A STUDY ON SARAH LEMON’S SELF-CONCEPT AS AN ADOLESCENT IN MITCH ALBOM’S THE TIME KEEPER

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A STUDY ON SARAH LEMON’S SELF-CONCEPT AS AN ADOLESCENT IN MITCH ALBOM’S THE TIME KEEPER AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By CYNTHIA LAURENSIA Student Number: 104214012 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A STUDY ON SARAH LEMON’S SELF-CONCEPT AS AN ADOLESCENT IN MITCH ALBOM’S THE TIME KEEPER AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By CYNTHIA LAURENSIA Student Number: 104214012 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 ii

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis A STUDY ON SARAH LEMON’S SELF-CONCEPT AS AN ADOLESCENT IN MITCH ALBOM’S THE TIME KEEPER By CYNTHIA LAURENSIA Student Number: 104214012 Approved by Dr. F.X. Siswadi, M.A. Advisor August 11, 2014 Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum. Co-Advisor August 11, 2014 iii

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis A STUDY ON SARAH LEMON’S SELF-CONCEPT AS AN ADOLESCENT IN MITCH ALBOM’S THE TIME KEEPER By CYNTHIA LAURENSIA Student Number: 104214012 Defended before the Board of Examiners on August 29, 2014 and Declared Acceptable BOARD OF EXAMINERS Name Signature Chairperson : Dr. F.X. Siswadi, M.A. ____________ Secretary : Dra. A. B. Sri Mulyani, M.A., Ph.D ____________ Member 1 : Dra. A. B. Sri Mulyani, M.A., Ph.D ____________ Member 2 : Dr. F.X. Siswadi, M.A. ____________ Member 3 : Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum. ____________ Yogyakarta, August 29, 2014 Faculty of Letters Sanata Dharma University Dean Dr. F.X. Siswadi, M.A. iv

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis. Yogyakarta, August 11, 2014 Cynthia Laurensia v

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma Nama Nomor Mahasiswa : Cynthia Laurensia : 104214012 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul A STUDY ON SARAH LEMON’S SELF-CONCEPT AS AN ADOLESCENT IN MITCH ALBOM’S THE TIME KEEPER beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal 11 Agustus 2014 Yang menyatakan, Cynthia Laurensia vi

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle -Albert Einstein- We often borrow from our tomorrows to pay our debts to our yesterdays -Kahlil Gibran- It is never too late or too soon. It is when it is supposed to be -Mitch Albom- vii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI For The Mighty God & My Family viii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Most of all, I praise God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Blessed Mother for the life, blessings, and miracles that are given to me. I thank for the great understanding and guidance whenever I lost my way. I would also like to thank my big family—Mam, Pap, Ko Albert, Ci Irin, Epin, Epon, and all my relatives— for their support both financially and emotionally throughout my study. I cannot but express my deepest gratitude to Dr. F.X. Siswadi, M.A., my thesis advisor, for his time, patience, motivation, and knowledge during the thesis preparation. Also, I wish to sincerely thank my co-advisor, Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum., for his criticism and willingness to correct my thesis. To my academic advisors, Modesta Luluk Artika Windrasti, S.S and Anna Fitriati, S.Pd., M.Hum., as well as all the lecturers and staff, who helped and taught me during my study in Sanata Dharma University. I am greatly indebted to Miss Arina, who gave me the opportunity to develop myself by being her assistant and tutor. My sincere thanks also go to all the staff in WR III, for offering me the Konkuk Summer Program 2012 and letting me experience new knowledge and different environment. To my Konkuk fellows, I am thankful for the great time we spent together in both Korea and Indonesia. Finally, but not least, I am tempted to individually thank all my beloved friends in Sanata Dharma University—KKN 14, Sexeh Gela, Class A 2010—for the wonderful memories throughout the four years. Those are the best moments in my life. Cynthia Laurensia. ix

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ................................................................................... APPROVAL PAGE ......................................................................... ACCEPTANCE PAGE ................................................................... STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ............................................... LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PUBLIKASI ......................................... MOTTO PAGE ................................................................................. DEDICATION PAGE ...................................................................... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................. TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................. ABSTRACT ....................................................................................... ABSTRAK .......................................................................................... ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x xi xii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ..................................................... A. Background of the Study .................................................. B. Problem Formulation ......................................................... C. Objectives of the Study ..................................................... D. Definition of Terms ........................................................... 1 1 5 5 6 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ A. Review of Related Studies ................................................ B. Review of Related Theories .............................................. C. Theoretical Framework ...................................................... 7 7 9 18 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ................................................. A. Object of the Study ........................................................... B. Approach of the Study ...................................................... C. Method of the Study ......................................................... 19 19 20 21 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ............................................................. A. The Characterization of Sarah Lemon .............................. 1. Inadequate ................................................................... 2. Inferior ........................................................................ 3. Pathetic ....................................................................... B. The Reflection of Sarah Lemon’s Self-Concept ............. 23 23 26 31 34 37 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ....................................................... BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................. APPENDIX ........................................................................................ 58 60 62 x

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT LAURENSIA, CYNTHIA. A Study on Sarah Lemon’s Self-Concept as an Adolescent in Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. This study discusses the self-concept of Sarah Lemon as an adolescent in one of Mitch Albom’s novels entitled The Time Keeper. There are three main characters that can be found in the novel. However, this study focuses only on one of the main characters. The novel tells about a teenage girl named Sarah Lemon who is kind of an outcast. She is considered as too fat and too smart. A handsome and popular boy named Ethan takes an interest in her or so she thinks. When he breaks her heart, she is devastated that she decides to commit suicide. There are two problems formulated in this study. The first is about the characteristics of Sarah Lemon and the second is about the reflection of Sarah Lemon’s self-concept as an adolescent through her characteristics. This study uses library research as the method of the study. It is because the data needed in conducting this study is taken from printed sources. The critical approach that is used is Psychological Approach since the focus of this study is on the self-concept in which it is a part of the study on personality. The result of the analysis is divided into two parts, according to the problems formulated. In the novel, there are some characteristics of Sarah Lemon which are prominent—inadequate, inferior, and pathetic. Having unattractive physical characteristics and being one of the brightest students in her school, Sarah Lemon is considered as inadequate to socialize with her peers. This causes her to become inferior in her school. Because she is socially ostracized, Sarah Lemon has never experienced a feeling to be accepted. She turns to be a pathetic girl when she meets a handsome and popular boy named Ethan at a homeless shelter. He is the one who wants to talk to her and be her only friend. However, it turns out that he is just playing on her. Through the characteristics of Sarah Lemon above, the reflection of her self-concept as an adolescent is presented. It appears that her qualities as being inadequate, inferior, and pathetic, classify her self-concept into the social self-concept. As an adolescent, Sarah Lemon relies on her peers in attaining her self-evaluation. She considers their opinion as the one that she should believe. Because she is constantly told as being inadequate—too fat, too smart, and too weird—to be a part of the social group, she gradually thinks of herself in the same way. In the novel, Sarah Lemon suffers from discrimination that is done by the peers in her school. Being treated as an outcast, she obtains her self-concept as an inferior girl. Furthermore, it appears that Sarah Lemon is viewed as a pathetic girl when she chases after a handsome and popular boy like Ethan. Once again, she attains her self-concept as a pathetic girl by taking the opinion of the peers in her school. xi

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK LAURENSIA, CYNTHIA. A Study on Sarah Lemon’s Self-Concept as an Adolescent in Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. Studi ini membahas konsep diri Sarah Lemon sebagai seorang remaja dalam salah satu novel Mitch Albom yang berjudul The Time Keeper. Ada tiga karakter utama yang dapat ditemukan dalam novel tersebut. Namun, studi ini fokus hanya pada salah satunya. Novel tersebut berkisah tentang seorang gadis remaja bernama Sarah Lemon yang merupakan gadis terbuang karena ia dianggap terlalu gemuk dan terlalu pintar. Seorang pemuda tampan dan populer bernama Ethan tertarik padanya atau begitulah yang ia pikirkan. Ketika Ethan melukai hatinya, ia begitu hancur sehingga ia memutuskan untuk bunuh diri. Ada dua masalah yang dirumuskan dalam studi ini. Pertama adalah gambaran mengenai karakteristik Sarah Lemon dan kedua adalah refleksi dari konsep diri Sarah Lemon sebagai seorang remaja melalui karakteristiknya. Studi ini menggunakan studi kepustakaan sebagai metode penelitian karena data yang diperlukan diambil dari sumber tercetak. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan Psikologis karena studi ini berfokus pada konsep diri yang merupakan bagian dari studi kepribadian. Hasil analisis dibagi menjadi dua, sesuai dengan perumusan masalah. Dalam novel, ada beberapa karakteristik Sarah Lemon yang menonjol—tidak memadai, inferior, dan menyedihkan. Karena memiliki fisik yang tidak menarik sekaligus menjadi salah satu siswa terbaik di sekolahnya, Sarah Lemon dianggap tidak memadai untuk bersosialisasi dengan rekan-rekannya. Hal ini menyebabkan dia menjadi inferior di sekolahnya. Karena ia dikucilkan secara sosial, Sarah Lemon belum pernah merasa diterima oleh orang-orang sekitarnya. Ia menjadi gadis yang menyedihkan ketika ia bertemu seorang pemuda tampan dan populer bernama Ethan di sebuah tempat penampungan tunawisma. Ethan adalah satusatunya orang yang ingin berbicara dengannya dan menjadi temannya. Namun, Ethan ternyata hanya mempermainkan dirinya. Melalui karakteristik-karakteristik Sarah Lemon tersebut, refleksi dari konsep dirinya sebagai seorang remaja diperlihatkan. Kualitas dirinya yang tidak memadai, inferior, dan menyedihkan, mengklasifikasikan konsep dirinya ke dalam konsep diri sosial. Sebagai seorang remaja, Sarah Lemon bergantung pada rekan-rekannya dalam mencapai evaluasi dirinya. Ia menganggap pendapat mereka sebagai satu-satunya yang harus ia percaya. Karena mereka terus-menerus mengatakan dirinya tidak memadai— terlalu gemuk, terlalu pintar, dan terlalu aneh—untuk menjadi bagian dari mereka, ia secara bertahap melihat dirinya dengan cara yang sama. Dalam novel, Sarah Lemon didiskriminasi oleh rekan-rekan di sekolahnya. Diperlakukan sebagai orang buangan, ia memperoleh konsep dirinya sebagai seorang gadis inferior. Di samping itu, Sarah Lemon dipandang sebagai gadis yang menyedihkan ketika ia mengejar seorang pemuda tampan dan populer seperti Ethan. Sekali lagi, ia mencapai konsep dirinya sebagai seorang gadis yang menyedihkan dengan mengambil pendapat dari rekan-rekan di sekolahnya. xii

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Human beings, just like other creatures, constantly grow throughout their lives. However, the growth process of human beings is different from the other creatures. When a human grows, he undergoes both physical and psychological changes. This is different from the growth process of the other creatures, such as animals, which includes only physical changes. This is definitely one of the traits that makes human beings ‘special’ compared to the other creatures. For years, many experts have tried to classify the stages of human growth. Ultimately, the stages of human growth have successfully been classified into three stages: childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Each of these stages has its own characteristics which contribute to human personality. Among these three stages, however, the most significant stage in human personality is adolescence. Elizabeth B. Hurlock (1973: 2) defines the stage of adolescence as “a period of transition when the individual changes physically and psychologically from a child to an adult.” During the stage of adolescence, a set of rapid physical and psychological changes occurs. In terms of physical changes, an adolescent experiences puberty in which physical changes related to sexual maturation are taking place: those years during which the mature primary and secondary sexual characteristics develop (Rice, 1996: 4). For 1

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 instance, the breasts and the hips of a teenage girl start to develop and she has her first menstruation. In a teenage boy’s case, his Adam’s apple starts to develop and his voice cracks. Also, puberty in boys is characterized by the rapid increase of their heights. Furthermore, an adolescent also undergoes a psychological transition from childhood to adulthood. He tries to seek his identity by discovering new things and experiences. This process often causes some issues, such as identity crisis, if the adolescent is not guided by adults. It has been fascinating for psychologists to study about adolescent. Many psychologists around the world have conducted researches in adolescent in their society. There are some similarities in the study on adolescent around the world. One of them is that the characteristics of adolescent seem to remain the same for the past years. In America, for instance, the study on how adolescents view and react to their problems has been an interesting subject for American psychologists. Preceding psychologists have concluded that American adolescents tend to have some problems in which they want people to like them better and want to feel important to society (Powell, 1963: 3). This characteristic of American adolescents, in fact, can contribute to the forming of their personalities. Over the last few decades, many psychologists have proposed theories on adolescent’s personality. These theories are important in order to understand adolescent’s attitudes and behaviors, along with the reasons of the emergence of those attitudes and behaviors. Hurlock, in her discussion about adolescent’s personality, states that the core of the personality is the concept the individual

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 has of himself as a person. It is a composite of the thoughts and feelings which constitute a person’s awareness of his individual existence, his conception of who and what he is (1973: 324). The study on adolescent’s self-concept has received more attention over the years since it is directly related to adolescent’s personality. Literature, on the other hand, cannot be separated from human life experience, considering that literature represents almost everything that humans face in the real world. John Reichert (1977: x) notes that the forms of literature are the forms of life. People make sense of a character, a dialogue, a plot, as they make sense of each other and of their lives, and the shapes of their experience take provide the shapes of literature and give them their only value. There are many aspects of human life experience which can be taken as an interesting theme of a literary work. The representation of human life, for instance, can be found in an American novel entitled The Time Keeper which is written by Mitch Albom. Albom has been interested in writing a novel about time, about how human beings spend their time and how they are obsessed with time. According to him, the idea of writing the novel has been with him throughout most of the books that he has written; like going back with Tuesdays with Morrie, getting another day back in For One More Day, and how people spend their time on Earth in Five People You Meet in Heaven (mitchalbom.com, 2012). There are three main characters in Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper. One of the characters is basically Albom’s first teenage character. It is the first

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 time he ever writes about a teenager, especially a teenage girl, since he has always written about an old man. In writing the novel, he is inspired by his nieces; he had been attentively observing the way they talk, the way they text, and what is important to them. He also discovers that what happens to the character of Sarah Lemon is something that happens way more often than American people like to think of their country. Based on this, the representation of human growth in adolescence stage can be seen through the character of Sarah Lemon. Sarah Lemon, a seventeen-year-old girl, is kind of an outcast. She is considered as too fat and too smart. A handsome and popular boy named Ethan, takes an interest in her or so she thinks. She is devastated when he breaks her heart by rejecting her gift and confession. Then, she sends him a message on Facebook to clear things up. When pulling up his page, she finds out that Ethan is just playing on her. She is hurt by the fact that Ethan does not love her back that she wants to kill herself. Based on the explanation above, this study focuses on the character of Sarah Lemon. The background of this study is influenced by a comment of a staff reporter of Neon Tommy: Annenberg Digital News, Laura Santana. In her review of the novel, she argues that: She (Sarah Lemon) is an outcast because she is a science whiz. Everyone at school is mean to Sarah because her eyes are ‘too far apart,’ her wavy hair is ‘dry,’ and her ‘flesh’ is ‘doughy.’ Sarah’s father does not speak to her and her mother does not have a clue how to talk to her. Sarah is an ugly loner who nobody likes (neontommy.com, October 8, 2012). From the comment above, a picture of how the society treats Sarah Lemon is presented. By this, the writer is challenged to analyze how the

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 society, particularly the peers in her school, influence Sarah Lemon’s selfconcept as an adolescent by examining her characteristics. B. Problem Formulation In conducting this study, some questions are needed to raise in order to prevent the discussion from losing its direction. Considering the background of the study which has been pointed out, there are two questions that can be formulated in the following numbers. 1. What are the characteristics of Sarah Lemon as described in Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper? 2. How do the characteristics of Sarah Lemon reflect her selfconcept as an adolescent in Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper? C. Objectives of the Study This study aims to examine the self-concept of Sarah Lemon as an adolescent through her characteristics. There are two objectives that are expected to be attained by conducting this study. The first objective is to find out the characteristics of Sarah Lemon as described in the novel. This is important in order to get a clear description about the character of Sarah Lemon. The second objective is to identify how the characteristics reflect Sarah Lemon’s self-concept as an adolescent.

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 D. Definition of Terms Certain terms are often used in conducting a study. The terms sometimes appear to be unfamiliar and therefore, can cause misunderstanding. This study also uses some terms which may be unfamiliar for the readers. Therefore, the writer provides some explanation to avoid misunderstanding in certain terms used in this study. The explanation of the terms used can be described as follows. Adolescence The word ‘adolescence’ comes from the Latin verb adolescere, which means ‘to grow’ or ‘to grow to maturity.’ It is defined as a period of growth between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence is generally considered an intermediate stage between childhood and adulthood (Rice, 1996: 3). Self-Concept Dov Peretz Elkins concludes Carl R. Rogers’ definition of self-concept as the organization of the perceptions of the self. It is the self-concept which is of significance in personality and behavior (1979: 17).

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies In conducting a study, it is needed to consider some studies that have previously been done by other researchers as the supporting materials. This study also uses some other studies to enhance its discussion. There are three studies reviewed in this study. All the studies reviewed belong to the students of English Letters at Sanata Dharma University. An undergraduate thesis that was done by Nani Arifianti (2009: xii) entitling “A Study of Frankie’s Identity Formation in Her Adolescence as seen in McCullers’ The Member of the Wedding,” discusses about the identity formation of the character of Frankie in her adolescence. The reason of choosing the topic is because the writer, Arifianti, agrees to most experts’ notion in which they argue that adolescence is the most important stage in one’s life. In her study, Arifianti formulates three problems to be answered. The first problem is the changes that are undergone by the character of Frankie due to her adolescence. The second problem is how the character of Frankie changes herself into F. Jasmine and what characteristics are different between the two. The third problem is how the character of Frankie finally achieves her self-identity. Based on her analysis, Arifianti draws a conclusion that the character of Frankie undergoes some changes in physical growth, low selfesteem, desperation for sense of belonging, and questioning self-identity in her 7

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 adolescence. Arifianti also concludes that the character of Frankie creates an ideal-self to suit her new situation. Frankie finally achieves her self-identity after experiencing some catharsis moments in her life. Bintang Berlianti (2007: viii) in her undergraduate thesis entitling “Edna Pontellier’s Self-Actualization in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening: A Psychological Study,” examines the self-actualization through the behavior of a character named Edna. Berlianti is interested in choosing the topic because of the vivid description of a woman’s feelings and intuition which is reflected through the character of Edna. In her study, there are three problems formulated. The first problem is the description of Edna Pontellier’s characterization. The second problem is how the society where Edna lives is described. The third problem is how the people in the society influence the development of Edna’s effort toward self-actualization. In the end of her study, Berlianti concludes that Edna has transformed from an ordinary housewife to an Artist. The character of Edna deals with a process of actualizing her potentialities, characteristics, and capabilities. Berlianti also adds that the society plays some significant role in the process of Edna’s self-actualization by awakening her desires for music, sexual satisfaction, art, and freedom. Related to the second study, an undergraduate thesis that was done by Imelda D. Isem (2006: ix) entitling “A Psychological Study of Maya’s Search for Self-Identity in Maya Angelou’s I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings,” also describes a study of self, particularly self-identity, of both the character and the author, Maya Angelou. The interesting development of the main character of

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 the novel is the reason why the writer, Isem, chooses the novel as her object of the study. She is also challenged to examine the novel as an autobiographical fiction rather than just a pure autobiography by focusing on the main character that is in the process of forming her identity. In her study, Isem formulates two problems to be answered. The first problem is how Maya’s self-concept when she is a teenager is different from her self-concept in her childhood. The second problem is how Maya finally forms her identity as a Black woman in the end of the story. Based on her analysis, Isem draws a conclusion that Maya’s self-concept when she is a teenager is the development of her selfconcept in her childhood. She also adds that Maya finally decides to grow up as a Black woman who has power, dignity, and pride in herself after gaining some self-images and experiencing some significant events in her life. In the end of her study, Isem concludes that Maya’s self-concept is always developing and that she does not stop forming her identity. Considering the three studies that have been reviewed, this study discovers something new, that is about an adolescent’s self-concept. However, having connected to the studies above, this study also discusses about the self. Therefore, those studies can be used as references in conducting this study. B. Review of Related Theories Using some theories in conducting a study is a must, considering that a study is a theoretical research. Therefore, the writer uses three theories to help in answering the problems of the study. The first theory is theory on

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 characterization which includes several ways to describe characters in literary works. The second theory is theory on adolescence which includes the description of adolescence stage, as well as the changes that occur in an adolescent. The third theory is theory on self-concept which includes the description of how the self-concept of an adolescent comes into being. The following part is the elaboration of each theory. 1. Theory on Characterization Character is one of the most important elements in literary works. Character, along with other elements such as plot, setting, and theme, contribute to build a story. M. H. Abrams (1993: 23) defines a character as the person who is presented in a dramatic or narrative work. He is interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expressed in what he says—the dialogue—and what he does—the action. An author often uses human traits in creating a character. As explained by Jerome Beaty and J. Paul Hunter (1989: 231), a character is the individual which is portrayed in literature. It is the particular traits or characteristics of a person that suggest his character—what makes him distinctive. There are two classifications of character in a literary work; major and minor characters. A major character usually takes part both directly and indirectly in almost the entire story since the story itself focuses on him. In contrast, a minor character is the other character who supports not only the major character but also the story to make it complete. Based on this, a minor character is also known as the supporting character (Abrams, 1993: 23).

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 According to Mary Rohrberger and Samuel H. Woods (1971: 20), the process in creating a character is called characterization. M.J. Murphy (1972: 161-173) provides several ways to describe a character in a literary work. This study, however, applies only some of the ways stated below. This is because the author of the novel The Time Keeper, Mitch Albom, uses only some of the ways in describing his characters. The following part is the elaboration of each way. a. Personal description: The author builds the character by describing his or her appearance and clothes. b. Character as seen by another: The author describes the character through another character’s eyes and opinions. c. Speech: The author describes the character through what he or she says. d. Past life: The author gives a clue about the character through his or her past life. e. Conversation of others: The author describes the character through the conversations of other people and what they say about the character. f. Reactions: The author gives the readers a clue about the character from his or her reaction towards some situations and events that he or she faces. g. Direct comment: The author describes or comments on a person’s character directly. h. Thoughts: The author gives the readers a direct knowledge of what the character is thinking about.

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 i. Mannerisms: The author describes the character through his or her mannerisms and habits. 2. Theory on Adolescence According to F. Philip Rice (1996: 3), adolescence is “a period of growth between childhood and adulthood.” There are two periods of adolescent development; early adolescence and middle or late adolescence. Early adolescence is usually considered to be 11 to 14 years of age, and middle or late adolescence is delineated as 15 to 19 years (1996: 5). In the discussion of adolescence stage, Rice suggests that an adolescent undergoes some changes which are classified into three parts: physical, psychological, and social changes (1996: v). Some physical changes which take place during the stage of adolescence are marked by sexual maturation and physical growth. Sexual maturation involves the maturation and functions of the male and female organs, the development of secondary sexual characteristics. The physical growth is one of the earliest and most obvious physical changes since it begins in early adolescence. This growth is accompanied by an increase in height, weight and changes in body proportion (Rice, 1996: 5). Regarding all the physical changes, Rice suggests that an adolescent usually becomes more concerned about his body image: physical attractiveness, body type, body weight, and timing of his own development in relation to norms. In this sense, body image has an important relationship to the adolescent’s positive self-

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 evaluation, popularity, and peer acceptance (1996: 119). Furthermore, he also adds that adolescents are affected profoundly by the images of ideal body builds taught by their culture. Western culture, for example, overemphasizes the slim, chic, well-proportioned feminine figure. If a girl does not have a slim figure, she is likely to be ignored by boys and less likely to have dates (1996: 121). Considering the occurence of psychological changes in an adolescent, adolescence is often considered as the most difficult stage in one’s life. This is because one’s personality is formed in his adolescence. Thus, some issues on the adolescent’s personality may happen if he is not guided by the adults. Rice quotes G. Stanley Hall’s notion in which he describes adolescence as “the period corresponding to the time when the human race was in a turbulent, transitional stage, a time of great ‘storm and stress.’” (1996: 29) Elizabeth B. Hurlock (1974: 20-21) states that the personality pattern is composed of a core or center of gravity, called the ‘concept of self,’ and an integrated system of learned responses, called ‘traits.’ These are interrelated, with the core influencing the traits, which are the individual’s characteristic methods of adjustment to life situations. Practically speaking, the importance of the selfconcept stems from its influence over the quality of one’s behavior and his methods of adjustment to life situations. One also experiences some social changes in his adolescence. In this sense, sexual maturation brings new feelings, the need for emotional fulfillments and for emotional independence and emancipation from parents.

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 Adolescents now turn to their peers to find the support formerly provided by their families. Also, they are oriented toward their peers and rely on them for a sense of self-worth. This is different from children who look to their parents for fulfillment of their emotional needs and seek their praise, love, and tenderness (Rice, 1996: 270-271). 3. Theory on Self-Concept F. Philip Rice (1996: 182) defines the self-concept as the “conscious, cognitive perception and evaluation by individuals of themselves; it is their thoughts and opinions about themselves.” He also adds that self-concept implies a developing awareness of who and what one is. It describes what individuals see when they look at themselves, in terms of their self-perceived physical characteristics, personality skills, traits, roles, and social statuses. It might be described as the system of attitudes they have about themselves (1996: 183). Richard G. Warga states that the self-concept develops through experiences with other people, primarily through interpersonal relationships. As a person develops, he has a strong need for warmth, for being accepted and liked. If he get these indications, he begins to fill a secondary need, that of positive self-regard. Bad social experiences, however, may lead to a negative self-concept (1983: 23). Elizabeth B. Hurlock (1974: 22-23) classifies four major categories which relate to the physical as well as the psychological self-concepts. The

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 four categories of self-concept are the basic, the transitory, the social, and the ideal. Each of them is explained further in the following part. a. The Basic Self-Concept The basic self-concept is the person’s concept of what he really is. It includes his perception of his appearance, his recognition of his abilities and disabilities and of his role and status in life, and his values, beliefs, and aspirations. The basic self-concept tends to be realistic. The person sees himself as he really is, not as he would like to be. Sometimes the basic selfconcept is to the person’s liking. More often, it is not. The person finds flaws in himself which he would like to change. Even when the treatment he receives from others would seem to encourage greater self-acceptance, a person may cling to his basic self-concept. b. The Transitory Self-Concept In addition to a basic self-concept, a person has a transitory selfconcept. This means that a person has a self-concept which he holds for a time and then reliquishes. Transitory self-concepts may be favorable or unfavorable, depending largely on the situation in which the person finds himself momentarily. They are generally influenced by some passing mood or emotional state or by a recent experience. They are transitory and unstable because they lack the perspective found in the basic self-concept. People differ in the frequency with which their behavior is quided and influenced by transitory self-concepts. Some experience frequent and intense fluctuations while others experience only slight and occasional shifts.

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 c. The Social Self-Concept The social self-concept is based on the way the individual believes others perceive him, depending on their speech and actions. It is usually referred to as a ‘mirror image.’ Social self-concepts may in time develop into basic self-concepts if the person believes that he is as others see him. Since social self-concepts derive from social interactions, whether the concepts will be favorable or not depends on how the social group treats the individual. People build up different social self-concepts, depending on the kinds of social groups—home, peer, or community—with which they are most often associated. The effect of the social self-concept on the behavior of the individual will depend largely on how important the opinions of others are to him at that time and on what person or persons are most influential in his life at that time. In the stage of adolescence, the social self-concept is derived from the opinions of the peer group as a whole—the ‘generalized others.’ d. The Ideal Self-Concept The ideal self-concept is made up of perceptions of what a person aspires to be and what he believes he ought to be. It may be related to the physical self-image, the pyschological self-image, or both. It may be realistic in the sense that it is within the reach of the person, or it may be so unrealistic that it can never be achieved in real life. Almost everyone has an ideal self-concept in addition to his basic and transitory self-concepts. Whether the ideal selfconcept is realistic or unrealistic is determined chiefly by whether the basic or transitory self-concept dominates. A highly unrealistic ideal self-concept, for

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 example, will increase a person’s dissatisfaction with his mirror images and basic self-concept so much that he will become self-rejectant. This will have an adverse effect on his behavior and on his personal and social adjustments. Based on the elaboration of the theories above, the writer focuses on the third classification of self-concept, that is the social self-concept, since the focus of this study is to examine how the peers influence the character of Sarah Lemon in obtaining her self-concept as an adolescent. 4. The Relation between Psychology and Literature David Daiches (1981: 338) concludes that the function of literature is to provide ‘a just and lively image of human nature.’ He also adds that the end of literature is some kind of illumination of the human situation. To get a better understanding about a literary work, one sometimes needs to use other related disciplines. There are many related disciplines that can be used in a literary work. One of the related disciplines that is often used is psychology. As stated by Daiches (1981: 329) that “in explaining the nature of a work of literary art, the critic is often led into psychology, into a discussion of the state of mind out of which literary creation arises.” In relation to the use of psychology in literary works, Rene Wellek and Austin Warren classifies the psychology of literature into four parts. By ‘psychology of literature’, we may mean the psychological study of the writer, as type and as individual, or the study of the creative process, or the study of the psychological types and laws present within works of literature, or, finally, the effects of literature upon its readers (audience psychology) (1977: 81).

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 Concerning on the object of this study, the psychology of literature that is used is the third type: the psychological aspects in the literary works. Wellek and Warren describe this type. There remains the question of ‘psychology’ in the works themselves. Characters in plays and novels are judged by us to be ‘psychologically’ true. Situations are praised and plots accepted because of this same quality. Sometimes, a psychological theory, held either consciously or dimly by an author, seems to fit a figure or a situation (1977: 91). Based on the quotation, it appears that psychology can be applied in literary works. The characters in literary works which are the manifestations of human in real life, have characteristics and traits that can be examined by using theories of psychology. C. Theoretical Review Both the review of related studies and theories that have been explained above contribute to solve the problems of the study. The review of related studies functions as the comparison as well as the encouragement to develop the study. Furthermore, the review of related theories is useful to solve the problems of the study that are related to the study of Sarah Lemon’s characteristics, as well as the reflection of Sarah Lemon’s self-concept as an adolescent through her characteristics. First, the theory on characterization is used to identify the character of Sarah Lemon and how the characteristics reflect her self-concept. Second, the theory on adolescence gives the notions about the nature of an adolescent. Third, the theory on self-concept gives a description about how one’s self-concept comes into being.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter is divided into three parts; the object of the study, the approach of the study, and the method of the study. The object of the study includes the description of the object used in this study which is the literary work itself. The approach of the study includes the approach that is used in analyzing the literary work and the reason why the approach is used. The method of the study includes the procedure that is taken in analyzing the literary work. A. Object of the Study This study is conducted by choosing a novel which is written by Mitch Albom as the object of the study. The novel which is entitled The Time Keeper, is published in 2012 by HarperCollins. This first-edition novel consists of 224 pages which is divided into 12 chapters. Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper is a novel which tells about a fable of the first person on Earth to ever begin to count time. The person, named Dor, becomes so infatuated with counting time that he forgets to live his life. Ultimately, he is punished for trying to count time. His punishment is that he has to live in a cave for eternity and listen to all the voices of all the people who come after complaining about time, the thing that he invented. He is there until he seems to learn his lesson about what the true meaning of time is and is 19

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 given the opportunity to return to Earth with an hourglass. His job is to find a girl and an old man and to teach them what they do not understand about time. If he can succeed then he is free from the purgatory. The old man named Victor Delamonte, is one of the richest men in the world. He suffers from a disease which gives him only a little time left before he dies. Considering himself as an important person, he cannot imagine the world without him in it. Therefore, he decides to freeze himself cryonically and comeback in a couple hundred years to live all life all over again. The girl named Sarah Lemon, is a teenage girl who is alienated by the society because of her physical characteristics. Her parents divorced when she was twelve years old. Since then, she lives with her mother and grows up without her father’s love. Sarah Lemon wants to stop the time by committing suicide after she finds out that the boy she loves does not love her back. B. Approach of the Study In order to get a good understanding about the study on literary works, critical approaches are needed. Mary Rohrberger and Samuel H. Woods (1971: 3) state that “a critical approach to literature necessitates an understanding of its nature, function, and positive values. One must know what literature is, how to read it, and how to judge it.” There are some critical approaches to literature. In this study, the critical approach that is used is Psychological Approach. David Daiches (1981: 330) says that “the use of psychology in criticism is, like the use of sociology,

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 genetic: it helps us to explain how literature comes into being.” He also adds that psychology can be used to examine the characters’ behaviours in literary works. We can look at the behavior of characters in a novel or a play in the light of modern psychological knowledge and, if their behavior confirms what we know about the subtleties of the human mind, we can use modern theories as a means of elucidating and interpreting the work (Daiches, 1981: 337). In relation to the explanation above, there are many aspects of psychology that can be applied in literary works. Among those aspects, the study on one’s personality has received more attention over the years. Elizabeth B. Hurlock quotes Gordon W. Allport’s definition of personality in which he states that “personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought.” (1974: 7) In the study on personality, many experts have argued that self-concept has an important role in shaping one’s personality. Hurlock notes that “the personality pattern is composed of a core or center of gravity, called ‘concept of self.’” (1974: 20) C. Method of the Study This study uses library research as the method of the study. Robert Dees (2003: 15) states that “library research is done in order to get a good understanding about the subject of the study and to know what other researchers have said or written about it.”

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 There are several sources used in conducting this study. The primary source is the literary work itself, that is Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper. The secondary sources are some books, such as two books on Psychology, entitling The Adolescent: Development, Relationships, and Culture and Personality Development, which are written by F. Philip Rice and Elizabeth B. Hurlock. These two books include several theories on adolescence and self-concept which are important in aswering the problems of this study. Several steps were taken in the analysis. The first step was reading the literary work carefully in order to understand the story and determining the topic of the study: a study on Sarah Lemon’s self-concept as an adolescent. The second step was formulating the problems of the study: what the characteristics of Sarah Lemon are and how the characteristics reflect her self-concept as an adolescent. The third step was taking some important details from the primary source, Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper, that are related to the study and finding the appropriate approach to be applied in the analysis. It was found that the most appropriate approach is Psychological Approach. The fourth step was gathering the theories of psychology and the information that are related to the study. The fifth step was analyzing the literary work and answering the problems of the study. The first problem of study was answered by using the theory of characterization, whereas the second problem of the study was answered by using the theory on adolescence and theory on self-concept. The last step was drawing the conclusion which includes the review of the analysis and the answers of the problems of the study.

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In the previous chapter, certain theories that are needed in conducting this study have been proposed. The application of those theories in answering the problems formulated is presented in this chapter. This chapter consists of two sections in which every section represents the analysis of each problem that has been formulated. The first section represents the first problem that is about the description of Sarah Lemon’s characteristics. The second section uses the characteristics of Sarah Lemon that have been identified in the first section to show how those characteristics reflect Sarah Lemon’s self-concept as an adolescent. A. The Characterization of Sarah Lemon The focus of this section is to identify the characteristics of Sarah Lemon. In literary works, such as novels and short stories, character is one of the most dominant elements in building the story. Without any characters, an author cannot write a story and therefore, he cannot produce any literary works. Considering M. H. Abrams’s definition of character in which he points out that a character is the person who is presented in a dramatic or narrative work (1993: 23), this undergraduate thesis uses a character in a novel entitled The Time Keeper as the object of the study. The novel, in fact, has some characters which build its story. Mitch Albom, as the author of the novel, creates some 23

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 characters as the representation of human in real life. Each of them is interpreted as being endowed with human qualities—moral, dispositional, and emotional—that are expressed through their dialogue and actions found in the novel (Abrams, 1993: 23). Referring to Abrams’ classification of characters in literary works, the characters in Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper are divided into two; major and minor characters. What makes the novel special is that Albom creates three main characters with the same portion of the novel. According to Abrams, a major character usually takes part both directly and indirectly in almost the entire story since the story itself focuses on him (1993: 23). This study, however, only examines one of the major characters, that is a character named Sarah Lemon. In answering the problems formulated in the first chapter, this study involves the process in creating the character of Sarah Lemon which is called characterization (Rohrberger and Woods, 1971: 20). The writer uses the ways to describe a character that are proposed by M. J. Murphy (1972: 161-173). However, considering the limited ways that are used by Albom, only some of the ways are applied in describing Sarah Lemon’s characteristics. Also, the writer uses some theories on adolescence which are taken from F. Philip Rice’s The Adolescent: Development, Relationships, and Culture and Elizabeth B. Hurlock’s Personality Development, to relate the characteristics of Sarah Lemon with the theories of psychology.

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 The novel tells about a seventeen-year-old girl named Sarah Lemon who struggles in living her life as a teenager. Her parents divorced when she was twelve years old. After the split, she stays with her mother, Lorraine, since her father, Tom, decided to marry another woman and move to another city. Sarah Lemon and her mother used to be closer, but as she grows to be a teenager, they gradually become apart even though they live together. In the social group, Sarah Lemon is considered as a girl that is too fat, too smart, and too weird. No one in her school wants to talk to her. Since she is socially rejected by the peers in her school, she often spends her time alone. At a homeless shelter, Sarah Lemon first meets a handsome and popular boy named Ethan. He becomes the only one who is willing to talk to her. One day, she finally has the gut to give a movie watch as a present and tell him that she likes him. However, he rejects both her present and her feeling for him. Hoping to get him back, Sarah Lemon tries to send him a message on his Facebook. When pulling up his Facebook page, she reads his last post and all the comments on it. She is devastated by the fact that no one likes her and decides to end her life by committing suicide. According to Rice’s definition of adolescence, the character of Sarah Lemon can be considered as an adolescent. She is a seventeen-year-old girl and therefore, she is in the period of growth between childhood and adulthood (1996: 3). Moreover, she is also classified into Late Adolescence which is delineated as 15 to 19 years (1996: 5). This is supported by a quotation found in the novel, which is stated through the direct comment of Albom: “In her

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 final year of high school, Sarah Lemon was seventeen years old and...” (2012: 49) Considering the general description of Sarah Lemon above, the following part demonstrates the application of Murphy’s theory on characterization in describing the character of Sarah Lemon as an adolescent. Shortly, the character of Sarah Lemon is portrayed as a teenage girl who is inadequate, inferior, and pathetic. The explanation of Sarah Lemon’s characteristics is elaborated as follows. 1. Inadequate As an adolescent, the character of Sarah Lemon undergoes physical, psychological, and social changes (Rice, 1996: v). In terms of physical changes, Sarah Lemon grows up to be a teenage girl who has undergone the process of developing the primary and secondary sexual characteristics. Both primary and secondary sexual characteristics identify sex, either one is male or female. However, the former presents when one is born whereas the latter starts to grow during puberty. One of Murphy’s ways of describing a character, that is through Sarah Lemon’s thought “She was big enough up top but too big on the bottom, she thought...” (Albom, 2012: 49) implies both primary and secondary sexual characteristics of Sarah Lemon. She is described as a young female whose breasts and bottoms have developed. Besides sexual maturation, Sarah Lemon also undergoes the physical changes that are mostly marked by the physical growth. Rice (1996: 5) notes that one of the earliest and most obvious physical changes of adolescence is the growth spurt that begins in early adolescence. Based on this, the physical

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 changes of Sarah Lemon, in the same way, begin when she was 11 to 14 years old. As mentioned by Rice, despite the growth in height, the physical changes of Sarah Lemon is also accompanied by an increase in weight and changes in body proportion (1996: 5). However, the most prominent physical change of Sarah Lemon is her increasing in weight and body proportion. In this sense, her physical changes is not only influenced by the hormone but also triggered by an event that happened in her early adolescence. In the novel, Sarah Lemon’s parents divorced when she was twelve years old. This is stated through her past life below. Sarah finds time in a drawer. She opens it looking for her black jeans and instead discovers, buried near the back, her first watch—a purple Swatch model with a plastic band. Her parents gave it to her for her twelfth birthday. Two months later, they divorced (Albom, 2012: 14). When she is looking for her black jeans she plans to wear, Sarah Lemon discovers her first watch which was given by her parents for her twelfth birthday. However, it is kind of ironic how her parents divorced not long after she celebrated her birthday. The divorce definitely affects Sarah Lemon since she was too young to face the fact that they would never be together as a family again. She was so sad that she vented her grief by eating too much food. Therefore, she has gained weight since her parents divorced “...the doughy flesh she had never really shed since gaining weight after her parents split up.” (Albom, 2012: 49) According to merriam-webster.com, the term ‘inadequate’ is defined as ‘not enough or not good enough.’ Based on this, the character of Sarah Lemon

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 can be described as physically inadequate to be a part of the social group in her school. This can be seen through the direct comment of Albom. What mattered in high school was popularity—based mostly on how you looked—and Sarah, who could whiz through a biology exam, disliked what she saw in the mirror as much as she figured everyone else did: the hazel eyes, too far apart, the dry, wavy hair, the gap between her teeth, the doughy flesh she had never really shed since gaining weight after her parents split up (2012: 49). From the above quotation, it appears that the most important thing in the social group is popularity which is based on how a person looks. A person is socially accepted if he meets the requirement of being physically attractive. Though there is no clear description about how a person can be considered as physically attractive, it is clear that the character of Sarah Lemon fails in meeting the requirement to be accepted by the peers in her school. She is described as physically inadequate through the quotation “...disliked what she saw in the mirror as much as she figured everyone else did: the hazel eyes, too far apart, the dry, wavy hair, the gap between her teeth, the doughy flesh she had never really shed...” Another quotation that portrays the character of Sarah Lemon as being inadequate can also be seen through the direct comment of Albom: “In her final year of high school, Sarah Lemon was seventeen years old and considered, by most kids, to be too smart, too weird, or both.” (2012: 49) According to the peers in her school, Sarah Lemon is too smart and too weird that she lacks of qualities for being accepted in the social group. Again, the characteristic of Sarah Lemon as an inadequate girl is presented in her thought: “She realized Ethan was a better-looking boy than she was a girl, and she

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 pondered how much ‘gratitude’ she was supposed to show him for that.” (Albom, 2012: 95-96) Just like her awareness of Ethan being a handsome and popular boy, Sarah Lemon is aware of her unattractiveness as a teenage girl. She thinks that Ethan likes her too and feels grateful because he wants to accept her just the way she is. From the quotation “...Ethan was a betterlooking boy than she was a girl...”, the character of Sarah Lemon appears to be physically inadequate. As the author of the novel, Albom illustrates Sarah Lemon’s characteristic as an inadequate girl through his direct comment below. Standing in the hallway, holding the wrapped present, she looked away as the other kids passed—the ‘hot’ girls in their designer clothes; the thick, sculpted jocks; the hipsters in black-framed glasses and funky hats; the sour-faced, deeply emotional types in ragged black T-shirts and studded earrings. Some of them she had seen for four years without exchanging a word. But that was how high school worked; it issued a verdict and you behaved accordingly. The verdict on Sarah Lemon was too smart, too fat, too weird—so few kids bothered to talk to her (2012: 126). When Sarah Lemon is waiting for Ethan in the school hallway to give him a movie watch as a present, she sees the popular girls whom she has never talked to during four years of studying. Through the quotation “...the “hot” girls in their designer clothes; the thick, sculpted jocks; the hipsters in blackframed glasses and funky hats; the sour-faced, deeply emotional types in ragged black T-shirts and studded earrings,” the requirement to be a popular girl is implied. In her school, Sarah Lemon is regarded as not good enough to socialize with other kids who are popular like the ‘hot’ girls “The verdict on Sarah Lemon was too smart, too fat, too weird...” By this, the characteristic of

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 Sarah Lemon as being inadequate is presented. Furthermore, Sarah Lemon is also defined as being inadequate in her thought below. “Wait. What’s the end-of-the-world part?” “I don’t know, it’s Indian or religious or whatever. One of those freakoid things.” She had read more but didn’t want to sound too smart. When had being smart ever gotten her anywhere with boys? (Albom, 2012: 135-136) Sarah Lemon tries not to show her smartness when she is talking about the end of the world with Ethan on the phone. She pretends that she does not know well about the topic since she does not want Ethan to find out how smart she is and accept the possibility that he may not want to see her anymore. From the quotation above, Sarah Lemon realizes that being smart is inadequate to make her get along with boys “When had being smart ever gotten her anywhere with boys?” Being aware of her smartness, Sarah Lemon prefers to pretend that she is not that smart in order to make Ethan like her more. Moreover, the characteristic of Sarah Lemon being inadequate is also seen through the comments of the kids in her school about Ethan’s last post on his Facebook page “Sarah Lemon made play 4 me. Whoa. Ain’t happening. That’s what u get 4 being nice.” She shivered. She hyperventilated. Beneath his post was a long row of faces, people commenting—dozens of them. “Seriously?” one read. “U+Sarah=gross.” “C movie: he’s just not into u.” “That butt’s too big, bro.” “Knew she was a skank.” “Run, dude!” “Isn’t she the science geek?” “Never be nice to psychos.” “She’s delusional.” “2 bad, Ethan.” (Albom, 2012: 150-151)

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 From all the comments from the peers in her school above, it appears that Sarah Lemon is a girl that is considered as inadequate to be with a handsome and popular boy like Ethan “U+Sarah=gross,” “C movie: he’s just not into u,” “Run, dude!” “2 bad, Ethan.”. Her ‘label’ as being too fat and too smart which classifies her as an inadequate girl, is outlined in the quotations “That butt’s too big, bro.” and “Isn’t she the science geek?” Moreover, she is also regarded as a girl who does not know her place as an outcast “She’s delusional.” 2. Inferior According to merriam-webster.com, the term ‘inferior’ has the meaning of ‘low or lower in rank.’ In the novel, the character of Sarah Lemon is depicted as a teenage girl who is inferior to the peers in her school. Albom presents two divisions of social class in Sarah Lemon’s school. The first consists of those who are popular because they are physically attractive and sociable, whereas the second includes those who are considered as being physically unattractive and not too sociable. These divisions are implied in the direct comment of Albom “But that was how high school worked; it issued a verdict and you behaved accordingly. The verdict on Sarah Lemon was too smart, too fat, too weird—so few kids bothered to talk to her.” (2012: 126) Because of the verdict that is given to her “...too smart, too fat, too weird...”, there is no kids in her school who is willing to talk to her. By this, Sarah Lemon can be characterized as an inferior girl. She is classified into

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 those who are not attractive because she is ‘too smart, too fat, and too weird.’ Thus, it is likely that no one in her school wants to talk to her. When she first meets Ethan at the homeless shelter, Sarah Lemon feels ‘special’ because she has never been received attention from a handsome and popular boy like him (Albom, 2012: 22). Another quotation that reflects the character of Sarah Lemon as an inferior girl can also be seen through her thought about Ethan. His name was Ethan. Tall and bony, with sleepy eyes and thick, coffee-colored hair, he was also a senior, well-liked and surrounded by male and females friends. Ethan ran on the track team. Played in a band. In the astronomy of high school life, Sarah would never have entered his orbit (Albom, 2012: 50). The above quotation pictures how Sarah Lemon sees Ethan as the most perfect boy she ever meets “Tall and bony, with sleepy eyes and thick, coffeecolored hair, he was also a senior, well-liked and surrounded by male and females friends. Ethan ran on the track team. Played in a band.” Being aware of her social status, she realizes that a girl like her will never get someone like him. By this, the quotation “In the astronomy of high school life, Sarah would never have entered his orbit.” reflects Sarah Lemon’s characteristic as an inferior girl. Because of her image as an inferior girl, Sarah Lemon must act like one. She cannot wear any feminine clothes because she is afraid of being laughed at. The only place where she has more confidence to express herself is at the homeless shelter. Through the direct comment of Albom “...she left behind the social message T-shirts she sometimes wore in favor of lower-cut, more feminine tops...” (2012: 49-51), the characteristic of Sarah Lemon being inferior is pictured.

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 When Sarah was in eighth grade, a girl in gym class stuffed a volleball under her shirt and, unaware Sarah was within earshot, cooed to a group of boys, “Hey, guys, I’m Sarah Lemon, can I have your French fries?” Sarah raced home crying and buried herself in her mother’s lap (2012: 71). Through the discrimination that she experienced, it appears that Sarah Lemon has been an inferior girl for years. Being a fat girl, she often becomes the target to be played on. When she was in eighth grade, for instance, a girl in gym class made fun of Sarah Lemon’s physical characteristic as being fat. The girl stuffed a volleyball under her shirt, trying to appear as a fat girl like Sarah Lemon. Through the quotation “Hey, guys, I’m Sarah Lemon, can I have your French fries?”, the girl also made fun of Sarah Lemon since a fat person is often related to an excessive eating. At a homeless shelter, Sarah Lemon first meets Ethan, the only person that she becomes close with. She is happy to have him since she can tell him about her true feeling of being an outcast “She tried talking, nervously, about how she didn’t really have friends at school because they all seemed so immature...” (Albom, 2012: 94-95) Through the direct comment of Albom, it is likely that she blames on the peers in her school for treating her as an outcast. She thinks that it is their fault for being immature that they reject her. She does not think that her being too fat and too smart is the reason they ostracize her. By this, the characteristic of Sarah Lemon being inferior is presented through the quotation “...she didn’t really have friends at school...” Again, Sarah Lemon’s inferiority can also be seen through her daily activities.

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 By high school, her friends were few and her routine was predictable: science labs, bookstore browsing, weekends at home on the computer, parties something she heard about—past tense—during Monday morning homerooms when other kids were bragging (Albom, 2012: 176). Being an outcast in her school, Sarah Lemon has no friends whom she can hang out with. Her predictable daily routine “...science labs, bookstore browsing, weekends at home on the computer...” indicates that she often spends her time alone. Also, Sarah Lemon is described as lower in rank through the quotation “...parties something she heard about—past tense— during Monday morning homerooms when other kids were bragging.” 3. Pathetic In the novel, the character of Sarah Lemon is portrayed as a pathetic girl. After meeting a boy named Ethan at the homeless shelter, she begins to view him as her destiny, the way young girls often do with young boys. Far from school and its unwritten rules of who can talk to whom, she has more confidence, she stands up straighter, she leaves behind the social message Tshirts she sometimes wears in favor of lower-cut, more feminine tops. As the weeks passed, she grows bold enough to believe that he is feeling for her what she is feeling for him. Sarah Lemon, who suffers from feeling of rejected, considers her meeting with Ethan to be a fate, just like what she reads in books—Zadig by Voltaire, or even The Alchemist (Albom, 2012: 49-51). She thinks that Ethan is the only one who accepts her just the way she is. Also, the

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 characteristic of Sarah Lemon being pathetic is presented through her thought below. She leaned against a traffic sign and tried to tell herself it was not her fault, he had not bailed out because she was too geeky or too fat or she talked too much or anything like that. He had something to do. It happened, right? (Albom, 2012: 58) The above quotation shows her disappointment toward her cancelled date. When Ethan finally accepts her offer to have a date with her, Sarah Lemon could not be happier. She is so excited to meet him outside the shelter that she tries really hard to prepare everything to make a good impression. However, when Sarah Lemon is on her way to meet him, Ethan suddenly texts her and tells that there is something urgent happens and that he cannot go to the place where they promise to meet. Because of his cancellation, Sarah Lemon is so disappointed and yet, convinces herself that Ethan does not show up because he does have something to do and not because of her being too geeky and too fat. Sarah Lemon does not want to think about the possibility that Ethan is just the same as the others who alienate her just because of her physical characteristic. She thought back to him kissing her. He wanted her. Someone wanted her. This time around, she told herself, she would be more relaxed about the whole physical thing. She’d let him do more. He’d be happy about that, too. It was fun thinking about making him happy (Albom, 2012: 135-137). Through her thought above, the character of Sarah Lemon is portrayed as a pathetic girl. She feels happy because Ethan ‘wants’ her, despite her weaknessess. Thus, she can do everything to make him happy. She is so desperate to attract him because he is the only person who pays attention to her

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 and she does not want to lose him. Her characteristic as a pathetic girl is also presented through her thought of being rejected by Ethan: “Ethan was, in her mind, the only boy she would ever love. But he did not love her back.” (Albom, 2012: 143) Sarah Lemon was only seventeen, but at that moment, she began to disengage from life. She felt alone, abandoned. And it was all her fault. How could she have blown something that rare a boy like Ethan who had never looked at her before and would never look at her again? They had kissed and he wanted her, but she had pushed him off and he’d obviously decided she wasn’t worth the bother—which she’d known all along she wasn’t—and why hadn’t she just shup up and done whatever he desired, who was she saving herself for, honestly, like someone better was going to come along? (Albom, 2012: 143-144) Again, the characteristic of Sarah Lemon being pathetic is depicted through the her thought above. She feels so hopeless because Ethan “...she began to disengage from life. She felt alone, abandoned,” the only person who cares for her, rejects her. Also, she blames on herself for ruining the chance to be with a handsome and popular boy like Ethan. From Sarah Lemon’s assumption about what the peers in her school feel about her, the characteristic of her being pathetic is also presented. It was like one of those dreams where you are naked on stage and everyone is pointing. Ethan had told the world, the world symphathized, and Sarah Lemon was now and forever (because wasn’t cyberspace instantly forever?) someone you had to be nice to, a pathetic girl who just didn’t get it, the scourge of her generation, the lowest rung on the ladder, a loser (Albom, 2012: 151). Another quotation that shows Sarah Lemon’s characteristic as a pathetic girl is clearly shown through her thought about being humiliated by Ethan and the peers in her school. According to her, Ethan is the one who changes her situation as an outcast. He puts an end to her dreadening drift. She has dropped

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 the world for him. However, it turns out that Ethan has never really wanted her. In the end, he exposes her for what she has always feared she was: pathetic (Albom, 2012: 176). B. The Reflection of Sarah Lemon’s Self-Concept In the previous section, the characteristics of Sarah Lemon— inadequate, inferior, and pathetic—have been identified using the ways of describing a character that are proposed by M.J. Murphy (1972). This section, however, will focus on the analysis of how the characteristics of Sarah Lemon reflect her self-concept by implementing the theories on adolescence and theory on self-concept that are taken from Elizabeth B. Hurlock’s Personality Development and F. Philip Rice’s The Adolescent: Development, Relationships, and Culture. Based on F. Philip Rice’s classification, Sarah Lemon undergoes physical, psychological, and social changes in her adolescence (1996: v). In social changes, sexual maturation brings new feelings, the need for emotional fulfillments and for emotional independence and emancipation from parents (1996: 270-271). In the novel, Sarah Lemon grows to be a teenager who distances herself from her mother, Lorraine, the only parent who lives with her. She no longer depends on her mother in fulfilling her emotional needs. She thinks that as a teenager, she has the right to choose what is best for her without her mother’s interference.

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 Lorraine eyes the bed. She sees options laid out: two pairs of jeans, three T-shirts, a white sweater. “Where are you going?” “Nowhere.” “Are you meeting someone?” “No.” “You look good in the white—” “Mom!” Lorraine sighs. She lifts a wet towel from the floor and leaves. Sarah returns to the mirror. She thinks about the boy. She pinches the fat around her waist. Ugh. Eight-thirty, eight-thirty! She is definitely not wearing the white (Albom, 2012: 9). While Sarah Lemon is preparing herself to have a date with Ethan, her mother comes to her bedroom and asks where she is going to and whether she is meeting someone. Sarah Lemon thinks that her mother is interfering her business by asking such things. Her mother also annoys her when giving advice on what clothes she should wear. This implies Sarah Lemon’s feeling of emotional independence and emancipation from her mother since she already becomes a teenager. Likewise, the way Sarah Lemon considers her mother interfering her business can also be seen through her reaction: “Her mother has twice returned to her room, the last time holding a glass of wine, and offered an opinion on Sarah’s makeup. (“OK, Mom, I got it,” she said, dismissing her.)” (Albom, 2012: 22) As an adolescent, Sarah Lemon wants to try new experiences, such as trying to do makeup. Sarah Lemon feels that she is already grown-up and free to do everything she wants. She is sensitive about any comments regarding all the things she does. Therefore, she is annoyed when her mother offers an

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 opinion on her makeup since she does not need the support from her mother anymore. The attitude of Sarah Lemon as an adolescent is different from the attitude when she was a child. According to Rice, children look to their parents for fulfillment of their emotional needs and seek their praise, love, and tenderness (1996: 270-271). When she was a child, Sarah Lemon was really dependent on her mother. She considers her mother as the only one who is always there for her whenever she needs someone. Things were different even a few years ago. When Sarah was in eighth grade, a girl in gym class stuffed a volleball under her shirt and, unaware Sarah was within earshot, cooed to a group of boys, “Hey, guys, I’m Sarah Lemon, can I have your French fries?” Sarah raced home crying and buried herself in her mother’s lap. Lorraine stroked her hair and said, “They should all be expelled, every one of them.” (Albom, 2012: 71) Through the direct comment of Albom, Sarah Lemon appears to be intimidated by the kids in her school. When a girl in gym class mocked her by stuffing a volleyball under her shirt and pretending to be her in front of a group of boys, the only thing she could do was running to her home and crying in her mother’s lap. She felt better after her mother stroked her hair and the words implies that her mother was in her side to defend her. According to Jerome Beaty and J. Paul Hunter, characters are the individuals which are portrayed in literature (1989: 231). They represents human in real life since they are interpreted as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expressed in what they say—the dialogue—and what they do—the action (Abrams, 1993: 23). Moreover, it is

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 the particular traits or characteristics of a person that suggest his character— what makes him distinctive (Beaty and Hunter, 1989: 231). In relating one’s characteristics to his self-concept, Elizabeth B. Hurlock states that an integrated system of learned responses called ‘traits,’ is related to the concept of self in which the former influencing the latter, which are the individual’s characteristic methods of adjustment to life situations (1976: 20-21). Based on this, it is possible to examine human qualities in Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper through its characters, especially the character of Sarah Lemon. In the novel, the characteristics of Sarah Lemon not only reflects her qualities as an individual, but also affects her self-concept as an adolescent. Thus, this study examines the self-concept of Sarah Lemon through her characteristics. In the previous section, the elaboration of Sarah Lemon’s characteristic as an inadequate girl is presented. As a teenager, she is considered as not good enough to be a part of the social group because she is too fat, too smart, and too weird. According to F. Philip Rice (1996: 270-271), adolescents are oriented toward their peers and rely on them for a sense of self-worth. This is different from children who look to their parents for fulfillment of their emotional needs and seek their praise, love, and tenderness. In the novel, the character of Sarah Lemon has received a constant reaction toward her physical characteristic since she was a child. When she was in eighth grade, for instance, a girl in gym class made fun of her by stuffing a volleball under her shirt and cooing to a group of boys, “Hey, guys, I’m Sarah Lemon, can I have your French fries?” The only thing she could do was to race home crying and bury herself in her mother’s

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 lap. Lorraine stroked her hair and said, “They should all be expelled, every one of them.” (Albom, 2012: 71) By this, the character of Sarah Lemon has got a clue about how the peers in her school felt about her physical characteristic. However, this kind of experience has a little impact toward Sarah Lemon since she still ‘clung’ to her mother in fulfilling her emotional needs as well as her sense of self-worth “The only thing she could do was to race home crying and bury herself in her mother’s lap. Lorraine stroked her hair and said, “They should all be expelled, every one of them.”” In his discussion about adolescent, Rice adds that an adolescent usually becomes more concerned about his body image: physical attractiveness, body type, body weight, and timing of his own development in relation to norms (1996: 119). Likewise, the character of Sarah Lemon appears to be concerned about her body image as a teenager. She attains her body image by taking the peers’ opinion about her physical characteristic. What mattered in high school was popularity—based mostly on how you looked—and Sarah, who could whiz through a biology exam, disliked what she saw in the mirror as much as she figured everyone else did: the hazel eyes, too far apart, the dry, wavy hair, the gap between her teeth, the doughy flesh she had never really shed since gaining weight after her parents split up (Albom, 2012: 49). As she reaches adolescence, Sarah Lemon realizes that the requirement of being accepted by her peers is to become popular in which it depends on one’s physical appearance “What mattered in high school was popularity— based mostly on how you looked...” She is affected by the culturally approved standards of being accepted and therefore, attains her self-evaluation using them as the barometer. Through the quotation “... (Sarah Lemon) disliked what

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 she saw in the mirror as much as she figured everyone else did...”, it is likely that Sarah Lemon is aware of how others consider her physical appearance as inadequate to fulfill the requirement of being popular and accepted. Because of the body image that the kids in her school have about her “...the hazel eyes, too far apart, the dry, wavy hair, the gap between her teeth, the doughy flesh she had never really shed since gaining weight after her parents split up,” Sarah Lemon tends to see her body in the same way. These unfavorable body images that she gains gradually causes her feeling of inadequacy about herself. She considers herself to fail in fulfilling the requirement to be accepted as a part of the social group. Sarah Lemon’s view of herself is reflected through her insecurity. Tonight she will see him. Tonight at eight-thirty. She recites it excitedly—Eight-thirty, eight-thirty!—and she wonders what to wear. The black jeans? The sleeveless top? No. She hates her arms. Not the sleeveless (Albom, 2012: 3). Through the quotation “Tonight she will see him. Tonight at eightthirty. She recites it excitedly—Eight-thirty, eight-thirty!”, Sarah Lemon appears to be excited to have her first date with Ethan, the boy whom she has a crush on, since she has only seen him on Saturday mornings at the homeless shelter where they work. She has hinted several times about getting together and the week before he finally agreed to, so she tries hard to prepare everything before meeting him “...and she wonders what to wear.” Since she realizes that what she wears will determine Ethan’s impression on her, she is being selective in picking the clothes and tries not to choose the clothes that will reveal her physical weaknesses. Not wanting to get a bad impression from Ethan, Sarah

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 Lemon finally picks another cloth instead of the sleeveless top which exposes her arms. As an adolescent who becomes more concerned about her physical appearance, she feels inadequate about herself because of one particular aspect of her body that is not satisfying “The black jeans? The sleeveless top? No. She hates her arms. Not the sleeveless.” Another quotation that shows Sarah Lemon’s feeling of inadequacy can be seen through her thought: “Sarah returns to the mirror. She thinks about the boy. She pinches the fat around her waist. Ugh.” (Albom, 2012: 9) While preparing for her first date with Ethan, Sarah Lemon keeps thinking that she must look good in front of him. However, she is disturbed by another aspect of her body in which she feels that it does not come up to social expectation for a girl to be having a slim figure “She pinches the fat around her waist.” Again, Sarah Lemon’s feeling of inadequacy is reflected through the quotation “She has chosen a raspberry T-shirt, the black jeans—if they ever dry!—and the black boots with the heels. Heels will make her look thinner.” (Albom, 2012: 22) Having finished with the selection of clothes, she finally chooses the black boots with the heels to complete her preparation. Through the quotation “Heels will make her look thinner,” it is revealed that the reason of choosing the black boots with the heels is that the heels will camouflage her physical characteristic as being fat. By this, Sarah Lemon appears to be dissatisfied with her fatness because it makes her fail in fulfilling the social expectation for being a physically attractive girl.

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 After suffering from feeling of inadequacy, Sarah Lemon finally gains her self-confidence when she meets Ethan. In the novel, Ethan is described as tall and bony, with sleepy eyes and thick, coffee-colored hair. He is also a senior, well-liked and surrounded by male and female friends. He runs on the track team and plays in a band (Albom: 2012: 50). Knowing how handsome and popular Ethan is, she feels lucky for having him as her boyfriend. She thinks it is very rewarding to be with someone who is attractive like him. Therefore, she feels so nervous when she is going to have a date with him because no one as popular and handsome as him has ever paid attention to her. She realizes that before meeting Ethan, no boys has acknowledged her existence (Albom, 2012: 22). Through the quotation below, it is likely that Sarah Lemon gradually gains her self-confidence after meeting Ethan. Sarah began to view Ethan as her destiny, the way young girls often do with young boys. Far from school and its unwritten rules of who can talk to whom, she had more confidence, she stood up straighter, she left behind the social message T-shirts she sometimes wore in favor of lower-cut, more feminine tops, and she would blush when Ethan said, “Nice look today, Lemon-ade.” (Albom, 2012: 50-51) Thinking that Ethan likes her too, Sarah Lemon feels that he is the one for her “Sarah began to view Ethan as her destiny...” As a teenager, she has never felt confident about herself. However, she becomes confident about herself after she meets Ethan and considers him as her boyfriend. In the above quotation, it is implied that there is a cultural stereotype about the ‘right’ clothes for an inadequate girl like Sarah Lemon. Considered as not good enough, she is not expected to wear feminine clothes. Instead, ordinary T-shirts are considered as the most appropriate clothes for her. Meeting Ethan is the

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 turning point of Sarah Lemon to be self-confident. She no longer cares about the cultural stereotype of being inadequate “Far from school and its unwritten rules of who can talk to whom, she had more confidence, she stood up straighter, she left behind the social message T-shirts she sometimes wore in favor of lower-cut, more feminine tops...” She leaned against a traffic sign and tried to tell herself it was not her fault, he had not bailed out because she was too geeky or too fat or she talked too much or anything like that. He had something to do. It happened, right? (Albom, 2012: 58) When Sarah Lemon is on her way to the place where she will meet Ethan, her phone suddenly rings and it turns to be Ethan who texts her. In his message, Ethan tells her that he cannot go to meet her because there is something urgent he has to do. Being disappointed by the cancelled date, Sarah Lemon convinces herself that Ethan cannot show up because something indeed happens “He had something to do. It happened, right?” Though she is anxious to know what happens to Ethan, she prefers to deny the possibility that her inadequacy—too geeky and too fat—may be the reason of his cancellation. Being aware of how important Ethan is, Sarah Lemon fears of losing him to another girl who is much more prettier than her. Thus, she tries hard to look pretty in front of him, just like the ‘hot’ girls in her school. She gets up early on Saturday and dresses as if she is going to a party—a low-cut blouse and a skirt. She even does make-up, the thing that she has never tried before. Her efforts in order to make Ethan fall for her can be seen through her thought below.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 She got up extra early on a shelter Saturday, 6:32 A.M., and dressed as if she were going to a party. She wore a low-cut blouse and a skirt that was just tight enough. She spent extra time on her face, even checking a few websites that gave tips on blush and eye shadow. She felt awkward, considering all the times she’d criticized her mother’s heavy makeup (“It’s like you’re screaming for attention,” Sarah would complain), but she justified her efforts because a boy like Ethan could have beautiful girls anytime, girls with even more makeup and even lower-cut blouses. If she wanted him, she had to change some habits (Albom, 2012: 81). Since her parents divorced, Sarah Lemon does not seem to have a good relationship with her mother, Lorraine. According to her, whatever her mother does is always wrong. The above quotation pictures Sarah Lemon as a daughter who always criticizes or complains about her mother’s heavy makeup. She even considers her mother as an attention seeker. Yet, she turns out to be curious in doing makeup like what her mother always does. Being so ‘obsessed’ with Ethan, she is willing to do everything to look pretty in front of Ethan even though she has to follow her mother’s way. She considers that changing her habits of not taking care of herself is the only way to make him fall for her. After being rejected by Ethan, Sarah Lemon tries to make up the situation in order to get him back by sending him a message via Facebook. When pulling up his Facebook page, however, she reads his last post “Sarah Lemon made play 4 me. Whoa. Ain’t happening. That’s what u get 4 being nice.” and all the comments from her peers. She is devastated by the fact that Ethan, the boy whom she considers as the only one who cares for her, makes fun of her feeling for him through his post. She shivered. She hyperventilated. Beneath his post was a long row of faces, people commenting—dozens of them.

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 “Seriously?” one read. “U+Sarah=gross.” “C movie: he’s just not into u.” “That butt’s too big, bro.” “Knew she was a skank.” “Run, dude!” “Isn’t she the science geek?” “Never be nice to psychos.” “She’s delusional.” “2 bad, Ethan.” Then she raced downstairs and burst out the front door, the thumbnail faces in an orbit around her brain, laughing at her misery, flipping open previous rejections like the worn pages of a familiar book. She was fatty Sarah again, running home from school after a girl made fun of her. Sarah was unlovable Sarah again, whose father didn’t want her after the divorce. She was geeky Sarah again, in the corner of the luchroom with a science book (Albom, 2012: 150-151). Richard G. Warga (1983: 23) states that as a person develops, he has a strong need for warmth, for being accepted and liked. Reading all the critical comments from Ethan and her peers, Sarah Lemon cannot fulfill the need for being accepted and liked as a person. By this, she believes what the peers in her school perceive her as an outcast and gradually feels the same way about herself “She was fatty Sarah again, running home from school after a girl made fun of her. Sarah was unlovable Sarah again, whose father didn’t want her after the divorce. She was geeky Sarah again, in the corner of the luchroom with a science book.” In the elaboration of Sarah Lemon’s characteristic as being inferior, it appears that she is rejected by her peers. She has experienced some discrimination from them due to her inadequacy to be a part of the social group. By this, she has been an inferior girl that she spends her time mostly by her own. According to F. Philip Rice (1996: 270-271), adolescents turn to their

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 peers to find the support formerly provided by their families. Also, they are oriented toward their peers and rely on them for a sense of self-worth. Based on this, Sarah Lemon cannot find the support that she needs from the peers in her school. Because of the discrimination that she gets from them, she feels socially unacceptable and therefore, she fails to feel a sense of belonging to the social group. Richard G. Warga (1983: 23) reveals that the self-concept develops through experiences with other people, primarily through interpersonal relationships. As a person develops, he has a strong need for warmth, for being accepted and liked. In the same way, Sarah Lemon has the need for being accepted and liked by her peers in her adolescence. However, she cannot fulfill this need since she is socially ostracized by them. Since she is considered as too smart and too weird, the peers in her school alienate her from the social group “In her final year of high school, Sarah Lemon was seventeen years old and considered, by most kids, to be too smart, too weird, or both.” (Albom, 2012: 50) During her time in high school, she has been treated as one of the minority group. Her peers consider that a person that is too smart and too weird should not be included in the social group. As a result, they keep her distance and no one is willing to talk to her “The verdict on Sarah Lemon was too smart, too fat, too weird—so few kids bothered to talk to her.” (Albom, 2012: 126) As an adolescent, Sarah Lemon tends to reconsider the opinion of her peers, whether it is favorable or unfavorable, more than anyone else. In this

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 sense, Sarah Lemon gradually acknowledges how people feel about her by the way they treat her as an inferior girl. Sarah Lemon was really good at science And how exactly did that help her? She often wondered. What mattered in high school was popularity—based mostly on how you looked—and Sarah, who could whiz through a biology exam, disliked what she saw in the mirror as much as she figured everyone else did: the hazel eyes, too far apart, the dry, wavy hair, the gap between her teeth, the doughy flesh she had never really shed since gaining weight after her parents split up (Albom, 2012: 49). Being one of the bright students in her school, Sarah Lemon realizes that her smartness cannot help her to come up to the requirement of being accepted by the social group “Sarah Lemon was really good at science. And how exactly did that help her? she often wondered.” Through the quotation “What mattered in high school was popularity—based mostly on how you looked...”, it is clear that the social group which she belongs to, puts high value on popularity and physical appearance. Sarah Lemon, who has nothing but her smartness, is considered as not qualified to be a part of the social group. Her peers regard her physical characteristics “...the hazel eyes, too far apart, the dry, wavy hair, the gap between her teeth, the doughy flesh she had never really shed since gaining weight after her parents split up.” as being unattractive. The quotation “...and Sarah, who could whiz through a biology exam, disliked what she saw in the mirror as much as she figured everyone else did...” implies that her peers consider her being ‘different’ as inferior. Knowing that they regard her as being inferior, Sarah Lemon thinks herself in the same way and gradually withdraws herself from the society.

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 She ate lunch by herself, walked home by herself, and spent most evenings in the house with her mother, unless Lorraine had plans with the clacking women Sarah referred to as “the divorce club.” Then Sarah ate alone by her computer (Albom, 2012: 49). Being considered as an inferior girl, Sarah Lemon often spends her time alone without companions during her time in high school. As a teenage girl, simple things like having lunch and walking home, are usually done with some friends. This is different from what she experiences during her teenage years. Even when she is home, she is often alone by herself because her mother, Lorraine, has plans to go with her divorced friends. When this happens, the only ‘friend’ that she has is just her computer. Furthermore, Sarah Lemon’s daily activities are also predictable because she has no friends whom she can ask to go hanging out with. Her daily activities are just going to science labs and bookstore browsing. When weekends come, she spends her time on her computer. She barely goes to any parties because no one ever asks her to go. She can only listen to the other kids who are bragging about it (Albom, 2012: 176). Sarah began to view Ethan as her destiny, the way girls often do with young boys. Far from school and its unwritten rules of who can talk to whom, she had more confidence, she stood up straighter, she left behind the social message T-shirts she sometimes wore in favor of lower-cut, more feminine tops, and she would blush when Ethan said, “Nice look today, Lemon-ade.” (Albom, 2012: 50-51) Sarah Lemon first meets Ethan when serving for homeless people at a shelter. He is the only person in her age who is willing to greet her first despite her unattractive physical appearance. After spending time together with him at the homeless shelter, she gradually falls in love with him. She thinks that he is

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 different from the peers in her school who alienate her because of her physical appearance and her smartness. By this, she gradually feels superior about herself because she thinks that there is finally someone who accepts her just the way she is. She begins to feel the difference between her life at the school and at the shelter. At the school, she is not free to talk to anyone since she has to obey the rules of being an inferior girl “Far from school and its unwritten rules of who can talk to whom...” In contrast, she feels different when she is at the homeless shelter. She has more confidence in herself due to Ethan’s presence “...she had more confidence, she stood up straighter, she left behind the social message T-shirts she sometimes wore in favor of lower-cut, more feminine tops...” In the above quotation, the difference between an inferior girl and a superior girl is clearly illustrated. Being an inferior girl like Sarah Lemon, one has to wear only “the social message T-shirts.” Even though clothes are important for a teenage girl, a girl must be self-conscious as being inferior that she should wear ordinary T-shirts. Wearing feminine clothes “lower-cut, more feminine tops” will only cause her to be mocked by her peers since those kinds of clothes are for those who are attractive. However, Sarah Lemon finally has the gut to wear feminine clothes as she thinks that she is superior in front of Ethan “...she left behind the social message T-shirts she sometimes wore in favor of lower-cut, more feminine tops, and she would blush when Ethan said, “Nice look today, Lemon-ade.”” “Wait. What’s the end-of-the-world part?”

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 “I don’t know, it’s Indian or religious or whatever. One of those freakoid things.” She had read more but didn’t want to sound too smart. When had being smart ever gotten her anywhere with boys? (Albom, 2012: 135-136) After leaving a clock shop where she buys a movie watch for Ethan, Sarah Lemon decides to call him. In their conversation, they are talking about the end of the world. Ethan does not understand about it and asks her for the explanation. Through the quotation “She had read more but didn’t want to sound too smart. When had being smart ever gotten her anywhere with boys?”, it is likely that she indeed knows well about the end of the world but she pretends that she has no idea. As an inferior girl, she is always told that she is too smart and too weird by her peers. Therefore, she feels inferior about her smartness that she tries not to reveal it to Ethan. She fears of him not liking her anymore if he knows how smart she really is. She has learned from her experience that being smart makes her being ignored by boys. When Ethan rejects the watch that she buys for him as a present, she begins to feel inferior all over again. The quotation “Sarah Lemon was only seventeen, but at that moment, she began to disengage from life. She felt alone, abandoned.” (Albom, 2012: 144) represents her desperation of losing Ethan. She thinks that she loses the only person that can give her the feeling of being superior about herself. After reading Ethan’s latest post on his Facebook page “Sarah Lemon made play 4 me. Whoa. Ain’t happening. That’s what u get 4 being nice.” (Albom, 2012: 150), she discovers that Ethan, the only person that she considers to be on her side, is just the same as her peers who socially

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 ostracize her. Things are getting worse when she reads all the comments about her on his post. She shivered. She hyperventilated. Beneath his post was a long row of faces, people commenting—dozens of them. “Seriously?” one read. “U+Sarah=gross.” “C movie: he’s just not into u.” “That butt’s too big, bro.” “Knew she was a skank.” “Run, dude!” “Isn’t she the science geek?” “Never be nice to psychos.” “She’s delusional.” “2 bad, Ethan.” (Albom, 2012: 150) All the critical comments above reflects how the peers in her school feel about Sarah Lemon as an inferior girl. They consider her as a girl who does not know her own place as being inferior. The incident reminds her about all the treatments that her peers have given to her “Then she raced downstairs and burst out the front door, the thumbnail faces in an orbit around her brain, laughing at her misery, flipping open previous rejections like the worn pages of a familiar book.” (Albom, 2012: 151) By this, the way they treat her as an inferior affects the way she feels about herself. Being rejected once again, she believes the opinion of her peers that she is indeed an inferior girl who has no rights to be a part of the social group. The previous section presents the characteristic of Sarah Lemon as being pathetic. In her teenage years, she has been treated like an outcast. There is no one in her school who is willing to befriend with her. Things change after she meets Ethan at the homeless shelter. Thinking that he is the only person who cares for her, she becomes ‘obsessed’ with him. By this, her characteristic

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 as being a pathetic girl is portrayed through her efforts to make him like her. In this section, the explanation about how her relationship with Ethan depicts her self-concept as an adolescent. In her final year, Sarah Lemon has been counting the time to her graduation because she cannot stand being an outcast in her school anymore. She decides to apply for a nearby college where her mother, Lorraine, can afford. She finds out that one of the requirement of the college application is to fill an essay on community experiences. To fill the application form honestly, she becomes one of the volunteers in a homeless shelter. At the shelter, she first meets Ethan who also serves for the homeless people there. He becomes the only person in her age who is willing to greet her and talk with her comfortably. As the weeks pass, they become closer and she begins to think that he is different from her peers who reject her because of her unattractiveness as a girl. Eventually, she falls in love with him and considers his kindness as a sign that he likes her too “As the weeks passed, she grew bold enough to believe that he was feeling for her what she was feeling for him...” (Albom, 2012: 49-51) Sarah Lemon assumes that Ethan is the only person who wants her after having some skinships with him. Being a girl who has never felt accepted by her peers, she believes that someone finally notices her existence. Therefore, she ‘clings’ to him in feeling a sense of self-worth. “They’d kissed—a lot—and he’d wanted her. Somebody wanted her. That was what mattered.” (Albom, 2012: 96) She also thinks that he is the only person who

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 dares to defy her verdict as an outcast and that it is all because he wants her “Ethan, amazing Ethan, who dared to defy her verdict. He wanted her. Someone wanted her.” (Albom, 2012: 126) Through the repetition of “Somebody wanted her,” it is likely that she is being a pathetic girl for persisting that he wants her. After reading Ethan’s last post and all the comments about her on his Facebook page, Sarah Lemon is once again reminded about what her peers feel about her as an outcast and realizes that he is just playing on her. It was like one of those dreams where you are naked on stage and everyone is pointing. Ethan had told the world, the world symphathized, and Sarah Lemon was now and forever (because wasn’t cyberspace instantly forever?) someone you had to be nice to, a pathetic girl who just didn’t get it, the scourge of her generation, the lowest rung on the ladder, a loser (Albom, 2012: 151). Sarah Lemon cannot believe that she is humiliated by the boy that she thinks is different from her peers. Ethan has told everyone about her confession to him and makes her look pathetic in front them. Richard G. Warga (1983: 23) states that as a person develops, he has a strong need for warmth, for being accepted and liked. If he get these indications, he begins to fill a secondary need, that of positive self-regard. By this, Sarah Lemon acknowledges that her peers thinks of her as a pathetic girl who does not know her place as an outcast. She failed once again to fulfill her need to be accepted and liked by her peers that she regards herself according to what their opinion about her being pathetic “...Sarah Lemon was now and forever someone you had to be nice to, a pathetic girl who just didn’t get it, the scourge of her generation, the lowest rung on the ladder, a loser.”

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 Ethan changed all that. He put an end to her deadening drift. The thought of his face replaced all her other thoughts. She would drop the world for Ethan. She had. But he had never really wanted her. And in the end, he exposed her for what she’d always feared she was: pathetic. After that, there was no bottom to the pit (Albom, 2012: 175-177). Being an outcast, Sarah Lemon always considers Ethan as the one who ‘saves’ her from her dreadening drift. She thinks of him all the time and is willing to give everything to him in order to make him love her back. However, it turns out that he has no feelings for her at all and instead, he humiliates her by posting about her confession for him. As the person whom she puts trust on, he exposes her to the peers in their school as a pathetic girl. By this, she becomes devastated by the fact that no one likes her and pities herself for being pathetic. Richard G. Warga (1983: 23) states that the self-concept develops through experiences with other people. The character of Sarah Lemon, in the same way, develops her self-concept through experiences with Ethan and her peers. According to Elizabeth B. Hurlock (1974: 22-23), there are four major categories of self-concept—the basic, the transitory, the social, and the ideal self-concepts. Regarding all the explanation above, it appears that Sarah Lemon’s self-concept is classified into the social self-concept because she has the three qualities—inadequate, inferior, and pathetic. In the social selfconcept, the individual believes others perceive him, depending on their speech and actions. The effect of the social self-concept on the behavior of the individual will depend largely on how important the opinions of others are to him at that time and on what person or persons are most influential in his life at

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 57 that time. As an adolescent, Sarah Lemon relies on the peers in her school in attaining her self-evaluation. She considers the peers’ opinion as the one that she should believe. Because she is constantly told as being inadequate—too fat, too smart, and too weird—to be a part of the school society, she gradually thinks of herself in the same way. Furthermore, it appears that Sarah Lemon is viewed as a pathetic girl when she chases after a handsome and popular boy like Ethan. Once again, she gains her self-concept as a pathetic girl by taking the opinion of the peers in her school. In discussing about the social self-concept, Hurlock also points out that social self-concepts derive from social interactions. Thus whether the concepts will be favorable or not depends on how the social group treats the individual (1974: 22-23). In the novel, Sarah Lemon suffers from discrimination that is done by the peers in her school. She experiences the same treatment from them since she was a child. Being treated as an outcast, Sarah Lemon attains her selfconcept as an inferior girl.

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION This chapter includes the conclusion of the analysis that has been conducted in the previous chapter and the answers of the problems formulated. In conducting this study, the writer examines the characteristics of one of the main characters in Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper named Sarah Lemon, as well as the reflection of her self-concept as an adolescent through those characteristics. In the novel, there are some characteristics of Sarah Lemon which are prominent—inadequate, inferior, and pathetic. Having unattractive physical characteristics and being one of the brightest students in her school, Sarah Lemon is considered as inadequate to socialize with the peers in her school. This causes her to become inferior in her school. Because she is socially ostracized, Sarah Lemon has never experienced a feeling to be accepted. She turns to be a pathetic girl when she meets a handsome and popular boy named Ethan at a homeless shelter. He is the one who wants to talk to her and be her only friend. However, it turns out that he is just playing on her. Through the characteristics of Sarah Lemon above, the reflection of her self-concept as an adolescent is presented. It appears that her qualities as being inadequate, inferior, and pathetic, classify her self-concept into the social selfconcept. As an adolescent, Sarah Lemon relies on her peers in attaining her selfevaluation. She considers their opinion as the one that she should believe. Because she is constantly told as being inadequate—too fat, too smart, and too weird—to 58

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 be a part of the social group, she gradually thinks of herself in the same way. In the novel, Sarah Lemon suffers from discrimination that is done by the peers in her school. Being treated as an outcast, she obtains her self-concept as an inferior girl. Furthermore, it appears that Sarah Lemon is viewed as a pathetic girl when she chases after a handsome and popular boy like Ethan. Once again, she attains her self-concept as a pathetic girl by taking the opinion of the peers in her school.

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms: Sixth Edition. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1993. Albom, Mitch. The Time Keeper. New York: Hyperion, 2012. Arifianti, Nani. “A Study of Frankie’s Identity Formation in Her Adolescence as seen in McCullers’ The Member of the Wedding.” Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2009. Beaty, Jerome and J. Paul Hunter. New Worlds of Literature. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1989. Berlianti, Bintang. “Edna Pontellier’s Self-Actualization in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening: A Psychological Study.” Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2007. Daiches, David. Critical Approaches to Literature: Second Edition. New York: Longman Inc, 1981. Dees, Robert. Writing The Modern Research Paper: Fourth Edition. New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc, 2003. Elkins, Dov Peretz. Self-Concept Sourcebook: Ideas and Activities for Building Self-Esteem. New York: Growth Associates Human Relations Consultants & Publishers, 1979. Hurlock, Elizabeth B. Adolescent Development. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1973. Hurlock, Elizabeth B. Personality Development. New York: MC. Graw Hill Book Company, 1974. Isem, Imelda D. “A Psychological Study of Maya’s Search for Self-Identity in Maya Angelou’s I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings.” Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2006. Murphy, M. J. Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Novel for Overseas Students. Oxford: George Allen and Unwid Ltd, 1972. Powell, Marvin. The Psychology of Adolescence. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1963. 60

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 61 Reichert, John. Making Sense of Literature. Chicago: the University of Chicago, 1977. Rice, F. Philip. The Adolescent Development, Relationships, and Culture: Eighth Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1996. Rohrberger, Mary and Samuel H. Woods. Reading and Writing about Literature. New York: Random House Inc, 1971. Warga, Richard G. Personal Awareness, A Psychology of Adjustment: Third Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1983. Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren. Theory of Literature. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1977. Online References: Merriam-Webster Online: Dictionary and Thesaurus. (http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary). June 24, 2014. Santana, Laura. Book Review: Mitch Albom’s “The Time Keeper”. Neon Tommy: Annenberg Digital News. Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism. October 8, 2012. (http://www.neontommy.com/news/2012/10/mitch-albom-bookreview). September 15, 2013. “Writing The Time Keeper”. Mitch Albom Official Site. January 25, 2012. (http://mitchalbom.com/d/books/7700/time-keeper). March 13, 2014.

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX Summary of Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper In Mitch Albom’s The Time Keeper, there are three main characters which take part in most of the story. One of the character, namely Sarah Lemon, is a seventeen-year-old girl. Her parents divorced when she was twelve years old. After the split, she stays with her mother, Lorraine, since her father, Tom, decided to marry another woman and move to another city. Sarah Lemon and her mother used to be closer, but as she grows to be a teenager, they gradually become apart even though they live together. In the social group, Sarah Lemon is considered as a girl that is too fat, too smart, and too weird. No one in her school wants to talk to her. Since she is socially rejected by the peers in her school, she often spends her time alone. Sarah Lemon is waiting on an early admissions application to a nearby state university where her mother can afford. In the college application, there is an essay on ‘an influential community experience’ that she must fill in. She has had none up to the point, so she offers her services at a homeless shelter to fulfill the essay honestly. There, she meets a handsome and popular boy named Ethan. As a senior in her school, he is well-liked and surrounded by male and female friends. He becomes the only person who is willing to talk to her. Because she has never got attention from a boy like him, Sarah Lemon begins to view him as her destiny, the way young girls often do with young boys. She gradually has more confidence about herself and thinks that she is still worth to be loved despite her ‘label’ as too fat and too smart. By this, Sarah Lemon becomes ‘obsessed’ with Ethan that she 62

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 63 does everything for him. She fears of losing him to another girl who is prettier than her that she tries to change herself to become pretty. She even denies the possibility that Ethan does not like her. Sarah Lemon decides to go to the city to buy him a movie watch as a present for him. After trying several times, Ethan finally agrees to meet her. Then, she gives the present and tells that she likes him. However, he rejects both her present and her feeling for him. He leaves her alone with her desperation for him. Hoping to get him back, Sarah Lemon tries to send him a message on his Facebook. When pulling up his Facebook page, she reads his last post and all the comments on it. She is devastated by the fact that no one likes her and decides to end her life by committing suicide.

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