THE CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT OF DMITRY GUROV AS INFLUENCED BY ANNA SERGEYEVNA IN CHEKHOV’S “LADY WITH LAPDOG”

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(1)PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI THE CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT OF DMITRY GUROV AS INFLUENCED BY ANNA SERGEYEVNA IN CHEKHOV’S “LADY WITH LAPDOG” AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By THERESIA PUSPA OKTAVIA EFFENDI Student Number: 134214004 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2019

(2) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI THE CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT OF DMITRY GUROV AS INFLUENCED BY ANNA SERGEYEVNA IN CHEKHOV’S “LADY WITH LAPDOG” AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By THERESIA PUSPA OKTAVIA EFFENDI Student Number: 134214004 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2019 ii

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(7) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI God has a purpose for your pain, a reason for your struggle, and a reward for your faithfulness. Trust Him and Don’t Give Up! -unknown- vii

(8) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI I dedicate this undergraduate thesis to My Lord, Jesus Christ, Mother Mary, My Beloved Mother and Father, My Sister, My Loved one, My Best Friends viii

(9) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Praise to the Lord. First of all, I am truly grateful to My Lord, Jesus Christ for all His blessings, love, and guidance on me during the process to finish this thesis and finally, I could accomplish this thesis. I am grateful to always have Mother Mary’s intercessions and prayers. She always hears my prayers when I am giving up and feeling down. Thank you for strengthening me and taking care of me with the existence of loved ones who are always there for me and support me in completing my thesis. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my academic advisor Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum. for his time, support, advice, and ideas. I thank him so much for his encouragement and guidance in finishing my undergraduate thesis writing. I would like sincerely thank to my co-advisor Harris Hermansyah S.S., M.Hum., who has given me encouragement by giving correction, suggestion, and advice on this thesis. My deepest gratefulness goes to my beloved parents, mama and papa who are always there for me. My dearest mother who always encourages and reminds me to finish this undergraduate thesis, and supports me when I feel like giving up. I thank my father who also gives his attention to me. I feel blessed to have you both because support and advice make me strong to face life. Also, to my sister, Sukma Meganova Effendi, I thank her for her attention, support and help. Special thanks I give for my loved one who always gives his time to listen to my complaint. You ix

(10) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI keep motivating and accompanying me when I feel desperate. I really appreciate your help, support, pray, and advice. The last but not least, I would like to thank Ibu Yuliana Eka who is being my un-official reader for my thesis. Thank you so much for her time, help, and support for my thesis. I am very thankful for all my best friends, Vania, Nana, and Dea, thank you for being my best friends. You all keep encouraging me even though I am feeling down and giving up. Thank you, Isna, Daniel, Michael, Lia, Jessica, and Ajeng, for always reminding and support me in finishing this thesis. Finally, I would like to say thank to everyone and whose name are not mentioned personally here. I really appreciate your help, support and advice so that I could finish my thesis. Theresia Puspa Oktavia Effendi x

(11) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ........................................................................................... APPROVAL PAGE ................................................................................. ACCEPTANCE PAGE ........................................................................... STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ....................................................... LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH..................................................................................... MOTTO PAGE ........................................................................................ DEDICATION PAGE ............................................................................. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................ ABSTRACT ............................................................................................. ABSTRAK ............................................................................................... ii iii iv v CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ........................................................... A. Background of the Study ............................................................... B. Problem Formulation ..................................................................... C. Objectives of the Study .................................................................. D. Definition of Terms ....................................................................... 1 1 3 3 4 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ....................................... A. Review of Related Studies ............................................................. B. Review of Related Theories ........................................................... 1. Theory of Character and Characterization .............................. 2. Theory of Character Development ......................................... 3. Theory of Plot ........................................................................ C. Theoretical Framework .................................................................. 5 5 8 8 12 13 16 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ....................................................... A. Object of the Study ........................................................................ B. Approach of the Study ................................................................... C. Method of the Study ...................................................................... 17 17 18 20 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS .................................................................... A. The Characterization of Characters ............................................... 1. Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov ......................................................... 2. Anna Sergeyevna ................................................................... B. The Character Development of Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov as Influenced by Anna Sergeyvna ................................................. 1. Gurov’s Perspective on His Life ........................................... 2. Gurov’s Attitude towards Woman ........................................ 22 22 22 29 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION .............................................................. 50 xi vi vii viii ix xi xiii xiv 34 35 38

(12) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI REFERENCES ........................................................................................ 53 APPENDIX .......................................................................................... 55 Appendix 1 ..................................................................................... 56 xii

(13) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRACT EFFENDI, THERESIA PUSPA OKTAVIA. (2019). The Character Development of Dmitry Gurov as Influenced by Anna Sergeyevna in Chekhov’s "Lady with Lapdog". Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Sanata Dharma. This thesis discusses the development of Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov's character as influenced by Anna Sergeyevna in the short story "Lady with Lapdog" by Anton Chekhov. Referring to Gurov’s character as the main character discussed in this thesis, the story tells about the life of a man that is full of pressure and bitterness since he has been married. This factor has made him unfaithful to his wife by choosing to enjoy other women because he lives without love. Consequently, Gurov and Anna have undergone an affair since they first meet. Anna has influenced Gurov’s character to become more loyal to her. In this thesis, two main problems are examined by the researcher. The first problem is about how characters are being described. Meanwhile, the second problem discusses how Anna Sergeyevna influences Dmitry Gurov’s character development. This thesis is an analytical study that applies the library research methods. This method is then used to collect primary and secondary data from books and journals related to this thesis. The primary data is taken from a short story by Anton Chekhov translated into English by David Magarshack in Fiction: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. The other secondary data are obtained from books and sources related to this research. The analysis of this thesis: firstly, we analyze Gurov and Anna’s characters. At the beginning of the story, Gurov’s character is depicted as a lonely man who loves to admire women, but he feels depressed and hopeless. This bitter life experience has encouraged him to escape from a monotonous life and have an affair with a stranger. On the other hand, Anna's character is portrayed as an innocent, naïve, and religious girl. She has good social status as seen from the way she dressed and gestured. Second, we can find the influence of Anna's character on Gurov's character. Gurov has experienced a character change due to Anna’s presence. Before meeting Anna, he has no hope in life and is not loyal to his lover. After meeting Anna, Gurov has become a loyal man, able to value women and has a purpose in life. The influence of Anna’s character has developed Gurov’s character since her presence and has motivated Gurov to be loved and value his life. xiii

(14) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRAK EFFENDI, THERESIA PUSPA OKTAVIA. (2019). The Character Development of Dmitry Gurov as Influenced by Anna Sergeyevna in Chekhov’s “Lady with Lapdog”. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Skripsi ini membahas mengenai perkembangan karakter Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov yang dipengaruhi oleh karakter lain dalam cerita pendek “Lady with Lapdog” karya Anton Chekhov. Mengacu pada karakter Gurov yang menjadi karakter utama yang dibahas dalam skripsi ini, cerita pendek ini mengisahkan seorang pria yang telah beristri namun hidupnya penuh dengan tekanan dan kepahitan. Sehingga membuatnya tidak setia dengan istrinya dan memilih menikmati wanita-wanita lain karena ia hidup tanpa cinta. Pertemuan antara Gurov dan Anna, membuat mereka menjalani perselingkuhan dari pasangan mereka. Anna telah membuat perubahan mendalam dalam diri Gurov dan lebih setia kepadanya. Pada skripsi ini, terdapat dua pokok permasalahan yang akan diteliti oleh penulis. Permasalahan pertama adalah bagaimana karakter-karakter digambarkan. Kedua, bagaimana pengaruh karakter lain, Anna Sergeyevna terhadap perubahan karakter yang dialami Dmitry Gurov. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam skripsi ini adalah pendekatan kritik sastra baru. Metode ini digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data primer dan sekunder dari buku dan jurnal yang berkaitan dengan skripsi ini. Data primer diambil dari cerita pendek karya Anton Chekhov yang diterjemahkan oleh David Magarshack yang terdapat dalam buku Fiction:An Introduction to Reading and Writing. Data sekunder lainnya diperoleh dari buku-buku dan sumber-sumber yang berhubungan dengan penelitian ini. Analisis dari skripsi ini: pertama, kita dapat menganalisa karakter Gurov dan Anna. Di awal cerita, karakter Gurov digambarkan sebagai pria kesepian yang suka mengagumi wanita, tetapi dia merasa tertekan dan putus asa. Pengalaman hidup yang pahit, telah mendorongnya untuk melarikan diri dari kehidupannya yang monoton dan berselingkuh dengan orang asing. Di samping itu, karakter Anna digambarkan sebagai gadis yang polos, naif, dan religius. Dia memiliki status sosial yang baik dilihat dari cara dia berpakaian dan memberi isyarat. Kedua, kita dapat menemukan pengaruh karakter Anna terhadap karakter Gurov. Gurov telah mengalami perubahan karakter karena kehadiran Anna. Sebelum bertemu Anna, dia tidak memiliki harapan dalam hidup dan tidak setia kepada pasangannya. Setelah bertemu Anna, Gurov telah menjadi pria yang setia, mampu menghargai wanita dan memiliki tujuan dalam hidup. Pengaruh Anna telah mengembangkan karakter Gurov sejak kehadirannya dan memotivasi Gurov untuk dicintai dan menghargai hidupnya. xiv

(15) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Anton Chekhov is one of the Russian best authors whose works such as short fiction, novels, and play scripts are well-known. His career as a dramatist has turned into the creation of some well-known short stories. His literary works are often related to what happen in his era, particularly about the livelihood of Soviets at that time. Anton Chekhov’s “Lady with Lapdog” which was written at the end of the nineteenth century is a popular short story. “Lady with Lapdog” is chosen as the object of the study for this undergraduate thesis. The researcher is interested in discussing Chekhov’s short story “Lady with Lapdog” because the story is openended story that telling about the life problem of Dmitry Gurov, his loveless marriage, and his affair with a young married lady. The development of the main characters in “Lady with Lapdog” such as their personality traits, behaviors and attitudes are captured and portrayed in this short story. M.J. Murphy argues that the differences of each person in real life can be seen from their outward appearance by the way they dress, walk, look, and gesture (Murphy,1972, p.161). The short story of “Lady with Lapdog” highlights these differences in people’s personalities and projects them in such a way to create characters that are distinct from one to another. 1

(16) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 2 The discussion above can also be related to the chosen topic of this undergraduate thesis. The influence of another character makes the main character develops. Forster says that character development is the changing of the character from the beginning until the end of the story. Characters are developing if they experience a change in themselves, from personality, disposition, or outlook. (Forster,1980, p.54). The development of character can come from other characters through their behavior toward the main character and the way they treat the main character. The main character’s development in “Lady with Lapdog” is affected by internal conflicts and another character that are continuously occurring throughout the story. The main character’s development in the story is influenced by the author’s psychology, experiences and issues about love life in the past. The main character faces dilemma, loneliness, and situation which force him to develop in certain ways. In the short story of “Lady with Lapdog,” there is a dilemma between two characters who have the same experience in life that highlights the story. This dilemma that occurs in the story can still be found nowadays. “Lady with Lapdog” is a story that describes an affair between a married man who is unfaithful to his wife. He falls in love and has a secret relationship with a young innocent married woman who is on holiday. The main character in this short story is Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov and Anna Sergeyevna. The main character is developing alongside with his life problems, which are also evolving the plot of the story. Anton Chekhov portrays the love affair from a male point of view, and he uses limited third person’s point of view that can be seen in Gurov as the main character.

(17) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3 As the object of study, “Lady with Lapdog” also allows the reader to examine extensively about the development of the main character. The author has narrated the story to portray the viewpoint of Gurov’s past experience. The problem is caused by one character, Anna Sergeyevna who makes Gurov change. In the context of this thesis, we can see how the main character develops himself as a result of his past experiences, his love life, and an affair with another woman. The bad life experience of Gurov, makes Gurov’s character develop and change. It indirectly forces him to have an affair with a young married woman who is unhappy with her marriage. The character in “Lady with Lapdog,” Anna Sergeyevna is the one who makes Gurov change his mind, his life, and his love life. The chosen topic for this thesis is the main character development based on the influence of Anna Sergeyevna. The understanding of character development in the story allows us to understand that some factors are influenced by our surroundings. B. Problem Formulation There are two problems formulated based on the background of the study: 1. How are the characters, Dmitry Gurov and Anna Sergeyevna portrayed? 2. How do Anna Seregyevna influence Dmitry Gurov’s character development? C. Objectives of the Study The main purpose of this undergraduate thesis is to examine the character development of the main character, Gurov, who is influenced by Anna Sergeyevna. There are two objectives for the study. Firstly, the purpose of this study is to observe

(18) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 4 the characters, Dmitry Gurov and Anna Sergeyevna. Secondly, the last objective is to analyze the role of Anna Seregyevna as the one who influences Dmitry Gurov’ character development. D. Definition of Terms In this part, the researcher explains the key terms such as a character and character development to make the readers understand their definitions. The researcher’s purpose is to avoid the readers’ misunderstanding and to clarify the definition of the terms. A character is a person who does action and the feature that make her different from other. Character in literature, especially in fiction, is a depiction of one's true nature who is developed by the author, "through dialogue, action, and commentary", as well as character interactions and a series of conditions (Roberts & Jacob, 1987, p.119). On the other hand, character development is the development of character because some factors influence the character changing. E.M. Foster has stated what character development is. Characters are developing if they are changing from the beginning to the end of the story. The changing characters can be seen from their thought, behavior, trait, and personality. Their changes are influenced both by other characters and situations in the story (Forster,1980, p.54).

(19) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies There are some studies that discuss the topics of character development. This study is about the character development of Dmitry Gurov as influenced by another character. In order to support this claim, other undergraduates’ thesis is chosen because they have similarities and related backgrounds in terms of character development of the main character. First related study is an undergraduate thesis entitled “The Psychological Influences of Mother’s Behaviour on Paul’s Character Development as seen in D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers by Almira Wanodya Padmasari (2011) from Sanata Dharma University. She has chosen Sons and Lovers as the object of her study because the novel written by D.H. Lawrence tells a story about a family, and the parents who have an important role in developing their children. In her studies, Padmasari analyzes the influence of his mother’s behavior Paul’s life, and that he has to obey his mother. Her mother has become a single parent for four children, and she is the one who takes care of Paul after their parents’ separation. According to Padmasari Many psychological problems have plagued the children because the coalition between father and mother is broken. The novel emphasizes its story conflicts, which are related to the psychological problems that we commonly find in our daily life. It tells us the problem between a husband and a wife in a family that influences the development of their children (2011, p.4). 5

(20) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 6 Based on the problems that she writes on her thesis, she finds out that Paul’s mother’s roles have influenced the development of Paul. She uses a psychological approach to apply in her topic because it is relevant to how Paul’s mother is shaping his early childhood until his adulthood. Based on his childhood memory, he only receives loves from his mother, and he assumes that there is no bigger love than his mother’s love. It makes Paul always obey his mother requests and commands although his heart desires to choose a girl that he loves. Second related study is also an undergraduate thesis entitled “Personality Change of the Main Character, Tom Leyton, as influenced by the Minor Character, Joseph Davidson, in Michael Gerard Bauer’s The Running Man” by Bertha Palupi (2011) from Sanata Dharma University. In the background of her study she says, The Running Man by Michael Gerard Bauer (2004) is a great novel with intricate personalities of the main character in the story. Combined with its complexity of plot, interesting characters, and great description of the detail, The Running Man has become a favorable psychological novel (2011, p.1,2). Palupi explains the Leyton’s character and how Leyton’s personality changes as the outcomes from their experiences in life and the people surrounding him. Palupi analyzes the personality changes of the main character of Tom Leyton and some minor characters toward the changes. She uses a psychological approach to analyze the personality changes of the main character with his internal conflict. The theory of literature is used to identify the characteristics of both characters that is followed by psychological theory to analyze the behaviour of the characters. Third related study is from website academia entitled “The Characterization of Dmitri Gurov in Comparison with Generalizations of Men” by

(21) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 7 Nicholaus Krauss (2010). The researcher chooses this review by Krauss because we have the same object of study that discusses Dmitri Gurov’s character in Chekhov’s “Lady with Lapdog.” Krauss’ research paper discusses Gurov’s characterization that is linked to the generalization of men. The researcher and Krauss have the same material or literary work that is used this thesis and observe the same character about Gurov. In this quotation below, Krauss describes that the influence of Anna on Gurov’s character. Through Gurov’s thoughts of Anna, Chekhov writes “He was moved, sad, and conscious of a slight remorse… All the time she had called him kind, exceptional, lofty; obviously he had seemed to her different from what he really was, so he had unintentionally deceived her.” This quote explains Gurov’s awareness of the image he gives to women, and how he does not show women his true emotions. Furthermore, Chekhov writes “[women] loved in him not himself, but the man created by their imagination, whom they had been eagerly seeking all their lives. And afterwards, when they noticed their mistake, they loved him all the same.” Clearly, Gurov uses his emotional dis-attachments as a tool of attraction, a fitting trait of the womanizer. It is clear that the characterization of Gurov effectively matches that of the womanizer (Krauss, 2010, p.4). Krauss states that Gurov’s character experiences change because another character’s presence that influences his thought. The first person who makes Gurov become a disloyal man is his wife. He leaves his wife because he does not love his wife anymore. In Krauss’ review, Gurov is the kind of man who thinks that any women are the lower race, but he still appreciates their presence. Gurov’s life becomes different after he meets Anna Sergeyevna. He falls in love with her and makes him keep struggle to get affection from her. The fourth review study is a book review by Virginia Ironside (2009) entitled “Book of A Lifetime: Lady with a Lapdog” by Anton Chekhov. This review

(22) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 8 is posted in Independent website. In her post, she tells about her experiences in reading this story. She has read this story twenty times to get to know the characters in the story. She explains the characteristics of the characters in “Lady with Lapdog” in the following quote, It's about a jaded married man, something of a serial seducer, who finds himself alone during the season at Yalta. He picks up Anna, a very young also-married woman – her husband is back at home – who has a small Pomeranian dog. They start the usual affair – but this time something out of the ordinary happens. He falls in love. Every good story should involve the characters changing in some way – and in "Lady with a Lapdog," Gurov, the hero, changes completely. And Chekhov doesn't make it a happily-ever-after story. He leaves the whole thing open-ended and yet, and here's the odd thing, it doesn't feel unsatisfactory at all, like so many books that end on a question. Gurov's complete change is the story (Ironside, 2009, p. 1). As explained above, she defines the characteristic of Gurov and his wife. Ironside also tells about Chekhov’s style of writing inspires her to write in a similar style so that the readers can imagine and expect what happen in the story as they wish to end. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theory of Character and Characterization A character is a person who appears in the literary work that represents the human being verbal’s representation that determines the behavior, speech, and mind. The author demonstrates this in action, dialogue, experience, and commentary or description in the story events. According to the theory from M.H. Abrams, he defines

(23) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 9 Character are the persons represented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with particular moral, intellectual, and emotional qualities by inferences from what the person say and their distinctive way of saying it- the dialogue, and from what they do-the actions (1981, p. 20). Another understanding of character is based on Boyton and Mack’s finding. They define to be acceptable, a character also has to behave in a consistent manner. One is the obvious fact that the short-story writer can deal with only a few facets of a character’s personality and only a few events of his life. Another truth about most short stories is that the focus is on one, central character. It is not impossible that there be more than one principal character, but it is unusual (Boynton and Mack, 1972, pp. 26-27). Boyton and Mack also have six ways to analyze a character, based on a. What a character does. The reader can see the character by what he or she has done. “Stories show characters in action. The most obvious method for revealing character is through what a person does” (Boyton and Mack, 1972, p.27). b. What a character says. “Another way of revealing what people are like is to show what they say.” Based on what the character says, the reader can identify what kind of character is he or she (Boyton and Mack, 1972, p.28). c. What a character thinks. Looking at the character’s mind, the reader can predict what would the character do. It also shows how the character thinks in the story. “A writer may also reveal the character of people by showing what they think” (Boyton and Mack, 1972, p.28). d. How others react to a character. The reaction of another character can support reader to figure out the character and categorize the type of

(24) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 10 character. “Much can be shown about a character by the way others react to him, or by what they say about him” (Boyton and Mack, 1972, p.29). e. How a character reacts to his surroundings. Based on the character’s reaction with his environment, the reader can recognize the character, how the character interacts and merge their self with surroundings. “One of the commonest ways to reveal character is to show how a person reacts to his surroundings – to things and places” (Boyton and Mack, 1972, p.29). f. Direct description or explanation. Some of the authors write short snippet a character’s description in the story or the author can use another character to explain the principal character or others. “A final method of character revelation is through direct description or explanation by the author” (Boyton and Mack, 1972, p.29). The developing or dynamic character undergoes a permanent change in some aspect of character, personality, or outlook. The change may be a large or a small one; it may be for better or for worse; but it is something important and basic: it is more than a change in condition or a minor change in opinion (Perrine 1985, p. 69). The quotation of definition about static and developing or dynamic character above shows that character is be able to change or not, depends on the factors which makes him develop. The static character means the character is unchanging in any situation. He remains constant from the beginning of the story until the end, the character exactly is not different. On the contrary, the dynamic or developing character means the character is developing, the changes of the character depends on some aspects, such as attitude, situation, personality, interaction with other characters and experience.

(25) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 11 Another theory from Holman and Harmon. The type of character can be static and dynamic character. A flat (static) character is one who has a little change. “A static character gives the appearance of changing simply because our picture of him is revealed bit by bit” (Holman, 1972, p.92). The action’s pattern discloses the character rather than showing how the character changes in response to the actions. Besides that, a round (dynamic) character is a character who is improved by actions and experiences, and one objectives of the work in which the character appears is to reveal the consequences of these actions (Holman and Harmon, 1986, p.83). A dynamic character, on the other hand, is one who is modified by the actions upon him. Most great drama and novels have dynamic characters as protagonists. Short stories are more likely to reveal static characters through action than to show changes in characters resulting from actions (Holman, 1972, p.92). Robert and Jacobs have stated types of character in fiction that is divided into two, flat and round. A minor character is usually flat, but not all minor characters are flat. Minor characters are usually static and not developed, generally they stay the same. Because they are not the main character in the plot of the story, thus they are not significantly growing and changing. Round character is the opposite of a flat character because in round character, the author is fully developed the character. Round character is considered as a dynamic character because they group some individual and unpredictable human traits. The character reveals their capacity to grow or change (Robert and Jacob, 1989, p.145). Another theory about flat and round character is proposed by Arp and Johnson who cites the theory of E.M Forster who introduces the standard in

(26) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 12 discussing types of characters, they are two types: flat character and round character. Flat characters usually have only one or two predominant traits; they can be summed up in a sentence or two. By contrast, round characters are complex and many-sided; they have the three-dimensional quality of real people (Arp and Johnson, 2012, p.105). 2. Theory of Character Development Theory of character development is the process of character’s changing because of some internal or external factors that can be influenced by the character. The characters are able to change their life because they can do something and they allow something to be done with them. The definition of character development by E.M. Foster is character development is the changing of the character from the beginning until the end of the story. Characters are developing if they experience a change in themselves, for from personality, disposition, or outlook. They will change into a better character but of course, the changing depends on the situation in the story (Forster,1980, p. 54). A character cannot unexpectedly change without any reason that influences them. There is a reason why the author changes the character; the author will explain the process of the character changes by portraying the character in the story. Character changes with smaller change and it is motivated by circumstance. (Perrine,1974, p.71). Perrine has defined that the changing of character is always followed by the steps or the elements of the story that point out the causal of character changes.

(27) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 13 Character development has relation with the plot. The plot shows the sequence of events that describes the important part of the story in character’s action, character’s progression, character’s conflict, character’s problems, and character’s way to solve them. Forster stated that character and plot are inseparable. The plot is simply series of events that come out of character that reveals character and that influences character. The plot drives the character to face their development (Forster,1974, p. 65). A well-plotted story connects all its elements, it has twist and turn of events. The development of the plot is unexpected, and plot has sequences of the events that is stated in exposition, rising action, climax, falling action and resolution. Rohrberger and Wood show their theories about the relationship between plot, setting, conflict, and characters in their book. It is difficult to separate single elements to talk, for example, about character without talking about at the same time about plot or setting or conflict, because characters often determine plot, setting helps to define characters, and conflict result from placing characters in situation (Rohrberger and Wood, 1971, p.20). It explains the plot which is inseparable with the character development. The plot shows how the characters take their problems, and how they solve the problem. 3. Theory of Plot A plot can influence the developing of character because the plot and characterization have a close relationship. Rohrberger and Woods define “a

(28) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 14 narrative, of course is a story, and stories involve persons, called characters, who act out in a particular time and place (setting) some kind of conflict in a pattern of events is called plot” (1971, p.20). According to Stanton, he says “the plot is the backbone of a story. Because it is more self-evident than some of the story’s other elements, its links of cause-and-effect” (1965, p.15). Supporting Stanton’s definition, Murphy states that, Plot is a carefully thought-out plan in which all the events, all the actions and reactions of the characters, contribute towards the forward movement of the story. The story then moves on, carrying the reader with it up and over a series of crests until the climax of the story is reached, and everything is resolved, generally to the reader’s satisfaction (Murphy, 1972, p.134). The quotation means that the author has well thought-out about the way a story can move forward by connecting the actions and reactions of the characters, along with the events that occur in the story. The story directs the reader to follow the acts and sequence of events from the beginning, rising action, climax, falling action, and ending. According to Stanton (1965, p.16), there are two necessary parts of the plot, conflict and climax. In every fiction works, we can find internal and external conflict. Internal conflict happens in a character’s life against what he or she wants. External conflict happens between two characters or more, and also between a character and his or her surroundings. The climax of the story is the point or action when the conflict of the plot becomes more intense and its outcome is unavoidable. The climax of a story is the meeting point of its lines of force and determines how their opposition will be resolved – “resolved” rather than “decided” because although one force may vanquish the other, more often,

(29) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 15 as in real life, the outcome is a complex equilibrium in which neither side completely triumphs or completely loses (Stanton, 1965, pp. 16-17). Boynton and Mack have own understandings about the plot. They say that a skilled writer does not only focus on the characters’ movements in the storyline, but he or she also chooses the significant events which have a direct influence on the story. Definition a plot according to Boynton and Mack is, plot is the technical terms that applies to these connected events in a story. To build a plot the experienced writer carefully selects certain details and just as carefully rejects many more; he is interested not in compiling a precise record of a character’s actions but in choosing only those details that have a direct bearing on the story (1972, p.12). Perrine emphasizes that the author has directed the story and its action to a definite end of the story. Therefore a plot is not only about the action itself. The author’s main purpose is to make the reader follow the plot and keep them interested in reading till the end of the story. Skillful writers are very attentive to put on the sequence in significant order. According to Perrine, in a plot, there are some events happen beyond expectation because the plot of a story is not always a straight line. It is caused by some incidents that make the story twist and turn from the beginning until the end of a story. Therefore, the climax point can surprise the reader and also this part is uneasy to be guessed. Plot is the sequence of incidents or events through which an author constructs a story. The plot is not the action itself, but the way the author arranges the action toward a specific end. The plot may include many surprising twists and turns and a culminating, climatic incident; because the main goal is to keep the reader turning the pages, a commercial author is likely to use a tried-and-true, fairly conventional structure in arranging the plot elements (2009, p.105).

(30) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 16 A plot is one of the important elements that can be found in every story. It describes the sequence of events that occur in the story through what is done by the character. A reader also can understand the qualities of character when a plot moves forward, especially in the climactic incidents, when it is a high point of a character's action and emotion happen. C. Theoretical Framework In this study, it discusses the character development as reflected in the main character in Anton Chekhov’s short story, “Lady with Lapdog.” Further, as this study mainly talks about the character development, the researcher needs to analyze the two problems that are stated in problem formulation. In order to support the analysis of the problems, the researcher uses some related studies and related theories. The first theory is used theory of character and characterization by M.H. Abrams. The first question describes the character of Dmitry Gurov and Anna Sergeyevna. The researcher also uses the theory of Boyton and Mack to analyze the characterization of Gurov and Anna. Both theories will be used to understand each character especially the personal description, manner, thought, and speech of the characters. The researcher uses the theory of character development to find the cause in developing in Dmitry Gurov that is influenced by Anna Sergeyevna. In this topic, the researcher uses several theories, the theories of character and characterization as well as character development. These theories will help the researcher to understand and observe the characters in “Lady with Lapdog.” All of these theories support the analysis of the two questions in problem formulation.

(31) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study “Lady with Lapdog” is one of many popular short story that is written by a Russian author, named Anton Pavlovich Chekhov. This short story was first published in Russian in December 1899. The first publication was in English, and was mass-produced in 1903. The researcher uses a short story translated by David Magarshack from his book called Fiction: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, published in 1987 by Pretince Hall, Inc. This short story is from a book called Dama s sobachkoy that contains other short stories. The short story used to be adapted into a film version in 1960 by Josef Heifitz that received an appreciation in the 1960 Cannes Film Festival. In 1987, this inspiring film by Chekhov’s “Lady with Lapdog” was also adapted in Russian and Italian films, which were called entitled The Lady with the Dog. “Lady with Lapdog” is a story about Dmitry Gurov, a Russian banker who is married and has one daughter and two sons. The internal problems about his marriage life force him to undergo the burden of life himself. As a result, he cannot stand against his wife anymore, and he has become unfaithful to his wife. He changes his perspective about women, as he thinks and judges all women in general as the lower race. One day, Gurov decides to go on a holiday in Yalta, and then he meets a young lady who always takes a stroll with her white pomeranian. He is curious to know about the lady who is often called as the lady with the lapdog 17

(32) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 18 because nobody knows who she is. In their first meeting in a restaurant, Gurov is always staring at her, she introduces herself. She is Anna Sergeyevna who is married to a man who works in the office of provincial governor or the rural council. Since that day, Gurov is feeling comfortable to talk to her and to ask some casual questions. Eventually Gurov wants to know what happens with Anna’s life. After they have spent the day together, and they both feel pleasant and confident with each other. Gurov suddenly feels sad when she plans to leave him alone. He feels lonely because Anna says that they will be parted forever. He is still trying to find her in S--- town although he does not know where she lives. One day when Gurov arrives in S--- town, he knows that she lives there and he meets Anna again at a theater. Anna is surprised with Gurov’s presence and feels worried if somebody will know their relationship. At the end of the story, Anna comes to Moscow to meet Gurov every two or three months. The story reveals Gurov’s life experiences and love affairs with Anna. The changing of Gurov’s life because of Anna Sergeyevna can fulfill and complete what he needs. In the end, they both regret their past. They decide to have a secret relationship even though they cannot marry each other. They can meet each other anytime. The short story of “Lady with Lapdog” is really about family, love affair and loyalty. B. Approach of the Study The focus of this study is to analyze the character development of Gurov, his life experiences, and how the author characterizes Gurov as a main character.

(33) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 19 The approach is appropriate to this study is the New Criticism approach. New Criticism approach applies a close reading analysis of literary works. Bressler says, Using New Criticism’s clearly articulated methodology, any intelligent reader, say its adherents (called New Critics), can uncover a text’s hitherto so-called hidden meaning. New Criticism’s theoretical ideas, terminology, and critical methods are, more than not, disparaged by many present-day critics who themselves are introducing new ideas concerning literary theory. Despite its current unpopularity, New Criticism stands as one of the most important English-based contributions to literary critical analysis (Bressler, 2003, p.53). New criticism is a powerful tool for those that have problems understanding a work of literature. New criticism formulates a method of reading, a simple formula that will help us unlock the meaning of a text. New criticism says the text itself should really stand-alone therefore new critics really have a textual focus. They are interested in the work itself, they do not care about what the author intends to care anymore, they do not really care what the reader thinks about it and they care what the text says. The researcher chooses New Criticism approach because to analyze literature works the readers need to focus on close reading of the text, and they have to understand the words and rely on their interpretation. The readers do not need to dig up evidence of the author, do not need other sources. To fully understand the text do not require its historical and social background of authors, time, and what happens in that era.

(34) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 20 C. Method of the Study The method of data collection for this study uses the library research, in which all books, theories, thesis and some information from the internet are taken. The data have been gathered to elaborate and to support the analysis in this study. The primary source is a literary work and a short story written by Anton Chekhov entitled “Lady with Lapdog” that has been translated by David Magarshack as part of the book Fiction: An Introduction to Reading and Writing by Edgar V. Roberts and Henry E. Jacobs. The secondary source to be used is related to the theory for this study. There are a theory of character and characterization, theory of character development, and theory of plot from a book called Glossary Literary Term Seventh Edition by M. H. Abrams, Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students by M.J. Murphy, Aspects of the Novel by Forster, E.M, Introduction To The Short Story by Robert W. Boynton and Maynard Mack, Reading and Writing About Literature by Mary Rohrberger and Samuel H. Woods, An Introduction to Fiction by Robert Stanton, Perrine’s Literature Structure, Sound, and Sense by Laurence Perrine. The researcher conducts some steps in this study. The first step is reading the short story intensively. The researcher rereads the text more than once to find the important points. The second step is collecting the supporting data from articles from the internet, some books’ theories, and reviewing related studies that have a connection with the topic. The third step is presenting the character in the story, and then identify the character who has influenced to the main character. After that, the researcher finds the characteristics of the character named Dmitry Gurov as the

(35) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 21 main character in the story, and also finds the characteristic of another character such as Anna Sergeyevna. The next step is identifying Gurov’s character by using the theory of character development to see whether or not his character is developing. The last step is making a conclusion from the whole analysis.

(36) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter consists of the answers to the questions that are previously stated in the problem formulation. The analysis of my study is concerned with how Dmitry Gurov, as the main character changes, develops, and how he is influenced by Anna Sergeyevna. This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part reveals the characters, they are Dmitry Gurov and Anna Sergeyevna. The second part analyzes the influence of Anna Sergeyevna on the character development of Dmitry Gurov. A. The Characterization of Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov and Anna Sergeyevna In the story of “Lady with Lapdog,” there is two characters who are highlighted. These characters are Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov and Anna Sergeyevna. Anton Chekhov as the author focuses on this one character because they predominantly influence the character development of Gurov. The researcher is attempting to describe all of the important characters one by one in order to make the reader understand the dominant characters in this short story. 1. Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov The “Lady with Lapdog” story emphasizes Gurov as the main character who takes the important role because he leads the course of the story. From the beginning until the end of the story, Gurov is always highlighted because the author takes the reader’s attention to follow the main character that leads to the 22

(37) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 23 plot of the story. Based on the theory of flat and round character by Roberts and Jacob (1989), Gurov can be categorized as a round or dynamic character because he has the ability to change and develop. The researcher gives a detailed description of Gurov’s character developments in the next chapter. Boyton and Mack have six ways to characterize a character in fictional works. The theory explains about what a character does, what a character says, what a character thinks, how other react to character, how a character reacts to his surroundings, and direct description or explanation (1972, pp. 27-29). The purpose of characterization is to depict a character life-like to the reader. In this short story, Chekhov often uses direct description or explanation, what a character thinks, what a character does, and how others react to a character. Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov holds the most important role since the beginning of the story that discusses his life and love affairs. In revealing the characteristics of Gurov, the researcher has applied some of the previously mentioned methods. The author portrays Gurov as a married man who is unfaithful to his wife. He is under forty years old, he marries an older woman when he is still in the second-year in a university. He was not yet forty, but he had a twelve-year-old daughter and two schoolboy sons. He had been married off when he was still in his second year at the university (p.368). Gurov has a love problem after marriage because he does not receive affection from his wife. This factor has made him change and become disloyal to his wife. As a husband, he does not feel like being at home because he cannot stand his wife’s attitude and behavior. From the quotation below, it appears that Gurov is not interested in having a serious relationship with his wife and other women. He

(38) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 24 utters all the vices about his wife because he simply does not love his wife anymore and since then he becomes an unfaithful man. He always talks about bad things about women such as underestimating them as the lower race and he also equates all the women. and though he secretly considered her not particularly intelligent, narrowminded, and inelegant, he was afraid of her and disliked being at home. (p. 368) He had been unfaithful to her for a long time, he was often unfaithful to her, and that was why, perhaps, he almost always spoke ill of women, and men discussed women in his presence, he describe them as the lower breed (p. 368). Gurov is characterized as a charismatic man. His appearance has attracted women, even many women admire him. His character and personality have made all women crazy about him. Therefore, Gurov feels confident and comfortable when many women surround him. Gurov is more sensitive when he is with women because he is accustomed to and knows to speak and to behave towards women. There was something attractive, something elusive in his appearance, in his character and his whole person that women found interesting and irresistible; he was aware of it, and was himself drawn to them by some irresistible force (p.368). He feels uncomfortable living his life and lamenting his bitter life experience. He is hopeless with his life, he does not have a purpose in his life. He tries to cheer himself up and to leave his monotonous life. He decides to enjoy every new meeting with the women which makes Gurov a womanizer. He loves to call any women as the lower breed, but he cannot refrain himself from their presence as he is comfortable to be with them. He becomes a man who likes changing partners. He is not sincere in loving those women, because he has no feelings for them.

(39) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 25 Long and indeed bitter experience had taught him that every new affair, which at first relieved the monotony of life so pleasantly and appeared to be such a charming and light adventure, among decent people and especially among Muscovites, who are so irresolute and so hard to rouse, inevitably developed into an extremely complicated problem and finally the whole situation became rather cumbersome. But at every new meeting with an attractive woman he forgot all about this experience, he wanted to enjoy life so badly and it all seemed so simple and amusing (p.368). He dislikes his wife's personalities because she is cold-hearted. Gurov’s relationship with his wife is no longer harmonious. He is disloyal to his wife and he does not want to feel the bitter life experience in his loveless marriage. He dislikes his wife and assumes that all women are the lower race. It does not make him change his outlook on women whenever he meets a woman, yet he still interested in them. Because he does not get the love and affection of his wife, makes Gurov becomes a lonely man who does not get a woman's caress. He becomes a man who is lack of love. He cannot either convey his love or get love back from a woman. Finally, he meets a girl named Anna Sergeyevna. Gurov enjoys being outside the house because he can meet many women. He initially believes that his life is full of unexpected and strange meetings, such as when he meets Anna Sergeyevna in Yalta. Gurov becomes a man who is easily attracted to women, and he is highly curious to get to know her farther. He always struggles for what he deserves, especially love and affection. When Gurov meets Anna, he ponderes more often and thinks of Anna. He can see the purity of Anna's heart from her behavior and nature. Looking at her now, Gurov thought: “Life is full of strange encounters!” From his past He preserved the memory of carefree, good-natured women, whom love had made gay and who were grateful to him for the happiness he gave them, however short-lived; and of women like his wife, who made

(40) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 26 love without sincerity, with unnecessary talk, affectedly, hysterically, with such an expression, as though it were not love or passion , but something much more significant, ; and of two or three very beautiful, frigid women, whose snatch from life more than it could give; these were women no longer in their first youth, capricious, unreasoning, despotic, unintelligent women, and when Gurov lost interest in them, their beauty merely aroused hatred in him and the lace trimmings on their négligés looked to him the like the scales of a snake (p.370). Gurov is a type of brave man who is not half-hearted in doing something he wants. In fact, he looks for opportunities in every meeting with the woman he has just met. He noticed Anna when he knows that Anna is alone, he immediately tries to get near her in any way. He tries to seek an opportunity to make him get closer to her. Until he successfully gets acquainted with her and even spends time together. “If she’s here without her husband and without any friend,” thought Gurov, “it wouldn’t be a bad idea to strike up an acquaintance with her” (p. 368). He tried to attract the attention of the dog by calling softly to it, and when the Pomeranian came up to him he shook a finger at it. The Pomeranian growled. Gurov again shook a finger at it. The woman looked up at him and immediately lowered her eyes (p.369). Day by day, he becomes more curious. He is a brave man, who always tries and struggles to get closer and to attract the attention of a woman. He is a man with full of self-confidence in trying to attract a woman's attention. He is a person who is persistent in pursuing matters of love. He always fights for love because if it is true love, then he'd be fighting for that person. Gurov could not help feeling bored as he listened to her; he was irritated by her naïve tone of voice and her repentance, which was so unexpected and so unexpected and so out of place; but for the tears in her eyes, he might have thought that she was joking or play-acting. “I don’t understand,” he said gently, “what it is you want.” She buried her face on his chest and clung close to him.

(41) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 27 “Please, please believe me,” she said. “I love a pure, honest life. I hate immorality. I don’t know myself what I am doing. The common people say “the devil led her astray,” I too can now say about myself that the devil has led me astray.” “There, there. . . “ he murmured. He gazed into her staring, frightened eyes, kissed her, spoke gently and affectionally to her, and gradually she calmed down and her cheerfulness returned; both of them were soon laughing (p.371). In that dialogue both characters, portray that Gurov does not consider their affair is a mistake. Gurov is less sensitive to situations and conditions, which he focuses on what he wants. He is happy and satisfied, and he enjoys it. He thinks that it is a usual thing, but Anna thinks differently in responding to the problem. Gurov is insoluble in Anna's emotions, and he just shows his love and affection. It can be seen that Gurov’s character is a loving person who is caring and understanding about a person's feeling. He is able to calm Anna's emotions and to make her cheerful again. He gives a warm touch to Anna and tries to calm her. He decides to give his full attention to her, makes her calm and returns cheerfully. He told himself that this had been just one more affair in his life, just one more adventure, and that it too was over, leaving nothing but a memory. He was moved and sad, and felt a little penitent that the young woman, whom he would never see again, had not been happy with him; he had been amiable and affectionate with her, but all the same in his behavior to her (p.373). He was moved and sad, and felt a little penitent that the young woman, whom he would never see again, had not been happy with him; he had been amiable and affectionate with her, but all the same in his behavior to her, in the tone of his voice and in his caresses, there was a suspicion of light irony, the somewhat coarse arrogance of the successful male, who was, moreover, almost twice her age (p.373). Gurov feels deep sadness when Anna left him alone at Yalta. Anna realizes that is destiny to end up their affair. But in Gurov's heart, he does not want

(42) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 28 separation. That is the first time Gurov feels the love in his heart because Anna is different from most women he has met before. After some time, he realizes he cannot forget her, then decides to pursue Anna. Gurov is a man who does not give up easily, he is a man who has a full persistence, and his desire motivates him to get her back. He does not remain silent and lamented his fate because he is always overshadowed by Anna. Finally, he fights his love for Anna. “But, please, try to understand, Anna,” he murmured hurriedly. “I beg you, please, try to understand….” “I’ve suffered so much,” she went on, without listening to him. “I’ve been thinking of you all the time. The thought of you kept me alive. And yet I tried so hard to forget you—why, oh why did you come?” (p.376). Gurov is a man who is quite aggressive because sometimes he cannot control his behavior, and Gurov does not care about his surroundings. “He drew Anna Sergeyevna towards him and began kissing her face, her lips, her hands” (p.377). All he thinks is that he can express his passion and love through his actions. Since Gurov finds his love, he becomes a loyal man. Anna's presence in his life encourages Gurov to survive. He no longer regrets his past, but he rises to become a better man. He becomes a loving and sincere man. He also becomes a loyal man, not playing round with women anymore. He becomes more positive and has goals in his life. That's all because he has got Anna back into his life. It was only now, when his hair was beginning to turn grey, that he had fallen in love properly, in good earnest—for the first time in his life. He and Anna Sergeyevna loved each other as people do who are very dear and near, as man and wife or, close friends love each other; they could not help feeling that fate itself had intended them for one another, and they were unable to understand why he should have a wife and she a husband; they were like two migrating birds, male and female, who had been caught and forced to live in separate cages. They had forgiven each other what they

(43) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 29 had been ashamed of in the past, and forgave each other everything in their present, and felt that this love of theirs had changed them both (p.378). In Gurov's thought, it is the first time he falls in love with a woman after he is nearly forty years old, living without hope and love. Finally, he finds someone who can love and complete him with Anna, he feels the sincerity of love. The evidence of Gurov's struggle to pursue Anna proves that he is a man of high enthusiasm to get what he hopes for. He never gives up, and his motivation is powerful. In the end, he can be loyal and sincere to love a woman. He becomes a faithful man after finding his true love. 2. Anna Sergeyevna The character of Anna Sergeyevna is dynamic because her character changes through her action and experience. Based on Holman and Harmon’s theory (1986, p.83), she develops because there is another character who makes her action improves. To analyze the character of Anna Sergeyevna, the researcher uses theory characterization from Boyton and Mack (1972, pp.26-27). In this case, Anton Chekhov describes Anna Sergeyevna by using direct description or explanation, what a character does, what a character thinks, and how others react to a character. (Boyton and Mack, 1972, pp. 27-29). To depict Anna’s character, the author gives the personal description how Anna dresses up and her attitude. Anna interacts to Gurov in their first meeting, it shows the reaction to other character.

(44) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 30 Anna Sergeyevna is the young lady who takes Dmitry Gurov’s love and attention. Anna Sergeyena is a married woman. In the beginning of the story, Anna Sergeyevna is described as a young lady who has an attractive and elegant appearance. She is alone but always accompanied by a white Pomeranian. She is a beautiful, and good-looking woman. It can be proved that in the beginning of her arrival at Yalta, Gurov has been interested in her. a young woman walking along the promenade, she was fair, not very tall, and wore toque, behind her trotted a white Pomeranian (p.367-368). she was always alone, always wearing the same toque, followed by the white Pomeranian. No one knew who she was, and she became known simply as the lady with the lapdog (p.368). Here we see that Anna is a lonely woman who needs refreshing and breaking out from her daily habits and boredom. This is the first time she visits Yalta. There is no one accompanying her, only her pet. Because nobody knows who she is, then she is known as “the lady with the lapdog” (p.368). The way she looked, walked, and dressed, wore her hair, told him that she was of good social standing, that she was married, that she was in Yalta for the first time, that she was alone and bored (p.368). The quotation above depicts the appearance of Anna Sergeyevna by the narrator. She is a married woman who has an average height. She always wears a woman’s small hat. She is a good looking and an attractive woman. How she dresses up shows her that she belongs to the upper classes. Her good manners reveal that she behaves like an extraordinary woman. Her gestures show that she acts like a girl who has a high-status position. It can be seen from the pet that she has too, a white Pomeranian. It can show her that she is a pure and innocent woman.

(45) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 31 From her he learnt that she had grown up in Petersburg, but he had got married in the town of S---, where she had been living for the past two years, that she would stay another month in Yalta, and that her husband, who also needed a rest, might join her. She was quite unable to tell him what her husband’s job was, whether he served in the offices of the provincial governor or the rural council, and she found this rather amusing herself (p.369). During her meeting with a stranger, she looks awkward and embarrassed. She is not open and does not want to tell her problem that she faces to others she has just known. She does not easily fall in love, but when she meets Gurov, she falls into the atmosphere. As he went to bed he remembered that she had only recently left her boarding school, that she had been a schoolgirl like his own daughter; he recalled how much diffidence and angularity there was in her laughter and her conversation with a stranger – it was probably the first time in her life she had found herself alone, in a situation when men followed her, looked at her, and spoke to her with only one secret intention, an intention she could hardly fail to guess. He remembered her slender, weak neck, her beautiful grey eyes (p.369). “There’s something pathetic about her, all the same,” he thought as he fell asleep (p.369). She looks like a “schoolgirl” who is still young. She is a simple woman who is pure-heart. Unfortunately, she could not enjoy her adolescence when she was young. Possibly because she has to get married at a very young age. Apparently, she still seems shy and innocent. Anna sergeyevna was very touching; there was an air of a pure, decent, naïve woman about her, a woman who had very little experience of life; the solitary candle burning on the table scarcely lighted up her face, but it was obvious that she was unhappy (p.371). Anna is a young woman who is gentle, warm-hearted, very modest, and honest. Anna gets disappointed with Gurov's actions to her, and she does not accept

(46) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 32 what they have done. Anna feels that Gurov does not respect her. She feels Gurov has damaged her pride. Anna is a modest woman who is naive and innocence because she does not have much experience. She only thinks that their deeds are wrong and inappropriate. She feels that Gurov takes advantage of her. She is shortminded because she has never experienced anything like it before. She is an honest girl, who loves the purity of life and love. She does not like betrayal and having an affair with another man. She is a girl who is loyal and obedient to her husband. Since Gurov came into in her life, she has changed. In the dialogue below, Anna cannot accept what Gurov has done to her, because she feels that Gurov does not respect her. Anna’s character is a religious woman, she feels so scared and regretful over her love affair. She does not accept Gurov’s deeds to her, she feels sinful because she has betrayed her love and her husband. “It’s wrong,” she said. “You’ll be the first not to respect me now” (p.370). “May God forgive me,” she said, and her eyes filled with tears. “It’s terrible” (p.371). She is a sensitive woman, it can be seen when she grasps what she does with Gurov is wrong. She gets touched because of Gurov’s deed. She is so sad because her innocence, she feels lulled by Gurov, and she is dissolved in his gentle persuasion. “How can I justify myself? I am a bad, despicable creature. I despite myself and have no thought of justifying myself. I haven’t deceived my husband, I’ve deceived myself. And not only now. I’ve been deceiving myself for a long time. My husband is, I’m sure, a good and honest man, but, you see, he is a flunkey. I don’t know what he does at his office, all I know is that he is a flunkey. I was only twenty when I married him, I was eaten up by curiosity, I wanted something better. There surely must be a

(47) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 33 different kind of life, I said to myself. I wanted to live. To live, to live! I was burning with curiosity. I don’t think you know what I am talking about, but I swear I could no longer control myself, something was happening to me, I could not be held back, I told my husband I was ill, and I came here. Here too I was going about as though in a daze, as though I was mad, and now I’ve become a vulgar worthless woman whom everyone has a right to despise (p.371). In that quotation above, it can be seen that she is a naive woman. She humbles herself and she thinks that she is a despicable person. She is the type of woman who is easy to believe even though she does not see the evidence. She does not think negatively because she understands what happens. She is such an innocent woman that makes her easy to believe the things she does not see. In her heart, she feels sad, but she hides it. “Do you hear? I’ll come to you in Moscow. I’ve never been happy, I’m unhappy now, and I shall never be happy, never! So please don’t make me suffer still more. I swear I’ll some to you in Moscow. But now we must part (p.377). Anna Sergeyevna began going to Moscow to see him. Every two or three months she left the town of S—, telling her husband that she was going to consult a Moscow gynaecologist, and her husband believed and did not believed her (p.377). Anna's nature has changed, she becomes a woman who is not loyal to her husband and has a love affair with other men. She becomes a liar woman because she lies to her husband to meet to Gurov in Moscow. Finally, she undergoes an affair with Gurov. Anna wants a better life, and she hopes that the life she leads now is different from her previous life existence. She gives love sincerely to Gurov. She

(48) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 34 has forgotten Gurov’s mistakes in the past, and they realize that they love each other. He and Anna Sergeyevna loved each other as people do who are very dear and near, as man and wife or, close friends love each other; they could not help feeling that fate itself had intended them for one another, and they were unable to understand why he should have a wife and she a husband; they were like two migrating birds, male and female, who had been caught and forced to live in separate cages. They had forgiven each other what they had been ashamed of in the past, and forgave each other everything in their present, and felt that this love of theirs had changed them both (p.378). Currently, Anna has changed, she accepts Gurov's request to return to him. Anna visits Gurov in Moscow and they start to have a serious relationship even though they are unable to marry. B. The Character Development of Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov as Influenced by Anna Sergeyevna The researcher portrays the character development of Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov in detail after describing the characterization of the characters in the previous chapter. In this part, the influence of Anna sergeyevna on Dmitry Gurov characteristics will also be analyzed. In the beginning of the story, Gurov is depicted as a lonely man who does not get much love from his wife. He has a monotonous life. As the story progresses, Gurov becomes an unfaithful man to his wife but develops a faithful personality since he meets a young lady called Anna Sergeyevna. The researcher takes a further notice to see that Gurov characteristic changes. It is the result of the interaction among the main character and another

(49) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 35 character. The changing of Gurov's character does not occur without any causes, but it happens due to the influence of Anna Sergeyevna. 1. Gurov’s Perspective on His Life. In the previous chapter, Gurov is recognized as a lonely man who has monotonous life. He is a man who gets confused about himself, his life, his marriage, and about a woman. He feels that his life is meaningless. Gurov feels that his life is in vain because he still stays in his loveless marriage. He feels unhappy and disappointed with his wife and it makes him think negatively about a woman. He feels empty inside and depressed because he does not feel loved. Increasingly he thinks his life pointless because he has to endure his bitter life experience in a long time. He thinks if he regrets his life experience continuously, it can wreck his chances of getting a true love from another woman. Therefore, he dares to start an affair with other women. He could not help feeling that he had had enough bitter experience to have the right to call right to call them as he pleased, but all the same without the lower breed he could not have existed a couple of days. He was bored and ill at ease among men, with whom he was reticent and cold, but when he was among women he felt at ease, he knew what to talk about with them and how to behave, even when he was silent in their company he experienced no feeling of constraint. There was something attractive, something elusive in his appearance, in his character and his whole person that women found interesting and irresistible; he was aware of it, and was himself drawn to them by some irresistible force (p.368). If it is analyzed using the theory of plot, the beginning of this story is indicated with a brief description of the characters’ background. Exposition in this story begins with a description of the lives and nature of the characters. It can be seen from Gurov's view of his life. He is hopeless and always thinks of his life

(50) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 36 problems. He feels uncomfortable when he is among other men. Even though he regards all women as the lower race, but he still feels better and more comfortable when women surround him. He does not hesitate to get acquainted with many women. There is something attractive in Gurov's appearance, character, and personality. Which makes women admire Gurov. He is such a charismatic man, that many women get attracted to him. His good appearance makes all women crazy about him, and it makes him very comfortable when women are around him. Long and indeed bitter experience had taught him that every new affair, which at first relieved the monotony of life so pleasantly and appeared to be such a charming and light adventure, among decent people and especially among Muscovites, who are so irresolute and so hard to rouse, inevitably developed into an extremely complicated problem and finally the whole situation became rather cumbersome. But at every new meeting with an attractive woman he forgot all about this experience, he wanted to enjoy life so badly and it all seemed so simple and amusing (p.368). Gurov is kind of a man who easily gets women’s attention, and he likes to change partners. The reason why he starts an affair because he is getting bored with his uninteresting life experience. At that time people in Moscow found it difficult to establish new relationships with others. In Gurov's thought, every new meeting with a woman is enjoyable and entertaining for him even though it is only temporary. He can enjoy his life for a moment and apart from his bad life. The influence of Gurov's life in the past makes him becomes an unfaithful person. He becomes a lonely man who is awaiting for love and affection. He is a womanizer man who likes cheating and adoring many women. According to Perrine (2009, p.105) the plot of the story is the resolution because the events direct the end of the story. Finally, Anna visits Gurov in Moscow

(51) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 37 without knowing the fate of their relationship. In the end, they live their life as it is. Even though there are many obstacles, they keep struggling to express their feeling. Before, when he felt depressed, he had comforted himself by all sorts of arguments that happened to occur to him on the spur of the moment, but now he had more serious things to think of, he felt profound compassion, he longed to be sincere, tender ……. (p.379). Then they had a long talk. They tried to think how they could get rid of the necessity of hiding, telling lies, living in different towns, not seeing one another for so long. How were they to free themselves from their intolerable chains? (p.379). And it seemed to them that in only a few more minutes a solution would be found and a new, beautiful life would begin; but both of them knew very well that the end was still a long, long way away and that the most complicated and difficult part was only just beginning (p.379). The conclusion of the changing in Gurov's character, Gurov is no longer depressed because of his unhappy life. He has no purpose in his life and hopeless. He becomes an unfaithful man because every new meeting with a woman makes him interested and enjoys it. Since he meets Anna, there is something that catches Gurov's attention. Then she makes him changes his perspective on his life. Anna has a considerable influence on Gurov's character because Gurov finally realizes he falls in love with Anna. When Anna leaves him, he always imagines Anna and thinks about her. Gurov even more uneasy, and convinces that it is worth it to have her in his life. Many times, he has an affair, but he can truly express his love for Anna. Since then Gurov can express his feeling, and they both have an awareness to be together. They cannot get married because they cannot be separated from their marriage relationship. The development of Gurov’s character, he becomes a loyal man because he wants to be a sincere and gentleman. He does not care with

(52) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 38 some obstacles that he has to face. He keeps struggling to get Anna back in his life. He changes his perspective about a woman because he thinks that Anna is different from another woman. He becomes faithful, he does not have an affair with another woman, and he only loves Anna. They know if they have irresistible bond with their marriage partner. They tell a lie to their partner so that they can meet each other. Since then he has goals and hopes in his life. He becomes a more positive man in thinking and behaving. Finally, he continues to have an affair with Anna, without knowing their relationship’s fate. 2. Gurov’s Attitude towards Woman In the beginning, Gurov is a man who has a wife and child. In his marriage, he feels uncomfortable and unhappiness. Because he does not like the nature and character of his wife, Gurov begins to change his views on women. He believes all women are the lower race. He demeans women because Gurov has terrible experiences in his life and no longer respects his wife. He does not love and he becomes unfaithful. and though he secretly considered her not particularly intelligent, narrowminded, and inelegant, he was afraid of her and disliked being at home. (p. 368) He had been unfaithful to her for a long time, he was often unfaithful to her, and that was why, perhaps, he almost always spoke ill of women, and men discussed women in his presence, he describe them as the lower breed (p. 368). Because he is forced to undergo a loveless marriage, he becomes an unfaithful man. He must bear the burden of his life which is bitter, empty, and without love or affection. He looks for another way to entertain himself. The things

(53) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 39 that motivate Gurov to express his love and passion for other women because he wants to release from the burden of his life for a moment. Gurov enjoys when many women surround him. Moreover, his personality and appearance make many women get attracted to him. Besides, Gurov has a charisma that make the women amazed when they see him. Gurov does not stay away from the women although he disgraces them. Instead, Gurov chooses to have an affair with other women without his wife's knowledge. He could not help feeling that he had had enough bitter experience to have the right to call right to call them as he pleased, but all the same without the lower breed he could not have existed a couple of days. He was bored and ill at ease among men, with whom he was reticent and cold, but when he was among women he felt at ease, he knew what to talk about with them and how to behave, even when he was silent in their company he experienced no feeling of constraint. There was something attractive, something elusive in his appearance, in his character and his whole person that women found interesting and irresistible; he was aware of it, and was himself drawn to them by some irresistible force… But at every new meeting with an attractive woman he forgot all about this experience, he wanted to enjoy life so badly and it all seemed so simple and amusing (p.368). Gurov was only looking for pleasure for a moment; he did not love and could not undergo a serious relationship with all the women. For him, the women are just entertainers and fill the emptiness in his heart. Gurov only enjoyed the women, and none of them owned his heart. Gurov did not even deeply love the women because he thought that they were only to escape the burden of his bitter and monotonous life. He does not respect women as a person who deserves to be loved sincerely. Gurov's life begins to change since he meets a woman, named Anna Sergeyevna. Anna's arrival to Yalta attracts Gurov's attention from the very

(54) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 40 beginning. When Anna is coming in Gurov's life, Gurov's character develops and changes slowly. Gurov falls in love at the first time he saw her. He sees her, and his eyes stares at Anna all the time. He always notices her every single detail, her way she dresses, her gestures and her understated reactions. He thinks that Anna is not an ordinary woman. She looks like a woman from the upper class. Gurov does not remain silent; he tries to find a way so that he can be close and get acquainted with her. The appearance on the front of a new arrival—a lady with a lapdog— became the topic of general conversation. Dmitry Dmitrich Gurov, who had been a fortnight in Yalta and got used to its ways, was also interested in new arrivals. One day sitting on the terrace of Vernet’s restaurant, he saw a young woman walking along the promenade; she was fair, not very tall, and wore a toque, behind her trotted a white Pomeranian (pp.367-368). The way she looked, walked and dressed, wore her hair, told him that she was of good social standing, that she was married, that she was in Yalta for the first time, that she was alone and bored (p.368). After Gurov successfully gets to know Anna, he often spends the day with Anna. Because they are both lonely, without bringing their partners together. It makes Gurov dare to ask her to take a walk together. A few days in Yalta, they spend time together. The plot of this part is shown when Gurov dares to get acquainted with Anna. When Gurov starts spending time together with Anna, and they begin to live their days together. Their togetherness in Yalta can be associated with Murphy's theory of plot (1972, p.134), this part of the story is a rising action point. The quotation below shows that Gurov begins to ask Anna to take a walk to somewhere.

(55) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 41 Then both went on eating in silence, like complete strangers; but after dinner they strolled off together, and they embarked on the light playful conversation of free and contented people who do not care where they go or what they talk about. They walked, and talked about the stranger light that fell on the sea; (p.369). Finally, they knew each other even Gurov was interested in getting to know Anna deeper and further. Besides that, since Gurov's meeting with Anna, Gurov often remains quiet, ponders and thinks of Anna. She looks like her daughter who still looks like a “schoolgirl” (p.369). Anna is twenty years old, at a young age she has experienced a bit of life experience. She releases her youth and marries a man who is older than her. The purpose of Anna’s trip to Yalta is because she gets bored with her life in S --- town and she wants to take a short vacation. Besides, she wants her husband to go with her. Later, in his hotel room, he thought about her and felt sure that he would meet her again the next day. It had to be. As he went to bed he remembered that she had only recently left her boarding school, that she had been a schoolgirl like his own daughter; he recalled how much diffidence and angularity there was in her laughter and her conversation with a stranger (p.369). It was very close in her hotel room, which was full of smell of the scents she had bought in a Japanese shop. Looking at her now, Gurov thought: “Life is full of strange encounters!” (p.370). Gurov often ponders and keeps on thinking about Anna. Anna looks pretty and elegant. She is a beautiful woman, who has an average height, and she always wears a "toque" (p.368). According to him, Anna is an innocent young woman, because she is young and she has not too much experience, good in behavior and honest person. She is a simple woman, and as it is, it can be said if she is a naïve woman. Gurov feels the difference when he meets Anna because she looks different

(56) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 42 from other women that Gurov has met before. He feels his meeting with Anna is different from his meeting with other women in his past. Although Gurov does not fully understand Anna, he has felt a more profound interest. He feels the love in his heart. Then he looked keenly at her and suddenly put his arms round her and kissed her on the mouth. He felt the fragrance and dampness of the flowers and immediately looked round him fearfully: had anyone seen them? “Let’s go to your room,” he said softly. And both walked off quickly (p.370). Gurov has thought about his life, which is often found strange, when meeting women. He thinks of the woman who is in his past and connected with his meeting with Anna. Gurov becomes an aggressive person. He cannot maintain his behavior and restrain his lust. When he spends time with Anna, they sink into the situation and condition. When Anna goes alone and no one accompanies her, it makes Gurov take advantage of the situation. Gurov and Anna spend time in Anna's room. At that moment Gurov is silent as he observed Anna. It seems that Anna does not like what they have done together. Anna is like a young girl who has not much experience yet, she is still stiff and feels awkward. She thinks seriously and regrets about what they have done together. She feels that Gurov makes her loss of a woman's chastity. He has destroyed her self-esteem. In Anna's thought, Gurov does not respect her. “It’s wrong,” she said. “You’ll be the first not to respect me now” (p.370). There was a water-melon on the table. Gurov cut himself a slice and began to it slowly. At least half an hour passed in silence (p.370). “But, darling, why should I stop respecting you?” Gurov asked. “You don’t know yourself what you’re saying.” “May God forgive me,” she said, and her eyes filled with tears. “It’s terrible” (p.371). “You seem to wish to justify yourself.”

(57) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 43 “How can I justify myself? I am a bad, despicable creature. I despite myself and have no thought of justifying myself. I haven’t deceived my husband, I’ve deceived myself. And not only now. I’ve been deceiving myself for a long time” (p.371). Gurov could not help feeling bored as he listened to her; he was irritated by her naïve tone of voice and her repentance, which was so unexpected and so out of place; but for the tears in her eyes, he might have thought that she was joking or play-acting (p.371). “I don’t understand,” he said gently. “what it is you want?” (p.371). The dialogue above shows Anna's inner turmoil when she does not accept Gurov's actions to her. Gurov still does not understand why Anna suddenly says that he does not respect her. Anna considers herself unchaste woman because she has an affair with Gurov. She does not realize what she has done. Then she blames Gurov because he immerses her in the atmosphere which makes her surrendered of her chastity. Gurov does not like what Anna says to him. He thinks that she is seeking self-justification, but Gurov does not insoluble in that atmosphere. When Anna explains to Gurov everything about her, she says that she does not like immorality. She is a woman who loves a pure and honest life. He does not know what she has done with Gurov, and she thinks that the devil had misled her. She does not want a secret affair and betrayal behind her husband. Besides that, she does not want to be a mistress. Maybe Gurov does not understand Anna, and he thinks Anna is joking. He believes that Anna's opinion about him is wrong, but his love is greater and stronger towards her. He is not insoluble in Anna's feelings. He cares and gives affection to Anna. Gurov does not keep quiet; he reacts to her. Then he kisses her, talks to her gently and lovingly. He tries to calm her down and cheer her up. She buried her face on his chest and clung to him.

(58) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 44 “Please, please believe me.” She said. “I love a pure, honest life. I hate immorality. I don’t know myself what I am doing. The common people say “the devil led her astray,” I too can now say about myself that the devil has led me astray” (p.371). “There, there . . .” he murmured. He gazed into her staring, frightened eyes, kissed her, spoke gently and affectionately to her, and gradually she calmed down and her cheerfulness returned; both of them were soon laughing (p.371). Although Gurov knows that Anna already has a husband, but he does not care about Anna's status. He only cares about what he deserves, and what he gets. His love and desire merge into one which makes him unable to think healthily. His lust forces him not to think about whether Anna wants it or not. He only thinks that he feels comfortable with Anna and worthy of getting love from her. He thinks that Anna seems like the women he has met before, who are easy to undergo an affair without being burdened with anything. What was done by Gurov has made Anna disappointed and angry with him. There is a misunderstanding between them. Anna considered thinks that he only takes advantage on herself and the atmosphere. According to Gurov, he thinks that what he has done is like the usual thing and he thinks that Anna will be fine. He expects her not to mind going through an affair. On the other hand, Anna thinks Gurov does not appreciate it. They have each other to calm down and begin to undergo the usual activities. They take a walk together around Yalta. Gurov tells Anna that he admires Anna. Her appearance, her beautiful face, and her attitude make Gurov stunned when he first sees her. He feels a passionate love when he sees Anna. Anna is the woman who Gurov desires. Even he does not want to lose Anna, and he wants to stay beside her. But in Anna's mind, she still feels awkwardness in her. She keeps

(59) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 45 thinking about Gurov who does not respect her and regard her as the “vulgar woman” (p.371). he told Anna Sergeyevna that she was beautiful, that she was desirable, made passionate love to her, never left her side, while she was often lost in thought and kept asking him to admit that he did not really respect her, that she was desirable, made passionate love to her, never left her side, while she was often lost in thought and kept asking him to admit that he did not really respect her, that he was not in the least in love with her and only saw in her a vulgar woman (p.372). Anna feels uncomfortable with her relationship with Gurov. Anna thinks that their relationship should not happen because she realizes that they cannot be united as husband and wife. If they continue their relationship, it will be impossible for her. As she is aware of their temporary relationship which cannot be continued into marriage. He was moved and sad, and felt a little penitent that the young woman, whom he would never see again, had not been happy with him; he had been amiable and affectionate with her, but all the same in his behavior to her, in the tone of his voice and in his caresses… (p.373). According to Stanton's theory of plot (1965, pp.16-17), this part is the beginning of the meeting point or climax in the short story "Lady with Lapdog. This plot is marked when Anna leaves Gurov to return home to S-town. Anna must leave Gurov because she should go back to the S-town to comply with her husband's request. Anna feels sad, but she tries to hold back the tears. She thinks that it is her destiny to leave Gurov. They do not deserve to continue their affair relationship. She is sure that they will not meet again, so Anna leaves Gurov forever. Gurov has to accept the fact that he must let her go. He feels sad, and he regrets Anna's

(60) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 46 departure. Gurov's attitude has changed. He is kind, gracious, and he has a pleasant manner to women because he loves Anna. Anna has left memories in Gurov's heart. As time goes by, he changes his negative thoughts towards women. Because of his meeting with Anna, Gurov can assess that all women character is not the same. Anna's character can prove it. Gurov evaluates that Anna's character is different from another woman. Anna's personality is attractive and charming and it has made him fall in love with her. Gurov’s relationship with Anna is not like when he has an affair with other women in the past. Anna has left such good memories in Gurov's heart that it was difficult for him to forget her. After a month since Anna's departure, Gurov never forgets her. He misses her because he cannot meet her again physically. He always remembers his memories with Anna. Anna's presence makes Gurov's character develops. She gives hope to him and because of her he can feel pure of love. He can get what he wants especially his desire to get love from a woman. This part of the story shows the end of the climax based on Stanton's theory (1965, pp.16-17). The day when Anna leaves Gurov and returns to S-town. He still could not forget Anna. He always remembers the memory when he spends time together with Anna. Finally, Gurov realizes that his heart belonged to her. Gurov is longing Anna for a long time and Gurov ventures out to look for Anna in the S --- town. Because of his great love for Anna, he tries to find where she lives. He lies to his wife for business reasons to get permission from his wife, even though he does not know where Anna is. His strong desire to be able to meet

(61) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 47 her does not make him give up. Arriving in S-town, he tries to find out Anna's residence. He does it with all his heart so he can meet Anna. In December, during the Christmas holidays, he packed his things, told his wife that he was going to Petersburg to get a job for a young man he knew, and set off for the town of S--. Why? He had no very clear idea himself. He wanted to see Anna Sergeyevna, to talk to her, to arrange a meeting, if possible (p.374). When Gurov begins to travel to Anna's home to meet her can be stated as the falling action of the story. As Murphy defines in his theory of plot (1972, p.134). Gurov is pleased because he will meet her soon. He does with all his heart so that he can meet Anna. Finally, he meets Anna at the theater. Gurov is quite reckless and does not care about the surroundings. He walks over to get closer to her when her husband is leaving her alone. Anna is very anxious because his presence is unexpected. Thus, he does not get a warm welcome from Anna. She does not think so that Gurov will come to look for her. She is afraid if her husband will know their secret relationship. “How you frightened me!” she said. Breathing heavily, still looking pale and stunned.” “Oh, dear, how you frightened me! I’m scarcely alive. Why did you come? Why?” She looked at him with fear, entreaty love, looked at him intently, so as to fix his features firmly in her mind (p.376). “But, please, try to understand, Anna,” he murmured hurriedly. “I beg you, please, try to understand….” “I’ve suffered so much,” she went on, without listening to him. “I’ve been thinking of you all the time. The thought of you kept me alive. And yet I tried so hard to forget you—why, oh why did you come?” (p.376). Gurov did not care. He drew Anna Sergeyevna towards him and began kissing her face, her lips, her hands (p.377). From the conversation between Anna and Gurov above shows that Gurov keeps struggling for his love for Anna. Even he is willing to go to S-town to meet

(62) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 48 her. He says honestly that he sincerely loves her. Gurov tries to get Anna again by begging her to come back to him. He cannot live without her, and he cannot forget her because he realizes that he loves her. Gurov struggles to pursue his love for Anna. Anna does not have a choice because she is terrified if someone else sees her. Then she decides to meet him in Moscow. But Gurov's aggressive attitude is out of control, and he cannot control his longing and reaction when he meets Anna. He does not care about his environment, he spontaneously hugs and kisses Anna. Anna is quite uncomfortable with Gurov's unexpected behavior. They had forgiven each other what they had been ashamed of in the past, and forgave each other everything in their present, and felt that this love of theirs had changed them both (p.378). The conclusion of Gurov's attitude towards women, he was previously a man who demeaned a woman's dignity. He becomes disloyal to women because he is a womanizer who likes to changing women many times. He is not sincere to give his love because he does not feel comfortable enough with the women around him. He is not really in love with the women he has met, as if they are just entertainers for Gurov. Gurov is hopeless because he is disappointed with his life especially with his wife and his loveless marriage. He is confused with whom he can express his love to. He thinks that he worth to be loved and to get affection from a woman. But everything has changed when Gurov meets Anna. Anna's presence in Gurov's life has a significant impact. Finally, Gurov finds himself heartily loving a woman. He has hope to live his life because Anna can give what Gurov desire so far. She can give him sincere love and affection. Even though there is a

(63) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 49 misunderstanding between them, and Gurov keeps struggling to pursue his love. He falls in love with Anna because he is passionate about her. She makes Gurov not to give up or surrender to his life. Gurov's character has developed since his meeting with Anna. He has aims in his life, and he wants to be sincerer with women. He becomes a loyal man.

(64) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION This study is about the character development of Dmitry Gurov as influenced by a Anna Sergeyevna in “Lady with Lapdog.” In this part, the researcher concludes the results of the analysis in the previous chapter. The researcher analyzes Gurov’s character and the influence of Anna Segeyevna towards Gurov’s character development. From the study, the researcher finds the answer to the problem formulation. There are two objectives of the study. First is to describe all the characters.Second is to analyze the influence of Anna Sergeyevna towards Gurov’s character development. In the short story, Dmitry Gurov is the main character who plays the important role and leads the plot of story. In defining his character, the researcher uses theory of Boyton and Mack (1972, pp. 27-29) they are direct description or explanation, what a character thinks, what a character does, and how the character reacts to other character. Gurov’s characteristic is as a poor guy who gets confused about his life, his marriage, and his love can be seen through the author direct or personal description. He has no aim in his life, and he is hopeless with his life. He feels emptiness inside of his heart because he does not get love and affection from the woman he loves. His character also can be seen through what the character thinks, what a character does, and how the character reacts to other. He has bad perspective about a woman. Thus, it makes him have an affair with another woman. He becomes a womanizer and unfaithful man. Gurov’s character is dynamic 50

(65) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 51 because he develops his personality and changes as influenced by his actions, his reaction, and other characters. Moreover, after he meets a young lady, Anna Sergeyevna, he becomes a man of high enthusiasm to get what he wants and he never gives up. Then he becomes a loyal and faithful man and sincere to love a woman. Anna Sergeyevna is a person who makes Gurov’s character changes. Anton Chekhov uses direct description to portray Anna’s characteristic She is a young married woman who looks simple, good in behavior and honest person but she is naïve. To reveals Anna’s characteristic that she is warm-hearted, gentle, religious, and modest. Anna’s character can be seen through what a character does and how the character reacts to other. She is able to make Gurov feels her loves and affection. Her presence in Gurov's life has aroused Gurov's hope. She makes Gurov falls in love to her. The character of Gurov changes and develops. Based on the short story, his character is growing little by little from beginning until the end. His character develops from a bad character changes into a good character. Since he is a womanizer, he thinks that he has no purpose in his life, he is unfaithful man, and he feels depressed with his life problems. Then, his personality changes since he meets Anna Sergeyevna and his interactions with Anna Sergeyvna. There is only one character which most gives Gurov good character development. He feels more comfortable when he is with Anna, and his desires can be fulfilled by Anna. Gurov does not care if Anna already has a husband. The most important thing for him is that he can express his feeling, also convey his love and affection to the woman he

(66) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 52 loves. He wants to get the same love and affection. He becomes passionate about the only woman he loves. The influences of Anna’s character towards Gurov’s character development can be seen in the fact that he is no longer denigrates women since he has a relationship with Anna. He becomes a sincere and gentleman to the only woman who he loves. He realizes and he changes his life. He becomes a loyal and faithful man, and he is no longer has an affair to another woman. He is more positive in thinking and behaving, and he has a purpose in life. He no longer plays with women, because he has got his love from Anna. He becomes more comfortable with their secret relationship along with Anna.

(67) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI REFERENCES Abrams, M.H. (1999) A Glossary of Literary Terms Seventh Edition. Massachussetts: Earl Mc Peek Inc,. Arp, Thomas R. and Greg Johnson. (2012) Perrine’s Story and Structure Thirteenth edition. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Bressler, Charles E. (2011) Literary Criticism. An Introduction to Theory and Practice. Fifth Edition. London: Pearson Education, Inc / Longman Boynton, Robert W. and Maynard Mack. (1972) Introduction To The Short Story. Revised second edition. Plymouth, MI: Hayden Book Company, Inc. Delahoyde, Michael. (2018) New Criticism. http://public.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/new.crit.html Retrieved from Forster, E.M. (1980) Aspects of the Novel. New York: Harcourt Inc,. Henkle, Roger. B. (1977) Reading the Novel : An Introduction to the Techniques of Interpreting Fiction. New York: Harper and Row, Inc. Holman, C. H.(1972) A Handbook to Literature. Third edition. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. Holman, C. H., and William Harmon (1986) A Handbook to Literature. Fifth edition. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company. Ironside, Virginia. (2009, September 24) Book of A Lifetime: Lady with a Lapdog, By Anton Chekhov. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/artsentertainment/books/reviews/book-of-a-lifetime-lady-with-a-lapdog-byanton-chekhov-1792711.html Krauss, Nicholas. (2010)/downloaded date(2017) The Characterizatization of Dmitri Gurov in Comparison with Generalizations of Men. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/8987173/The_Characterization_of_Dmitri_Guro v_in_the_Lady_and_the_Dog Murphy, M.J.(1972) Understanding Unseens: An Intorduction to English Poetry and English Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Allen & Unwin. Padmasari, Almira Wanodya.(2011) The Psychological Influences of Mother’s Behaviour on Paul’s Character Development as seen in D.H. Lawrence’s 53

(68) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Sons and Lovers. Undergraduated Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University. Palupi, Bertha. (2011) Personality Change of the Main Character, Tom Leyton, as influenced by the Minor Character, Joseph Davidson, in Michael Gerard Bauer’s The Running Man. Undergraduated Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University,. Perrine, Laurence. (1974) Literature Structure, Sound, and Sense. New York: Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc. Perrine, Laurence. (2009) Perrine’s Literature Structure, Sound, and Sense. Tenth Edition. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Roberts, Edgar V. And Henry E. Jacobs. (1987) Fiction : An Introduction to Reading and Writing. New York : Prentice-Hall, Inc. Roberts, Edgar V. And Henry E. Jacobs. (1989) Fiction : An Introduction to Reading and Writing. Second Edition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. Rohrberger, Mary and Samuel H. Woods, Jr. (1971) Reading and Writing About Literature. First Edition. New York: Random House, Inc. Scott, Virgil and Adrian H. Jafre. (1968) Studies in the Short Story. Third edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Stanton, Robert. (1965) An Introduction to Fiction. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 54

(69) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI APPENDIX 55

(70) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Appendix 1 : The Summary of Anton’s Chekhov “Lady with Lapdog” LADY WITH LAPDOG Dmitri Gurov is a man who is almost forty years old. When he was on vacation in Yalta, he met a young girl with a white pomeranian dog. He notices the woman since her arrival in Yalta. Gurov does not like the nature and character of his wife so that he degrades all women. He assumes that all women are the lower races. Even though he demeans women, he recognizes that he enjoys and feels very comfortable. His appearance, character, and manner make all woman around him pay attention to him and admire him. One day, at a restaurant that woman has dinner, and she sat close to Gurov. Gurov ventures out to get to know her. He tries to attract the attention of her white pomeranian so that he can begin their conversation. Then they get acquainted, and the woman's name is Anna Sergeyevna. Anna has married, and she comes to Yalta for a vacation. Since Gurov met Anna, he often pondered and thought of that woman. Gurov has the opportunity to get closer to her because Anna went alone to Yalta. Day-to-day they spend time together to surround Yalta. Anna and Gurov are getting closer. One day, Gurov and Anna are carried away by the situation, Gurov was unable to hold his desire. Gurov kissed Anna and asked her to spend time together in Anna's hotel room. After that Anna changed dramatically, she was sad and felt like Gurov did not respect her. Anna regretted what they have done. Gurov does not take seriously what Anna's talking. 56

(71) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Gurov was a middle-aged man who was very interested in the naivety of a young woman, but he realized there is a trace of sadness in her character. Gurov feels that Anna is different from other women he has met. Anna excites Gurov's desire to be loved. Anna is an innocent woman, not much action, simple, modest, and naive. Indirectly Gurov attracted by "diffidence, the angularity of inexperienced youth" (p.369). Gurov and Anna go to Oreanda. They look down on the ocean. Anna's feelings are still uneasy because of her fear that she has lost Dmitri's respect for what they have done. She hopes that her husband will follow her to Yalta but after several days Anna in Yalta her husband does not come. Finally, Von Diderits sends Anna a letter, and he asks her to return. Then Anna leaves Gurov at that time. When they have to be separated, Anna stated, "It's a good thing I'm going. It's fate"(p.372). Anna feels that this affair should not happen. Gurov feels very sad about Anna's departure. He realizes that it is just an affair, but he felt there is something different from her. He loves her because Anna brings hope in his life. After Gurov returns to Moscow, he does his routine and laments his life. He feels that his memories of Anna always crosses his mind. Finally, Gurov dares to visit Anna in the S— town where Gurov does not yet know Anna's address. Gurov lies to his wife for reasons of working. Arriving at the S --- town, Gurov can find Anna's address, but he only observes her house from a distance and sees people in her home. One night there is a show in the theater. It is a chance for Gurov to meet Anna. Fortunately, Anna and 57

(72) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI her husband are there. When Anna is alone, Gurov approaches to her. He realizes that during this time he can not forget her. He confesses his love to her. The young woman feels uncomfortable because of Gurov's presence. She is afraid if someone looks at them. She has missed him but also berates him for coming to see her. Then Anna promises him that she will visit Gurov in Moscow. Anna lies to her husband so she can go to Moscow. Her reason is she has to meet a gynecologist. The story ends with a description of Anna's visit to Moscow, and the irresistible tension he feels is living in this lie. Gurov is perfectly happy because he can reunite with Anna. Anna and Gurov forgive their past. Now they have realized that they love each other. Since Anna is present in Gurov's life, Gurov becomes more positive thinking, he has hopes and goals for his life, he feels loved, and he becomes sincerer and more loyal. Even though they always think the way how they can meet each other, hiding their relationship from other, and having long distance relationship. Gurov lives his life with Anna as best he could, but he knows that they cannot be free from an irresistible bond. They love each other, but they cannot leave their partners and unite in marriage. 58

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