FENG’S STRUGGLES AGAINST THE PRACTICES OF CHINESE PATRIARCHAL CULTURE IN DUNCAN JEPSON’S ALL THE FLOWERS IN SHANGHAI: A FEMINIST READING

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI FENG’S STRUGGLES AGAINST THE PRACTICES OF CHINESE PATRIARCHAL CULTURE IN DUNCAN JEPSON’S ALL THE FLOWERS IN SHANGHAI: A FEMINIST READING AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By THERESIA ANNA SAPUTRO Student Number : 104214025 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 ii

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis FENG’S STRUGGLES AGAINST THE PRACTICES OF CHINESE PATRIARCHAL CULTURE IN DUNCAN JEPSON’S ALL THE FLOWERS IN SHANGHAI: A FEMINIST READING By Theresia Anna Saputro Student Number: 104214025 Approved by Dra. A.B. Sri Mulyani, M.A., Ph.D. Advisor September 12, 2014 Maria Ananta Tri S., S.S., M.Ed. Co-Advisor September 12, 2014 iii

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis FENG’S STRUGGLES AGAINST THE PRACTICES OF CHINESE PATRIARCHAL CULTURE IN DUNCAN JEPSON’S ALL THE FLOWERS IN SHANGHAI: A FEMINIST READING By Theresia Anna Saputro Student Number: 104214025 Defended before the Board of Examiners on September 29,2014 and Declared Acceptable BOARD OF EXAMINERS Name Signature Chairperson : Dr. F.X. Siswadi, M.A. _________________ Secretary : Dra. A. B. Sri Mulyani, M.A., Ph.D. _________________ Member 1 : Harris Hermansyah Setiajid M.Hum. _________________ Member 2 : Dra. A. B. Sri Mulyani, M.A., Ph.D. _________________ Member 3 : Maria Ananta Tri S., S.S., M.Ed. _________________ Yogyakarta, September 29, 2014 Faculty of Letters Sanata Dharma University Dean Dr. F.X. Siswadi, M.A. iv

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis Yogyakarta, September 29, 2014 Theresia Anna Saputro v

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma Nama : Theresia Anna Saputro Nomor Mahasiswa : 104214025 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul FENG’S STRUGGLES AGAINST THE PRACTICES OF CHINESE PATRIARCHAL CULTURE IN DUNCAN JEPSON’S ALL THE FLOWERS IN SHANGHAI: A FEMINIST READING beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal 12 September 2014 Yang menyatakan, Theresia Anna Saputro vi

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Your story may not have such a happy beginning, but that doesn’t make you who you are. It is the rest of your story, who you choose to be……. (Soothsayer –Kung Fu Panda 2) So, who are you pals? vii

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI This undergraduate thesis is dedicated to: My Beloved Parents Brothers Sister Nephew Niece And My Lovely Teddy Bear viii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Jesus Christ. Without all the blessings, opportunities, and guidance I will not be able to finish my thesis successfully. Furthermore I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Dra. A.B. Sri Mulyani, M.A., Ph.D. for the useful comments, and remarks through the learning process of this thesis writing. I thank my co-advisor, Maria Ananta Tri S., S.S., M.Ed. for reading my thesis and giving me the needed corrections. I am also thankful to my academic advisor, Anna Fitriarti, S.pd., M.Hum., all lecturers and officials of Sanata Dharma University English Letters Department for the guidance during my years of study here. I am especially grateful to my parents, who supported me emotionally and financially. I always knew that they believed in me and wanted the best for me. Also, I would like to thank my brother for his advice and my sister for giving me inspiration. To my classmates and roommates, thank you for listening, offering me advice, and supporting me through this entire process. Finally, to my significant other, thank you for encouraging me in all of my pursuits and inspiring me to follow my dreams. Theresia Anna Saputro ix

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ..................................................................................................... APPROVAL PAGE ........................................................................................... ACCEPTANCE PAGE ..................................................................................... LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH .. STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY .................................................................. MOTTO PAGE .................................................................................................. DEDICATION PAGE ....................................................................................... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................. ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... ABSTRAK ......................................................................................................... ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x xi xii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .................................................................... A. Background of the Study ................................................................... B. Problem Formulation ........................................................................ C. Objectives of the Study ..................................................................... D. Definition of Terms ........................................................................... 1 1 4 5 5 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW .................................................... A. Review of Related Studies ................................................................ B. Review of Related Theories .............................................................. C. Theoretical Framework ..................................................................... 7 7 9 18 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ................................................................ A. Object of the Study ............................................................................ B. Approach of the Study ...................................................................... C. Method of the Study .......................................................................... 19 19 20 21 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS (RESULT AND DISCUSSION) ......................... A. Description of the Main Character .................................................... B. The Practices of Chinese Patriarchal ................................................. C. The Struggles against the Practice of Chinese Patriarchal ................ 22 22 30 37 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ........................................................................ BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................. APPENDIX ........................................................................................................ 44 47 50 x

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT THERESIA ANNA SAPUTRO. FENG’S STRUGGLES AGAINST THE PRACTICES OF CHINESE PATRIARCHAL CULTURE IN DUNCAN JEPSON’S ALL THE FLOWERS IN SHANGHAI: A FEMINIST READING. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. This thesis discusses All the Flowers in Shanghai written by Duncan Jepson. This novel is a historical novel. This novel tells about the life of Feng, the main character, under the patriarchal system in China. The writer wants to find out the struggles of the main character against the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture in Duncan Jepson’s novel. From the topic, the writer formulates three problems which become the objectives of the study. The first problem is how Feng, the main character is described. The second is the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture experienced by the main character in the novel. The third is the struggles of Feng against the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture in the novel. This study uses library research method. The primary source is the novel itself. The secondary sources are collected from books, articles, papers, reviews, dictionaries, and internet related to the topic. In answering the problem, some theories on literature are applied. There are theory of character and characterization, theory of patriarchal culture, and theory of feminism. The result of the study shows that the characteristic of Feng, the main character is an obedient and a dutiful person. She comes from a middle class family. She is also a silent person and a confined person. There are some practices of patriarchal culture such as performing the duty as a good daughter, accepting the arranged marriage, dropping the education, serving and obeying the husband and the laws. The struggles of the main character against the practices of patriarchal culture are depicted through reading and writing, facing toward her laws when she bears imperfect baby boy, and running away to another country to live with her love and to get her own happiness. xi

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK THERESIA ANNA SAPUTRO. FENG’S STRUGGLES AGAINST THE PRACTICES OF CHINESE PATRIARCHAL CULTURE IN DUNCAN JEPSON’S ALL THE FLOWERS IN SHANGHAI: A FEMINIST READING. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. Skripsi ini menganalisis novel yang ditulis oleh Duncan Jepson berjudul All the Flowers in Shanghai. Novel ini adalah novel sejarah. Novel ini menceritakan kehidupan wanita China yang bernama Xiao Feng di bawah sistem patriarki di China. Penulis ingin mencari tahu perjuangan tokoh utama dalam menghadapi praktek budaya patriarki di China dalam novel Duncan Jepson. Dalam skripsi ini, penulis merumuskan tiga persoalan masalah. Persoalan pertama adalah bagaimana Feng, sang tokoh utama didiskripsikan. Rumusan kedua adalah bentuk praktek budaya patriarki yang dialami Feng. Rumusan masalah yang ketiga adalah perjuangan Feng melawan praktek budaya patriarki tersebut. Skripsi ini menggunakan metode studi pustaka. Sumber utama yang digunakan adalah novel itu sendiri. Sumber kedua diambil dari buku-buku, artikel, naskah, resensi, kamus, dan internet yang berhubungan dengan topik. Dalam menjawab rumusan masalah, beberapa teori tentang kesusastraaan diaplikasikan dalam skripsi ini. Teori tersebut meliputi teori tokoh dan penokohan, teori budaya patriarki dan teori feminisme. Hasil analisa novel ini menunjukkan bahwa karakter dari tokoh utama adalah penurut, pendiam, terkekang, dan berasal dari keluarga menengah. Ada beberapa praktek patriarki yang dialami oleh Feng seperti memiliki kewajiban untuk menjadi seorang anak yang baik, menerima perjodohan, keluar dari sekolah untuk menikah, melayani dan mematuhi suami serta keluarganya. Perjuangan yang dilakukan tokoh utama dalam menghadapi budaya patriarki digambarkan lewat membaca dan menulis, menghadapi mertua dan para ipar ketika dia melahirkan seorang bayi laki-laki dengan tubuh yang tidak sempurna, dan melarikan diri menuju kota lain untuk hidup bersama dengan orang yang dikasihinya serta untuk mendapatkan kebahagiaanya sendiri. xii

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Literature is the way for human to express their creativity in paper through their experience using their senses (hearing, seeing, smelling, touching, and feeling). There are 2 forms in literature, fiction and non – fiction. Fiction is a type of literature which is not true or not real. The “real” one is called non – fiction. It means the works based on true story. Novel is one of the most well known forms in literary works. Most people love to read novel because it has an entertain effect. Mysteries, romance, thrillers, science fiction, fantasy, and historical fiction are the types of novel. Mysteries is about a crime, usually a murder, and the process of discovering who committed it. Science fiction is fiction that imagines possible alternatives to reality. Fantasy is about imaginary worlds. Horror is focused on creating emotions of terror and dread in the reader. Thrillers are designed to make the reader’s pulse race, to keep him or her turning pages. Romance fiction is about love and passion. Historical fiction are set in a past time period, normally at least fifty years before they were written. They combine a made-up story with realistic details of that time period. (http://www.creative-writing-now.com/types-of novels.html) (1 September 2013). All the Flowers in Shanghai by Duncan Jepson is a historical fiction which sets in Shanghai, the largest city in China. China itself is located in East Asia. China has varied and interesting culture to be studied. Chinese culture has existed for a long time ago and the Chinese still keeps their tradition to honor their ancestors. 1

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 In Chinese culture, men are considered more powerful than women. Nanquin and Rawski in Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century state that the woman in China is inferior to man (1987: 80). It means that China has patriarchal system in their society. Based on Lois Tyson, Using Critical Theory: How to Read and Write About Literature, a patriarchy is any society in which men hold all or most of the power (2011: 141). In China, man and woman were not created equal. The younger sister of the great historian Ban Gu, prescribed the conduct appropriate to a virtuous woman. To be humble, yielding, respectful and reverential; to put herself after others… these qualities are those exemplifying woman’s low and humble estate. To retire late and rise early; not to shirk exertion from dawn to dark… this is called being diligent. To behave properly and decorously in serving her husband; to be serene and self-possessed, shunning jests and laughter… this is called being worthy of continuing the husband’s lineage (common descent groups). If a woman possesses the above mentioned three qualities, then her reputation shall be excellent (Eastman, 1988: 19). Talking about women’s discrimination, oppression and opposition is interesting because it is an old issue that still happens in some societies. All the Flowers in Shanghai written by Duncan Jepson is the example of Chinese theme which shows the practice of patriarchal culture. Women do not have chance to speak and express their feeling, including marriage. Women do not have choice to select their men but their parents. By the time a girl reached the age of seventeen or so, she was ready for the major turning point in her life: marriage. Despite the importance of this event to her personally, she might be never be consulted about it. Ideally the prospective bride and groom did not

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 know each other, and had not even seen each other, before the day of the wedding (Eastman, 1988: 24-25). Women in China have been treated as an object since they were young. They can not choose what they want. Besides, the men can do everything they want, they have freedom to do something and they were born as a miracle. It is very contradictive between the treatment of men and women in China. Eastman in Family, Field and Ancestors states that Event a birth, a girl generally brought little joy to the hearts of her parents, for the dictates of familism demanded sons to perpetuate the family line. A girl, by contrast, was a burden and an expense; she would have to be fed and clothed until she was seventeen years old or so, she would at considerable expense be married out to be given in marriage to a stranger’s family. Conventional wisdom was summed up in the adage “The birth of a girl child is like a thief in the night” (1988: 20-21). Discussing the position of women and relations between men and women, Kenneth Scott Latourette also agrees with Eastman that women’s position is inferior to men. Latourette mentions that male progeny has been necessary if these were to be continued. For this reason boys have been regarded as more valuable than girls (1951: 678). The yin and yang concept also contributes to the doctrine of relation between men and women. “Yin and yang are two sides of dualism. It is the tail and the head of a coin. The tail is yin, and the head is yang. A Woman is yin, and a man is yang. Sadness is yin, while joyfulness is yang.” (http://tao-in-you.com/yinyang.html) (3 May 2014). Yin and yang has different color of element. Yin has dark element and yang has light element. The light is symbol of men, the dark is symbol of women. It means that men have higher position than women. It is also

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 described by Latourette in The Chinese, Their History and Culture. Latourette explains that yin and yang has different element which reflects men and women position in the society. He said that The centuries old doctrine of the yin and yang has made for the higher status of men, because the yang, associated with good fortune and all that is desirable, has been identified with the male, and the yin, the element of darkness and evil is female (1951: 678). All the Flowers in Shanghai tells about the hard life of women and the relationship between a Chinese mother and daughter who lived under the patriarchal culture. There was a still strong patriarchal system in China in the twentieth century. Males were very dominant. Men hold the position of power. They were the leader of the family unit, social groups, workplace and government. This thesis shows the idea of woman in China in the twentieth century who is inferior to man. In that era, patriarchal system still strongly existed. In this study, the writer uses one of Duncan Jepson’s All the Flowers in Shanghai because this novel is a historical fiction which tells the Chinese life in the twentieth century. The topic is chosen because the writer wants to make an attention the struggles of the main character in the harsh condition under patriarchal system in order to get her own freedom. B. Problem Formulation These three questions are formulated in order to help the writer analyzes the novel and to understand this novel better. 1. How is Feng, the main character, described?

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2. 5 What are the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture experienced by the main character in the novel? 3. What are the struggles of Feng against the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture in the novel? C. Objectives of the Study This study is intended to answer those three problem formulations. The first objective is used to describe the main character in the novel. The second objective is used to see the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture in that novel. The last objective is used to find out the struggles of the main character against the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture. D. Definiton of Terms Patriarchy literally means the rule of the father in a male dominated family. According Madsen in Feminist Theory an Literary Practice, patriarchy is “an ideological system that privileges men and all thongs masculine, and a political system that places power in the hands of men and thus serves male interest at the expense of women” (2000: xii). Meanwhile the definition of patriarchy based on Andrew Edgar and Peter Sedgwick’s Cultural Theory: The Key Concepts is the un-equality between men and women in society so that creates oppression of women. The term “patriarchy” literary means “the rule of the father”. It has been adopted by the majority of feminist theories to refer to the

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 way in which societies are structures through male domination over, and oppression of women (2005: 269). According to Light, Keller, and Calhoun in Sociology, culture is “all the learned customs, beliefs, and symbols that are constantly communicated among a set of people who share a common way of life” (1989: 79). Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols. Culture is the sum of total of the learned behavior of a group of people that are generally considered to be the tradition of that people and are transmitted from generation to generation (www.tamu.edu/faculty/choudhury/culture) (1October 2014). Based on Lizbeth Goodman in Literature and Gender, feminist refers to “a person who has recognition of the historical, and cultural subordination of women (the only world-wide majority to be treated as a minority) and resolve to resist the oppression and subordination of woman” (1996: x).

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies All the Flowers in Shanghai by Duncan Jepson is a historical novel which tells about Chinese attitudes toward motherhood, children and family. The dynamic in a Chinese family between father, mother, son, and daughter is complicated. Mother has to deliver a baby boy rather than a baby girl which represents patriarchal structure in China. Feng, the main character, in this novel shows the issue of patriarchal culture and presents the idea of woman movement through her decision to leave Shanghai and start a new life in other city. The author of All the Flowers in Shanghai, Duncan Jepson, is a Eurasian, Chinese-English and has travelled around Asia since 1980s and learned Mandarin in Beijing in 1987. His mother inspired him in writing this novel. He got praise from some authors because of his poetic writing and his success to write the novel through female first person (www.alltheflowersinshanghai.com) (3rd March 2014). In this study, I want to show the comments on Duncan Jepson’s novel, All the Flowers in Shanghai. Based on Qiu Xiaolong, the author of the Inspector Chen mysteries, Jepson wrote the novel based on the situation in China in the twentieth century. He could write beautifully and enthusiastically to describe the changes of China in the twentieth century through the main character. The life of this novel’s main character is splintered into thousands of pieces, each of them reflecting the changes of Chinese history, yet all of them coming out in Duncan Jepson’s poetic, passionate writing (Qiu Xiaolong, author of the Inspector Chen mysteries). 7

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 Hong Ying, the international bestselling, author of Daughter of the River also agrees with Qiu Xiaolong that this novel describes the history of China, primary in Shanghai. “This story is breathtaking. Like a poem or a painting, it reveals the old Shanghai. It’s a great work that will move its readers.” (Hong Ying, international bestselling author of Daughter of the River). Besides the comments, the writer wants to review Agatha Piscesia Paskalin’s thesis titled Male Domination in the Footbinding and Secret Writing of Nineteenth Century Chinese Women as Seen in Lisa See’s Snow Flower and the Secret Fan. Paskalin’s thesis has similar topic with the writer’s research. The topic is about a historical fiction which shows male domination or patriarchal system appears in China. Paskalin stated Lisa See’s Snow Flower and the Secret Fan is a historical fiction which tells about the lives of Chinese women in the nineteenth century which was still in the era of pre-modern China where women’s position was inferior to men’s position… In this study, the writer is going to reveal how footbinding and women’s secret writing in nineteenth century China portrayed in the novel and how male domination relates to footbinding and the women’s secret writing well. Both will formulated in sociological scoope (2012: viii; 9). Based on Paskalin’s analysis, it has a different form with the writer’s study. Paskalin uses sociological scoop but the writer uses feminist approach. The other thesis that the writer uses to review is from Aninditya Putri Arumsari. Her thesis is The Responses of Chinese Women toward the Practices of Patriarchal Culture as Seen through Adeline Yen Mah’s Falling Leaves. The similarities between Arumsari’s and the writer’s thesis can be shown through the practices of patriarchal culture reflected through the main character. Arumsari uses five female

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 characters to describe the patriarchal system. Meanwhile, the writer only used the main character to describe the patriarchal system. Arumsari will analyze five female characters inside Falling Leaves; they are Adeline, Aunt, Baba, Grand Aunt, Grandmother, and Lydia (2011: 26). It proves that this study is different from other studies. In this study, the writer wants to make an attention in the struggles of the main character in the harsh condition under patriarchal system in order to get her freedom using feminist approach. Thus, this study is different from the other writers. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Character and Characterization In drama, prose, novel, or other kinds of literature, character and characterization are important in literary works. Character is usually the main subject. M. H. Abrams states in A Glossary of Literary Terms that Characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expressed in what they say – the dialogue – and by what they do – the action (1985: 23). Robert Stanton in An Introduction to Fiction describes the term of “character” as The term “character” is commonly used in two ways: it designates the individuals who appear in the story, as in “How many characters are there?” and it refers to the mixture of interests, desires, emotions, and moral principles that makes up each of these individuals, as in “How would you describe his character?” (1965: 17).

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 He also adds that character in a story can be classified into two different types. They are major character and minor character. Major character is a character that may dominate the whole story and is frequently presented in it. Meanwhile, the minor character is presented in order to explain and help the other character, especially the major character (1965: 17-18). Characterization is the way the character is created by the narrator so that the reader will understand about the character (Gill, 1995: 127). Baldick in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms says “Characterization refers to the representation of person in narrative or dramatic works by means of character’s actions, speech, or physical appearance” (1990: 34). According to Murphy in Understanding Unseens, there are nine methods that an author can use. The goal is to make the character understandable to the readers. The nine methods are personal description, character as seen by another, speech, past life, conversation of others, reactions, direct comment, thought, and mannerism (Murphy, 1972: 161-173). 2. Chinese Patriarchal Culture The discussion about patriarchal system has interested a lot of writers all over the world. Madsen said in Feminist Theory an Literary Practice Patriarchy is a cultural (ideological) system that priveleges men and all thongs masculine, and a political system that places power in the hands of men and thus serves male interest at the expense of women (2000: xii). Meanwhile the definition of patriarchal culture based on Andrew Edgar and Peter Sedgwick’s Cultural Theory: The Key Concepts is the unequally between men and women in society so that creates oppression of women. The

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 term “patriarchal” literary means “the rule of the father”. It has been adopted by the majority of feminist theories to refer to the way in which societies are structures through male domination over, and oppression of women (2005: 269). It means that patriarchal system is the rule of male domination which creates the superiority of men. In other words man is very dominant. Adrienne Rich in Madsen’s book, states that the term of patriarchy is therefore justified by this fact, that of the “universal” oppression of women by men. Patriarchy is the power of the father: a familial-social, ideological, political system in which men by force, direct pressure, or through ritual, tradition, law, and language, customs, etiquette, education, and the division of labor, determine what part women shall not play, and in which the female is everywhere subsumed under the male (Madsen, 2000: 3). Sylvia Walby in Pilcher and Whelehan’s book, defines a patriarchal culture as a system of social structures and practices in which men dominate, oppress and exploit women (Pilcher and Whelehan, 2004: 95). It means there is a social and ideological construct which considers men as superior to women. Maggie Humm also states in The Dictionary of Feminist Theory that “patriarchy has power from men’s greater access to, and mediation of, the resource and rewards of authority structures inside and outside the home” (1990: 200). This access gives power for men to humiliate and to control women who are weakness than them because they believe that they have natural right to control women. Ashley Montagu in Natural Superiority of Women explains that Women have been conditioned to believe that they are inferior to men, and they have assumed that what everyone believes is a fact

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 of nature. Because men occupy the superior positions in almost all societies, such superiority is taken to be a natural one (1953: 23). This condition makes women accept the rule of male domination. They are aware or not if they are driven by men. The power that men have is the tool to oppress women. It leads the male domination because it already lives in the society as a permanent rule. In a Chinese family, each member has their own functions. Men are the breadwinners, women are better in domestic activities, and children are the focus of family life. It means Chinese women had been second class citizen, and very far for having equal opportunities with men. It proves that there were position hierarchy that determined the rank and the responsibility. Daughters were expected to obey their parents’s authority and assist their mother in domestic tasks. Eastman states that “a woman confined to the household had no need for learning; she acquired no experience of the outside world; and she was thus kept ignorant and palpably inferior to men” (1988: 24). He also mentions the treatment of Chinese children. In China, children were not cherished as individuals whose destiny was to fulfill their own unique potentials, but were valued because they and especially the sons would help with work in the fields, produce sons who would carry on the family name, and provide for their parents in their old age (1988: 15). Hsu agrees with Eastman about how Chinese children are treated. She describes that “children are not trained to develop as children, but at every turn they are encouraged to imitate and to participate in the ways of the adults, which are, in turn, ways of the ancestors” (1948: 239).

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 Gallin also explains the ideal of Chinese family works in China: Social Life and Custom. He states The structure of this ideal family was hierarchical, according to generation, age, and sex. It was headed by the eldest male, who wielded complete power over all the family members. The headship usually passed to the eldest son, or sometimes to the son adjudged most worthy. Wives, brought into the husband’s join household through family rather than individual decision, were subservient to the husband’s mother and to other family members (1978: 501). Based on that quotation, it describes that Chinese family system is patriarchal, patrilocal, and patrilinieal. Patriarchal means the eldest male is the legal lead of the family. Patrilocal means marriage women have to follow their husband and stay in their husband’s house. Patrilienal means the decline is count through the male bound line. The Chinese family system is patriarchal, patrilocal, and patrilineal. Patriarchal means that the oldest male in a family is the legal head and responsible for all aspects of the family, including finances and behavior of the other members. Patrilocal means that the family centered in the male's home location; women were never permanent members of the family but came and went into this stable male family as they married, divorced, were widowed and remarried. Patrilineal meant that descent was counted only through the male line. (http://asia.isp.msu.edu/wbwoa/east_asia/china/culture.htm) (6 January 2014). The social order in Chinese family also supports the patriarchal system in Chinese family. The social order creates a belief that good or bad in something is determined by family behavior. Eastman states so important was the institution of the family that the term “familism” has been coined to characterize Chinese social values and organization. Familism was “the basis of a kind of society distinctive from any other kind in the world” a system in which all

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 ideas and behavior were judged by whether or not they contributed to the well-being of the family (1988: 15). The husband – wife relationship is strictly held to be supplementary and subordinate. “Marriage is male centered. The woman is obliged to produce sons, which are her indispensable contribution to matrimony” (Hsu, 1948: 107). The obligation to deliver a baby boy shows the emphasis of woman’s duty to her husband and especially her parents in law and do not show the partnership between man and his wife itself. In China, old age means enjoyment of authority. The younger members of the family, sons, and daughter in law are the object of authority. Authority itself has meaning “centered in father son identification, express itself freely in relationship between the sexes, big family ideal, and education and is backed up by the wishes of dead ancestors” (Hsu, 1948: 242). Most of suffering happened to women because if they do not obey their ancestors rule they will be thrown away for their society. “Woman have to respect their husband, fathers, older brothers, and other related senior males, if they do not, they will find themselves becoming social outcasts” (Hsu, 1948:207). It proves that there is an unequal relation among father, son, daughter in law and other family members. “However, equally important in the culture is the factor of competition. Where there is authority there is no equality” (Hsu, 1948: 242).

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3. 15 Feminism Crawford in Talking Difference on Gender and Language explains the different way of acting of men and women is influenced by a way of creating difference. When men and women are treated differently in ordinary daily interactions, they may come to behave differently in return. Thus, gender can be conceived as a self-fulfilling prophecy- a set of processes by which gender difference is created, the observed differences are conflated with sex, and belief in sex difference is confirmed (1995: 14). The difference between sex and gender also be found by Millet. Millet ’s idea in Sexual Politics about the difference between sex and gender as follows. A female is born and a woman is created. In other words, one’s sex, be that male or female, is determined at birth. One’s gender, however, is a social construct, being created by cultural ideas and norms. Consciously and unconsciously women and men conform to the cultural ideas established for them by the society. Little boys, for example, must be aggressive whereas little girls must be passive, meek and humble (1989: 193). The statement above makes clear the difference between a person’s sex and gender. Gender and gender-determined role are often determined by the society so that feminist struggles to break the stereotype of sex class. Feminist according to Goodman is “a person who has recognition of the historical and cultural of women (the only world-wide majority to be treated as a minority), and resolve to resist the oppression and subordination of woman” (1996: x). Using concepts from feminist theory to understand literature means to comprehend the ways to decrease or to remove women oppression in society,

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 economy, politics, and psychology. Lois Tyson states in Using Critical Theory : How to read and write about literature Feminism , therefore, seeks to understand the ways in which women are oppressed-socially, economically, politically, and psychologically in order to reduce, if not eliminate their oppression. Ideally, feminism would like to achieve a society in which women and men are encouraged to fulfill their full potential as human beings regardless of the extent to which their abilities and inclinations differ from traditional (patriarchal) definitions of femininity and masculinity (2011: 139). Feminism according to Maggie Humm is “the ideology of women’s liberation since intrinsic in all its approaches is the belief that woman suffer injustice because of the sex” (Humm, 1990:74). This opinion creates and makes the society judge that women are weak, less valuable than men and second class in the society because of the sex. According Peter Barry in Beginning Theory: An introduction to literary and cultural theory states: In feminist criticism in the 1970s the major effort went into exposing what might be called the mechanisms of patriarchy that is, the cultural “mind set” in men and women which perpetuated sexual inequality (Barry, 2002: 122). It means that in the 1970s, female characters created by male to show the stereotype of women should be and constructed by patriarchal system. So that patriarchal system and feminism are hard to be separated because patriarchal system is in the side of men and feminism is an idea that struggle for women’s rights and equalities. The idea of sexual inequality describes the condition of women as the most oppressed class in society and the cause itself comes from the society.

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 Inequality means “that punishment for sexual offense is much more stringent for women than for men” (Hsu, 1948: 237). Radical feminist theory begins with the assumption that women form a sex class. They claim that the condition of women not just as a class but as the fundamentally oppressed class. The New York Radical Feminist Manifesto claims in Madsen’s book, Feminist Theory and Literary Practice. Radical feminism recognizes the oppression of women as a fundamental political oppression wherein women are categorized as an inferior class based on their sex. It is the aim of radical feminism to organize politically to destroy this sex class system (2000: 153). In radical feminist, gender oppression is the most fundamental form of oppression and precedes the economic structure of patriarchal societies. In Leclerq’s compilation, the feminist author Charles Poisson states his thought’s on the liberty that women should as follows The woman has quite as well as the man, right to live, work, and liberty. The man has been a lord and a master , long enough; the woman had all too long been a bondwoman in the household. The woman can no long put up of being dependent, with being treated as a minor, with being supported and maintained. We claimed to be human beings like the men; responsible autonomous, able to decide what we wish to do with our activity (Leclerq; 1942: 32). Andrew Edgar and Peter Sedgwick in Cultural Theory: The Key Concept also state about liberation of women. They said that The core of feminism is the belief that women are subordinated to men. Feminism seek to liberate women from the subordination and reconstruct society in such a way that patriarchy is eliminated and a culture created that is fully inclusive of women’s desires and purposes (2005: 143).

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 The goal of feminism according to Guerin in A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature is to break the stereotyped of unequally between men and women. Feminists struggle the same rights of men and women so that they will be no superiority and inferiority in society. Women will be treated as men do and they will create new atmosphere that women are also valuable. to change this degrading view of women so that all women will realize that they are not a “nonsignificant Other” but that each women is a valuable person possessing the same priveleges and rights as every men (2004: 180). C. Theoretical Framework There are several theories which applied in this thesis. They are theory of character and characterization, theory of Chinese patriarchal culture and theory of feminism. Theory of character and characterization is used to answer the problem formulation number one which is how Feng, the main character is described. The second theory is Chinese Patriarchal Culture that is used to answer problem formulation number two which is identifying the practice of Chinese patriarchal culture in the novel. The third theory is theory of feminism. This theory is used to analyze the struggles of Feng against the practice of Chinese patriarchal culture in the novel which appears in problem formulation number three.

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study This object of the study is a historical novel entitled All the Flowers in Shanghai. This novel was written by Duncan Jepson. His first novel, All the Flowers in Shanghai was a bestseller. He also co-storied the graphic novel, Darkness outside the Night with Xie Peng. Duncan Jepson’s current novel, Emperors Once More, the first in a crime series, publishes in March 2014. All the Flowers in Shanghai was published by HarperCollins publishers in New York in 2012. All the Flowers in Shanghai consists of 302 pages and it is divided into 26 chapters. The novel, All the Flowers in Shanghai, by Duncan Jepson has many praises by some bestselling authors like Janice Y. K. Lee, New York Times bestselling author of The Piano Teacher, Hong Ying, internationally bestselling author of Daughter of the River, Qiu Xiaolong, author of the Inspector Chen mysteries, and Geling Yan, author of the The Banquet Bug for his excellent way to create a story of a young Chinese woman in 1930s Shanghai who attempts to stop the cycle of history in Chinese tradition. Duncan was the editor of the Asia-based culture and fashion magazine WestEast and one of the founders and managing editors of the Asia Literary Review. He is a social commentator on Asia and writes for The New York Times, The Daily Telegraph, Publishing Perspectives, South China Morning Post and Hong Kong Tatler. He is also an award-winning editor, writer and producer of 19

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 five feature films and has produced documentaries for Discovery Channel Asia and National Geographic Channel. He is also a lawyer and lives in Hong Kong. All the Flowers in Shanghai is Jepson’s stunning debut novel. It is set in 1930s Shanghai, the Paris of the East. The tradition of paying respect still takes precedence over personal desire in that era. This novel shows us the struggles of woman under patriarchal culture. B. Approach of the Study The writer uses feminist approach to analyze the problems in this study. Bressler in Literary Criticism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice, states that: Feminism’s goal is to change this degrading view of women so that all women will realize that they are not a “non significant Other.” But each woman is a valuable person possessing the same privileges and rights as every man. Women, feminists declare, must define themselves and assert their own voices in the arenas of politics, society, education, and the arts. By personally committing themselves to fostering such change, feminists hope to create a society where the male and female voices are equally valued (1999: 180). This approach is relevant because this study is about the life of Chinese woman in the patriarchal system in the twentieth century. Feminism taught the idea that women should speak up and stand up against oppression and marginalization by men. By using feminist approach the writer is able to show the struggles or the ways of Feng, the main character in the novel against the patriarchal system.

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI C. 21 Method of the Study The method of this study was library research. Most data were collected from books, articles, papers, reviews, dictionaries and internet. The primary source that the writer used in this study was the novel itself which is All the Flowers in Shanghai by Duncan Jepson. The secondary sources were taken from related books, articles, papers, reviews, and dictionaries. The writer applied some steps in doing the research. The first step was close reading. The writer did it for several times to understand the novel deeply. The second step was searching the suitable theories which support the analysis. The third step was applying the approach for the study which used to analyze the problem formulation. The last step was drawing the conclusion from the analysis. It also answered the problem formulations briefly.

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS A. Description of The Main Character Character is important in literary works, without characters the story can not be created. In this chapter, the writer analyzes Feng, the main character in Duncan Jepson’s All the Flowers in Shanghai. Characters in the novel or literary works can be described through their said, dialogue, and action (Abrams, 1985: 23). According to M. J. Murphy they are nine ways to characterize the character in a literary works (1972: 161-173). They are personal description, character as seen by another, speech, past life, conversation of others, reaction, direct comment, thought, and mannerism. In order to answer the problem formulation number one, the writer uses Abrams’s theory on character and uses some of Murphy’s theory on characterization to describe Feng, the main character, in the novel. Feng is a young woman of seventeen years old. She is described as a dutiful and obedient person. She lives with her parents, sister, and grandfather. She has grown up in the shadow of her sister as a secondary daughter. She also holds no importance in the family. “Their devotion to the first child was simply greater than it was to the second, and they could not help that. I could neither win more love from them nor alter their devotion to the eldest” (Jepson, 2012: 50). She comes from a middle class family. She has servants and cook in the house. 22

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 Her sister has her servants for herself. She is prepared to marry a rich man to increase the social status in the society. Her sister is taught how to be a good wife and law. Meanwhile, Feng loves walking in the garden with her grandfather. She knows a lot of flowers’ name because her grandfather teaches her. She also loves walking in Shanghai’s Old Town and buying some food there. The Old Town itself is a place where poor people live. If her mother knows what she did, she will be punished because her mother does not want her family has connection with the poor. The Old Town had been constructed over several centuries as increasing numbers of peasants and immigrants settled there from the countryside. The buildings were mostly two-story, of rough, deep brown wood with tile roofs with narrow alleys running between them. People made their lives in these silvers of space – a hole in the floor with a fire beneath or a big oven to heat the living area in the cold Shanghai winter evenings (Jepson, 2012: 8-9). The depiction of Feng, the main character in the novel is: a. A Dutiful and Obedient Person Based on Abrams’s theory, character can be described through their said, dialogue, and action (1985: 23). By applying that theory, the writer can conclude that the characteristic of Feng is a dutiful and obedient person. Feng should obey the norm in family. Her devotion is for her parents and family. She could not complain with her life. She could not say disagreement to her parents. Parents are the person who could decide a decision. Children only follow and accept the decision without permission. Feng also must obey the norm because she is a Chinese woman. It was a time when all the clothes I wore were hand-me-downs from Sister. She had slightly shorter legs than I did, and my

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 shoulders were broader: she would never admit it but my body was more elegantly formed than hers. Mine had height and poise, but Sister’s had a swing and a way of moving (Jepson: 2012: 6). As a secondary daughter, Feng does not have any special treatment from her parents. Her duty is to take care of her parents in their old age. She could not complain with all things she receives. Wearing second hand clothes from her sister describes that Feng is a dutiful and obedient person. She does not complain what she wears. She wears clothes which is comfortable. Truthfully, Feng is more beautiful than her sister if she has a chance to possess all treatments that her sister has. “He told me that you were a very pretty girl and I think he is right. You will look very beautiful in this dress, perhaps more so than your sister” (Jepson, 2012: 66). By comparing her appearance with her sister, it shows that she is beautiful than her sister. She has more attractively formed body than her sister. She just does not have an opportunity to show her beauty. One day, when Feng meets with Bi, he also said that Feng is beautiful. “I liked talking to you, and I liked sitting here with you. You are very pretty” (Jepson, 2012: 45). This direct comment from Bi also mentions that Feng is beautiful woman. When Feng is invited by her husband to attend the tea dances at the Cathay Hotel, Feng meets a stylish woman who speak quickly and mysteriously and has good confident. Her name is Ming. Ming said that Feng is beautiful through the speech. It means that the author can give the reader an insight into the character through what the person says (Murphy, 1972: 164).

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 I knew as soon as I saw your pretty face and that old-style dress that you were not like the rest of us older-women. You are beautiful and not yet affected by all this (Jepson, 2012: 126). Another proof that stated Feng is dutiful and obedient can be proved with this quotation My childhood simply seemed to continue as it had started. It was for me to be concerned with the niceties of afternoon tea parties and noisy evening dances. I spent my time with flowers and grass, running to school and eating noodles on the street. I was not required to know anything more than what I learned from Grandfather and Ba. I had not been chosen to fulfill anyone’s hopes and dreams. Instead grandfather had showed me how to mirror nature’s quiet acceptance, not to scheme and plan and get my own way. I had not understood or felt desire, nor were there any high parental aspirations for me to live up to (Jepson, 2012: 11). The common activities that Feng does which are spend the time with flowers and grass, running to school and eating noodles on the street describe that Feng enjoys her childhood although she does not have the full freedom to express her feeling. Those habits appropriate to Murphy’s theory, mannerism, which help characterize the character through mannerism, habits, and unique feature (1972: 173). b. A Middle Class Person Xiao family is not rich but not poor. Her family can be called as a middle class family in their society. Women in Xiao family do not need to work hard in domestic activity because they have servants and cook to help them. “We have a cook” (Jepson, 2012: 32). It means that women in Xiao family do not need to cook by their selves because they have a cook to cook and to serve the food. “Later Grandfather came to my room with a maid and brought me some food as I

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 had missed supper” (Jepson, 2012: 49). It is only a middle class or high class family who has a maid or a cook in their house. The conversation between her mother and sister shows the level class of her family. It is also suitable for the methods that Murphy stated. The method is by conversation of others. It brings the clues with the help of the other people’s conversation and their opinion made about her (1972: 167). “What is it? Why are you shouting? People may hear us.” “I’m scolding her for spending time in the Old Town and speaking to the people there” (Jepson, 2012: 12). She banned to visit Old Town because Old Town is a place where the poor lives. “We would pass hundreds of peasants lining the walls” (Jepson, 2012: 9). Her mother also clearly forbids her family to visit Old Town “Those aren’t the sort of people this family wants to know” (Jepson, 2012: 12). Feng’s grandfather also explains that Old Town is a place for a poor. “There are many people in China. Fortune has blessed our family but she can not bless everyone, so those who have been unlucky come here to sell what little things they can and to beg for money and food” (Jepson, 2012: 9). As a middle class family, they should prepare their first daughter to marry a rich man so that their social status will also increase in the society. They will do anything to make the first daughter gets a rich husband. For example, they will enter their first daughter in many courses. Being a member of Society required strict conformity to all its petty and remorseless rules and customs. After Sister was born, Ba knew he would have to set aside a lot of money for her dowry, dance lessons, music lessons, elocution, even skin-whitening treatments (Jepson, 2012: 21).

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 When a young rich man who is the marriage partner of Feng’s sister started buying her sister jewelry, her mother will be very happy and gives comment about the present to her husband. “How much do you think their family pays for the jewelry?” Before Ba could answer, she would reply herself “I think they have special discounts at some of the best jewelers. It must be wonderful to live like that!” (Jepson, 2012: 19). Those conversations prove that Xiao family comes from a middle class family. Her mother wants to live like Sang family who gives a lot of luxurious jewelries to Xiao family. Her mother and her family do not have enough money to buy the jewelries. Feng’s mother also keeps her prestige to show that her family does not need to sell the gifts they had received from Sang family so that she will not have a shame on Sang family who has higher status than hers. But it was never enough. They should have sold the jewelries Sister was given, but Ma insisted it should be kept. It would have repaid at least some of Ba’s outlay, but no, everything must be kept as proof that they were not desperate and had no need to sell the gifts they had received. Such was Ma’s dream: to marry a daughter into Society, to the wealthiest family in town (Jepson: 2012: 21). c. A Silent Person Feng described as a silent person. It can be proved by her thought about herself when she is compared with her sister. “She always seemed too far above me, living a life of such complexity and sophistication I could only marvel at her. She was like a visitor from another family: unrelated to my shyness” (Jepson, 2012: 12-13). Feng does not have boyfriend and never talk with a boy. She only sees the rich man who appears at the house to court her sister through the side of the wall.

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 Someday, the rich man calls her and takes a short conversation with Feng, but she does not say anything. She just keep in silent because of her shyness. “Xiao Feng,” he spoke softly to me. I quickly glanced up at him then returned to studying his shoes. “Don’t you think your sister is beautiful? She is probably too beautiful for me. My father is very impressed by her, though.” I kept looking at his shoes, which were very large (Jepson, 2012: 18). One day, a boy from another city comes to visits her town. His name is Bi. They know each other when they are in the pool near the garden where Feng and her grandfather spend their whole time together. Bi also said that Feng is a shy girl. “You don’t say much. The girls in my home town can’t stop talking.” (Jepson, 2012: 32). Women in China could not express their feeling freely because they are female. They are taught by her mother how to behave properly. Chinese women should keep their behavior in public so that they will have a good reputation as a Chinese woman. They should be serene and self possessed, shunning jests and laughter. The family background and the culture contribute the silent of women in China indirectly. It also happens with Feng. She could not speak with men spontaneously. If she did, she will call as disobedient daughter. “Would you like to come and eat dumplings at my home?” I asked. I did not know why I had said this; I had forgotten all the lessons on good manners I had received. Bi had already accepted my invitation before I realized that Grandfather should be the one asking him, and because I was too young and a girl, Grandfather would not agree (Jepson: 2012: 35). Feng’s grandfather disagrees with Feng to invite Bi, a young man to visit Xiao’s house because women could not invite a man directly. It brings a shame on

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 women’s family. “Feng-Feng, it is not right at all that you should invite a boy to our home. It is not your place to ask and brings shame on our family” (Jepson: 2012: 36). d. A Confined Person As a secondary daughter, Feng had not been chosen to fulfill her parents’s hopes and dreams. She just lives to take care of her parents in their old age. As a Chinese daughter, Feng only accepts this situation. She never complains with her life. Feng also never envies at her sister when her parents give special treatment for her sister. Feng is more interested in walking through gardens with her grandfather, but her life changes suddenly with an unexpected death. Her sister passes away. She should replace her sister position to marry a rich man. She should marry her sister’s fiancé. Feng should marry into the powerful and rich family of the Sangs. Feng knows if she marries a rich man, she will never get freedom. She could not do anything to prevent the wedding. She should obey her parents’s decision no matter what. She will be interned as a prisoner in the jail. This dress was the final act in the completion of Sister and Ma’s relentless striving, and though Sister would never wear it, and to me it would be a prison, the seamstress must continue to follow their directions and create something beautiful. A beautiful cage in which a man, like those who sat in the market, could keep his little bird. He could bring out the cage and force his prisoner to sing whenever he wanted to be amused, to show off to his friends or simply to make the little bird suffer. It was the one he would hang up on his porch so he could listen to the birdsong whenever he did not want to feel he was alone (Jepson, 2012: 65). It shows that Feng is treated as a prisoner in Sang family. The last method that the writer used to describe the character is through past life (Murphy, 1972: 166). She can not go outside as she always did. “I desperately want to go outside!

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 As I told you, I used to spend all my time outside in the gardens and park” (Jepson, 2012: 143). Feng could not go outside like she did when she was young. She should bring good reputation to Sangs. She could not do anything she loves. All of things must be done properly. Feng not only lives for herself but also for her husband and laws. She should keep her attitude properly so the society gives respect on her. If she not, she would brings a shame on family member because she is a wife of Sangs. Young mistrees, you must be careful in this house. You must watch what you say to people here. There are many rivalries between the members of the family; many old grudges (Jepson, 2012: 80). After the marriage, Feng must behave properly in Sang’s house. She should be aware of her attitude. This condition makes Feng to feel like she is not in a house but it seems like she is in the jail. She should say and behave properly even in her own room. A little improperly attitude creates a shame on her and it will take a long time to forget. B. The Practices of Chinese Patriarchal Culture Depicted in the Novel Chinese people traditionally have a very role oriented society. Everybody has the role to play properly. Children should obey their parents and respect their teacher; women should obey their husband and widow should obey their sons (Bloomfield, 1991: xvi). This condition causes the suffering of most women in China. They do not have voices to express their feeling because of the norm. Chinese women are very submissive without questioning anything what their ancestors told to them. They just do what their ancestors had done.

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 Women’s living in China is completely isolated because there is a cultural or ideological system that treats a special right to men. This special treatment creates unequalled and oppressed most women in China. As Edgar and Sedgwick state that “patriarchy is the unequally between men and women and creates oppression of women” (2005: 269). In Chinese tradition, each member of the family has his own functions, for example men are the breadwinners, women are the housewives, and children are the continuing wealth. In a patriarchal family, a daughter is more suffering rather than a son. Most family in China prefers to have sons than daughters. They look forward to have a daughter because she can take care of her brothers and parents then (Eastman, 1988:20). This situation happened in Feng’s life. Feng is a Chinese woman who lives in early twentieth century which male domination is still exist. There are some Chinese patriarchal culture experiences that Feng has in the novel as follows. 1. Performing the Duty as A Good Daughter As a secondary daughter in her family, Feng must carry an obligation to take care of her parents when they are older. “I was expected to stay at home and look after my parents in their old ages” (Jepson, 2012: 25). This responsibility happened because she does not have anything to do. She is prepared to help her parents like her ancestors said. “I understood there would be nothing for me here. I was simply the daughter who had survived. I would be taking care of my parents as they grew older” (Jepson, 2012: 56). Taking care of her parents is one of a

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 daughter duty in China. They do not have any special skill like men have. It is the example of the practice of Chinese patriarchal culture in that era. In China, the treatment between first and second children is different. Although the secondary daughter knows that she is served different with the first, she still obeys and respects her parents. I want to cry and shout but knew that I must obey (Jepson, 2012: 12). I felt what I had always known: that I was second and less important to the family. I must always give way. It was not that Ma and Ba did not love me, more that they preferred to follow tradition and custom rather than to break them. Their devotion to the first child was simply greater than it was to the second, and they could not help that. I could neither win more love from them nor alter their devotion to the eldest. I realize now that this was not something they chose but a thousand-year-old instinct. (Jepson, 2012: 50). I did not struggle, knowing I must do as I was told. (Jepson, 2012: 66). In patriarchal society, women do not have the same right like men. This system press women through ritual, tradition, law, and language, customs, etiquette, education and the division of labor. Women do not have the part to play it properly (Rich, 1976: 3). This condition proves that women’s social positions are inferior than men. The domination is in the male side. Men are prepared to continue the decline so that education is important for them. Meanwhile, the women are not prepared to continue the decline. They only bear the sons and take care of their parents so that education is less important. “She had decided would consist of a single child, Ba passively agreed with her plan to stop at the right marriage. Another child would serve as the warm blanket for their old age and that would not need education and sophistication” (Jepson, 2012: 21).

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2. 33 Accepting the Arranged Marriage Chinese women in the early of twentieth century do not have a choice to choose her marriage partner. The marriage partner is arranged by parents. “Most women in those days still entered marriages created by their parents and matchmakers, and in the countryside many couples did not even meet each other before the wedding” (Jepson, 2012: 90). The daughter must follow her parents’ decision about the marriage partner (Eastman, 1988: 24-25). Your sister died and her fiancé’s family want the wedding to go ahead. They asked if our next daughter could take Sister’s place. The Sang family have made it clear that there must be a marriage. It would be considered a terrible loss of face for them if one did not take place. They also believe it is time their eldest son had a son of his own, and there is no time to find him another bride. They all thought you looked very beautiful in the wedding dress (Jepson, 2012: 61). The arrangement also happened in Feng’s life. She can not choose her partner by herself. All of decision is set by parents and the daughter is banned to reject the plan because all of parents say is right. I did not want to marry this man. I did not want to see him and his father. I did not want them to visit me and take me away. I did not want to dance with this young man as Sister had done. But I could not argue or disobey, and like Sister before me I must assume that they were right. The family had told Ma and Ba what they wanted, and this had been accepted. I must respect their decision and follow it. I had no other choice (Jepson, 2012:62). The parents have their own standard in selecting the partner. Feng’s mother also has her criterion to choose a man who will marry her daughter. She would rank them according to family background, their job, and family business. “A big family business, like shipping, trading, or banking, was what she preferred;

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 professions were acceptable, but Ma was practical and considered capital preferable to intellect” (Jepson, 2012: 16). Parents select the man properly because marriage does not only bring her daughter to other family but also marriage increases family’s class. If her daughter married to rich man, the social status of woman’s family raises. “Ma’s dream: to marry a daughter into Society, to the wealthiest family in town. Entering into such an association would bring Ma herself good standing and esteem” (Jepson, 2012: 21). Most of parents believe that if their daughter married to a rich man, she will be happy. They have confidence that their daughter is lucky that she can marry a rich man. Parents do not care about their daughter’s feeling whether they agree or not with the arrangement. I’m glad I have found you. I wanted to tell you how very lucky you are. Getting married is not something every girl is fortunate enough to do, particularly to a man with such a good family background. This is very good match for you, you are very lucky (Jepson, 2012: 68-70) 3. Dropping the Education Out As a middle class family, Feng gets an education. She is a student in some where place in Shanghai. “Except for going to school, I am not allowed to go into it without my grandfather and he only likes to come to these gardens” (Jepson, 2014: 42). Although Feng could go outside for school, she could not have relation with anyone without agreement from her parents. The only friend she has is her grandfather. “After school each day, I would run home, leaving my friends to play without me, and ask Grandfather to take me to the gardens (Jepson. 2012: 33).

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 The marriage forced Feng to drop her school one year earlier. “There was no more school for me. I had left one year before my last year anyway” (Jepson, 2012: 114). She could not continue her education. She should do her duty as a wife and a daughter in law in her new house in Sang family. Feng’s parents allow Feng to drop her school one year earlier for the wedding. They do not question about her daughter education whether it is possible to finish the education first before the wedding. They only concern with the wedding and their social status without care about their daughter’s feeling. 4. Serving and Obeying the Husband and the Laws The daughter is not the only one who suffered but also the wife. In patriarchal culture, the relationship between husband and wife is not equal. After the marriage, the husband will bring his wife into his house. The wife will stay in husband’s house and must obey the norm. Husband has power to control his wife. He can do anything he wants to his wife. The wife will serve not only her husband but also her parents in law, brothers in law and sisters in law. A woman who is humble, yielding, respectful, reverential, diligent, and worthy of continuing the husband’s lineage is called excellent woman (Eastman, 1988: 19) and most women are created to have great reputation. Feng must obey her husband and serve him as well. “I should do what my husband told me” (Jepson, 2012: 93). Those quotations show how the main character should do. Feng does not have any choices to express their feeling freely because the old tradition banned her.

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 Andrew Edgar and Peter Sedgwick in Cultural Theory: The key concepts. Patriarchy itself is the rule of the father. It has been adopted by the majority of feminist theories to refer to the way in which societies are structures through male domination over, and oppression of women (2011: 269). This is a woman’s role. Your husband must satisfy himself. He is not a cruel man but he has not yet learned how to be gentle and kind to another person. There is still too much of this house in him (Jepson, 2012:99). You must be the respectful, dutiful daughter in law. Your mother in law’s last job in life is to get a grandson for her husband. And when she does, things will get better (Jepson, 2012: 124). To satisfy her husband and give a son for her husband is a duty for Chinese women. In Jepson’s novel, Feng must obey the norm of patriarchal culture in China which brings oppressions for her. The oppressions are: have sex with her husband who she does not love and give her husband a son who will continue family name and continue the business which has been built for a long time ago. Feng knows very little things about men. She does not know what she should do after marriage because no one tells about women life after marriage. It is awkward when her husband comes into her room and touches her. She never has experiences with a man. Feng never talks or closes with a man but her father and grandfather. I did not know what he would do next. I had no experience of such a situation or knowledge of how we were to behave. At those moments, I felt that my body was like a meal that had been served to him. Ma should have explained these things (Jepson, 2012: 100) Married women not only must obey their husband, but also their laws. “Remember, after your father in law, First Wife should always be given the most

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 respect, the most face. Even your husband must follow this, no matter what. She is his mother“ (Jepson, 2012: 80). Being obedient is a must as women in China. They should respect their laws. They should behave properly. They must follow the husband family’s role. “The Sang family has its own rules and you must play along with them if you want to stay there. You must be the respectful, dutiful daughter in law. Your mother in law’s last job in life is to get a grandson for her husband” (Jepson, 2012: 124). In husband’s house wives are treated badly. They should know the proper behavior when they meet with others families. They also have to deliver a baby boy to keep family line exist. The most important thing to the family is for Feng to produce an heir and the heir must be a baby boy. “You must give this family a son. They’ll be happy once they have their heir” (Jepson, 2012: 135). C. The Struggles of Feng against the Practices of Chinese Patriarchal Culture In this part, the writer wants to figure out the struggles of Feng, the main character under the practice of Chinese patriarchal culture. There are three struggles are shown by Feng in order to against the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture. At the beginning, she obeys everything that she is told to do. She believes that being obedient is a must in the society and she implements all traditional culture attached to her. She just remains silent because she does not have the courage to act out. Then, she does not want to be limited by the practice of

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 patriarchal culture. She wants to obtain happiness by living her life independently. The struggles of Feng against the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture are seen as follow 1. Reading a lot of Books Feng truthfully was an educated girl. She has studied at school. Her grandfather always accompanied Feng when she went to school. “Except going to school, I am not allowed to go into it without my grandfather” (Jepson, 2012: 42). Not having the right of opportunity to enter the education is one of the obstacles for Chinese women to get their own right and freedom. It also happened with Feng. She does not continue her education because she has to marry a rich man. There was no more school for me. I had left one year before my last year anyway. School rules and classroom gossip had been exchanged for invented family traditions and Sang family politics. My days were now run according to Sang routine and tradition. I could not miss breakfast or dinner. Lunch I could have in my room. If Father in law required anything of us, we must naturally obey, then for me came the orders of First Wife, and finally my husband. If I were not required by any of them I could do as I pleased, though I could not leave the house unless I had first asked permission and even then must be chaperoned (Jepson, 2012: 114). Feng is forced to marry Sang Xiong Fa so that she could not continue her education. She should obey all of her parents’s arrangements included the marriage. She also drops from the school. After the marriage Feng must obey the family norm of Sangs and does not have freedom to express her feeling freely. She does not refuse all of her parents’s decision because she thinks that it is her fate to obey the decision that the elder family made for her.

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 It shows patriarchal system because she should obey the decision that her parents give to her and she could not argue when her right to study is taken away. She thinks that obeying the elder family is a duty because she lives in patriarchal society. “The structure of ideal family was hierarchal, according to generation, age, and sex” (Gallin, 1978: 501). One day, her husband invites her to dance at the Cathay Hotel. She meets with a modern Chinese woman. Her name is Ming. Ming is a stylish, confident, and educated woman. “Ming understood everything. I had learned also that she was an exception: educated and confident, a woman with her own opinions and ideas” (Jepson, 2012: 157). That short meeting brings hope for Feng to go through a period of her life in Sang family. Ming gives her advice to keep reading and writing although she does not continue her education. She gives those advices because she wants Feng to understand the condition around her. According to Lois Tyson, the goal of feminism is to encourage women and men to fulfill their full potential as human beings (2011: 139). Did you go to school? You look like a girl who went to school. Well, let me give you some advice then: keep reading and writing, read anything you can, because it will help you. We women, and you are a woman. Today in fact a beautiful woman needs to be educated. You never know, do you? (Jepson, 2012: 125). As she had advised, I read whatever books I could find though they meant little to me then (Jepson, 2012: 157). Patriarchal culture still exists at that era. For middle class family, woman can get education although they can not get high education like man. If there is a fundamental condition which forces women drop to school, they have to follow it.

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 This situation damages the right of women to get education. The action of Feng which keeps reading and writing shows the struggle of woman to get the same right with man in order to get knowledge. It brings positive impact for Feng to know the world around her through reading. In fact, Feng’s action to get knowledge from reading and writing is banned by the society because women should not involve to politic zone. Their duty is only to maintain their family such as serving the husband, and the laws, bearing the offspring, teaching the children, and arranging the domestic activity. 2. Facing Parents in Law As a wife, Feng should obey not only her husband but also the laws. Wives were subservient to the husband’s mother and the other family members (Gallin, 1978: 501). This situation makes Feng uncomfortable. Her mother in law also shows hostile attitude to Feng. She underestimates Feng because she thinks that Feng does not have an appropriate criterion as her daughter in law. “ “Well, we expected it. You saw the size of her feet and those huge muscles on her legs? She is like a fisherman’s wife,” First Wife commented. I wished I could have been. My excitement turned to fear again as I began to understand the nature of this family and what had now happened to me. I wished myself anywhere but there, though I had not yet found the words to express this. (Jepson, 2012: 84). Feng is frightened for her new family. She thinks that she should not be in Sangs’s house. She feels that her sister is more suitable to fulfill the duty to marry a rich man. She has never studied about being a woman like her sister. Her sister is prepared to marry a rich man so that her mother teaches and provides all thinks that her sister need. Feng is not prepared to marry a rich man because she is a

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 secondary daughter. Her parents do not care about Feng because as a secondary daughter, Feng’s duty is taking care of them when they are getting older. The marriage makes Feng frustrated. She never thinks that she will replace her sister position to marry a rich man who is chosen by her parents. During her life, she just spends her time with her grandfather in the garden. Her grandfather teaches her to memorize the name of flowers. She only knew about flowers but the marriage. In the Sangs’s house, Feng tries to avoid her laws because she does not want in big trouble. She does not want to meet her mother in law especially who always underestimates her. If Feng meets her mother in law accidentally, she only bends her head down and shows the respect of her. This was the first time I had seen First Wife exert her power. She had been unkind and occasionally cruel to me and I was very nervous around her, but I had not so far been afraid (Jespon, 2012: 117). Time by time she forces herself to be brave when she faces her parents in law. She gets her courage to face her parents in law when she delivered a baby boy who has a right foot which is has not grown properly. She knows that she gives imperfect offspring to Sang family. “Mistress, something terrible has happened. The baby has a bad foot,” she whispered to me in a low hoarse voice. I struggle to sit up. The pain was intense and I was still bleeding. The doctor was holding up the baby, a little boy, and I could see that his right foot was shrunken and deformed. I did not care; it seemed such a little thing in comparison to the joy of seeing my second child. I knew, as did Yan and the doctor, that the senior members of the Sang family would not accept this child ads their heir. He would not be considered capable of fulfilling that role, no matter what they may become and no matter how useless the rest of them may be; he

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 might as well have been born a girl, in their eyes. But to me he was perfect. (Jepson, 2012: 211-212). She also knows that the offspring is very important to Sang family. This situation makes Feng more confident to sound her voice so that her parents in law will not throw the baby away. “I want this child! He is just fine as he is. It doesn’t matter about the Sangs. I don’t care” (Jepson, 2012: 213). It shows that Feng is not afraid any more with her in laws. She defends her baby boy and breaks the norm. She wants to carry the baby although he has a bad foot. Finally, Feng could take care of her baby. Yet, when I looked around my room-at the dark lacquered woods; the bright clothes, made against First Wife’s whises, hanging over the doors, the old chair next to my bed; the dresser; my brushes; my flower in its pot, close to blooming; the rug from Persia that Xiong Fa had bought me, stained now with the blood-this was a place where I could raise a child, because it was mine, and whether Xiong Fa’s parents accepted or not, in this room he would be safe and I realized how desperately I wanted him (Jepson, 2012: 216217). 3. Running away to Another City A Chinese married woman does not have voice to do something that she wants. She could not go to outside without permission from her husband. If she disobeys the rule, she will get punishment. “Women have to respect their husband, fathers, older brothers, and other related senior males, if they do not, they will find themselves becoming social outcasts” (Hsu, 1948: 207). Before the marriage, Feng has met a man. His name is Bi. Actually, she has feeling with Bi but she could not express her feeling because she is a woman. She is forbidden to show her feeling by the norm. “I hoped Bi would return as well. I longed for him to take me away” (Jepson, 2012: 63).

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 She only imagines that Bi will return and take her away to live with him in his country. She does not want to marry Sang Xiong Fa. She hoped that Bi was her husband. Her accent was from the countryside, with a thickness and melody to it that made me feel warm and comfortable. It was not as clear or refined as that of city Society, but then it was not as sharp or cold, either. I wanted this accent for my own. I wanted to speak this way, too (Jepson, 2012: 66). Truthfully, Feng wants to run away from the wedding but she only keeps silent and throw her needs away. She just receives all things happened to her. Time by time her desire to run away from her husband’s house appear accidentally. She runs away and finds herself in the way to another country. She just runs and thinks where she should go. She goes to Bi’s home town and hopes that Bi still waits for her. For a moment I wondered where I wanted to go and then realized that I only wanted so see the room at the top of the house, the one where the seamstress had worked on the wedding dress. I needed to find someone who would bring it new life (Jepson, 2012: 248-249). It means that there is a woman movement that Feng did through her act. She runs away from her house and seeks her freedom and happiness although she has to leave the wealth that Sangs gives to her. She has to work to live. She works to Madam Zang. Her life is not comfortable, but she enjoys with it. She feels happy although she must work hard to fulfill her needs.

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In this chapter, the writer would like to draw a conclusion from the analysis. The first one is about the description of the main character in the story. The second one is about the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture experienced by the main character in the novel. The third is about the struggles of the main character against the practices. Feng is seventeen years old. She lives with her parents, sister, and grandfather. They have servants and cook, so Feng’s family could be called as a middle class family. She is banned to visit Old Town because it is a place where the poor lives. Feng is a silent person. She could not express her feeling freely because she is female. She also does not have any boy-friend because the norm forbids a woman has conversation to a man spontaneously. Feng just could see the men who court her sister in the back side of the wall. She is comfortable with her life although she always wearing her sister second clothes. It shows that Feng is a obedient and dutiful person. She never complains what she wears and what she gets. Besides, Feng is more beautiful than her sister if she has an opportunity to get a special treatment like her sister. When she is a wife, she could not do everything she wants. She has to serve and obey the rule in her husband’s house. Her freedom disappears. She feels like she is a prisoner in the jail. The writer also found the practices of Chinese patriarchal culture in the novel. First, Feng has to become a good daughter in her family. She should show 44

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 her duty for her family such as take care of her parents in their old age. She should show the respect for her parents through her obedient. She should obey all of things that her parents give to her without permission. The second practice of Chinese patriarchal culture is about marriage. She could not choose a man she loves. She should marry a man who is chosen by her parents and she has to accept the arranged married. She also stops for school a year earlier because of the wedding. One day, she meets with someone who comes from another city. His name is Bi. Bi is a kind person and the first one who could make Feng to think about him every day. She thought that she falls in love in her teenager with a young man from another country. She wants to marry him but she could not. She should marry a rich man from Sang family. She gets servants, jewelries, and expensive dresses but happiness. The wealth and authority do not bring the true happiness for Feng because she lives like a bird in the cage. She could not do anything she wants except she gets permission for her husband and laws. The third practice is she should obey her husband and laws. After the marriage, she would be brought into her husband’s house then she should obey, serve, and respect her husband, her father in law, her mother in law and the other eldest family member in her husband’s house. She also should bear a healthy baby boy for her husband. The offspring will continue their family name and family heritage. Those are the reasons why Chinese woman should deliver a baby boy. She has to struggle to get her freedom. At the beginning, she accepts the norm then she refuses it. Feng is an educated woman. She does not continue her study because she has to replace her sister place and marry a rich man who comes

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 from the Sang. Her marriage is arranged by her parents without her agreement. In Sang’s house, she could not find any happiness so that she decided to start reading and writing so that she still knows the event that happening around her. After the marriage, she has to live with her husband in Sang’s house. She is rejected by her mother in law because her mother in law thinks that Feng does not have any standard become Sang. She gets any oppression in Sang. She should bear offspring to the Sang and finally she is pregnant. She bears a baby boy but he has a bad foot. The physical imperfection is a curse for Sang family. Her laws want to throw the baby away. She asks her husband not to throw her baby away. She will take care of her baby although the laws do not want the baby. Her desire is to marry a man she loves. Year after year, she decided to run away from the Sang. Lastly, she runs away to another city. She wants to meet her first love and build a new life there. Those actions show that Feng against the patriarchal system to get her freedom and her own happiness.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1985. Arumsari, Aninditya Putri. “The Responses of Chinese Women toward the Practices of Patriarchal Culture as Seen through Adeline Yen Mah’s Falling Leaves”, Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2011. Baldick, Chris. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to literary and cultural theory, 2nd edition. New York: Manchester University Press. 2002. Bloomfield, Freena. The Book of Chinese Beliefs. New York: Ballantine Books, 1991. Bressler, Charles E. Literary Criticism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999. Crawford, M. Talking Difference on Gender and Language. London: SAGE publication Ltd., 1995. Eastman, Lloyd E. Family, Field, and Ancestors: Constancy and Change in China’s Social and Economic History, 1550-1949. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Edgar, A. & Sedgwick, P. eds. Cultural Theory: The key concepts. Oxon: Routledge. 2005. Gallin, Rita Schlesinger. China: Social Life and Custom. Danburry: Americana Corporation, 1978. Gill, Richard. Mastering English Literature. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1995. Goodman, Lizbeth. Literature and Gender. New York: Routledge, 1996. Guerin, Wilfred, L. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Hsu, Francis L. K. Under the Ancestor’s Shadow: Chinese Culture and Personality. New York: Columbia University Press. 1948. 47

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 Humm, Maggie. The Dictionary of Feminist Theory. Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1990. Jepson, Duncan. All the Flowers in Shanghai. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2012. Larourette, Kenneth Scott, et al. The Chinese: Their History and Culture. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1951. Leclerq, Jacques. Marriage and the Family: A Compilation of Study in Social Philosophy. New York: Frederick Pustet Co., 1942. Light, Donald Jr., Suzanne Keller, Craig Calhoun. Sociology. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1989 Madsen, L. Deborah. Feminist Theory and Literary Practice. London: Pluto Press, 2000. Millet, Kate. Sexual Politics. Garden City, New York: Doubleday Publishing, 1989. Montagu, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1953. Murphy, M. J. Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Novel for Overseas Students. Oxford: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1972 Nanquin S., & Rawski E. S. Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century. Michigan: Yale University Press. 1987. Paskalin, Agatha Piscesia. “Male Domination in the Footbinding and Secret Writing of Nineteenth Century Chinese Women as Seen in Lisa See’s Snow Flower and the Secret Fan”, Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2011. Pilcher, Jane and Imelda Whelehan. Fifty Keys Concepts in Gender Studies. London: The Cromwell Press Ltd., 2004. Stanton, Robert. An Introduction to Fiction. New York: Holt, Renehart and Wiston Inc., 1965. Tyson, Lois. Using Critical Theory: How to read and write about literature, 2nd edition. Oxon: Routledge. 2011.

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 http://asia.isp.msu.edu/wbwoa/east_asia/china/culture.htm (6 January 2013). http://tao-in-you.com/yin-yang.html (3 May 2014). http://www.alltheflowersinshanghai.com/ (3 March 2014). http://www.creative-writing-now.com/types-of novels.html (1 September 2013). http://www.duncanjepson.com/ (4 August 2014). www.tamu.edu/faculty/choudhury/culture (1October 2014).

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDICES Appendix 1: Summary of the Duncan Jepson’s All the Flowers in Shanghai All the Flowers in Shanghai is a historical novel which sets in Shanghai, China. This novel tells about the life of Chinese women in 1930’s. It also shows the relationship between parents, children, laws and society in China. Feng, the main character is a secondary daughter in her family. She lives with her parents, grandfather, and sister. She comes from middle class family because she has servants and cooked. Her parents prepare her sister to marry a rich man. Her sister is treated as a princess in her family because she is the only hope for her family to increase their social status. As a secondary daughter, she is expected to remain unmarried and take care of her parents, while her sister will have a glamorous marriage. One day, when her sister will marry a rich man, she unexpectedly dies. In patriarchal culture, Feng should replace her sister’s duty. She must accept the arranged marriage. She has been forced to make to please others. In her new house, she should obey the rule which Sangs have. She should obey not only her husband but also her laws. She should deliver a healthy baby boy for Sang. She could not go outside alone. She should get permission from her husband or parents in law. In Sang house hold, she gets a lot of jewelries, expensive dresses and servants but she is not happy with those things. Her sacrifices to make to please others bring her to revenge against the norm. She runs away to another city to meet her first love and decided to live there. 50

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 Duncan Jepson through his novel, All the Flowers in Shanghai brings into sharp relief how badly women were treated in China in the early 1900s. He helps to spread the word of what life was really like for Chinese women during in this time period. In that era, daughter was little value than son. Feng expected to give up all of her hopes and dreams to fulfill her parents’ wishes. Appendix 2: Duncan Jepson’s Life Duncan Jepson’s current novel, Emperors Once More, the first in a crime series, publishes in March 2014. His previous published works include All the Flowers in Shanghai and the graphic novel, Darkness Outside the Night, which was highly acclaimed by Nobel Prize winner Mo Yan. Duncan was the editor of the Asia-based culture and fashion magazine West East and one of the founders and managing editors of the Asia Literary Review. He is a social commentator on Asia and writes for The New York Times, The Daily Telegraph, Publishing Perspectives, South China Morning Post, and Hong Kong Tatler. He is also an award-winning director, writer and producer of five feature films and has produced documentaries for Discover Channel Asia and National Geographic Channel. A lawyer by profession, he lives in Hong Kong. Adapted from: http://www.duncanjepson.com/ (4 August 2014)

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