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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI REVEALING THEME THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF MAIN CHARACTERS AND PLOT IN STEINBECK’S CANNERY ROW AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Sarjana Sastra In English Letters By KARUNIA ADI PERMANA Student Number: 094214011 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI REVEALING THEME THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF MAIN CHARACTERS AND PLOT IN STEINBECK’S CANNERY ROW AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Sarjana Sastra In English Letters By KARUNIA ADI PERMANA Student Number: 094214011 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 i

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ii

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI iii

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama : Karunia Adi Permana Nomor Mahasiswa : 094214011 Demi pengembangan ilmu pegetahuan, saya memberikan kepada perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul: REVEALING THEME THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF MAIN CHARACTERS AND PLOT IN STEINBECK’S CANNERY ROW Berserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencatumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal: 28 Oktober 2014 Yang menyatakan Karunia Adi Permana iv

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY I declare that this thesis which I have written does not contain the works of part of the works of other people, except those cited in quotations and bibliography, as a scientific paper should. Yogyakarta, October 28, 2014 Karunia Adi Permana v

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THERE IS NOTHING EITHER GOOD OR BAD, BUT THINKING MAKES IT SO William Shakespeare vi

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THIS UNDERGRADUATE THESIS IS DEDICATED TO: MY BELOVED PARENTS AND SISTER vii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Most of all, I would like to thank the God of the Universe, Jesus Christ who is always there for me in every single moment in my life. I thank Him for blessing me with health and energy so that I can use them to finish this thesis. My deepest gratitude is addressed to my advisor, A. B. Sri Mulyani for her help, time and guidance. I believe without her help I cannot finish my thesis. I would also like to thank Elisa Dwi Wardani. S.S., M. Hum, my co- advisor who has kindly given correction and advices for my imperfect thesis. My lovely gratitude goes to my beloved parents who always love and support me all the time, also for my sister who always encourages me to finish my study as soon as possible. My thankfulness goes to all lecturers of English Letters for sharing their knowledge during my study in Sanata Dharma University. I also thank the secretary of English Letters for their help and service during the creation of this thesis. My appreciation goes to all my friends in the English Letters. I thank them for the togetherness that they give in the five years of my study. Lastly, I give my special thanks to Paul, Rian, John, Catherine, Mella, Vivi, Rendy, Adit and Ina for the help, support, happiness and every minute that we have been through. Karunia Adi Permana viii

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE...…………………………………………………………………...i APPROVAL PAGE...…..………………………………………………………..ii ACCEPTANCE PAGE...………………………………………….……………iii LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PUBLIKASI……………………………………...iv STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY…………………………………………….v MOTTO PAGE...…………………………………………………………….....vi DEDICATION PAGE……………………………………………………......vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………… viii TABLE OF CONTENTS...……………………………………………….........ix ABSTRACT...…………………………………………………………….…….xi ABSTRAK......……………………………………………………………..........xii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION……………………………………….............1 A. Background of the Study.......………………………………………..1 B. Problem Formulation……………………………………………..........4 C. Objectives of the Study...……………………………………………...4 D. Definition of Terms…………………………………………………...4 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW...………………………………….6 A. Review of Related Studies.……………………………………………6 B. Review of Related Theories..………………………………………....9 1. Theory on Character and Characterization...……………………...9 2. Theory on Plot...…………………………………………….........11 3. Theory on Theme...…………………………………………........12 4. Theory on New Criticism………………………………………..14 C. Theoretical Framework..……………………………………..............15 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY...…………………………………………16 A. Object of the Study……………………………………................16 B. Approach of the Study………………………………………………..17 C. Method of the Study...………………………………………………..18 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS...………………………………………………….19 A. The Analysis of the Main Characters………………………………...19 1. The Character of Mack…………………………………………….19 2. The Character of Doc……………………………………………...24 B. The Analysis of the Plot……………………………………………...26 C. The Contribution of Main Characters and Plot Analyses in Determining the Theme……………………………………............38 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION...………………………………………………46 ix

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY...…………………………………………………………….49 APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………...51 x

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT KARUNIA ADI PERMANA. Revealing Theme through the Analysis of Main Characters and Plot in Steinbeck’s Cannery Row. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. This thesis focuses to reveal theme in Steinbeck’s Cannery Row through analyzing the main characters and the plot. The researcher is interested to study theme because theme is an important aspect in the novel. Theme can make the story become meaningful and has the value of human experiences in it. This thesis has three objectives. The first is to find out the description of the characters, which are Mack and Doc. The second is to know how the plot described in the story. The last is to know the contribution of the characters and the plot to convey the theme of the story. New Criticism approach is applied in this thesis since those objectives mainly focus on the intrinsic elements of the story such as character, plot, and theme. Thus, some theories are used in order to help the researcher analyzing the thesis. The theories that are used are the theory on character and characterization, the theory on plot, and the theory on theme. Those theories are used as secondary sources. The primary source of this thesis is the Steinbeck’s novel Cannery Row. The novel is about life of people who live in a small town called Cannery Row. In that town, there are residents named Mack and Doc. Both of them become the limelight because of their acts in the society. The analysis of the characters finds that Mack is infamous as a bad person while Doc is well known as a good person. However, the plot of the novel reveals that Mack and Doc are not like what the people think. Mack is much more than just a bad person and Doc, who appears having many friends, is not actually what he seems to be. The plot explains that Mack has good side that many people do not realize. It can be seen when Mack wants to make a party for Doc. Mack wants to work hard for the party and he cares with the plan to make doc happy. He also takes more attention on the Doc’s life than his own life. Many people know Doc as a good and friendly person, but only Mack who understands that Doc is actually a lonely person. People do not aware of the Doc’s loneliness until Doc reveals his loneliness to them through the poem that he reads. Thus, the theme that can be concluded from those findings is sometimes people are not what they seem to be and sometimes people are so much more than we originally thought. xi

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK KARUNIA ADI PERMANA. Revealing Theme through the Analysis of Main Characters and Plot in Steinbeck’s Cannery Row. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. Skripsi ini bertujuan untuk menemukan tema dalam novel Cannery Row karya Steinbeck melalui analisis terhadap karakter dan alur ceritanya. Peneliti tertarik untuk mempelajari tema karena tema merupakan aspek yang penting di dalam sebuah novel. Tema dapat membuat cerita menjadi penuh arti dan memiliki nilai pengalaman manusia di dalamnya. Skripsi ini memiliki tiga tujuan. Pertama adalah untuk menemukan penggambaran dari kedua tokoh utama, yaitu Mack dan Doc. Yang kedua adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana alur cerita digambarkan. Terakhir adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana karakter dan alur cerita menyampaikan tema. Pendekatan Kritik Baru diterapkan di dalam skripsi ini karena tujuan skripsi ini banyak terfokus pada unsur intrinsik dalam cerita seperti tokoh, alur cerita, dan tema. Oleh karena itu, peneliti menggunakan beberapa teori untuk membantu menganalisa skripsi. Teori yang digunakan antara lain teori karakter dan karakterisasi, teori alur cerita, dan teori tema. Teori teori tersebut dijadikan sebagai sumber sekunder. Sumber utama dari skripsi ini adalah novel Cannery Row yang ditulis oleh Steinbeck. Novel ini bercerita mengenai kehidupan masyarakat yang tinggal di sebuah kota kecil bernama Cannery Row. Di kota itu, ada dua orang penduduk yang bernama Mack dan Doc. Keduanya menjadi pusat perhatian karena sikap mereka di masyarakat. Analisa tokoh mendapati bahwa Mack terkenal sebagai orang yang jahat sedangkan Doc dikenal sebagai orang yang baik. Akan tetapi, alur cerita dalam novel akan menjelaskan bahwa Mack dan Doc bukanlah orang yang seperti mereka pikirkan. Mack lebih dari sekedar orang jahat dan Doc, orang yang memiliki banyak teman, ternyata tidak seperti yang terlihat selama ini. Alur cerita menjelaskan bahwa Mack memiliki sisi baik yang tidak disadari oleh banyak orang. Hal ini dapat dilihat saat Mack akan membuatkan pesta untuk Doc. Mack mau bekerja keras demi pesta tersebut dan dia sangat peduli dengan rencana untuk membuat Doc bahagia. Dia juga menaruh perhatian lebih terhadap kehidupan Doc daripada kehidupannya. Banyak orang yang tahu bahwa Doc adalah seorang yang baik dan bersahabat. Tetapi hanya Mack yang mengerti bahwa Doc sesungguhnya adalah seorang yang kesepian. Orang tidak menyadari akan hal tersebut hingga Doc mengungkapkan kepada mereka tentang kesendirianya melalui puisi yang dia baca. Jadi, tema yang dapat disimpulkan dari beberapa penemuan di atas adalah kadang kadang orang tidak seperti apa yang terlihat, dan terkadang orang lebih dari sekedar apa yang kita pikirkan. xii

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Literature is an object that has many benefits to be studied. Reader will find enjoyment when he reads an interesting story in the novel or beautiful rhymes in the poetry. Besides for pleasure, studying literature also gives the reader some understandings of complexity in human life. Literature is considered as an imitation of life because what is written in literature is usually a reflection of the author‟s point of view towards the real world. As Hudson (1963: 10) in An Introduction to the Study of Literature states Literature is a vital record of what men have seen in life, what they have experienced of it. What they have thought and felt about those aspects of it which have the most immediate and enduring interest for all of us. It is thus fundamentally an expression of life through the medium of language. It is important to understand to begin with, that literature lives by virtue of the life which it embodies. Therefore, studying literature can also be said as the study of human life as literature illustrates the human experiences in diverse situation. It gives knowledge of the way people deal with a problem in their life. Furthermore, Roberts and Jacobs (1987: 3) in Fiction: An Introduction to Reading and Writing state that literature enables the reader, both in everyday activities and in the decisions he is responsible for making as citizens, to develop a perspective on the events that occur in the world. Hence, after reading a literature the reader can apply that knowledge to assist him in reality. 1

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Moreover, literature has different kinds of types such as poetry, short story, play, and novel. According to Murphy (1972: 127) in Understanding Unseen, novel is the most widely practiced and most widely read form of literature in the world. Novel is a work of fiction written in narrative style and contains human experience in its story. The story of novel commonly deals with themes like friendship, social conflict, personal conflict, and love. The intrinsic elements such as plot, setting, and character play an important role in shaping a theme of the novel. There are many famous novelists in the world and one of them is John Steinbeck. Steinbeck is an American writer who is well known for his writing style that gives detailed description of the character and the environment in his story. Novel like Of Mice and Men (1937), The Grapes of Wrath (1939), and East of Eden (1952) are some of his notable works. While Cannery Row, which is chosen by the researcher for his thesis, is Steinbeck‟s 14thnovel first published in 1945. The title of the novel was taken from the name of a small American town near to Salinas, a place where Steinbeck lived. Similar to others Steinbeck‟s works, the story in Cannery Row is straightforward and concerns with conflict and social interaction. Although Cannery Row has a simple plot, the novel is capable of giving a clear picture of the human‟s lives that complex and full of problems. The story of Cannery Row takes place in a small town near cannery. People of different race, profession, and character live in that town. One day, Mack and the boys, a group of unemployed men, want to make a surprise party for Doc, an old man who owns and operates 2

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI the Western Biological Laboratory. Because of some reasons, the party becomes disaster and it makes Doc angry. After the situation returns to normal, Mack and the boys decide to make up for the party with a little help from the residents of Cannery Row. The story continues with Mack and the residents of Cannery Row work together to make a memorable party for Doc. The focus of this thesis is to reveal a theme in Cannery Row. The understanding of the plot and the character are used to determine the theme of the novel. Since plot, character, and theme are intrinsic elements of a literature, the close reading method is used to analyze them. The researcher chooses Cannery Row as a material for his thesis because the story in Cannery Row is realistic. It means that the story deals with the relation between human and their neighborhood. Besides, the characteristic of character that exists in the novel is similar to the characteristic of people in reality. For example, one usually meets a rude person like Mack, Chinese who always thoughtful like Lee Chong, or someone who is old and intellectual like Doc. Therefore, like the meaning of literature, the researcher believes that this novel can represent the reality of human relation in a society which consists of people with different characteristics. By studying theme of this novel, the researcher hopes to understand the complexity of human‟s character from Steinbeck's point of view that reflected through the plot and the characters within the novel. 3

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI B. Problem Formulation In the Cannery Row there are some problems related to the character and plot to define the theme of the story, therefore three questions are formulated as follows 1. How are the main characters described in the novel? 2. How is the plot described in the novel? 3. How do the main characters and the plot convey the theme of the novel? C. Objective of the Study The objective of the study is to reveal a theme in Cannery Row through analyzing the main characters and plot. In the first part of the analysis, the researcher analyses the characteristics of the two main characters to see their traits and their action towards the other characters. In the second part, the researcher studies the plot to understand the pattern of the story and to find the role of the main characters in the story. For the last part, the researcher relates the findings of the previous parts to reveal the theme of the studied novel. D. Definition of Terms The researcher gives definition of some important words that occur in this thesis to help the reader understand the meaning of the words. The terms close reading and tension are terms that often mentioned in this thesis. 4

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 1. Close Reading According to Abrams (1993: 247) in A Glossary of Literary Terms, Close reading is the detailed and subtle analysis of the complex interrelations and ambiguities (multiple meanings) of the components within a work. 2. Tension Tyson (2011: 41) in Using Critical Theory: How to Read and Write About Literature explains that tension in New Criticism refers to the interplay between two opposing concepts, such as conformity and rebellion, belonging and alienation, or harmony and conflict. The central or most important tension in literary text is generated by the two opposing concepts that most reflect the meaning of the text as a whole. A text‟s central tension is thus the clearest signpost to its theme. 5

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies Steinbeck‟s Cannery Row is considered as a good novel. The novel has a simple plot, colorful character, and interesting story. Although it is a good novel, not many students are interested to study Cannery Row. So far, the researcher only found two students that use Cannery Row as their thesis. First is Naomi Elizabeth who studied the characteristics of Doc and the second is Subagyo Agung Wibowo who studied about setting in Cannery Row. In the former, the researcher concludes that the characteristic of Doc in Cannery Row has the essence of the moral values of friendship and love. As Elizabeth (2010:62, 64) in her thesis The Moral Values Reflected In Doc’s Characteristics In John Steinbeck’s Cannery Row states that Doc is the character who cares not only to his friends but also to all inhabitants in Cannery Row. He is a person that respects the others and responsible to his job. Moreover, to reveal the characteristic of Doc, Elizabeth pays attention to the Doc‟s attitude and his reaction to the other characters‟ behavior. In the latter, Wibowo (2006: 60) in his thesis The Life of American Society in the Post World War I as Depicted in John Steinbeck’s Cannery Row implies that the setting in Cannery Row is the representation of life of American society in Post World War I. He explains that the description of the town Monterey in Cannery Row can represent the industrial society of American civilization, and the 6

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI description of the seaside district can represent a slum area and the life of its people in the 1940s of American Civilization. In addition, Wibowo uses the sociological approach to examine the sociology and the social history in Cannery Row. Furthermore, the author of Cannery Row John Steinbeck is known for his simplicity in writing story. His simplicity can be found in Cannery Row which has simple plot and natural characterization. Yardley (2008) in his article In 'Cannery Row,' a Preserved Simplicity states that people still read Steinbeck today because his books shine with conviction that comes from the heart. In Cannery Row, the character of Doc speaks for Steinbeck‟s innocence and selflessness when he said that Mack and the Boys can do anything if they want but they just know the nature of things too well to be caught in that wanting. Mack and the Boys are just like Steinbeck who is a complex, difficult and ambitious man but never lost his connection to the simpler life and values of his native region (http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2008-05-08/opinions/36871103_1_steinbeckcollection-john-steinbeck-s-cannery-row/2). Related to Steinbeck‟s writing style, Shilinglaw in her article Why Read John Steinbeck states that Steinbeck is famous for his writing style that embraces the fullness of life. Steinbeck invites the reader to pay attention to external landscape and humans relation to the land and internal landscape that often shaped by the places where they lived. For John Steinbeck, nature is not a commodity and animal is not for slaughter. He sees human as simply another species bound intimately to the places where they 7 live, drink, love, and suffer

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI (http://as.sjsu.edu/sits/content.jsp?val=teacher_why-read-john-steinbeck_whyread-john-steinbeck). The Steinbeck‟s Cannery Row is not merely a novel about people who live near cannery. According to May in her article The True Message of Cannery Row, in essence, Cannery Row is John Steinbeck's personal philosophy on human importance, his take on what humans should be like, and his criticism of society. In Cannery Row, Steinbeck admires people who live naturally. Whatever the cause, people who behave naturally can accept things without bitterness and they can be who they are as humans should be, like the character of Mack and the boys and Dora. Mack and the boys are group of people who live according to their own full freedom without intentionally offending against morality. In the same way, Dora is a great lady who has true human qualities because she does various things without considering virtue or vice. Through this novel, Steinbeck reminds the reader about the importance of natural beauty and the quality of humanity (http://www.mpcfaculty.net/molly_may/CR%20student%20essay.htm). From several statements that already mentioned above, the researcher concludes that Cannery Row is a novel that is able to present an interesting and inspiring story to the reader. The reader can learn moral lesson from the character in Cannery Row and the setting in the novel can give a view of life of American society in Post World War I. Moreover, the author John Steinbeck is a naturalist who his detailed writing style can arouse the reader‟s emotion and interest when reads his story. John Steinbeck also a person who cares with social issues and his 8

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI concern for social issues can be seen from the characterization of character that appears in his story. In this thesis, the researcher explores further about the story in Cannery Row. The researcher reveals a theme of Cannery Row by studying the characters and plot in the novel. After seeing the previous study, the researcher realizes that Steinbeck‟s works often deal with social issues. Hence, the researcher considers the findings on the previous study when formulating a theme in Cannery Row. B. Review of Related Theories To answer the problem formulation, some theories are used to support the analysis. Those theories are theory on character and characterization, theory on plot, theory on theme, and theory on New Criticism. 1. Theory on Character and Characterization In A Glossary of Literary Terms, Abrams (1993: 23) defines characters as the person presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expressed in their action and dialogue. Moreover, Robert (1987: 120-121) divides character in fiction into two, which E.M. Forster in Aspects of the Novel calls round and flat. Round characters are usually the major figures in a story and they are relatively fully developed by the author. They considered as dynamic because they posses many individual and unpredictable human trait. As contrast with round characters, flat characters are essentially undistinguishable from their group or class. They are usually minor characters and 9

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI mostly useful and structural in the stories. Round characters are static because they stay same from the beginning until the end of the story. Next, Rohrberger and Woods (1971: 20) in Reading and Writing about Literature explain that characterization is the process of author to create a character. According to them, there are two methods of characterization, direct method and dramatic method. Direct method is used for describes character‟s appearance while dramatic method is used for describes character‟s behavior. In addition, Abrams (1993: 24) gives two ways for characterizing a person in narrative, which are showing and telling. In showing, the author presents the characters talking and acting and leaves the reader to infer what motives and dispositions lies behind what they say and do. In telling, the author intervenes authoritatively to describe and to evaluate the motives and dispositional qualities of the characters. Another method of characterization is described by Murphy (1972: 161173). He gives several ways to see the characterization of character in literary work, which are Personal description, Character as seen by another, Speech, Conversation of others, Reactions, Direct comment, Thoughts, and Mannerisms. All in all, understanding about character in work of literature can help the reader to understand the whole story. Harvey (1968: 23) in Character and the Novel states I shall concentrate on character since most great novels exist to reveal and explore character. It may be objected that to treat character as an isolable element within the total pattern of the novel is misleading and ridiculous. Of course it is, in any particular case I shall be led on from character to consider other structural features of the work. 10

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Thus, character is an important element in order to understand the work of literature. Character is created to play an important role in the story and to give the essence of human experience to the story. Through analyzing a character, the reader will be easier to fathom the other elements of literature such as theme, plot, and message. 2. Theory on Plot Mario Klarer (1999: 15) in An Introduction to Literary Studies states that plot is the logical interaction of the various thematic elements of a text that lead to a change of the original situation that presented in the beginning of the story. There are several elements in a novel including character and plot. According to Abrams (1993: 159) character and plot influence each other The plot in a dramatic or narrative work is constituted by its events and action, as these are rendered and ordered toward achieving particular emotional and artistic effects. This description is deceptively simple, because the actions (including verbal discourse as well as physical actions) are performed by particular characters in a work, and are the means by which they exhibit their moral and dispositional qualities. Plot and character are therefore interdependent critical concepts as Henry James has said, “What is character but the determination of incident? What is incident but the illustration of character?‟ Moreover, the plot requires a set of events that may be laid out in chronological order or usually called major structure of the story (1987: 89). In this thesis, the researcher divides the structure into 5 parts: 1. Exposition It is the laying out of the materials in the story: the main characters, their backgrounds, their characteristics, goals, limitations, and potentials. It presents everything that important for the story (1987: 89-90). 11

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2. Rising Action Rising action is a part when the story builds and leads to the climax. 3. Climax Climax is the high point in the action. In this point the conflict and the consequent tension are brought out to the fullest extent. In other words, climax is the event in a story in which all the rest of the action becomes inevitable. This inevitability happens as a result of the fact that once the high point is reached, there must be an action or development that brings the climax to a conclusion (1987: 90). 4. Falling Action It is event when conflict is in the process of being solved. 5. Resolution The resolution is the set of actions which bring the story to the conclusion (1987: 90). 3. Theory on Theme Theme is the major idea of a story. “In a story, most things happen only as they have a bearing on the idea. Thus, actions, characters, statements, symbols, and dialogue may be judged in terms of how closely they relate to the idea or theme. In this sense, a theme runs throughout a story and ties things together much like a continuous thread.” (1987: 319) Furthermore, Holman (1986: 52) in A Handbook to Literature states that theme in fiction is the abstract concept that made to concrete through its representation in person, action, and image in the work. Nonetheless, Arp, 12

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Thomas R and Johnson, Greg in Perrine’s Literature: Structure, Sound and Sense argue that not all stories have a significant theme. Theme exists in almost all literary fiction but only in some commercial fiction. Theme exists only when an author has attempted to record life accurately or to reveal some truth about it or when an author has intentionally introduced as a unifying element some concept or theory of life that the story illuminates (2009:191-192). In addition, Thomas (2009: 195-197) suggests the reader who would like to formulate a theme to consider the following principles: 1. Theme should be defined in the form of statement with a subject and predicate. It is possible to express the theme in phrase but the phrase must be convertible to sentence form. 2. Theme should be stated in general. Avoid using the name of the characters or refer to a place or event. 3. The generalization of the theme should not be larger than is justified by the terms of the story. It is better not to use the terms like every, all, always. The terms like some, sometimes, may are often more accurate. 4. Theme is the central and unifying concept of the story. Thus, (a) it accounts for all the major details of the story. (b) The theme is not contradicted with the story. (c) The theme cannot rely upon supposed facts. 13

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5. There is no one way of stating the theme of a story. A story merely presents a view of life, as long as the above condition are fulfilled, that view can be stated in more than one way. 6. The theme should not be stated in familiar expression like “you can not judge a book by its cover” because it will reduce the essential meaning of the story. 4. Theory on New Criticism Abrams (1993: 81) describes New Criticism as a study that concerns with detailed consideration of the work itself. New criticism ignores the extrinsic elements of a work such as the biography of the author, the social condition when a work is created, reader‟s intention, and so on. The New Criticism points out the need for close reading in analysing a poem. In New Criticism poem means work of art. Moreover, Bressler (1999: 44 - 45) in Literary Criticism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice states that a method that is usually apllied in New Criticism is searching for a meaning within the structure of the text by finding the tensions and conflicts that must eventually be resolved into a harmonious lead to the creation of the poem‟s chief effect. Because conflict and tension control the poem‟s structure, the meaning of the poem can be discovered only by analysing contextually the poetic elements. 14

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI C. Theoretical Framework The object of this study is to reveal a theme in John Steinbeck‟s Cannery Row through analyzing the character and the plot in the novel. Thus, the researcher uses some theories that can be used to analyze the novel. Those theories are the theories on character and characterization, theories on plot, theories on theme, and theories on new critisism. The theories on character and characterization are used to analyze the characteristic of the main characters in the novel. When analyzing their traits, the researcher observes the characters‟ behavior and reaction to some events. The use of these theories is important to make the reader get the detailed information of the characters in order to answer the first problem formulation. The theories on plot are used to understand the structure of the story. Understanding the plot can help the researcher to understand the detail of the story and the role of the main characters. Thus, the use of these theories can help the researcher to answer the second problem formulation. The next theories, the theories on theme and the theories on new criticism are used to support the researcher to find the theme in the novel. The findings on the analysis of the characters and the plot are used together with these theories as a reference to create an appropriate sentence that is used as the theme of the novel. 15

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of the study is the Steinbeck‟s novel Cannery Row. The story of Cannery Row is taken from a book entitled Of Mice and Men and Cannery Row which is published by Penguin Books in 1945. Cannery Row consists of 135 pages and divides into 32 chapters. Cannery Row is considered as the simplest novel that is ever created by Steinbeck. The novel was written for a group of American soldiers who request Steinbeck to write a novel which does not talk about war, Thus, the story in Cannery Row was made simple and natural so that it will be easy to read and can entertain the soldier during the war. Although the story is simple, the depiction of realistic settings and characters created by Steinbeck in Cannery Row are able to give a deep impression to the reader. In 1982, Cannery Row was adapted into a movie with the same name, but the movie was less successful than the novel because it was considered too deviated from the original story. The original story of Cannery Row is about a society who lives in small town near cannery. This society consists of people with different background like scientist, unemployed, prostitute, carpenter, shopkeeper, and many more. Inside the society, there is a person who is disliked by others and his name is Mack. One day he has a plan to give apart for Doc. Somehow the party is failed and the visitors ruin the Doc‟s laboratory. Without knowing the truth, people blame Mack 16

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI for what happens in the Doc‟s laboratory. Although Mack knows that the people hate him, he does not give up with his plan. In the second attempt, the party is successful and he finally can make memorable party for Doc. B. Approach of the Study The focus of the study is to reveal a theme in the novel. “To find ideas in fiction, one must read the work carefully, considering the main characters and actions and evaluating such variables as tone, setting, and symbolism.” (1993: 321). Therefore, the researcher needs to analyze the plot and the characters of the story in order to find a theme in Cannery Row. Thus, the New Criticism is chosen as it is the best method to study the intrinsic element of the novel. New criticism has some procedures when it uses for analyzing a literature. New Criticism warns the reader when analyzing and evaluating a particular work that they should avoid reference of the extrinsic elements like, biography of the author, social conditions at the time of its productions, or its psychological and moral effects to the reader. In addition, the specific procedure of New Criticism is close reading. From the explanation above, it can be concluded that New Criticism ignores the extrinsic elements of literature and emphasizes the close reading to analyze a literature. Since this thesis focuses on studying intrinsic elements in Cannery Row, the researcher decides using New Criticism for the approach. This approach can help the researcher to analyze the plot and character in order to reveal the theme. 17

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI C. Method of the Study The researcher used library research as the method of the study. To answer the problem formulation in the chapter I, the researcher used two kinds of data: the primary data and the secondary data. For the primary data, the researcher used Steinbeck‟s novel Of Mice and Men and Cannery Row. For the secondary data, the researcher used some books as the references, like Abrams‟s Glossary of Literary Terms (1993), Understanding Unseens (Murphy, 1972).Fiction: An Introduction to Reading and Writing (Roberts and Jacobs, 1987),Reading and Writing about Literature (Rohrberger, 1971), A Handbook to Literature (Holman and Harmon, 1986). In the first step, the researcher read the novel Cannery Row several times to understand the story. The next step, the researcher decided to find the theme of the story using its main characters and plot. Therefore, the researcher formulated three problems and choosed new criticism as the approach. Then, the researcher analyzed every characters that occur in the story including their characteristic. Next, the researcher took some characters that considered as major or important characters and re-analyzed them to find the tension of the story. After analyzing the main characters, the researcher analyzed the plot and divided the structure of the plot into five parts. In the last step, the researcher related the finding on the analysis of the main characters with the finding on the analysis of the plot to find the theme. 18

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter is divided into three parts based on the problem formulation in the previous chapter. The first part is the analysis of the main characters. The second part is the description of the plot, and the last part is the analysis of theme in the story. A. The Analysis of the Main Characters The researcher uses some theories from the previous chapter to analyze the main characters, which are Mack and Doc. One of the theories that are chosen to analyze them is the theory of characterization from Murphy. The researcher starts to analyze the main characters by paying attention to the Murphy‟s statement. Murphy (1972: 161-173) in Understanding Unseen states that there are several ways that can be employed to characterize a character in literature. They are personal description, character as seen by another, speech, conversation of other, reaction, direct comment, thought, and mannerism. The Cannery Row presents Mack and Doc as its main characters. These characters appear in almost every chapter and have important role in the story. The researcher analyses the character of Mack first because he appears in the story before Doc. 1. The Character of Mack Mack was the elder, leader, mentor, and to small extent the exploiter of little group of men who had in common no families, no money, and no ambitions beyond, food, drink, and contentment (p. 96). 19

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Mack‟s character is described early in the story as a leader of a group of men that known as the boys. The novel never describes Mack‟s appearance. Instead, it describes Mack‟s trait through his behavior and other characters‟ perception. a. Tricky Mack is portrayed as a tricky person. His ability to make up story causes people become more careful when dealing with him. He deceives people for his own benefit, although sometimes he does it for a good purpose. In this story, Doc is a person that often deceived by Mack because he usually deals with him in collecting specimens. He remembered ruefully the time Mack sold him fifteen tom-cats and by night the owners came and got every one, ‟Mac,‟ he had asked, „why all tom-cats?‟ Mac said: ‟Doc, it‟s my own invention, but I‟ll tell you because you‟re a good friend. You make a big wire trap and then you don‟t use bait. You use-well- you use a lady cat. Catch every God-damn tom-cat in the country that way.‟ (p.126) It can be seen that Mack successfully deceives Doc by selling him stolen cats. This incident makes Doc lose his money and the cats. However, Mac‟s deception is not always successful because sometimes Doc already figured out the Mack‟s mindset. Mack got out and gave his paper to Red. He said: „Doc was a little short of change. So if you‟ll put five gallons in and just give us a buck instead of the other five gallons, why, that‟s what Doc‟s wants. He had to go south, you know. Had a big deal down there.‟ Red smiled good-naturedly. „You know, Mack,‟ he said.‟ Doc got to figuring if there was some kind of loop-hole, and he put his finger on the same one you did. Doc‟s a pretty bright fellow. So he phoned me last night.‟ (p. 134) The quotation above shows that Mack tries to deceive Red to get some money, but Doc already predicted the Mack‟s behavior and told Red not to give 20

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Mack the money. It is a nature of Mack to take advantage of the situation when he has a chance. Because the first attempt failed, he tries to deceive Red again using different approaches. „Put in the whole ten gallons,‟ said Mack. „No – wait. It‟ll slop around and spill. Put in five and give us five in a can – one of them sealed cans.‟ Red smiled happily. „Doc kind of figured that one too,‟ he said. „Put in ten gallons,‟ said Mack. „And don‟t go leaving none in the hose.‟ (p. 134) The same as the first attempt, Mack fails to deceive Red because of Doc‟s information. Realizing that he cannot deceive Red anymore, Mack gives up to take advantage and follows the Doc‟s order. Mack does not always deceive people for his own benefit. Sometimes, he deceives people for a good purpose or, precisely, to help him from a situation that can preclude him to help a person. „I don‟t allow fires on my place,‟ he said. „Well, we‟re sorry,‟ said Mack. „We‟ll get right out, Captain. You see, we‟re workin‟ for some scientists. We‟re tryin‟ to get some frogs. They‟re workin‟ on cancer and we‟re helpin‟ out getting some frogs.‟ The man hesitated for a moment. „What do they do with the frogs?‟ he asked. ‟Well, sir,‟ said Mack, „they give cancer to the frogs and then they can study and experiment and they got it nearly licked if they can just get some frogs. But if you don‟t want us on your land, Captain, we‟ll get right out. Never would of come in if we knew.‟ (p. 146) The conversation shows that Mack makes an excuse when a person known as Captain catches him set fire in the restricted area. Mack knows that the Captain is angry and tries to throw him out. He also knows that he cannot help Codify the Captain prohibits him to stay in the area. Therefore, Mack makes up a story and tells the Captain that they are assisting scientists with an important experiment. As a result, his story makes the Captain hesitate to expel him from the area. 21

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Because of his tricky character, sometimes people in Cannery Row feel uneasy when they encounter Mack. One of the people who ever experienced the feeling is Lee Chong, a grocery owner. One day Mack and the boys visit Lee‟s grocery to talk about his new building. „I and my friends thought we‟d ast you if we could move in there. We‟ll keep up on the property.‟ He added quickly. ‟Wouldn‟t let anybody break in or hurt anything. Kids might knock out the windows, you know…‟ Mack suggested. ‟Place might burn down if somebody don‟t keep an eye on it.‟ Lee tilted his head back and looked into Mack‟s eyes through the halfglasses and Lee‟s tapping finger slowed its tempo as he thought deeply. In Mack‟s eyes there was good will and good fellowship and a desire to make everyone happy. Why then did lee Chong feel slightly surrounded? (p. 97) The conversation above illustrates how cunning Mack is. Mack tries to take over one of the Lee Chong‟s buildings by threatening him. On the surface what Mack offers is actually a good thing, but when the sentences are looked closely the real meaning of what Mack says is, if he and the boys cannot live in the building, the building will be damaged by them. Mack is good at influencing people to follow what he wants. Again, Lee Chong is the person that his mind is successfully influenced by Mack. „So what we thought is this. We don‟t want to see you lose nothing, so we‟ll make over to you twenty-five frogs for a buck. You got a five frog profit there and nobody loses his shirt.‟ „No.‟ said Lee. „No money.‟ „Well, hell, Lee, all we need is a little groceries. I‟ll tell you what – we want to give Doc a little party when he gets back. We got plenty of liquor, but we‟d like to get maybe some steaks, and stuff like that. He‟s such a nice guy. Hell, when your wife had that bad tooth who give her the laudanum?‟ Mack had him. Lee was indebted to Doc – deeply indebted (p. 169). Mack wants to get the money soon from selling the frog, but Doc is away at the time. Mack comes up with an idea to trade the frogs with Lee‟s groceries. Knowing that Lee owes much from Doc, Mack convinces Lee by saying that all 22

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI what he does is for Doc. Lee, who is always thoughtful in making decision, finally agrees to trade the frogs with his groceries, although he is not sure that doing a favor for Mack is the same as helping Doc. b. Rude The rudeness of Mack can be seen from his talks. Mack sometimes uses abusive words when he speaks to the people in Cannery Row. The words like whore, pimp, and damn are the words that often used when he speaks. After a while William went back to the Bear Flag and he watched them through the window, and he heard Mack raise his voice saying: „But God damn it, I hate pimp!‟ Now this was obviously untrue, although William didn‟t know that. Mack and the boys just didn‟t like William. Now William‟s heart broke (p. 102). The above quotation explains that Mack seems does not care with other people‟s feeling when he talks. He is not aware that William can hear his voice and it saddens him. Mack likes using bad words and it seems a normal thing for him. Mack not only uses bad words with his friends, but he also uses bad words when he talks with the respectful Doc. “Well – no, he said. It‟s more important than that. You can‟t kill a whore. No – this is different.” (p.124) Besides using abusive words, Mack is a person that likes to fight when he is drunk. Mack can fight easily with someone just because a trivial thing. „At one – thirty a drunk wandered in and passed a remark which was considered insulting to Doc. Mack hit him a clip which is still remembered and discussed. The man rose off his feet, described a small arc and crashed through the packing – case in among the frogs (p. 176). Because of his rudeness, Mack ruins his own plan to give Doc a party and destroys the Doc‟s property. 23

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2. The Character of Doc Doc is the owner and operator of the Western Biological Laboratory. Doc is rather small, deceptively small, for he is wiry and very strong and when passionate anger comes on him he can be very fierce. He wears a beard and his face is half Christ and half satyr and his face tells the truth. It is said that he has helped many a girl out of one trouble and into another, Doc has the hands of a brain surgeon, and a cool warm mind (p.108). Doc is a protagonist in the story. Doc shows more positive traits than Mack. Everybody calls him Doc although he is not a doctor and nobody knows his real name. The story mainly describes Doc as a good person. a. Friendly Doc is a friendly person. He is very understanding and willing to explain everything that people do not understand. Doc would listen to any kind of nonsense and change it for you to a kind of wisdom. His mind had no horizon – and his sympathy had no warp. He could talk to children, telling them profound things so that they understood (p. 108). Doc is open to a person who he never knows before. The person is Frankie, a mentally handicapped boy. One day, Frankie runs away from his home and ends up in the Doc‟s laboratory. Frankie didn‟t often sleep at the laboratory, but he spent his days there. And sometimes he crawled in the excelsior crate and slept. That was probably when there was a crisis at home. Doc asked: „why do you come here?‟ „You don‟t hit me or give me a nickel,‟ said Frankie. „Do they hit you at home?‟ „There‟s uncles around all the time at home. Some of them hit me and tell me to get out‟ (p. 128). The conversation between Doc and Frankie depicts the friendliness of Doc. Frankie feels comfortable near Doc because Doc never hits him. Instead of 24

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI expelling Frankie from his laboratory, Doc allows him to stay and play in the lab. He also tries to be friend with Frankie by asking about his family. b. Kind Doc is a helpful person and it makes every people who know him want to do something nice for him.”Everyone who knew him was indebted to him. And everyone who thought of him thought next: I really must do something nice for doc” (p. 108). Mack is a person that experienced the Doc‟s kindness many times. He always remembers the good things that Doc did to him and shares the story to his friends. Mack nodded his head soberly. „That Doc is a hell of a nice fella,‟ he said. „he‟ll give you a quarter any time. When I cut myself he put on a new bandage every day. A hell of a nice fella‟ (p. 118). Doc is willing to come and visit the person that requires aid. When Mack tells him about Phyllis Mae got toothache, Doc wants to help her soon. „Hear about Phyllis Mae over at the Bear Flag? She hit a drunk and got his tooth in her fist and it‟s infected clear to the elbow. She showed me the tooth. It was out of a plate. Is a false-tooth poison, Doc?‟ „I guess everything that comes out the human mouth is of poison.‟ said Doc warningfully. „Has she got a doctor?‟ „The bouncer fixed her up,‟ said Mack. „I‟ll take her some sulfa,‟ said Doc (p. 124). Not only Mack who thinks Doc as a kind person, but also everybody in Cannery Row feels the same thing. When an epidemic strikes Cannery Row, many people call Doc for help. Now Doc of the Western Biological Laboratory had no right to practice medicine. It was not his fault that everyone in the Row came to him for medical advice. Before he knew it he found himself running for shanty to shanty taking temperatures, giving physics, borrowing and delivering 25

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI blankets, and even taking food from house to house where mothers looked at him with inflamed eyes from their beds, and thanked him and put the full responsibility for their children‟s recovery on him (p. 156). Doc is available if someone needs him. Although Doc is not a doctor, he wants to help them as far as he can. Doc also wants to take responsible on something that he never does in order to help people. When Frankie is caught because he stole an expensive clock, Doc comes to help him. „Frankie – you shouldn‟t have done it,‟ said Doc. The heavy stone of inevitability was on his heart. „Can‟t you parole him to me?‟ Doc asked. „I don‟t think the judge will do it,‟ said the chief. „We‟ve got a mental report. You know what‟s wrong with him?‟ „Yes,‟ Said Doc. „I know.‟ „And you know what‟s likely to happen when he comes into puberty?‟ „Yes, said Doc, „I know, „and the stone weighed terribly on his heart.‟ „The Doctor thinks we better put him away. We couldn‟t before, but now he‟s got a felony on him, I think we better.‟ As Frankie listened the welcome died in his eyes. „What did he take?‟ Doc asked. „A great big clock and a bronze statue.‟ „I‟ll pay for it.‟ „Oh we got it back. I don‟t think the judge will hear of it. It‟ll just happen again. You know that.‟ (p. 219-210) From the conversation above, it can be seen that Doc tries to negotiate with Chief so that Frankie is not jailed. Doc does not mind losing his money to help Frankie although Frankie is not his family. Doc gains nothing from help the people and everything what he does is pure the kindness of him. B. The Analysis of the Plot The researcher considers the analysis of the plot is essential to understand the theme of the story. The analysis of the plot is used to render a clear explanation about what happens in the story. By analyzing the plot, it can be seen the significance of the characters and their actions towards the sequence of the 26

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI story. Thus, the sequence of Cannery Row has a significant effect to reveal the theme of the story. In this section, the researcher divides the plot into five parts, which are exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution. 1. Exposition Exposition is an important part to understand the trait of the main characters. In this part, the story introduces many things such as the main characters, their backgrounds, their characteristics, goals, limitations, and potentials, that later are going to be important to the story (1987: 89-90). The story of Cannery Row begins with the description of Cannery Row as a town that is inhabited by different kinds of people. This part also introduces the residents of Cannery Row that some of them become the main characters of the story. Those people are Lee Chong, Mack, and Doc. Lee Chong, who is called Lee by others, is known as the owner of a grocery. His meeting with Mack initiates the first conversation between the two main characters in the story. Mack, who is known as a bum, persuades Lee to let him and the boys stay in one of Lee‟s buildings. The incident already explained in the previous section and it reveals the characteristic of Mack as a tricky person. Mack is seen by others as a bad person. In the contrary, the story portrays the character of Mack as the virtue, the grace, and the beauty. Mack and the boys, too, spinning in their orbits. They are the Virtues, the Graces, the Beauties of the hurried mangled craziness of Monterey and the cosmic Monterey where men in fear and hunger destroy their stomachs in the fight to secure certain food, where men hungering for love destroy everything lovable about them… What can it profit a man to gain the whole world and to come to his property with a gastric ulcer, a blown prostate, and 27

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI bifocals? Mack and the boys avoid the trap, walk around the poison, step over the noose while a generation of trapped, poisoned, and trussed-up men scream at them and call them no-goods, come-to-bad-ends, blots-on-thetown, thieves, rascals, bums (p. 99 - 100). The above quotation means that Mack is a person who is not obsessed with material or food. Mack is different from other people who live in Monterey. When people sacrifice everything to get money and food, Mack just acts naturally. He does not have money or place to live, but somehow, every time he needs money or food, he can get it without doing immoral things like steal, rob, or hurt someone. The story continues with the description of Doc. Doc is the owner of the Western Biological Laboratory. He is a kind person."It is said that he has helped many a girl out of one trouble and into another."(p. 108) Doc can easily get on with everyone, and most people who know him are indebted to him and want to do something nice for him. The Doc„s job is collecting animal and selling them for experiment. Doc sometimes collects marine animals in the Great Tide Pool, and he sometimes asks one of the boys to help him. The exposition mainly gives a brief description about how people see Mack and Doc differently. Mack is seen as a rascal, thief, and bum while Doc is seen as a kind and friendly person. 2. Rising action Rising action is a part when the story builds and leads the story to its climax. The beginning of the part starts when Mack and the boys decide to give their appreciation for Doc by giving him a party. On the afternoon when they sit around in the Palace, Mack tells to the boys about the Doc‟s kindness and he wants to do something for him. 28

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI „I been wondering for a long time.‟ Mack continued, „what we could do for him – something nice. Something he‟d like.‟ … „I thought it was a kind of party,‟ said Jones. A silence fell on the room. Mack shifted in his chaise longue. Hughie let the front legs of his chair down on the floor. They looked into space and then they all looked at Mack. Mack said: „Hum!‟ (p. 118 – 119) Mack cares about the plan to make Doc happy. He asks the boys to help him do something nice for Doc, and they decide to make a party for him. The trouble occurs when they must obtain money to give a good party for Doc. Thus, the only solution for them is searching for a job. They looked at one another speculatively. Hughie suggested: „The Heidondo Cannery is hiring guys.‟ „No,‟ said Mack quickly. „We got good reputations and we don‟t want to spoil them. Every one of us keeps a job for a month or more when we take one. That‟s why we can always get a job when we need one. S‟pose we take a job for a day or so – why we‟ll lose our reputation for sticking. Then if we needed a job there wouldn‟t nobody have us.‟ The rest nodded quick agreement. … „If Doc needs frogs it‟s a setup,‟ said Mack. „We could go up the Carmel River and have a little outing and we wouldn‟t tell Doc what it was for and then we‟d give him one hell of a party.‟ (p. 120) Mack is unemployed, but he is not a lazy person. Instead of asking someone for money, Mack chooses to do some work. It can be seen that he and the boys take turns to manage a line of work every month. In order to get money for the party, Mack and the boys decide to work for Doc. Following the discussion, Mack meets Doc to ask him for a job. Doc agrees to give Mack a job to catch hundreds of frogs. The problem is not over yet, Mack and the boys need a car to take them to the Carmel Valley where the frogs gather. Doc does not want to lend his car and they must find someone else. Then, they try 29

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI to ask Lee Chong, who owns a truck. Lee agrees to lend the truck and after some preparation, they ready to go to the valley. In the middle of the trip, Mack stops in Red‟s station to buy gasoline. Mack thinks about getting some money by changing Doc‟s order. Before the trip, Doc gave him a note to buy ten gallons of gasoline. Suppose he just buys five gallons and asks Red to give him money instead of the rest, he can keep the money. However, Mack‟s plan is already predicted by Doc. He phoned Red to warn him about the Mack‟s trickery. Thus, Red follows the Doc‟s order and refuses to give Mack the money. Next day, Mack and the boys arrive in the valley. They stop near the small river as they believe it is a perfect spot for hunting frog. They cook dinner and wait for the night in that place. After finishing the dinner, Mack suddenly remembers the reason why they come to the valley. Here we are,‟ he said earnestly, „the whole God damn shabby lot of us. We worked it out that we wanted to give Doc a party. So we come out here and have a hell of a lot of fun. Then we‟ll go back and get the dough from Doc. There‟s five of us, so we‟ll drink five times as much liquor as he will. And I ain‟t sure we‟re doin‟ it for Doc. I ain‟t sure we ain‟t doin‟ it for ourselves. And Doc‟s too nice a fella to do that to. Doc is the nicest fella I ever knew. I don‟t want to be the kind of a guy that would take advantage of him. You know one time I put the bee on him for a buck. I give him a hell of a story. Right in the middle I seen he knew God damn well the story was so much malarky. So right in the middle I says, „Doc, that‟s a fuggin‟ lie!‟ And he put his hand in his pocket and brought out a buck. „Mack,‟ he says, ‟I figure a guy that needs it bad enough to make up a lie to get it, really needs it,‟ and he give me the buck. I paid him that buck back the next day. I never did spend it. Just kept it overnight and then give it back to him.‟ (p.144) The above conversation explains that Mack cares so much about Doc. He reminds the boys about the reason they come to the Carmel Valley, and he asks 30

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI the boys not to take advantage of the Doc‟s kindness. Deep inside his heart, Mack is actually a good hearted person. He wants to help Doc and creates him a party. In addition, Mack also feels guilty when he lies to Doc and gives back the Doc‟s money, although he needs it badly. The night comes into the valley when suddenly a man appears in front of Mack and the boys. The man is called Captain and he is angry because they set fire in restricted area. Mack is good at handle that kind of situation. Using his ability to make up story, Mack successfully deceives the Captain. As a result, the Captain changes his mind and asks them to come into his house. In the house, Mack and the boys enjoy drinking beers that are served by the Captain. Two hours later, Mack and the boys decide to begin the frog hunting. They must work hard because the pool is wide and deep. The trap method that they use successfully catches hundred of frogs. After satisfy with the result, they back to Cannery Row. While Mack and the boys are engaged in the frog hunting, Doc busy helps people who have influenza in Cannery Row. Many people need his help and it makes him do not have enough sleep. Although people can see Doc as a kind and friendly person, they are not aware that Doc is not a person who he appears to be. In spite of his friendliness and his friends Doc was a lonely and a set-apart man. Mack probably noticed it more than anybody. In a group, Doc seemed always alone. When the lights were on and the curtains drawn, and the Gregorian music played on the great phonograph, Mack used to look down on the laboratory from the Palace Flophouse. He knew Doc had a girl in there, but Mack used to get a dreadful feeling of loneliness out of it. Even in the clear close contact with a girl Mack felt that Doc would be lonely (p. 157). Mack realizes that Doc is a lonely person. He can feel the Doc‟s loneliness in every situation. Doc has many friends, but it cannot hide the atmosphere of 31

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI loneliness in him. Thus, the Gregorian music that he plays every day can be a method that he uses to erase his loneliness. Besides active helping people, Doc is always busy with his job. After the epidemic ends, he continues to collect animals. Doc usually has companion when he does the job. Sometimes when his friends are busy, he collects the animals alone. It takes a day from his laboratory to the beach where he collects the specimens. It took Doc longer to go places than other people… Driving up to Lighthouse avenue he waved at a dog that looked round and smiled at him… While he ate his sandwich and sipped his beer, a lot of conversation came back to him (p. 159). Although Doc is friendly, it is not always easy for him to find a companion. It can be seen that Doc feels lonely even when he does the job. To erase his loneliness, Doc waves at a dog and maybe imagines it as a person. He sometimes remembers a conversation with his friend because he does not have a friend to talk. Next day, Mack and the boys come back from their trip. They are hungry so they really want to trade the frog with the money soon. Because Doc is away at the time, Mack convinces Lee to trade the frog with groceries. Once more, Mack successfully makes Lee follow what he wants. Mack and the boys trade the frogs with eggs, bread, steak, and other foods. After the trade, they sit around to discuss the party. His voice grew mellow and his eyes looked into the future. „I can just see it,‟ he said. „Doc comes home. He‟s tired. He drives up. The place is all lit up. He thinks somebody‟s broke in. He goes up the stairs and by God the place has got the hell decorated out of it. There‟s crepe paper and there‟s favors and a big cake. Jesus, he‟d know it was a party then. And it wouldn‟t 32

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI be no little mouse fart party neither. And we‟re kind of hiding so for a minute he don‟t know who done it. And then we come out yelling. Can‟t you see his face? By God, Hughie, I don‟t know how you thought of it.‟ (p. 172) Mack is joyful to imagine that the party is successful. Because of the hard work, he finally gets enough goods for the party. It can be assured that all of his hard works are just to make Doc happy. The discussion about the party is ended with small changes in the plan. Mack and the boys add a cake and decorations for the party. With some frogs left, they decide to trade them with a quart of whisky and two gallons of wine for Doc. At night, they begin to decorate the Doc‟s room. They decorate it with crepe paper and they put the frogs in the middle of the room. All the preparation is set up and they only wait for Doc to go back from his job. 3. Climax The preparation for the party is done. Mack and the boys still wait for Doc to come home. After waiting for a while, they decide to start the party without Doc. At eleven o‟clock, the party becomes lively. Some people who live near the laboratory come and join the party. Mack and the boys are drunk and not aware with the situation. The party ends when everybody feels satisfied. The visitors abandon the party and leave the broken property behind them. Early morning, Doc comes back from the trip and his body feels very tired. When he enters the laboratory, he sees everything is in a mess. Someone broke his property and it makes him angry. He goes straight to the second floor and meets with Mack. Without giving Mack time to explain, Doc punches Mack on his face. Mack does not fight back. He feels sorry for what he did to Doc. 33

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI „I and the boys wanted to give you a party. We thought you‟d be home last night.‟ Doc nodded his head. „I see.‟ „She got out of hand,‟ said Mack. „It don‟t do no good to say I‟m sorry. I been sorry all my life. This ain‟tno new thing. It‟s always like this. „He swallowed deeply from his glass. „I had a wife, Mack said. „Same thing. Everything I done turned sour. She couldn‟t stand it anymore. If I done a good thing it got poisoned up some way. If I give her a present they was something wrong with it. She only got hurt from me.‟ (p.179) The statement from Mack gives a clear explanation about what happened to the party. Mack wants to give Doc a party, but somehow the party was going out of control. Mack never has intention to destroy the Doc‟s lab. The incident is unexpected. After knowing the truth, Doc forgives Mack and asks him to forget the incident. Mack does not say anything when he returns to the Palace. He goes straight to the bed and sleep. A black gloom settled over the Palace Flophouse. All the joy went out of it. Mack came back from the laboratory with his mouth torn and his teeth broken. As a kind of penance, he did not wash his face. He went to his bed and pulled his blanket over his head and he didn‟t get up all day. His heart was as bruised as his mouth. He went over all the bad things he had done in his life and everything he had ever done seemed bad. He was very sad (p. 184). Mack is very disappointed about the party. He already worked hard to create it. He only wants to do a good thing, to make Doc happy, but because of some reasons, the result is terrible. It can be seen that Mack feels very sad when he does a bad thing. People in Cannery Row have different opinions about the incident in the laboratory. They believe that Mack and the boys stole liquor and money from the Lee Chong‟s grocery. Without knowing the truth, people accuse Mack and the 34

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI boys as rascals who destroyed the Doc‟s laboratory for their satisfaction. Some of them also want to beat Mack and the boys because of what they have done to Doc. The situation in Cannery Row is not friendly for Mack and the boys. Many people hate them and do not want talk to them. The only thing that they can do is keeping up their solidarity to save them from reprisal. The situation becomes worse when Darling, Mack‟s dog, is sick. In general, the climax is the highest point in a fiction. Robert and Jacob state that at this point the conflict and the consequent tension are brought out to the fullest extent (1987: 90). This part mainly tells about the failure of the party. The conflict happens because Doc misunderstands the appearance of Mack in his lab. Doc forgives Mack for the incident, but people in Cannery Row cannot forget about it. Everybody blames Mack and the situation becomes worse after his dog is sick. The hard work that Mack and the boys did seems useless and turns into bad things. 4. Falling action The falling action is the event when the conflict is in the process of being solved. The part starts when Mack and the boys do not know how to deal with dog‟s fever. They try to put a cool cloth on Darling‟s forehead, but her condition gets weaker each day. They panic and the last thing that they can do is asking Doc for help. Doc agrees to help Darling. This incident also ends the tension between Doc and Mack. After checking Darling‟s condition, Doc asks Mack to force her to eat. Mack does what the Doc said. He forces Darling to eat every two hours. In the 35

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI morning she wants to eat and by the end of the week, she becomes healthy. The incident makes Mack and the boys happy. Finally, they can erase the sad moment that they have after the party. On the other day, Mack visits the Bear Flag bar to meet the owner, Dora. Mack wants to ask Dora about her idea to make up for the party. „Well‟ said Mack, „I and the boys thought we‟d ask you. You know what we think of Doc. We wanted to ask you what you thought we could do for him that would kind of show him.‟ (p. 193) Mack does not give up making a party for Doc. He and the boys really want to show their appreciation for Doc‟s kindness. Because the former party was failed, he asks other people to ensure the next party to be successful. The former party was failed because they gave the party when Doc was absent. Due to the reason, Dora suggests to give Doc a party when he is present in his lab. Mack agrees with Dora‟s suggestion and tells the boys about the idea. After some days, the rumor about the party begins to spread in Cannery Row. Mack does not tell anybody about the party, but somehow they know about it. People are enthusiastic to join the party and want to give something to Doc. Lee Chong prepares twenty five-foot string of firecrackers and a big bang of China lily bulbs for the party. Sam Malloy has the connecting rod and piston for the presents. Henry the painter has a giant pincushion for Doc. Mack and the boys know that Doc wants a tom cat so they decide to set a trap and successfully catch twenty five tom cats. The last person that wants to give Doc a present is Frankie. His love towards Doc encourages him to give something for Doc. Unfortunately Frankie does not 36

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI have money to buy a present. Therefore, he breaks into the Jewelry Store and takes a beautiful clock from it. Before he can give the clock to Doc, he is caught by the police. Doc is called to the police station because Frankie often stays with him lately. When Doc asks Frankie the reason why he stole the clock, he tells that he did it because he loves Doc. 5. Resolution The resolution is the set of actions that bring the story to the conclusion (1987: 90). The resolution usually directs quickly because the conflicts are over. It begins on 27 October afternoon when the people prepare themselves for the party. The party starts when Mack and the boys come in the Doc‟s laboratory. After a while, Dora comes followed by Sam Malloy, Henry, Mr and Mrs Gay, and Lee Chong. In the middle of the party, Doc plays some beautiful songs using his phonograph. While the party listens to the song, Docks taking a book and read it Even now If my girl with lotus eyes came to me again Weary with the dear weight of young love, Again I would give her to these starved twins of arms And from her mouth drink down the heavy wine, As a reeling pirate bee in fluttered ease Steals up the honey from the nenuphar (p. 217). From the sentences of the book that Doc reads, the researcher concludes that Doc feels lonely because he misses a woman that he loves. The sentences of the quotation are taken from the poem entitled Black Marigolds. The poem is mainly about a love story between a poet and a king‟s daughter. It can be seen that Doc tries to share his feeling of loneliness to the others. Although Doc has many 37

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI friends and he is sitting together with them, he still feels lonely and shares the feeling to them. The second party is successful. Everybody has a good time, including Doc. Following day, Doc wakes up and feels tired because of the party last night. He turns the hot water on and washes the glasses. While he washes the glasses, Doc is speaking to himself Even now I know that I have savored the hot taste of life Lifting green cups and gold at the great feast. Just for a small and a forgotten time I have had full in my eyes from off my girl The whitest pouring of eternal light. . . He wiped his eyes with the back of his hand (p. 224). From the citation above, it can be understood that the party seems cannot erase the Doc‟s loneliness. Doc has many friends in Cannery Row and everybody loves him, but it cannot make him become a cheerful person. Until the end of the story, Doc is still a lonely person and it seems that not many people in Cannery Row know about it. C. The Contribution of Main Characters and Plot Analyses in Determining the Theme After analyzing the main characters and the plot of the story, the researcher needs to relate these elements to find out the theme in Cannery Row. In this part, the researcher explains about the contribution of the main characters and the plot in determining the theme. Roberts in Fiction: An Introduction to Reading and Writing states that actions, characters, statements, symbols, and dialogue are closely related to the 38

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI idea or theme. In this sense, a theme runs throughout a story and ties things together much like a continuous thread (1987: 319). It means, the analysis of the character and plot are needed in revealing a theme because they play important role in shaping the idea of the story. Based on the concept, the researcher tries to find the theme using the findings on the character analysis and the plot analysis from the previous chapter. In the character analysis, the researcher analyses Mack and Doc because the story focuses on the life of those characters. In addition, those characters are related to each other and have significant effect to the story. The finding on the analysis of the main characters shows that Mack has tricky and rude characteristics. The Mack‟s characteristics have good and bad effects for his life and the life of residents in Cannery Row. For example, both of his tricky and rude characteristics make people have bad perception in him. “He was tapping the rubber mat with his gold ring and considering the problem when the door opened and Mack came in.” (p. 96). Because of his characteristics, some people in Cannery Row become uneasy when they meet Mack. “He looked up a little nervously as Mack entered. It was not that trouble always came in with Mack, but something always entered with him.” (p. 124). In addition, his rude characteristic becomes a factor that makes the party failed. The party failed because Mack cannot control his emotion and destroys the Doc‟s lab. Altought his characteristics mainly give negative effect to the people, sometimes they can be useful for him to do a good thing, like giving Doc a party. The party exists because Mack sucessfully tricks Lee and the Captain to follow what he wants. 39

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI The other character in the novel is Doc. Doc is a friendly and kind person. He has good manner and wants to be friend with everyone. Doc likes to help people. He gives a job to Mack and the boys, he allows Frankie to stay in his house, he acts like a doctor when an epidemic strikes Cannery Row, and many more. His characteristics make many people ask him for help. Sometimes, Doc does not have enough sleep because he must help people who need him. Because of his generosity, everybody in Cannery Row wants to do something nice for him, including Mack. The Mack‟s idea to give Doc a party occurs because of the Doc‟s kindness. The Doc‟s good traits also make him become a lovable person. “Frankie looked a long time at him. „I love you,‟ he said. (p. 210). The analysis of the main characters describes the tension between Mack and Doc. According to New Criticism, finding the tension is very important to understand the theme of the story. Thus, the tension that can be drawn from those analyses are bad characteristic versus good characteristic. It can be seen that the bad characteristics of Mack and the good characteristics of Doc influence the people‟s opinion and attitude towards them. People in Cannery Row think negative and become uneasy when they meet Mack. In the other hand, people love Doc and always want to do something nice for him. The findings also explain that their characteristics trigger some actions that important to the flow of the story. The findings on the character analysis give brief explanation about the tension between Mack and Doc, but they do not give enough information about what really happen in the story. Therefore, it is necessary for the researcher to relate their characteristics to the plot of the story. The analysis of the plot is used 40

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI to arrange the important events that happen in the story. It also gives a clear description about the main characters‟ role to the story. Besides, the analysis can give a clear picture of the tension building and the conflict that occur in the novel. The exposition of the story begins with the conversation between Mack and Lee. In the conversation, Mack threatens Lee to get his acceptance to stay in Lee‟s building. Mack‟s tricky offering makes Lee afraid to refuse it. Although Mack threatens Lee, he never steals or hurts Lee to get the acceptance. Mack has negative characteristics, but he is different from what the people think of him. Mack is called thief and rascal, but the truth is, he never steals or hurts someone to get what he wants. The exposition continues and shifts the focus on the introduction of Doc. Doc is a friendly and kind person. He has helped many people in Cannery Row, including Mack. Doc never knows that his kindness affects Mack‟s inner feeling. Mack feels indebted to Doc, and it makes him want to give Doc a party. He asks the boys to help him with his plan. Mack does not have enough money for the party, but he does not want to ask someone for it. Instead, he wants to work in order to get money. Mack asks Doc for a job and he gives him a job to catch hundreds of frogs. In the middle of the work, Mack suddenly feels guilty because he already done something bad to Doc. Thus, before start to work, Mack warns the boys not to take advantage on the Doc‟s kindness. Mack is very keen to make Doc happy. He is eager to work hard for the party. He is willing to deal with thoughtful Lee, the angry Captain, and struggle in the wide and deep pool to get enough frogs that later can be traded with money. 41

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Meanwhile in Cannery Row, Doc is busy helping people who have influenza. People ask Doc to take care of their family because they know that Doc is a kind person. In fact, the people only know Doc as a kind and friendly person. They do not aware that Doc has a problem with loneliness.Doc has many friends and his life is surrounded by people that love him, but somehow Doc always feels lonely. Mack knows well about it. Mack, who has difficult life, takes more attention on the Doc‟s life than his own life. Mack notices that Doc seems always alone, even when he is in a group. Next day, all the preparation for the party is complete. Mack can get all the items for the party after successfully tricking Lee to trade his groceries with frogs. Mack looks very satisfied with the results as he already worked hard for it. Then, they begin to decorate the laboratory and wait for Doc to return. Until late night, Doc still does not come back from his work, and Mack and the boys decide to start the party without him. As a result, the party becomes disaster. Everybody ruins the Doc‟s lab and breaks some of his property. Mack is very sad for what happens in the Doc‟s lab. He only wants to make Doc happy, but the result is far from his expectation. Mack is a rude person, but he feels very sad when he does a bad thing. Without knowing the truth, people in Cannery Row blame Mack for what happens in the Doc‟s lab. Some of them do not want talk to Mack, and the others want to beat him. The Mack‟s problem becomes worse when his dog is sick. The best option for Mack is calling Doc for help. Doc agrees to help him. Next day, the Mack‟s dog begins to recover and back to its shape. Once again, Doc shows 42

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI that he is a kind person. Doc forgives Mack for the incident in his lab, although he suffers great loss. Mack gives up on his wife, but he does not surrender to give Doc a party. Following day, he asks suggestion about the replacement party to Dora, and she advises him to give a party when Doc is present. Mack never tells the party to anyone, but everybody seems know about it. They want to join the party and give something special for Doc. Thus, this event also ends the tension between Mack and the residents of Cannery Row. People begin to know that Mack is not as bad as it seems. In the second party, Mack does not work alone. This time he is helped by residents of Cannery Row who wants to give something to Doc and make sure the party to be successful. In the evening, some residents of Cannery Row gather in the Doc‟s laboratory. Some of them bring special presents for Doc. In the middle of the party, Doc reads a poem that makes people around him feels sad. Through the poem, Doc wants to share to everyone about his feeling of loneliness that he has until now. Doc is not what he seems to be. Doc, who always busy with his job and does good things, is actually a lonely person. Doc, who is loved by people around him and has many friends, is not supposed to feel lonely. The party is successful and everybody is happy. Mack shows to the people that he is not as bad as the people think of him. Mack is more than just a tricky and rude person. Mack is a good person who cares with Doc‟s life more than his own life. He already gave many things to make Doc happy. There is a time when people in Cannery Row hate him and say anything bad about him. At the time, it 43

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI is easier for Mack to forget the party and continues with his life. However, Mack never hates them and keeps focus on his objective. In the end, he is the only person that gives an opportunity to the people to show their love to Doc. All in all, the analysis of the plot complements the tension that already mentioned in the analysis of the main characters. The researcher concludes that the goodness and badness of a person cannot be determined by his characteristics. The conclusion is taken from the events that happen in the story, especially from the conflict between Mack and Doc. The analysis above describes that the conflict happens because Doc misunderstands with the appearance of Mack in his ruined lab. Doc has negative opinion in Mack because he has been tricked many times by Mack. Thus, Doc without hesitation punches Mack because he thinks that Mack intentionally wants to destroy his lab, but after knowing the truth, Doc forgives Mack and ask him to forget about the incident. In the other hand, people in Cannery Row who already have negative opinion in Mack still cannot forgive him because they think Mack destroying the Doc‟s lab for his own satisfaction. It is true that Mack is responsible for the party, but what really happens to the party is an incident. Mack is different from what the people thinks. People call Mack as a thief and rascal because of his characteristics, but the plot analysis explains that Mack never steal or hurt someone to please himself . The same thing happens with the Doc. People always think positive about Doc because he has good characteristics. They never aware that Doc is lonely until Doc tells them about his loneliness through the poem. 44

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI After relating the findings on the analysis of the main characters and the plot, the researcher concludes that the appropriate theme for the Steinbeck‟s Cannery Row is sometimes people are not what they seem to be and sometimes people are so much more than we originally thought. The theme is formulated based on the focus of the story that is the lives of Mack and Doc. The story shows that Mack is actually more than a tricky and rude person who is always looked down by many people, and Doc is a friendly and kind person who has many friends, but he always feels lonely in every situation. 45

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In this chapter, the researcher concludes the analysis to cover the three problem formulations. The three problem formulations are how the main characters are described in the novel, how the plot is described in the novel, and how the main characters and the plot convey the theme of the novel. The answers of these questions are given based on the previous analyses. The main characters of the story that have been analyzed are Mack and Doc. Mack is described as a tricky and rude person while Doc is explained as a friendly and kind person. These characters are described based on their action towards the other characters in the story. Although Mack is described as a person who has negative traits, the plot of the story reveals that Mack has good characteristics that the other characters never notice them. The same thing also happens in the Doc‟s characteristics. People know Doc as a kind and friendly person, but they never notice that Doc is a lonely person. The plot is divided into five parts. The first part is the exposition. The exposition mainly describes the characters of residents in Cannery Row. This part also describes the people‟s opinion of Mack and Doc. The second part is the rising action. The rising action starts when Mack wants to create a party for Doc. Mack must deal with many obstacles before he finally has enough money to start the party. The next part is the climax. The climax is when Mack starts the party without the presence of Doc. The party becomes disaster and the conflict between Mack and Doc occurs in this part. The conflict happens because Doc thinks that 46

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Mack intentionally wants to destroy his lab. The incident also makes the residents of Cannery Row hate Mack. The Mack‟s problem become worse after his dog is sick. The fourth part is the falling action. This part tells that Doc forgives Mack for what happens in his lab. In response, Mack decides to make up for the party. Somehow, people in Cannery Row know about the party and they want to join it. The last part is the resolution. This part focuses on the successor the party. In the middle of the party, Doc reveals to the people about his loneliness through the poem that he read. In conclusion, the researcher has analyzed the characters of Mack and Doc. Both of them are the most important characters in the story. Their action can tie the story and plot together to make the novel become interesting and meaningful. Through this novel, the reader can learn that people usually judge a person‟s quality simply based on his characteristic that they see or what others say about it. The image about the phenomenon is portrayed in the character of Mack. Mack, who is known as a bad person actually has a good side that many people never notice it. Mack is more than a tricky and rude person who always looked down by many people. Mack has quality to become a good person, but because he often shows his bad characteristics instead of good characteristics, it makes people think and judge him as a bad person. The other character, Doc is a person that is always busy with his job and doing good things. His characteristics make him get many friends. Nonetheless, Doc is actually a lonely person and many people do not know about it. Doc is not 47

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI what he seems to be. Doc is a busy person and has many friends, but he always feels lonely in every situation. Based on the explanation above, the theme of Cannery Row that can be concluded from the analysis of the main characters and the plot are sometimes people are not what they seem to be and sometimes people are so much more than we originally thought. 48

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M. H. Glossary of Literary Terms. Ed. Ted Buchhols. 6th ed. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publisher, 1993. Arp, Thomas R. & Johnson, Greg. Perrine`s Literature (10th edition): Structure, Sound, and Sense. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Bressler, Charles E. Literary Criticism: An In troduction to Theory and Practice, Second Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1999. Elizabeth, Naomi. The Moral Values Reflected in Doc’s Characteristics in John Steinbeck’s Cannery Row. Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2010. Harvey, W. J. Character and the Novel, New York: Cornell University Press, 1968. Holman, C. Hugh & William Harmon, eds. A Handbook to Literature.5th edition. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1986. Hudson, W.H. An Introduction to The Study of Literature. London: George G Herrap & Co. Ltd, 1963. Klarer, Mario. An Introduction to Literary Studies. London: Routledge, 1999. May, Molly. “The True Message of Cannery Row” (28 Oct 2013). Murphy, M.J. Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1972. Roberts, Edgar V and Henry F. Jacobs. Fiction: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. New York: Prentice Hall, 1987. Rohrberger, Mary and Samuel H. Woods Jr. Reading and Writing about Literature. New York: Random House, 1971. Shillinglaw, Susan. “Why Read John Steinbeck” (28 Oct 2013). 49

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men and Cannery Row. Hormandsworth: Penguin Books, 1967. Tyson, Lois. Using Critical Theory: How to Read and Write About Literature (2nd Edition). London: Routledge, 2011. Wibowo, Subagyo A. The Life of American Society in the Post-World War I as Depicted in John Steinbeck’s Cannery Row. Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2006. Yardley, Jonathan. “In 'Cannery Row,' a Preserved Simplicity” (2008) (22 Oct 2013). 50

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX Summary of John Steinbeck’s Cannery Row Cannery Row is a story about people who lives in a small town called Cannery Row. Among the residents of Cannery Row, live two people who become the focus of the story. Their names are Mack and Doc. People in Cannery Row know Mack as a bad person because of his tricky and rude characteristics. People sometimes feel uneasy when they meet Mack. The other character, Doc is known as a good person. Everybody loves him because he is very kind and likes to be friend with everyone. One day, Mack who is affected by the Doc‟s kindness, wants to make a party for Doc. In order to get the money for the party, he asks Doc for a job. Doc gives him a job to catch hundred of frogs. Mack takes the job and asks his friends to help him. After done with the job, they get enough money to create the party. In the afternoon, when Doc leaves his laboratory, Mack and his friends begin to prepare everything in the lab. The preparation is set up and they only need to wait for Doc to come back. Until late night, Doc still does not come back from his work. Mack and his friends cannot wait any longer and they decide to start the party without Doc. The party attracts people near the lab. The visitors join the party and destroy the Doc‟s laboratory. After satisfied with the party, the visitors abandon the lab and leave the broken property. 51

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Doc comes back from his work in the early morning. He enters the lab and sees his properties were broken. When he sees Mack in his house, he is very angry and punches Mack in his face. Mack feels very sorry for the incident that has happened in the lab. He tells the Doc that he only wants to make a party for him but it becomes disaster after the visitors join the party. After listening the Mack‟s excuse, Doc forgives him and asks him to forget about the incident. Because of the incident, people begin to hate Mack and his friends. Without knowing the truth, people judge Mack as a thief and rascal who destroyed the Doc‟s lab for his own satisfaction. Some people in Cannery Row want to beat Mack and some of them do not want to talk to Mack. The Mack‟s problems become worse after his dog is sick. Mack cannot do anything and he asks Doc for help. Doc wants to help him and suggests Mack to force his dog to eat. A week later, Mack‟s dog is healthy again and he finally can erase the sad moment that he has after the incident in the lab. In the other day, Mack visits Dora to ask suggestion about the make up for the party. Dora suggests him to make a party when Doc is present. Mack follows her suggestion and begins to prepare everything for the second party. This time, Mack is not alone because many of the residents of Cannery Row want to join the party and give something for Doc. The party starts when Mack comes in the Doc‟s lab followed by the others. The second party is successful and everybody is happy. In the middle of the party, 52

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Doc reads a poem that makes people feel very sad. Through the poem, Doc wants to tell everyone about his loneliness that he has. 53

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