them. Miss Skeeter Phelan is a white lady who is against the racial practice toward the black maids. She wants to be a writer. She asks Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May to help her in the writing of her book. She needs their

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 60 experiences when they work for the white ladies. Then Aibileen Clark, Minny Jackson and Yule May, they are willing to help her. Miss Skeeter finds the truth that some black maid gets the unjust treatment from the master. In the end, it is a secret about Hilly that Minny reveals in Skeeter's book that silences Hilly. The book becomes a powerful force in giving a voice to the black maids and causes the community of Jackson to reconsider the carefully drawn lines between white and black.

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