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(1)PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ERROR ANALYSIS IN THE PERFORMANCE OF GOOGLE TRANSLATE AND BING TRANSLATOR IN TRANSLATING CHILDREN’S STORY BOOK PANCURAN PANGERAN AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By MUHAMAD FAZLURRAHMAN ADIPUTRA Student Number: 144214094 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS UNIVERSITAS SANATA DHARMA YOGYAKARTA 2019

(2) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ERROR ANALYSIS IN THE PERFORMANCE OF GOOGLE TRANSLATE AND BING TRANSLATOR IN TRANSLATING CHILDREN’S STORY BOOK PANCURAN PANGERAN AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By MUHAMAD FAZLURRAHMAN ADIPUTRA Student Number: 144214094 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS UNIVERSITAS SANATA DHARMA YOGYAKARTA 2019 ii

(3) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

(4) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

(5) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

(6) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

(7) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS By all means, my first gratitude goes to Allah SWT for all the blessings given to me and for always accompanies me through every obstacle that I met until today. I would also like to send my sincere gratitude to my parents, Widyasmurni and Abdul Latif, my sisters Zulfa and Ima, and also my brother-inlaw, Matto for providing me mental and financial support. Secondly, I would like to express my gratitude to my thesis advisor who is also a friend to me, Mr. Harris Hermansyah Setiajid, M. Hum., for sharing his time to guide me through the process of my undergraduate thesis. I also would like to say thanks to my thesis co-advisor Mrs. Anna Fitriati S.Pd., M.Hum., for giving suggestions that help to make this thesis better. My special thanks goes to Stefani Veronica for being a very supportive senior as her advice is truly a great contribution to my work, my friend Ludovicus Luis for letting me to use his laptop throughout the entire year and Luthfi Musofi for offering me to use his real Oxford Dictionary during my study in Sanata Dharma. Last but not least, I would like to mention Brandon, Gita, Bayu, Budi, Aldo, April, Tomy and Indin for being great friends and I hope the relationships we have will continue even though our college life has ended. Muhamad Fazlurrahman Adiputra vii

(8) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ........................................................................................................ ii APPROVAL PAGE ............................................................................................. iii ACCEPTANCE PAGE ........................................................................................ iv STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY .....................................................................v LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ................................................................................................ vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................ vii TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................... viii LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................x ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................... xi ABSTRAK ........................................................................................................... xii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .........................................................................1 A. Background of the Study ..................................................................................1 B. Problem Formulation ........................................................................................5 C. Objectives of the Study .....................................................................................5 D. Definiton of Terms............................................................................................6 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE .....................................................7 A. Review of Related Studies ................................................................................7 B. Review of Related Theories ............................................................................10 1. Theory of Translation .................................................................................10 2. Theory of Machine Translation...................................................................11 3. Theory of Error Analysis in Translation Machine ......................................11 4. Theory of Koponen‟s Classification in Assessing Translation Machine ....12 C. Theoretical Framework ...................................................................................15 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ...................................................................16 A. Areas of Research ...........................................................................................16 B. Object of the Study .........................................................................................17 C. Method of the Study ........................................................................................17 D. Research Procedure.........................................................................................18 1. Types of Data ..............................................................................................18 2. Data Collection ...........................................................................................19 3. Population and Sample................................................................................21 4. Data Analysis ..............................................................................................21 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS (RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS) .....................23 A. The Errors Found in Translation of Children Story‟s Book Pancuran Pangeran by Google Translate and Bing Translator .................................23 1. The Errors in English Translation of Pancuran Pangeran by Google Translate ................................................................................................24 a. Omitted Concept ................................................................................24 viii

(9) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ix b. Mistranslated Concept .......................................................................27 c. Substituted Concept ...........................................................................30 d. Explicitated Concept..........................................................................31 2. The Errors in English Translation of Pancuran Pangeran by Bing Translator ...............................................................................................32 a. Omitted Concept ................................................................................32 b. Added Concept ..................................................................................34 c. Untranslated Concept .........................................................................37 d. Mistranslated Concept .......................................................................37 B. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Translating Children Story‟s Book Pancuran Pangeran ..............................................40 1. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Omitted Concept ...............................................................................41 2. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Added Concept .............................................................................................42 3. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Mistranslated Concept ......................................................................43 4. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Untranslated Concept ........................................................................44 5. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Substituted Concept ..........................................................................46 6. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Explicitated Concept .........................................................................46 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION .......................................................................48 REFERENCES..................................................................................................51 APPENDICES ...................................................................................................53 Appendix 1: All Data Translated by GT .........................................................53 Appendix 2: All Data Translated by BT .........................................................59 Appendix 3: Description of Errors ..................................................................65

(10) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LIST OF TABLES No. Table Page 1. Table 1 Example of Data Coding 20 2. Table 2 Example of Error in Google Translate 21 3. Table 3 Example of Error in Bing Translator 22 4. Table 4 Total Errors Found in GT and BT 24 5. Table 5 Omitted Concept by Google Translate 24 6. Table 6 Mistranslated Concept by Google Translate 27 7. Table 7 Substituted Concept by Google Translate 30 8. Table 8 Explicitated Concept by Google Translate 31 9. Table 9 Omitted Concept by Bing Translator 32 10. Table 10 Added Concept by Bing Translator 34 11. Table 11 Untranslated Concept by Bing Translator 36 12. Table 12 Mistranslated Concept by Bing Translator 37 13. Table 13 Total Errors in Omitted Concept done by GT and BT 41 14. Table 14 Total Errors in Added Concept done by GT and BT 42 15. Table 15 Total Errors in Mistranslated Concept done by GT and BT 16. 43 Table 16 Total Errors in Untranslated Concept done by GT and BT 17. 44 Table 17 Total Errors in Substituted Concept done by GT and BT 18. 45 Table 18 Total Errors in Explicitated Concept done by GT and BT 46 x

(11) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRACT ADIPUTRA, MUHAMAD FAZLURRAHMAN. (2018). Error Analysis in the Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Translating Children’s Story Book Pancuran Pangeran. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Translation is a process that can help in understanding the message in one language into another language. This process could apply to various kinds of written texts like novel, academic text, or drama script. Translation has been considered as one of the most influential aspect in human life. Therefore, translation continues to be studied so that the user can use it as effectively as possible. One thing that the human beings have achieved is the translation that can be performed by machine. However, some errors could be found in the translation done by machine. Related to that case, the researcher found errors in the translation of Bahasa Indonesia to English done by Google Translate (GT) and Bing Translator (BT). This phenomenon can happen because machines are kept developing and unlike humans who can develop by themselves, machines require update in their system so they would not make the same mistakes in their translation. There are two problems formulation in this research which are about finding errors in the translation result of GT and BT and comparing the results of these translations to see the differences between the two machines. The method applied in this research is the library and the explicatory methods. This study also uses the qualitative method which means the results found in this study are explained based on the information collected by researcher through the opinions of experts. The results of this research show the errors made by GT and BT. There are 27 errors found in the translation by GT while there were 41 errors in the BT translation. According to the results, the researcher concludes that the performance of GT and BT was not really different because they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages are seen from the error pattern of each TM. GT shows creating errors in Substituted and Explicitated Concept which means GT tends to get confuse when choosing the best words to use yet GT does not show any error in Untranslated Concept, proving that GT has lots of vocabulary in its system. In contrary, BT does not make any error in the category where GT creates some. It shows that BT could perform better in those categories compared to GT. However, BT makes almost double errors than GT in Mistranslated Concept which means BT still finds it difficult to deliver intended meaning in source text to make it a proper translation. xi

(12) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI xii ABSTRAK ADIPUTRA, MUHAMAD FAZLURRAHMAN. (2018). Error Analysis in the Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Translating Children’s Story Book Pancuran Pangeran. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Penerjemahan adalah sebuah proses yang dapat membantu memahami pesan dalam suatu bahasa ke bahasa lainnya. Proses ini dapat diaplikasikan ke berbagai macam text tertulis seperti novel, akademik text, atau skrip drama. Penerjemahan sudah dianggap menjadi salah satu hal yang sangat berpengaruh dalam kehidupan manusia. Oleh karena itu, penerjemahan terus dipelajari agar manusia bisa menggunakannya seefektif mungkin. Satu hal yang sudah berhasil dicapai oleh manusia adalah penerjemahan yang dilakukan oleh mesin. Namun, kadang masih ada kesalahan di hasil yang dibuat oleh mesin. Terkait hal ini, peneliti menemukan kesalahan dalam terjemahan buku cerita anak Pancuran Pangeran dari bahasa Indonesia ke Inggris yang dilakukan oleh Google Translate (GT) dan Bing Translator (BT). Hal ini dapat terjadi karena mesin masih dalam tahap perkembangan dan tidak seperti manusia yang dapat berkembang sendiri, mesin memerlukan pembaharuan dalam sistemnya agar tidak lagi melakukan kesalahan yang sebelumnya ada dalam terjemahan mereka. Dalam penelitian ini terdapat dua rumusan masalah yakni menemukan kesalahan-kesalahan pada terjemahan GT dan BT dan membandingkan hasil terjemahan-terjemahan tersebut untuk melihat perbedaan yang dimiliki oleh kedua belah mesin. Metode yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode studi pustaka dan metode explicatory. Penelitian ini juga menggunakan metode kualitatif dimana hasil yang ditemukan dalam penelitian ini dijabarkan berdasarkan informasi yang dikumpulkan oleh peneliti melalui pendapat para ahli. Hasil-hasil yang didapat dari penelitian ini menunjukkan kesalahankesalahan yang dilakukan oleh GT dan BT. Ada 27 kesalahan yang ditemukan di terjemahan oleh GT sedangkan pada terjemahan BT terdapat kesalahan sebanyak 41. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, peneliti menyimpulkan bahwa kinerja GT dan BT tidaklah jauh berbeda. Kelebihan dan kekurangan mereka dapat dilihat dari pola kesalahan masing-masing TM. GT menunjukkannya membuat kesalahan pada Substituted dan Explicitated Concept yang berarti GT cenderung bingung ketika memilih kata terbaik untuk digunakan, namun GT tidak menunjukkan kesalahan pada Untranslated Concept, membuktikan bahwa GT memiliki banyak kosakata dalam sistemnya. Sebaliknya, BT tidak membuat kesalahan pada kategorikategori di mana terdapat error dari GT. Ini menunjukkan bahwa BT dapat tampil lebih baik di kategori-kategori tersebut dibandingkan GT. Namun, BT membuat kesalahan hampir dua kali lebih banyak daripada GT pada Mistranslated Concept yang berarti BT masih kesulitan untuk menyalurkan makna yang dimaksud oleh teks sumber agar dapat menjadikannya terjemahan yang baik.

(13) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Language may have been considered as the greatest tool to communicate that ever exists. This is due to the fact that language always needs to transfer messages to each other. There are various ways to perform language; it can be in the form of writing, speaking, or even in movements of the body. Language involves various studies like linguistic, literature, and translation and this undergraduate thesis focus on translation. Translation is a process of delivering meaning of words or texts from one language into another. In order to translate the source text (ST), the translator needs to consider the language culture of the target reader, because its emotive or connotative value varies according to the target culture (Nida, 1964, p. 36). Therefore, in order to do translation, there are many aspects that should be considered, one of them is the language culture of the target reader because the message from the source text might not be delivered if the translator ignores it. For example, in English there is a spesific way to address gender; he and she. Instead, in Bahasa Indonesia they are addressed as dia which can refers to both gender and makes it unclear if it used without more information. For that reason, it can be said that translation is practically good if it is not literally translated. Since the 17th century, human beings have begun to develop the idea of a tool called Translation Machine (TM); a tool that today has been widely used in 1

(14) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 2 the world. It has been used to translate various kinds of text such as news, abstract, subtitle and also used as the feature of social media because it is needed for translating various languages of the users to make it easier for them to interact with each other. The example of social media using TM is Twitter, which cooperates with Microsoft‟s Bing Translator to provide the translation service. The other is Facebook which uses its own software to translate commentary, status, and the options provided by Facebook. The existence of TM has a huge contribution in helping people to understand message that is different from the user‟s language, yet TM cannot be fully relied on because TM itself still has many deficiencies. Some people often accept the result of the translation by TM as it is without considering it again when the validity of the translation might not be correct yet. Therefore, the developer keeps evaluating the performance of the TM in order to improve its function. An example of the phenomenon is in the sentence His father told him how proud... that is translated into Bahasa Indonesia “Ayahnya menyuruhnya betapa bangganya...” (Febriana, 2014, p. 31). The previous example is taken from Febriana‟s thesis in 2014 that discusses the performance of Google Translate (GT) and Sederet.com. The text before is translated by Sederet.com and it creates an error in Mistranslation Concept because the word told is translated into menyuruhnya. It is an error because the translation machine translates the word literally, giving a different context of meaning. Meanwhile, if the sentence “His father told him how proud...” is translated by the current Sederet.com, the

(15) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3 translation is “Ayahnya berkata kepadanya betapa bangganya...” it has a clearer result than before. It proves that TM not just remains the same but keep improving to give a better performance. There are various factors to assess the performance of TM, one of them is by looking at the errors found in its translation. Those errors can be studied by applying the error analysis. In translation study, it can be analyzed by using the theory of concept error by Koponen. The theory of concept errors by Koponen shows that errors in translation can be used for assessing the quality of TMs performances by categorizing the errors found on the text to each category provided by Koponen. These types of concept errors are Omitted Concept, Added Concept, Untranslated Concept, Mistranslated Concept, Substituted Concept, and Explicitated Concept. In this thesis, the researcher discusses the errors found in the translation by two different TMs which are Google Translate and Bing Translator (BT). The researcher aims to compare the performance of the two TMs in translating literary text, specifically, children‟s story book. Thus, the comparison of the translation is used for assessing current quality of the performance of each TM. The children‟s story book is chosen because the researcher believes that the usage area of English has become larger than before. Therefore, it is important to introduce English since in early age. One method to introduce English is through story book because, in general, story book for children uses a simple diction that is easy to understand. However, there are also children‟s story books that use more advanced words or use forms that children might not understand.

(16) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 4 For this reason, the researcher chooses children‟s story book Pancuran Pangeran, which uses poetry form to tell the story. The translator of this book is known for his role as translator at the mentioned publisher, Bhuana Ilmu Populer. His name appears as the English translator of bilingual children story‟s book published by Bhuana Ilmu Populer such as Cindelaras (2017) and Malin Kundang (2017). The researcher chooses to focus on the two TMs because they are two well-known TMs and frequently used by people. In briefly, Google Translate is launched on April 28, 2006 and two years ago it is officially announced that Google Translate is able to translate 103 languages around the world (Google Research Team, 2013). The other device, Bing Translator, previously known as Live Search Translator and Windows Live Translator, is a statistical translation machine owned by Microsoft. The object of this research is the children book entitled Pancuran Pangeran, a book published by Bhuana Ilmu Populer in 2016. The children‟s story book Pancuran Pangeran is a book containing folktales from Betawi, Indonesia. In the published version by Bhuana Ilmu Populer, the book contains two languages for the readers, Bahasa Indonesia and English. The uniqueness of Pancuran Pangeran is the writer tries to maintain the rhyme, in both languages, in every paragraph which makes it look like a poem. One example of error translation created by GT is the sentence “di bawah sinar matahari yang begitu panas” that is translated into “in the sun so hot”. The translation should be categorized to Omitted Concept since the word “bawah” in the ST is not

(17) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 5 translated in the TT. Therefore, the ST and TT are not qualified as an equal sentence because the “missing” concept in the TT. From this thesis, the researcher aims to help the readers to see the different capabilities of different TMs in translating literary works, in this case, a literary work intended for children and to see how far the quality of the current TMs. Furthermore, the researcher also uses the translation worked by human to make a clearer explanation in comparing the performance of the two TMs in order to make the data in this thesis more valid. In addition, it may become a reference in tracking the development performance of TMs, hence allow the future researchers to observe the developed TMs to create another record that can be used for helping the future analyzes. B. Problem Formulation This undergraduate thesis focuses on two problem formulations as follows: 1. What errors are found in the English translation of the children‟s story book Pancuran Pangeran by Google Translate and Bing Translator? 2. How do Google Translate and Bing Translator perform in translating the children‟s story book Pancuran Pangeran? C. Objectives of the Study There are two objectives in this study; the first one is to analyze the errors made by the two translators, Google Translate and Bing Translator in translating children‟s story book Pancuran Pangeran from Bahasa Indonesia to English. The

(18) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 6 errors found are used for comparing and assessing the performance of each TM. The second objective is to analyze the errors found in order to make an illustration of the difference performance of each TM. Thus, it sums up the discussion of this thesis. D. Definiton of Terms There are some definitions of terms put in this research in order to avoid misunderstanding. Those terms are as follows: Translation Machine is part of computational linguistics that use software tools to translate text or speech from one language (source language) to another (target language). TM is widely employed in numerous applications and primarily used for conducting research by reviewing foreign websites and articles. (Shamsabadi, Nafchi, and Afzali, 2015, p. 68) Error Analysis is a method to conduct an evaluation of TM. Its method is by counting the errors found in the translations made by Google Translate and Bing Translator. Counting errors, in most instances is considered as the most useful method to obtain useful practical information of TM. (Hutchins and Somers, 1992, p. 164-165) Error in Translation is when the translation appears different from the original text in terms of linguistic sense of meaning, be it in the word or sentence level. The translation is labelled as error because it is less precise or less accurate from the source text, misuse of phrases, misuse of formal or official register, or because it less coherent or cohesive. (Newmark, 1988, p. 11-13)

(19) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter discusses the related theories and related studies to this research. The related studies are taken from three previous theses written by Febriana, Kurnianto and Ariany. The three theses will be reviewed one by one to see the focus of each thesis; therefore the researcher can see the differences and avoid plagiarism to the previous thesis. There are also some reviews of related theories that can be applied to help analyzing the two problems formulated in this study. A. Review of Related Studies 1. Febriana’s thesis “The Translation Performance of Sederet.com and Google Translate: A Comparative Study with Error Analysis” In her thesis, Febriana discusses the performance of two TMs which are Google Translate and Sederet.com in translating three short stories entitled “Dad‟s Blessing”, “The Grasshopper and the Ant”, and “The Princess and the Pea”. The focus of her thesis is to find the errors in the translations of those three short stories. Therefore, she chooses Koponen‟s error categories to work on her analysis. Similar to this study, Febriana only picks one category of Koponen‟s error categories which is the individual concept. By using the individual concept, she classifies the errors from the two TMs into six sub-categories, which are Added 7

(20) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 8 Concept, Omitted Concept, Mistranslated Concept, Untranslated Concept, Substituted Concept, and Explicitated Concept. The research finds that there are 387 errors made by TMs in total and most of them are in mistranslated concept. The conclusion mentions that the performance of Sederet.com is better than Google Translate in translating the three short stories. Having its similarity, there are also several differences in the thesis that should be mentioned. One of them is the object, which is a children‟s story book that the content is written in rhyme. Another difference is the TM that the researcher compares with Google Translate is Bing Translator instead of Sederet.com. 2. Kurnianto’s “Google Translate Assessment with Error Analysis: An Attempt to Reduce Errors” Kurnianto focuses his undergraduate thesis on the errors found in the performance by Google Translate. He analyzes three texts, which are Ownership Agreement document, National Geographic article, and an iPad user guide translated from English to Bahasa Indonesia. Similar to Febriana‟s thesis, Kurnianto also uses the Koponen‟s classification of errors for categorizing the errors to the suitable types of concept errors, which are Added Concept, Omitted Concept, Mistranslated Concept, Untranslated Concept, Substituted Concept, and Explicitated Concept. He uses the categories of errors found to support his suggestion in reducing the errors. In order to gain the data, Kurnianto applies Farrús‟ suggestion and trial and error method. In conclusion, Kurnianto shows the number of the errors found and claims conclusion that the most and the least types

(21) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 9 of errors found are the reflection of the TM quality. In his conclusion, Kurnianto states that Google Translate cannot translate complex phrases, complex clauses, and even sentences. The similarity between this study and Kurnianto‟s is the researcher also only uses the individual concept error of Koponen to measure the quality of TMs. The researcher also uses the the numerical data as one factor to determine the conclusion of the performance of each TM. The difference of this thesis with Kurnianto‟s is the researcher‟s focus is not to look for the way to reduce errors but to focus on comparing the TMs performance. In addition, another different is the researcher uses two TMs, Google Translate and Bing Translator, meanwhile the previous thesis only focuses on Google Translate. 3. Ariany’s “Bing Translator’s and Google Translate’s Performance in Translating English Literary and Academic Texts into Indonesian” Sandra‟s thesis discusses the performance of TMs Google Translate and Bing Translator in translating two types of text, first is academic text of Peter Barry‟s “Feminism and Feminist Criticism” and the other is literary text of Hemingway‟s Cat in the Rain. The purpose of this analysis is to find out the errors made by each TM and uses it to compare its performances. Thereupon, the result of the analysis is used for assessing the performances of Google Translate and Bing Translator. From those two previous studies, Sandra‟s thesis is the one which has the most similarities compared to this thesis. Both theses discuss the same TMs, which are Google Translate and Bing Translator, and use Koponen‟s error

(22) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 10 classification in assessing translation machine quality as the theory to analyze the errors. By having its similarities, this study also has differences that are needed to be mentioned to make it not a plagiarism. The differences are this research only picks one of two categories from Koponen‟s theory and analyzes a different object of study which is children literary work. Another is the data form of both theses are in contrast, where Sandra‟s data are English as the ST and Bahasa Indonesia as the TT while the data of this research are the translation of Bahasa Indonesia text to English. Although the differences seem to make the area of this study not as wide as the previous research, it is intentionally done like that in order to avoid negligence and overwhelming data due to amount of the data. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theories of Translation Munday (2008) states, the translator should consider many different factors when they are trying to translate. These factors are text type, the writer, the reader, source language, and target language. Therefore, the message in the TL should not only be equivalent but it should maintain the style. Translation defined as “reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style” (Nida and Taber, 1982, p. 12) because literary works are known for having aesthetic value from the style shown to the reader. Another statement that translation is a process of interpreting the meaning of a text from the source language into another language (target language) using translator‟s way to

(23) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 11 translate (Newmark, 1998, p.5). As stated by Newmark, there are indeed many various translation strategies that can be applied by the translator so that the message in the SL can be delivered to the TL. Based on the definitions above, it can be concluded that there are some important points in translation which are reproducing, transferring, and maintaining the message of the SL to the TL. Those three points are important in order to make the TL readers have the same response with the SL readers when reading the translation. 2. Translation Machine Hutchins and Somers state that “classification of errors by type of linguistic phenomenon and by relative difficulty of correction” (1992, p.164). This statement makes a consideration for the researcher to conduct this study. The statement remarks that in assessing TM quality, there should be an objective assessment of the errors classification. Therefore, the researcher applies the theory by Koponen as the base in order to assess the performance of the discussed TMs. 3. Error Analysis in Translation Machine Error analysis, based on Hutchin and Somers, is a practical way to evaluate TM by counting the error to find the amount of work and seeing what type of error patterns occurred (1992, p.164). But, this method is recognized to be subjective because the assumed errors found depend on each person understanding the message in translation. Therefore, what is needed to assess the performance of TMs is not simply by counting errors only. In order to make it

(24) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 12 more objectively, the researcher suggest to make a classification of errors by types of linguistic phenomenon and by relative difficulty of correction. Koponen’s Classification in Assessing Translation Machine 4. As mentioned before, in her journal, Koponen divides the error categories into two. The first one is the individual concepts or relation between source and target concepts and the second one is the relations between those concepts. Individual concepts are concepts that only conveyed through content words such as noun, verb, and adjective while Relations are expressed through function words, inflection and word order (Koponen, 2010, p.3). In this thesis the present researcher only intends to focus on the first category but the second category is still shown. The descriptions of each type of concepts and relations error below are provided by Koponen while the examples are provided from Sandra Ariany‟s thesis. (2017, p.15-17) a. Individual Concept Error (Koponen, 2010, p.4-5) i. Omitted Concept is a concept in the source text that is not conveyed in the target text or a word that should appear in the target text because it is not redundant in this language. Ex: ST: His wife was looking out of the window. TT: Istrinya sedang keluar dari jendela. ii. Added Concept is a concept that is not present in the source text but appears in the target text or a word that appears in the target text, but is redundant. Ex: ST: She liked the hotel-keeper.

(25) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 13 TT: Dia menyukai penjaga hotel Prusia. iii. Mistranslated Concept is when the incorrect selection of terms in a specific context, the wrong formation of terms or the literal translation of a term in the target text. Ex: ST: The poor kitty out ... TT: Kucing miskin keluar .... iv. Untranslated Concept is when a source language word that appears in the target text or the use of recent loan words. Ex: v. ST: ...and glistened in the rain. TT: ...dan glistened dalam hujan. Substituted Concept is when TT concept is not a direct lexical equivalent for ST concept but can be considered as a valid replacement for the context. Ex: ST: His wife looked out of the window ... TT: Istrinya menjenguk dari jendela ... vi. Explicated Concept is when TT concept explicitly states information left implicit in ST without adding information. Ex: b. ST: There were big palms ... TT: Ada pohon besar ... Relations Error (Koponen, 2010, p.6) i. Added Participant is when TT relation does not present in the ST introducing an added concept.

(26) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 14 Ex: ST: in such a way that ... TT: dalam sedemikian rupa sehingga ii. Added Relation is when TT relation does not present in the ST arises due to morpho-syntactic errors. Ex: ST: The padrone made her feel very small ... TT: padrone yang membuatnya merasa sangat kecil ... iii. Mistaken Participant is when head/dependent of the relation is different in ST and TT, not same entity. Ex: ST: He was an old man ... TT: Dia adalah tua manusia ... iv. Mistaken Relation is a relation between two concepts different in ST and TT, changed role. Ex: v. ST: He hadn‟t looked away from her since she started to speak. TT: Dia tidak melihat darinya karena dia mulai berbicara. Substituted Participant is when head/dependent of the relation different in ST and TT, same entity. Ex: ST: citizens who are nationals of ... TT: warga negara dari (trans.) vi. Substituted Relation is a relation between two concepts that is different in ST and TT, same semantic roles. Ex: ST: The Treaty of Lisbon amends... TT: with the Treaty of Lisbon is amended

(27) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 15 vii. Omitted Participant ST is when a relation is not conveyed by the TT due to an omitted head or dependent. Ex: ST: „I‟m going down and get that kitty,‟... TT: „Aku akan mendapatkan kucing itu,‟... viii. Omitted Relation ST is a relation that is not conveyed by the TT due to morpho-syntactic errors that prevent parsing the relation although both concepts are present in TT. Ex: ST: ... lying propped up with the two pillows at the foot of the bed. TT: C. ... berbaring didukung dengan bantal dua kaki tempat tidur. Theoretical Framework The theories that have been mentioned before are used by the researcher to answer all problem formulations. The definition of translation and translation machine are used as the basic understanding of the study. After understanding the definitions, the next step is to apply Koponen‟s individual concept errors to analyze and classify the errors in the translation of children‟s story book Pancuran Pangeran to the subcategory. This step is applied to find the answer of the first problem. Next, the result of the first problem formulation is elaborated in order to see the error pattern of the performance of the TMs in each category. In short, by applying the theories above, the researcher would be able to

(28) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 16 measure the quality of the current TMs and conclude the result of this thesis.

(29) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 17 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the areas of research, object of the study, method of the study, and procedure in conducting the research. This chapter briefly explains how the process of the analysis should be done. A. Areas of Research The focus of this undergraduate thesis is to assess the performance of TMs, Google Translate and Bing Translator, in translating a children‟s story book Pancuran Pangeran from Bahasa Indonesia into English. As mentioned in the previous chapter, the purpose of choosing Pancuran Pangeran as the object of the study is in accordance with Williams and Chesterman statement “Children‟s literature spans many genres – from poems and fairy tales to fiction and scientific writing. It is also expected to fulfil a number of different functions, e.g. entertainment, socialization, language development as well as general education” (2002, p.12). The comparison of the TMs is based on errors found in the translation of the children‟s story book. To find the errors occurring in the performance by the two TMs, the individual concept errors by Koponen is applied in order to classify each error to the appropriate subcategories. In short, the areas of this research are translation and technology.

(30) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 18 B. Object of the Study The data collected as object in this study are all Bahasa Indonesia sentences of the children‟s story book entitled Pancuran Pangeran retold by Lilis Hu. The book is translated into English by two TMs, Google Translate and Bing Translator. As translation machines, Google Translate and Bing Translator are able to translate words, phrases, and sentences. Google Translate is an online TM developed by Google Inc. The Google research team describes Google Translate as a high impact, research driven product that bridges the language barrier and makes it possible to explore the multilingual web in more than 90 languages. (Google Research Team, 2013). Meanwhile, Bing Translator is an TM developed by Microsoft. Bing translator provides the system that can translate text and web pages. Currently, Bing Translator supports more than 60 different languages through Microsoft Translator API. As technology keeps progressing forward, the developer also moves to higher target that is to have more languages available in their system. C. Method of the Study This undergraduate thesis is a qualitative research that applies the library research method. Qualitative research “designates any research whose results are captured in words, images, or nonnumeric symbols” (George, 2008, p.7). To be more precise, the thesis applies qualitative research through text analysis where the data are analyzed through descriptive explanation. Meanwhile, library research is a method that “involves identifying and locating sources that provide factual

(31) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 19 information or personal/expert opinions on research question; necessary component of every other research method at some point” (George, 2008, p.6). In another words, the library research is required in order to gather the information about the definition of translation, translation machines, also theories and previous analysis that have the related topic with the present analysis. The error analysis is also applied in order to classify and identify the type of errors in the translation by Google Translate and Bing Translator. The time when this data are taken is mentioned in order to avoid misunderstanding of the performance of TMs because the development of modern technology including TMs is keep going on. The data in this research are taken from the beginning of May 2018 to mid of August 2018. The data in this research are not taken from any other previous studies or researches which mean that the data are primary. The data are collected from the children‟s story book entitled Pancuran Pangeran which is translated by Google Translate and Bing Translator by the researcher. D. Research Procedure 1. Types of Data The data collected in this study are from ST and TT, it means that the data are objective data. The ST are all 96 Bahasa Indonesia sentences taken from the children‟s story book Pancuran Pangeran. While the book contains two languages, the researcher only takes one version in order to avoid an overwhelming data that could lead to errancy. Even though only half part of the

(32) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 20 book taken, there will be two kinds of data since the ST is translated by two TMs. The TT are 202 English translations of the text performed by Google Translate and Bing Translator. The children‟s story book Pancuran Pangeran has 24 stanzas and each of them consists of 4 lines. In details, there are 543 words in total from the original text and the amount changed after being translated. The translation performed by Google Translate consists of 651 words while Bing Translator produces 646 words with both TMs are not successful in maintaining the rhyme. 2. Data Collection There are several steps done by the researcher in order to collect the data. First, the researcher chose a children‟s story book originally in Bahasa Indonesia since the focus was to compare the performance of different TMs in translating text from Bahasa Indonesia into English. The chosen story book was bilingual; this was to make it easier for the researcher to understand the message of the story and also to make the categorization of the errors more valid by comparing the English translation of TMs with the English version by the book writer. The book should be an official published in order to get reliable data as for the book chosen in this study was published by official publisher, Bhuana Ilmu Populer. Second, the next step was to translate the text to English by Google Translate and Bing Translator. Since both Google Translate and Bing Translator were capable of translating 5000 words in maximum at once, the researcher decided to put the text all at once on each TM as the total words of the text were

(33) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 21 only 543 words. After being translated, the data were classified based on the types of error with the errors marked bold. The researcher also classified the errors found based on its part of speech types, which were Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, and Number, to make it more detailed. Thereupon, the data were showed stanza by stanza in the table. The data were arranged in form of table as follows: Table 1 Example of the Data Coding No. ST Ketiga putra 6/ST/P6/L baginda yang 1 gagah Di bawah sinar 9/TT/P9/ matahari yang L3 begitu panas No. 6/TT/P6/ L1/GT 9/TT/P9/ L3/GT Google Translate The three sons of the king are handsome In the sun so hot No. Bing Translator 6/TT/P6/ L1/BT The third son of King valiant 9/TT/P9/ L3/BT The data codes are read as follows: 3. 6, 9 : Order of the data ST : Source Text TT : Target Text P : Order of the Paragraph taken from the book L : Order of the Line taken from the paragraph GT : Google Translate BT : Bing Translator Population and Sample In the sun is so hot

(34) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 22 The researcher does not apply data sampling. It means that all of the data which are 24 stanzas consisting of 96 sentences of Bahasa Indonesia text version are all taken from the children‟s story book Pancuran Pangeran. 4. Data Analysis In order to be able to answer the first problem in this research, the researcher applied Koponen‟s individual concept errors. First, the data from each TM were checked by using Koponen‟s individual concept errors. All identified errors were put to the suitable categories that are Omitted Concept, Added Concept, Untranslated Concept, Mistranslated Concept, Substituted Concept, and Explicitated Concept. Thereafter, the data were put in a single table consisting of several columns to compare the English translations and count the errors occurred. As for the explanation of the errors source, they were put below the table. The collected data were also used for answering the second problem about the TMs performance. It can be conducted by summarizing all the data collected after counting all the errors found and calculating it to each category. After those steps were done, the pattern of error in each TM would be discovered and it will be used to assess the performance of each TM. The following table is provided in order to give a clearer description of the error analysis. Table 2 Example of Error in Google Translate No. ST 6/ST/P6/L1 Ketiga putra baginda yang gagah Google Translate 6/TT/P6/L1/GT The three sons of the king are handsome No. Table 3 Example of Error in Bing Translator Types of Errors Substituted Concept Adjective

(35) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 23 No. ST 6/ST/P6/L1 Ketiga putra baginda yang gagah No. 6/TT/P6/L1/BT Bing Translator The third son of King valiant Types of Errors Mistranslated ConceptNoun The next step in order to answer the second problem would depend on the counted errors found in every subcategory done by Google Translate and Bing Translator. The research continued to analyze the performance of both TMs by comparing its performance based on the number of errors in each subcategory instead of the total number from all subcategories by each TM. This is because the number related to the amount of errors found in GT and BT could have a very different gap between their each subcategory like in the performance comparison between the two TMs in Mistranslated Concept where BT makes almost twice as much errors than GT. Therefore, it might give an unfair judgment to the TMs performance if the conclusion is only based on total amount of errors alone.

(36) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter discusses the analysis results that draw upon the answer of the problems formulated in this research. This chapter is divided into two parts, the first part presents three main points about the errors done by GT and BT. As for the next part, the discussion is based on the result of the previous discussion that the problem formulated is to look at the patterns occurred in the errors done by GT and BT. A. The Errors Found in Translation of Children’s Story Book Pancuran Pangeran by Google Translate and Bing Translator The first problem in this discussion is to find the errors in the English translation of Pancuran Pangeran done by Google Translate (GT) and Bing Translator (BT). As the research only focuses on content words, the data were analyzed with the individual concept errors by Koponen. In this chapter, the data were arranged in table to show the comparison of the errors following with explanation for each subclass. Due to the amount of data that were not small, only several examples shown to represent each subcategory error. The following table provides the result of total errors made by each translator. 24

(37) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 25 Table 4 Total Errors Found in GT and BT Type of Concept Error Omitted Concept Added Concept Mistranslated Concept Untranslated Concept Substituted Concept Explicitated Concept Total Google Translate Bing Translator 7 (25.92%) 11 (26.82%) 0 (0%) 6 (14.63%) 12 (44.44%) 22 (53.65%) 0 (0%) 1 (2.43%) 4 (14.81%) 0 (0%) 4 (14.81%) 0 (0%) 27 (100%) 41 (100%) The table above shows the errors identified in the performance of GT and BT. It shows that the errors mostly occurred in Mistranslated Concept by BT and based on the total number of errors of all types, BT is the TM that responsible for it. The table also shows that both TMs do not make any errors in two concepts however, the types are different. GT does not make errors in Added and Untranslated Concept while BT does not make errors in Substituted and Explicitated Concept. 1. The Errors Found in English Translation of Pancuran Pangeran by Google Translate a. Omitted Concept In this concept, errors happen when there is a concept in ST that is not conveyed in TT. The errors found in this TT are 7 in total. They are divided into 3 errors in verb subcategory, 2 in noun subcategory, and 1 for each in adverb and adjective subcategory.

(38) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 26 Table 5 Omitted Concept by Google Translate Pronoun Adverb Verb Adjective Noun 0 i. 1 2 3 4 5 Omitted Noun The following table shows an error example in Omitted Concept Noun. No. ST Alkisah hiduplah 1/ST/P1 seorang raja yang /L1 bijaksana No. 1/TT/P 1/L1/G T TT There lived a wise king Types of Errors Omitted Concept Noun From the datum above, it shows that the ST begins the sentence with alkisah, a word that based on KBBI V is a noun that is known to begin a story or folklore. In the TT, the same expression does not appear. This is considered as an error because, in English, there are some words or phrases that can convey similar expression. For example, once upon time, long ago, or in the olden days. In addition, alkisah is an expression that can be used to indicate that the event had happened in the past. Therefore, the cause of the omission of noun alkisah makes the TT not entirely equal with the ST.

(39) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 27 ii. Omitted Adjective The following table shows an error example in Omitted Concept Adjective. No. ST Siapa yang mampu 75/ST/P mencabut tongkat 18/L3 dengan mudah No. TT 75/ST/P For he who can pull 18/L3/ forth the contents GT Types of Errors Omitted Concept Adjective The reason for the example above considered as an error is similar with the previous example. Because the omission of the adjective word mudah, the ST and TT did not have an equal meaning where in ST it was explained that the one who would own the staff would be able to take it without any difficulty yet in the TT this concept is not conveyed. iii. Omitted Adverb The following table shows an error example in Omitted Concept Adverb. No. ST 28/ST/P Walau badan terasa 6/L4 amat letih No. TT 28/ST/P Exhausted they 6/L4/G continued on T voluntarily Types of Errors Omitted Concept Adverb Although it seems that there are no errors in this sentence, the omission of the word amat is actually a part that is not supposed to be omitted because there is a purpose for applying it. The function of the adverb amat here is to emphasize the following expression that happened to the character in the story. In consequence, the omission of the adverb makes TT unequal to ST.

(40) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 28 iv. Omitted Verb The following table shows an error example in Omitted Concept Verb. No. ST No. 8/ST/P6 Dengan mengenakan /L3 pakaian yang mewah Types of Errors TT 8/TT/P 6/L3/G T Omitted Concept Verb With a fancy dress In datum 8/TT/P6/L3/GT, the concept of the word mengenakan is omitted. The omission makes the datum to be categorized in omitted concept error because the message in TT becomes less complete than ST. Also, the message in TT might lead to different meaning which conveys that the fancy dress was only brought instead of worn by the princes. b. Mistranslated Concept A mistranslated concept is when the incorrect selection of terms in a specific context has the wrong formation of terms or the literal translation of a term in the target text (Koponen, 2010, p.4). There are 4 subcategories of error occured in this concept, they are 6 errors in noun subcategory, 3 errors in verb subcategory, 2 errors in pronoun subcategory, and 1 in adverb subcategory. Table 6 Mistranslated Concept by Google Translate Pronoun Adverb Verb Adjective Noun 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(41) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 29 i. Mistranslated Noun The following table shows the error example in Mistranslated Concept Noun. No. ST 29/ST/ P24/L 1 Datangnya calon raja yang penuh cinta No. TT 29/TT/ P24/L 1/GT The coming of a loving kings candidate Types of Errors Mistranslated Concept Plural Noun The datum above shows that GT is not successful in delivering the noun raja from the ST. The singular noun raja is translated into plural form as it can be seen in the TT that it is translated as kings, whereas a singular form of noun king should not add “s” at its end. Moreover, TT use the article “a”, indicates that the following object should be singular. This makes the concept of both texts are not the same. ii. Mistranslated Verb The following table shows the error example in Mistranslated Concept Verb. No. ST 10/ST/ P7/L2 Melewati jalanan menanjak dengan tertatih No. 10T/T T/P7/L 2/GT TT Pass the streets uphill with a stammer Types of Errors Mistranslated Concept Verb In the example above, the concept of the ST is not conveyed in the TT. Both tertatih and stammer has the same meaning which is doing something unfluently, but both words also specifically show the difference, tertatih means

(42) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 30 walking unsteadily while stammer means to speak with sudden involuntary pauses. This shows that GT fails to give an appropriate translation of the ST. iii. Mistranslated Adverb The following table shows the error example in Mistranslated Concept Adverb. No. ST 27/ST/ P6/L3 Tak sedikit pun mereka berhenti No. 27/ST/ P6/L3/ GT TT Nothing they stopped Types of Errors Mistranslated Adverb The error in datum 27/ST/P6/L3 occured because the mistranslation concept in TT. The concept that ST tried to convey is the struggle of the princes while in TT the concept is not shown because the word used is not suitable. This might be because in the moment GT is still lack of the diction of ST. iv. Mistranslated Pronoun The following table shows the error example in Mistranslated Concept Pronoun. No. ST 45/ST/ P11/L 1 Pangeran Jaya duduk menunggui kedua adiknya No. 45/ST/ P11/L 1/GT TT Prince Jaya sat with his two sisters Types of Errors Mistranslated Pronoun In the example above, the error is in the translation of adiknya. GT fails to identify the gender of the characters which should be brothers. The reason of this error could be due to the system in GT that is still not capable yet to translate some words that could refer to more than one feature. In addition, instead of translating it specifically to match the story, it could be translated into siblings.

(43) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 31 c. Substituted Concept In substituted concept, the errors occur when the concept in TT does not give a direct lexical equivalent as in ST but can still be considered as a valid replacement for the context. In this concept, the errors only appear in one subcategory. There were 4 errors found in total with all of them are noun. Table 7 Substituted Concept by Google Translate Pronoun Adverb Verb Adjective Noun 0 1 2 3 4 5 The following table shows the error example in Substituted Concept Noun. No. ST Pangeran Jaya 26/ST/P memberi adik21/L1 adiknya kesempatan No. 26/TT/ P21/L1/ GT TT Prince Jaya gave his siblings a chance Types of Errors Substituted Concept Noun The example from the datum above shows the translation of adik-adiknya into siblings. Even though there seems to be no errors of this example, the concept in TT actually reduces what have been conveyed in ST. In ST, adik-adiknya signifies that the siblings are younger but in TT it is only translated into siblings and that will create a less specific information than the ST intended to.

(44) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 32 d. Explicitated Concept Explicitated concept happens when TT concept explicitly states information left implicit in ST without adding information (Koponen, 2010, p.5). It can also be said that Explicitated Concept means there is an additional concept in TT that is not giving new information. GT made 4 errors in this category. Table 8 Explicitated Concept by Google Translate Pronoun Adverb Verb Adjective Noun 0 1 2 3 4 5 The following table shows the errors found in Explicitated Concept Noun. No. ST 6/ST/P5/L3 Sampai di istana membawa tongkat sakti 24/ST/P19/L1 Tongkat sakti dari Kakek merupakan hadiah Tongkat sakti adalah milik seorang pemimpin sejati Barang siapa bisa mendapatkan tongkat sakti 25/ST/P20/L4 28/ST/P23/L2 Google Translate 6/TT/P5/L3/GT Arrived at the palace carrying a magic wand 24/TT/P19/L1/GT The magic wand from Grandpa is a gift 25/TT/P20/L4/GT The magic wand belongs to a true leader Types of Errors Explicitated concept noun 28/TT/P23/L2/GT Who can get a magic wand Explicitated concept noun No. Explicitated concept noun Explicitated concept noun

(45) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 33 The noun magic wand from the data above is considered as an error because it does not give a concept as it is intended in ST. At a glance, the data above seems to be in Added Concept error, but if it is looked deeper, they are supposed to be in Explicitated Concept because the TT might not be the most suitable translation since the word wand which is according to Oxford Dictionary, it is described into a stick that can be used for performing magic or magic tricks. Because the concept sakti is already contained in wand, therefore the existence of the noun magic makes TT more explicit than ST since it shows a concept that is not intended by ST yet still associated to the meaning. 2. The Errors Found in English Translation of Pancuran Pangeran by Bing Translator a. Omitted Concept In the Omitted Concept by BT, there were 11 errors found in total. They appeared in verb, adverb and noun subcategory. Table 9 Omitted Concept by Bing Translator Pronoun Adverb Verb Adjective Noun 0 1 2 3 4 5

(46) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 34 i. Omitted Noun The following table shows the error example in Omitted Concept Noun. No. ST 10/ST/P Mandi di pancuran 9/L4 pastinya terasa segar No. 10/TT/ P9/L4/ BT TT Showering certainly feels fresh Types of Errors Omitted Concept Noun The concept of pancuran from the datum 10/ST/P9/L4 is not exist in the TT. Eventhough the whole meaning of the sentence is not critically affected, still the omission of the word pancuran produces an error because in the TT the setting of place becomes unknown. ii. Omitted Verb The following table shows the error example in Omitted Concept Verb. No. ST 26/ST/P Kakek penunggu 17/L2 danau memberi maaf No. 26/TT/ P17/L2/ BT TT Porters Lake grandfather forgiveness Types of Errors Omitted Concept Verb The omission of the word memberi in datum 26/ST/P17/L2/BT leads to ambiguity of the meaning in TT. Since the use of verb memberi is to refer the subject who gives and is given, the meaning of the TT becomes not clear because it can be the watcher of the lake either ask for forgiveness or gives forgiveness to somebody. Therefore, the word memberi should not be omitted and translated into gives instead.

(47) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 35 iii. Omitted Adverb The following table shows the error example in Omitted Concept Adverb. No. ST 11/ST/P Agar tidak terjadi iri 3/L3 hati dan bertarung No. TT 11/TT/ P3/L3/ BT So there happen envy and fight Types of Errors Omitted Concept Adverb In the datum above, the error occurs in the omission of the word tidak. The omission makes the concept conveyed in TT is different with the message that ST gives. In ST, the message conveyed is about prevention, meanwhile the message in TT gives the opposite intention. b. Added Concept In this concept, BT makes error in every subcategory except verb subcategory. The errors appear here are 2 for each in pronoun and noun subcategory and 1 error in adverb and adjective subcategory. Table 10 Added Concept by Bing Translator Pronoun Adverb Verb Adjective Noun 0 1 2 3 4 5

(48) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 36 i. Added Noun The following table shows the error example in Added Concept Noun. No. ST 41/ST/P Tubuh Pangeran Suta 10/L1 dan Gerinda menjadi kaku No. 41/TT/ P10/L1/ BT Types of Errors The body count of Added Concept Suta and Grinding Noun into rigid TT The error in datum 41/ST/P10/L1 is the addition of the word count by BT in TT. The error is clearly visible because in the ST there is no word that could be translated to count even if it is literally translated word by word. ii. Added Adjective The following table shows the error example in Added Concept Adjective. No. ST 8/ST/P9 Sungguh /L2 pemandangan yang membuat hati bergetar No. TT 8/TT/P 9/L2/B T Truly stunning views make the heart flutter Types of Errors Added Concept Adjective An added concept error is shown in datum 8/TT/P9/L2/BT. In that datum, the TT shows an unmentioned concept of ST which is from the word stunning. BT possibly gives an additional concept because it intends to give an expression that could suits with the whole sentence or because it affected by the other words in the same sentence like heart flutter. However, it is considered as an error because stunning is not mentioned in the ST.

(49) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 37 iii. Added Adverb The following table shows the error example in Added Concept Adverb. No. ST 68/ST/P Pangeran Suta dan 16/L4 Gerinda pun mengaku khilaf No. 68/TT/ P16/L4/ BT TT Prince Suta and Grinding ever admitted to momentarily led astray Types of Errors Added Concept Adverb The datum 68/TT/P16/L4/BT is the only datum with error in Added Concept Adverb. By adding the word momentarily, TT shows a concept about time which is not exist in ST. Therefore, this is considered as an error since BT gives additional information that is not intended by ST. iv. Added Pronoun The following table shows the error example in Added Concept Pronoun. No. ST 59/ST/P Jika ingin kedua 14/L3 saudaranya selamat No. 59/TT/ P14/L3/ BT TT If you'd like his two brothers survived Types of Errors Added Prononun The error in datum 59/TT/P14/L3/BT is in the addition of pronoun you’d in TT. Besides considered as an error because it is not exist in ST, the addition could change the intended point of view in the story. The writer intends to use the third person point of view but in the datum above, it shows that the sentence uses the second person point of view

(50) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 38 c. Untranslated Concept BT only makes 1 error in adjective subcategory in this concept. Table 11 Untranslated Concept by Bing Translator Pronoun Adverb Verb Adjective Noun 0 1 2 3 4 5 In this concept, there is only one error found which is in Adjective Concept subcategory. No. ST 24/ST/P Kakek penunggu 16/L3 danau akhirnya merasa iba No. TT 24/TT/ P16/L3/ BT Grandfather of porters Lake finally felt iba Types of Errors Untranslated Concept Adjective The example above shows the only untranslated concept error made by BT. In the datum 24/TT/P16/L3, it shows that the word iba is left untranslated by BT in the TT. It could be because the word iba from Bahasa Indonesia is still not available yet in BT‟s dictionary in order to translate it into English. A possible translation for the adjective is sorry. d. Mistranslated Concept Mistranslated Concept is the concept that BT makes most its error. In total, there were 22 errors found in this concept and divided into each subcategory except adverb subcategory.

(51) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 39 Table 12 Mistranslated Concept by Bing Translator Pronoun Adverb Verb Adjective Noun 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 There were 4 subcategories errors found in this concept. They were in noun, adjective, verb, and pronoun subcategory. The noun subcategory consisted of 13 errors, 2 in adjective subcategory, 4 in verb subcategory, and 3 in pronoun subcategory. i. Mistranslated Noun The following table shows the error example in Mistranslated Concept Noun. No. ST 27/ST/P Hukuman kedua saudaranya dilepas 17/L3 No. TT 27/TT/ P17/L3/ BT The second sentence of his brother released Types of Errors Mistranslated Concept Noun A mistranslated concept error is occured in datum 27/TT/P17/L3/BT where BT mistranslates the concept of kedua which the context is supposed to be about the number of person mentioned in the sentence, but BT translates it as constituted number two in a sequence that used for describing the number of the

(52) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 40 punishment instead. A suggested translation for the text is “the punishment of his two brothers was released”. ii. Mistranslated Adjective The following table shows the error example in Mistranslated Concept Adjective. No. ST 36/ST/P Rakyat negeri 24/L2 menyambut dengan gempita No. 36/TT/ P24/L2/ BT TT The people of the country welcomed with explosion Types of Errors Mistranslated Concept Adjective The word gempita from the datum above is mistranslated into explosion by BT. It is considered as an incorrect translation because explosion according to Oxford Dictionary is described into the sudden violent bursting and loud noise of something such as bomb exploding. BT translates it in such way probably because the word gempita itself is an adjective that is used for describing an expression of excitement or noisy. Still, the use of the word explosion is not considered as a proper translation because it is not suitable with the concept in ST. iii. Mistranslated Verb The following table shows the error example in Mistranslated Concept Verb. No. ST 25/ST/P Perjalanan ditempuh 6/L1 dengan berjalan kaki No. 25/TT/ P6/L1/ BT TT The journey is a legs Types of Errors Mistranslated Concept Verb In the datum above, it shows that BT fails to deliver an equal meaning of ST. The concept is supposed to be about how the characters went through the

(53) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 41 journey by mentioning it is done by walking but in TT the concept berjalan kaki only translated into legs which makes the message in TT unclear. iv. Mistranslated Pronoun The following table shows the error example in Mistranslated Concept Pronoun. No. ST 45/ST/P Pangeran Jaya duduk 11/L1 menunggui kedua adiknya No. 45/TT/ P11/L1/ BT Types of Errors Prince Jaya sit keep Mistranslated her siblings Concept Pronoun TT The error in the datum above occurs in the mistranslated pronoun her in TT. In this datum, it shows that BT is not successful in translating a concept that refers to male character. This could be because BT is still difficult in identifying gender-related message with simple information as already seen in ST that it gives the information that the character is male from the word pangeran. B. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Translating Bahasa Indonesia Version of Children Story’s Book Pancuran Pangeran The following discussion focuses on the second problem about the performance of GT and BT in translating 24 Bahasa Indonesia stanzas of children story‟s book Pancuran Pangeran. In this part, the total number of each error category in the previous discussion would be counted. Afterwards, the researcher would elaborate the result in order to draw the pattern of typical errors made by GT and BT according to Individual Concept by Koponen.

(54) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 42 In total, GT and BT made 68 errors on Individual Concept. Out of 6 Concepts, both GT and BT did not make any errors in 2 categories, yet they were not on the same types. GT did not produce error in Added Concept and Untranslated Concept while BT did not make errors on Substituted Concept and Explicitated Concept. The errors were mostly occured on Substituted Concept for GT and Mistranslated Concept for BT. 1. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Omitted Concept The first discussion is about the TMs performance in the Omitted Concept where GT made 7 errors while BT made 11 errors. The subcategories of where the errors mostly occured are different for each TM. GT had its most errors found in verb subcategory. As for BT, it frequently appeared in noun subcategory. Table 13 Total Errors in Omitted Concept done by GT and BT GT BT Noun 2 5 Adjective 1 0 Verb 3 3 Adverb 1 3 Pronoun 0 0 As seen from the table above, there are only 3 digits different in noun subcategory between GT and BT. Nevertheless, it turns out that the 2 errors found in noun subcategory of BT are the same errors found in GT. The errors are found in the translation of datum 35/ST/P8/L3. In this datum, both TMs translate Di bawah sinar matahari yang begitu panas into in the sun so hot. As a result, GT and BT have the same mistake where they left behind the concept bawah and sinar in ST.

(55) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 43 However in BT, there are more omission errors found when translating pancuran. The omission occured in datum 36/TT/P8/L4/BT and datum 38/TT/P9/L2/BT are both have its ST talk about mandi di pancuran. The reason of this case could be because the system in BT are distracted with the similarity of the word mandi and pancuran even though in Bahasa Indonesia itself, mandi and pancuran has already shown the difference from their part of speech in which mandi known as a verb while pancuran is a noun. This makes BT consider that mandi and pancuran are a unit that could be translated into one word, set aside of its difference. In addition, this case might happen because the order of the word that comes first in ST, since in both mentioned data pancuran is always mentioned after mandi. 2. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Added Concept In the second discussion, it only shows the performance where BT made 6 errors in Added Concept. There were 2 errors found in noun and pronoun subcategory and 1 error for each in verb and adverb subcategory. GT did not make any error in this concept. Table 14 Total Errors in Added Concept done by GT and BT GT BT Noun 0 2 Adjective 0 1 Verb 0 0 Adverb 0 1 Pronoun 0 2 In this concept, the datum 59/TT/P14/L3/BT and 73/TT/P18/L1/BT would be used as the representative of the error found in Added Concept by BT. In those two data, BT makes additional pronoun that is supposed to not exist in TT. The

(56) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 44 addition in datum 59/TT/P14/L3/BT is you’d while in datum 73/TT/P18/L1/BT is his. The effect of the addition in the first mentioned datum has already explained in the previous part where it could change the researcher's intended point of view in the story. As for the following datum, the addition makes a new concept that is not intended by the writer. This case shows the fact that GT could give a more proper translation compared to BT. 3. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Mistranslated Concept The third discussion shows that GT made 12 errors while BT made 18 errors in Mistranslated Concept. The errors occur in this concept are because the concept in TT has an inconvenient context with ST yet the mistranslated concept is also a meaning possessed by the translated word. Even though BT did not create any error in verb and adverb subcategory, the total number of errors in Mistranslated Concept shows that BT made more mistakes than GT, especially in noun subcategory. The following table shows the number of errors found in each subcategory of GT and BT. Table 15 Total Errors in Mistranslated Concept done by GT and BT GT BT Noun 6 13 Adjective 0 2 Verb 3 0 Adverb 1 0 Pronoun 2 3 The datum 36/ST/P8/L4/GT and 38/ST/P9/L2/GT show how GT performs an error in the same manner. In those data, GT uses shower to deliver the concept of pancuran whereas the concept intended by ST is different. It is presumably that the concept of shower is affected by the concept of the sentence as its entirely

(57) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 45 where it indicates about taking a bath. As previously mentioned, shower is an example of an inconvenient use of word because it is not used at proper context even though it does contain a similar meaning. Furthermore, if it is looked from the title, the context of the book is mainly pointing about fountain not shower. Meanwhile, BT made a mistranslated error when translating a person‟s name. Such phenomenon can be seen in datum 41/TT/P10/L1/BT and 68/TT/P16/L4/BT where Gerinda is translated into Grinding. Except for Suta, the name of the character Jaya and Gerinda actually have a meaning in Bahasa Indonesia. Unlike Jaya, Gerinda is translated as treated as its form in Bahasa Indonesia even if it has been followed by the modifier prince. In this case, GT can make the same mistake if there is no modifier before the subject or if the name is not begun with a capital letter. In accordance to the explanation, it shows that the capability of BT in translating name of person is behind GT. 4. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Untranslated Concept In the fourth discussion, it shows that BT made an error in Mistranslated Concept and it was found alone in adjective subcategory. Even though it was only 1 error, it still shows the incapability of BT in translating a concept of ST. As for the other TM, GT, it did not make any error in this concept. Table 16 Total Errors in Untranslated Concept done by GT and BT GT BT Noun 0 0 Adjective 0 1 Verb 0 0 Adverb 0 0 Pronoun 0 0

(58) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 46 The untranslated word iba in TT of BT is possibly occur because the information about the word is not yet on BT dictionary of the source language. When there is a typo or the word is not known yet in ST, TMs like GT and BT tend to give a suggestion of the possible correct words or recommend a different possible language of ST. In this case, when the researcher put iba in BT with Bahasa Indonesia as its source language, BT would show the suggestion “try Spanish” which means that BT recognized that the word is intended to be in another language. It should be noted that there is still a limitation for TMs when translating ST since TMs are depend on the system and vocabulary inputted to them at time in order to translate words to another language. If the developer does not update those aspect, there would be no difference in the future performance of the TMs. Such as the word iba before, the translation by BT after a few months become IBA, where the difference is the word which is written in capital letter. In other words, the information about the word is still not exist in BT vocabulary. On the other hand, GT did show no untranslated error at all in translating the text. Still, it is not entirely proved that GT owns more source language vocabulary than BT because there are more words undiscussed exist beyond the words mentioned in the children story‟s book used for this thesis. However, as the area of the thesis is on the children story‟s book Pancuran Pangeran, it can be said that GT gives a better performance in Untranslated Concept. 5. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Subsituted Concept

(59) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 47 The fifth discussion also shows that only one TM made errors. Those errors were made by GT and there were only two of them found in noun subcategory. Hence, there was no error found in the performance of BT. Table 17 Total Errors in Substituted Concept done by GT and BT GT BT Noun 2 0 Adjective 0 0 Verb 0 0 Adverb 0 0 Pronoun 0 0 Since substitutional error is considered as an acceptable alternative translation of ST, the errors found did not cause a major problem for TT reader to understand the message. It can be seen in datum 55/ST/P13/L3/GT and 81/ST/P20/L1/GT where GT translated adiknya and adik-adiknya into siblings. As mentioned in the previous part, the translation of TT did not deliver an equal meaning because it reduced the message in the concept of ST. However, the translation is acceptable because it is not completely different and still has relation with the concept of ST. Therefore, such phenomenon is considered to be in Substituted Concept. 6. The Performance of Google Translate and Bing Translator in Explicitated Concept As for the last discussion, the total number of errors found is the same to the previous discussion where it shows that GT made 4 errors in noun subcategory while BT made no error in this concept. Table 18 Total Errors in Explicitated Concept done by GT and BT GT BT Noun 4 0 Adjective 0 0 Verb 0 0 Adverb 0 0 Pronoun 0 0

(60) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 48 In this concept, it shows that GT makes an error through concept repetition that was not intended by ST. All of the errors made by GT were found in the same words which are tongkat sakti and it can be seen in datum 19/ST/P5/L3/GT, 73/ST/P18/L1/GT, 80/ST/P19/L4/GT, and 90/ST/P22/L2. In those data, GT translated tongkat sakti into magic wand. The repetition was seen in the word magic because the concept of magic itself is already existed in wand. This case actually does not give trouble for the TT readers to understand the message; however, it still shows that GT made an error since the translation was not as equal as ST intended to. At the same time, compared to BT, the explicit errors in GT did not occur in BT. In those texts, BT was able to translate tongkat sakti into wand.

(61) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 49 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Based on the analysis and discussion previously explained, it shows that the errors found in the performance of GT and BT in translating 96 Bahasa Indonesia sentences of children story‟s book Pancuran Pangeran. The errors are divided into 6 categories that focus on Individual Concept error by Koponen. Out of 6 available error categories, both GT and BT makes errors in 4 categories. Although the number of each category is the same, there are some difference of places where GT and BT create errors. GT makes error in Omitted Concept, Mistranslated Concept, Substituted Concept, and Explicitated Concept while BT makes error in Omitted Concept, Added Concept, Mistranslated Concept, and Untranslated Concept. GT makes 25 errors in total which are divided into 7 in Omitted Concept, 12 in Mistranslated Concept, and 2 in Substituted and Explicitated Concept. On the other hand, BT makes 41 errors in total with 11 of them in Omitted Concept, 6 in Added Concept, 22 in Mistranslated Concept, and 1 in Untranslated Concept. By looking at the total number of errors in each TM, it shows that BT makes more error than GT. Both GT and BT mostly make their error in Mistranslated Concept yet the errors occur more in BT with 10 errors different between both TMs. The results of the analysis and discussion above reveal that the performance of both TMs seems almost similar. Other than the errors in

(62) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 50 Mistranslated Concept, it shows that the differences are almost equal with its similarities where both GT and BT show their capability by not making any error in 2 categories. Since the performance between GT and BT in each category is not very different in translating text that uses story-telling words, the researcher realizes that instead of denominate which TM has higher quality, this research can also be used to show the advantages and the deficiencies of each TM has because both TMs creates different pattern of error. In general, GT shows that its performance is better than BT. GT owns a large vocabulary and it helps GT to be able to translate complex sentences better. Moreover, GT also able to identifies some terms that the context is in Bahasa Indonesia better. However, the capability of being able to translate complex sentence can also make GT gives a more explicit meaning or choose to use words that actually not the most suitable to match the context but still acceptable since there is a limitation in TM. In addition, it is somewhat surprising that GT is not sufficiently able to transfer literary texts, which is a rare occurrence in the past research. On the other hand, BT shows that overall it has less well performance than GT. Nonetheless, it does not mean that BT is a bad TM. BT shows its superiority to GT in the categories that BT does not make any errors and BT also only makes 1 error different to GT in Untranslated Concept. . Nevertheless, the result of GT and BT performance shows that they can be useful to help the user translating certain text such as children story‟s book even though the translation is not perfect yet. The researcher suggests that the research about error analysis in TM would continue and get wider. Since the

(63) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 51 object of this research only focus on children story‟s book, the pattern might be different when the analysis uses other object and it might even possible for the result shows a different TM with better performance in overall is different.

(64) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 52 REFERENCES Ariany, Sandra. (2017). Bing Translator’s and Google Translate’s Performance in Translating English Literary and Academic Texts into Indonesian (Undergraduate Thesis). Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta. Febriana. (2014). The Translation Performance of Sederet.com and Google Translate: A Comparative Study with Error Analysis (Undergraduate Thesis). Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta. Hu, Lilis. (2016). Pancuran Pangeran. Bhuana Ilmu Populer, Jakarta. Hutchins, John and Harold Somers. (1992). An Introduction to Machine Translation: Academic Press Limited, London. KBBI Daring. Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa. Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia. (2016). Retrieved from kbbi.kemdikbud.go.id Koponen, Maarit. (2010). Assessing Machine Translation Quality with Error Analysis in Electronic Proceedings of the KäTu Symposium on Translation and Interpreting studies 4. Helsinki: University of Helsinki. Kurnianto, Damianus Deni. (2012). Google Translate Assessment With Error Analysis: An Attempt To Reduce Errors (Undergraduate Thesis). Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta. Munday, Jeremy. (2008). Introducing Translation Studiesm Theories and Applications 2nd Edition. London: Routledge. Newmark, Peter. (1981). Approaches to Translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Newmark, Peter. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice-Hall International. Nida, Eugene A. (1964). Toward a Science of Translating. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Nida, Eugene A. and Charles R. Taber. (1982). The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Shamsabadi, Hussein, Ashgar Moulavi Nafchi, and Fereshteh Afzali. (2015). A Study of Computational Linguistics and Machine Translation. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Translation. Vol. 1, No. 5 (pp. 68-72).

(65) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 53 T.K, Bijimol, Johnt Abraham. (2014). A Study of Machine Translation Methods: an Analysis of Malayalam Machine Translation System. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271689877_A_Study_of_Machin e_Translation_Methods_An_Analysis_of_Malayalam_Machine_Translatio n_Systems (on 11 October 2018) Williams, Jenny and Andrew Chesterman. (2002). The Map: A Beginner’s Guide to Doing Research in Translation Studies, Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.

(66) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI APPENDICES Appendix 1: All Data Translated by GT No. 1/ST/P1/L1 2/ST/P1/L2 3/ST/P1/L3 4/ST/P1/L4 5/ST/P2/L1 6/ST/P2/L2 7/ST/P2/L3 8/ST/P2/L4 9/ST/P3/L1 10/ST/P3/L2 11/ST/P3/L3 12/ST/P3/L4 Source Text Alkisah hiduplah seorang raja yang bijaksana Kerajaannya terletak di antara Bogor dan Jakarta Raja memiliki tiga orang putra di istana Raja tidak ingin para putranya berebut takhta Ketiga putra baginda memiliki otak yang cerdas Disertai dengan wajah yang rupawan Dapat menunggang kuda dengan tangkas Ketiganya begitu menawan Berhari-hari Raja berpikir dan merenung Menemukan cara menentukan putra mahkota Agar tidak terjadi iri hati dan bertarung Di antara saudara ketika Raja turun takhta 54 No. 1/TT/P1/L1/GT GT Translation There lived a wise king 2/TT/P1/L2/GT Its kingdom lies between Bogor and Jakarta The king has three sons in the palace The king did not want his sons to fight the throne The three sons of the king had intelligent brains Accompanied with a beautiful face Can ride the horse with agile 3/TT/P1/L3/GT 4/TT/P1/L4/GT 5/TT/P2/L1/GT 6/TT/P2/L2/GT 7/TT/P2/L3/GT 8/TT/P2/L4/GT 9/TT/P3/L1/GT 10/TT/P3/L2/GT 11/TT/P3/L3/GT 12/TT/P3/L4/GT All three are so charming For days the King thinks and ponders Finding how to determine the crown prince In order not to envy and fight Among the brothers when the King descended the throne

(67) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 55 13/ST/P4/L1 14/ST/P4/L2 15/ST/P4/L3 16/ST/P4/L4 17/ST/P5/L1 18/ST/P5/L2 19/ST/P5/L3 20/ST/P5/L4 21/ST/P6/L1 22/ST/P6/L2 23/ST/P6/L3 24/ST/P6/L4 25/ST/P6/L1 26/ST/P6/L2 27/ST/P6/L3 Sesuai dengan saran dari penasihat Raja Raja berniat untuk mengadakan sayembara Sayembara hanya diikuti oleh ketiga putranya saja Mereka diharuskan pergi mengembara Isi sayembara yang harus mereka taati Barang siapa yang pertama terlihat mata Sampai di istana membawa tongkat sakti Dialah yang akan menjadi putra mahkota Ketiga putra baginda yang gagah 13/TT/P4/L1/GT Segera berangkat untuk mengembara Dengan mengenakan pakaian yang mewah Demi memenuhi isi sayembara 22/TT/P6/L2/GT The three sons of the king are handsome Immediately set out to wander 23/TT/P6/L3/GT With a fancy dress 24/TT/P6/L4/GT Perjalanan ditempuh dengan berjalan kaki Melewati jalanan menanjak dengan tertatih Tak sedikit pun mereka berhenti 25/TT/P6/L1/GT To fulfill the contents of the contest The journey is on foot 14/TT/P4/L2/GT 15/TT/P4/L3/GT 16/TT/P4/L4/GT 17/TT/P5/L1/GT 18/TT/P5/L2/GT 19/TT/P5/L3/GT 20/TT/P5/L4/GT 21/TT/P6/L1/GT 26/TT/P6/L2/GT 27/TT/P6/L3/GT In accordance with the advice of the King's advisor The king intends to hold a contest The contest was only followed by his three sons They are required to go wandering Contents of the competition that they must obey Whose first sighted eyes Arrived at the palace carrying a magic wand He will be the crown prince Pass the streets uphill with a stammer Nothing they stopped

(68) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 56 28/ST/P6/L4 Walau badan terasa amat letih 28/TT/P6/L4/GT 29/ST/P7/L1 Ketika matahari siang bersinar dengan panas Mereka bertiga tiba di sebuah pancuran Keringat mengalir dengan deras Mereka senang bisa sampai di pancuran Pancuran dengan air yang deras Sungguh pemandangan yang membuat hati bergetar Di bawah sinar matahari yang begitu panas Mandi di pancuran pastinya terasa segar Pangeran Suta dan Gerinda segera melompat Mandi di pancuran dan meminum air danau Melanggar aturan dalam masyarakat setempat Lupa meminta izin pada kakek penunggu danau Tubuh Pangeran Suta dan Gerinda menjadi kaku Sehabis meminum air dari danau 29/TT/P7/L1/GT Pangeran Jaya melihat dengan terpaku 43/TT/P10/L3/GT 30/ST/P7/L2 31/ST/P7/L3 32/ST/P7/L4 33/ST/P8/L1 34/ST/P8/L2 35/ST/P8/L3 36/ST/P8/L4 37/ST/P9/L1 38/ST/P9/L2 39/ST/P9/L3 40/ST/P9/L4 41/ST/P10/L1 42/ST/P10/L2 43/ST/P10/L3 30/TT/P7/L2/GT 31/TT/P7/L3/GT 32/TT/P7/L4/GT 33/TT/P8/L1/GT 34/TT/P8/L2/GT 35/TT/P8/L3/GT 36/TT/P8/L4/GT 37/TT/P9/L1/GT 38/TT/P9/L2/GT 39/TT/P9/L3/GT 40/TT/P9/L4/GT 41/TT/P10/L1/GT 42/TT/P10/L2/GT Although the body feels very tired When the afternoon sun shines with heat The three of them arrive at a shower Sweat is flowing swiftly They love to get to the shower Shower with heavy water What a sight that makes the heart tremble In the sun so hot Shower in the shower certainly feels fresh Prince Suta and Gerinda immediately jumped Take a bath in the shower and drink the lake water Violate the rules in the local community Forgot to ask permission on grandfather lake watcher The body of Prince Suta and Gerinda became stiff After drinking water from the lake Prince Jaya looked stunned

(69) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 57 44/ST/P10/L4 Hati Pangeran Jaya menjadi amat galau Pangeran Jaya duduk menunggui kedua adiknya Dirinya bingung tak tahu harus berbuat apa Tidak begitu jauh dari tempat duduknya Tampak seorang kakek yang sedang bertapa Pangeran Jaya memohon dengan sangat Kepada kakek penunggu tempat keramat 44/TT/P10/L4/GT 51/TT/P12/L3/GT To forgive disobedient deeds 52/TT/P12/L4/GT So that both siblings can be saved 53/TT/P13/L1/GT 57/ST/P14/L1 Untuk memaafkan perbuatan yang tidak taat Agar kedua saudaranya dapat selamat Kakek penunggu danau mengajukan syaratnya Yang harus dilakukan Pangeran Jaya sendiri Demi menghidupkan kembali para adiknya Pangeran Jaya harus rela mengorbankan diri Permintaan kakek itu amatlah berat 58/ST/P14/L2 Pangeran harus meminum air 58/TT/P14/L2/GT The grandfather of the lake awaits the conditions What should be done by Prince Jaya himself For the sake of reviving his siblings Prince Jaya must be willing to sacrifice himself The grandfather's request was heavy Prince must drink the lake water 45/ST/P11/L1 46/ST/P11/L2 47/ST/P11/L3 48/ST/P11/L4 49/ST/P12/L1 50/ST/P12/L2 51/ST/P12/L3 52/ST/P12/L4 53/ST/P13/L1 54/ST/P13/L2 55/ST/P13/L3 56/ST/P13/L4 45/TT/P11/L1/GT 46/TT/P11/L2/GT 47/TT/P11/L3/GT 48/TT/P11/L4/GT 49/TT/P12/L1/GT 50/TT/P12/L2/GT 54/TT/P13/L2/GT 55/TT/P13/L3/GT 56/TT/P13/L4/GT 57/TT/P14/L1/GT Pangeran Jaya's heart became very upset Prince Jaya sat with his two sisters He was confused not know what to do Not so far from his seat There was a grandfather who was meditating Prince Jaya pleaded with great interest To the grandfather of the holy place

(70) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 58 59/ST/P14/L3 danau hingga dangkal Jika ingin kedua saudaranya selamat 59/TT/P14/L3/GT 60/ST/P14/L4 Suatu syarat yang tidak masuk akal 60/TT/P14/L4/GT 61/ST/P15/L1 Pangeran Jaya dengan gigih terus mencoba Tidak mengenal kata putus asa Kakek penunggu danau akhirnya merasa iba Melihat keteguhan hati Pangeran Jaya yang perkasa Pengorbanan Pangeran Jaya berbuah emas Kakek penunggu danau memberi maaf Hukuman kedua saudaranya dilepas Pangeran Suta dan Gerinda pun mengaku khilaf Kakek penunggu danau merasa senang Melihat pangeran yang baik dan penyayang Sebelum kakek penunggu danau pulang Kakek ingin memberikan sebuah barang Tongkat sakti dari Kakek 61/TT/P15/L1/GT 62/ST/P15/L2 63/ST/P15/L3 64/ST/P15/L4 65/ST/P16/L1 66/ST/P16/L2 67/ST/P16/L3 68/ST/P16/L4 69/ST/P17/L1 70/ST/P17/L2 71/ST/P17/L3 72/ST/P17/L4 73/ST/P18/L1 62/TT/P15/L2/GT 63/TT/P15/L3/GT 64/TT/P15/L4/GT 65/TT/P16/L1/GT 66/TT/P16/L2/GT 67/TT/P16/L3/GT 68/TT/P16/L4/GT 69/TT/P17/L1/GT 70/TT/P17/L2/GT 71/TT/P17/L3/GT 72/TT/P17/L4/GT 73/TT/P18/L1/GT to shallow If you want the two brothers survived A condition that does not make sense Prince Jaya constantly tried Do not know the word despair The grandfather of the lake keeper finally felt sorry See the mighty courage of Prince Jaya The sacrifice of Prince Jaya bears gold The grandfather of the lake keeper apologized The penalty of both siblings was released Prince Suta and Gerinda also claimed wrong The grandfather of the lake is happy Seeing a good and loving prince Before the grandfather of the lake keeper came home Grandfather wants to deliver an item The magic wand from Grandpa is

(71) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 59 74/ST/P18/L2 75/ST/P18/L3 76/ST/P18/L4 77/ST/P19/L1 78/ST/P19/L2 79/ST/P19/L3 80/ST/P19/L4 81/ST/P20/L1 82/ST/P20/L2 83/ST/P20/L3 84/ST/P20/L4 85/ST/P21/L1 86/ST/P21/L2 87/ST/P21/L3 88/ST/P21/L4 merupakan hadiah Tongkat itu dengan kuat ditancapkan ke tanah Siapa yang mampu mencabut tongkat dengan mudah Dialah sang pemilik tongkat bertuah Kakek penunggu danau yang terkesan Kepada Pangeran Jaya yang berbudi Tak lupa menitipkan sebuah pesan Tongkat sakti adalah milik seorang pemimpin sejati Pangeran Jaya memberi adikadiknya kesempatan Untuk mencoba terlebih dahulu mencabut tongkat Namun tak ada yang mampu mendapatkan Tongkat tertancap erat tak terangkat Pangeran Jaya mencoba mengambil tongkat Dengan mengucap doa dan bertekad bulat Tongkat dengan mudah dapat terangkat Tanpa harus mengeluarkan tenaga yang kuat 74/TT/P18/L2/GT 75/TT/P18/L3/GT 76/TT/P18/L4/GT 77/TT/P19/L1/GT 78/TT/P19/L2/GT 79/TT/P19/L3/GT 80/TT/P19/L4/GT a gift The stick was firmly plugged into the ground Who can pull out the stick easily He is the owner of the magical wand The guardian grandfather of the lake was impressed To Pangeran Jaya who is virtuous 82/TT/P20/L2/GT Do not forget to leave a message The magic wand belongs to a true leader Prince Jaya gave his siblings a chance To try first remove the stick 83/TT/P20/L3/GT But no one is able to get 84/TT/P20/L4/GT Stick stuck tight not lifted 85/TT/P21/L1/GT Prince Jaya tried to take the stick 86/TT/P21/L2/GT With a prayer and determined 87/TT/P21/L3/GT Sticks can easily be lifted 88/TT/P21/L4/GT Without having to spend a strong force 81/TT/P20/L1/GT

(72) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 60 89/ST/P22/L1 90/ST/P22/L2 91/ST/P22/L3 92/ST/P22/L4 93/ST/P23/L1 94/ST/P23/L2 95/ST/P23/L3 96/ST/P23/L4 Sesuai isi sayembara yang disepakati Barang siapa bisa mendapatkan tongkat sakti Dialah yang akan diangkat menjadi raja pengganti Semua rakyat seakan tak sabar menanti Datangnya calon raja yang penuh cinta Rakyat negeri menyambut dengan gempita Kerajaan dipenuhi dengan rasa suka cita Istana pun mengadakan sebuah pesta 89/TT/P22/L1/GT 90/TT/P22/L2 91/TT/P22/L3/GT Appropriate contents of an agreed competition Who can get a magic wand 95/TT/P23/L3/GT He will be the successor of the king All the people seemed to be impatiently waiting The coming of a loving kings candidate The people of the country greeted with joy The kingdom is filled with joy 96/TT/P23/L4/GT The palace also held a party 92/TT/P22/L4/GT 93/TT/P23/L1/GT 94/TT/P23/L2/GT Appendix 2: All Data Translated by BT No. 1/ST/P1/L1 2/ST/P1/L2 3/ST/P1/L3 4/ST/P1/L4 5/ST/P2/L1 Source Text Alkisah hiduplah seorang raja yang bijaksana Kerajaannya terletak di antara Bogor dan Jakarta Raja memiliki tiga orang putra di istana Raja tidak ingin para putranya berebut takhta Ketiga putra baginda memiliki otak yang cerdas No. 1/TT/P1/L1/BT BT Translation Once there lived a wise King 2/ TT /P1/L2/BT His Kingdom is situated between Bogor and Jakarta A King had three sons in the Palace The King did not want his son fighting over the throne The third son of the King have an intelligent brain 3/ TT /P1/L3/BT 4/ TT /P1/L4/BT 5/ TT /P2/L1/BT

(73) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 61 6/ST/P2/L2 7/ST/P2/L3 8/ST/P2/L4 9/ST/P3/L1 10/ST/P3/L2 11/ST/P3/L3 12/ST/P3/L4 13/ST/P4/L1 14/ST/P4/L2 15/ST/P4/L3 16/ST/P4/L4 17/ST/P5/L1 18/ST/P5/L2 19/ST/P5/L3 20/ST/P5/L4 21/ST/P6/L1 22/ST/P6/L2 23/ST/P6/L3 24/ST/P6/L4 25/ST/P6/L1 Disertai dengan wajah yang rupawan Dapat menunggang kuda dengan tangkas Ketiganya begitu menawan Berhari-hari Raja berpikir dan merenung Menemukan cara menentukan putra mahkota Agar tidak terjadi iri hati dan bertarung Di antara saudara ketika Raja turun takhta Sesuai dengan saran dari penasihat Raja 6/ TT /P2/L2/BT 7/ TT /P2/L3/BT Accompanied by a handsome face Can horse ride with agile 8/ TT /P2/L4/BT 9/ TT /P3/L1/BT All three are so charming For days the King thinks and muses 10/ TT /P3/L2/BT Discover how to determine Crown 11/ TT /P3/L3/BT 12/ TT /P3/L4/BT So there happen envy and fight Between brothers when the King dethroned 13/ TT /P4/L1/BT Raja berniat untuk mengadakan sayembara Sayembara hanya diikuti oleh ketiga putranya saja Mereka diharuskan pergi mengembara Isi sayembara yang harus mereka taati Barang siapa yang pertama terlihat mata Sampai di istana membawa tongkat sakti Dialah yang akan menjadi putra mahkota Ketiga putra baginda yang gagah Segera berangkat untuk mengembara Dengan mengenakan pakaian yang mewah Demi memenuhi isi sayembara Perjalanan ditempuh dengan berjalan 14/ TT /P4/L2/BT In accordance with the advice of the King's Advisor The King intends to organize a competition 15/ TT /P4/L3/BT 16/ TT /P4/L4/BT 17/ TT /P5/L1/BT 18/ TT /P5/L2/BT 19/TT/P5/L3/BT Competition is only followed by his three sons alone They are required to go wandering The content of the contest they should obey He who first spotted eyes Up in court carrying a wand 20/TT/P5/L4/BT He will be the Crown Prince 21/TT/P6/L1/BT 22/TT/P6/L2/BT 23/TT/P6/L3/BT The third son of King valiant Immediately set off to wander With luxurious clothing 24/TT/P6/L4/BT 25/TT/P6/L1/BT To meet the content contest The journey is a legs

(74) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 62 26/ST/P6/L2 27/ST/P6/L3 28/ST/P6/L4 29/ST/P7/L1 30/ST/P7/L2 31/ST/P7/L3 32/ST/P7/L4 33/ST/P8/L1 34/ST/P8/L2 35/ST/P8/L3 36/ST/P8/L4 37/ST/P9/L1 38/ST/P9/L2 39/ST/P9/L3 40/ST/P9/L4 41/ST/P10/L1 42/ST/P10/L2 43/ST/P10/L3 44/ST/P10/L4 45/ST/P11/L1 kaki Melewati jalanan menanjak dengan tertatih Tak sedikit pun mereka berhenti Walau badan terasa amat letih Ketika matahari siang bersinar dengan panas Mereka bertiga tiba di sebuah pancuran Keringat mengalir dengan deras Mereka senang bisa sampai di pancuran Pancuran dengan air yang deras Sungguh pemandangan yang membuat hati bergetar Di bawah sinar matahari yang begitu panas Mandi di pancuran pastinya terasa segar Pangeran Suta dan Gerinda segera melompat Mandi di pancuran dan meminum air danau Melanggar aturan dalam masyarakat setempat Lupa meminta izin pada kakek penunggu danau Tubuh Pangeran Suta dan Gerinda menjadi kaku Sehabis meminum air dari danau Pangeran Jaya melihat dengan terpaku Hati Pangeran Jaya menjadi amat galau Pangeran Jaya duduk menunggui kedua 26/TT/P6/L2/BT 27/TT/P6/L3/BT 28/TT/P6/L4/BT 29/TT/P7/L1/BT Passing through the streets uphill with staggered Although body feels very tired There is not the slightest they stop When the sun shines hot lunch 30/TT/P7/L2/BT 31/TT/P7/L3/BT 32/TT/P7/L4/BT 33/TT/P8/L1/BT 34/TT/P8/L2/BT The three of them arrive in a shower Sweat is flowing rapidly They love to get in the shower Showers with torrential water Truly stunning views make the heart flutter 35/TT/P8/L3/BT In the Sun is so hot 36/TT/P8/L4/BT 37/TT/P9/L1/BT Showering certainly feels fresh Prince Suta and Grinding soon jump 38/TT/P9/L2/BT Showering and drinking water Lake 39/TT/P9/L3/BT Violate the rules in the local community 40/TT/P9/L4/BT 41/TT/P10/L1/BT Forgot to ask for permission on Grandpa porters Lake The body count of Suta and Grinding into rigid 42/TT/P10/L2/BT 43/TT/P10/L3/BT 44/TT/P10/L4/BT 45/TT/P11/L1/BT After drinking water from the Lake Prince Jaya see glued Prince Jaya became heart controversy Prince Jaya sit keep her siblings

(75) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 63 46/ST/P11/L2 47/ST/P11/L3 48/ST/P11/L4 49/ST/P12/L1 50/ST/P12/L2 51/ST/P12/L3 52/ST/P12/L4 53/ST/P13/L1 54/ST/P13/L2 55/ST/P13/L3 56/ST/P13/L4 57/ST/P14/L1 58/ST/P14/L2 59/ST/P14/L3 60/ST/P14/L4 61/ST/P15/L1 62/ST/P15/L2 63/ST/P15/L3 adiknya Dirinya bingung tak tahu harus berbuat apa Tidak begitu jauh dari tempat duduknya Tampak seorang kakek yang sedang bertapa Pangeran Jaya memohon dengan sangat Kepada kakek penunggu tempat keramat Untuk memaafkan perbuatan yang tidak taat Agar kedua saudaranya dapat selamat Kakek penunggu danau mengajukan syaratnya Yang harus dilakukan Pangeran Jaya sendiri Demi menghidupkan kembali para adiknya Pangeran Jaya harus rela mengorbankan diri Permintaan kakek itu amatlah berat Pangeran harus meminum air danau hingga dangkal Jika ingin kedua saudaranya selamat Suatu syarat yang tidak masuk akal Pangeran Jaya dengan gigih terus mencoba Tidak mengenal kata putus asa Kakek penunggu danau akhirnya merasa 46/TT/P11/L2/BT Her confused does not know what to do 47/TT/P11/L3/BT Not so far from his seat 48/TT/P11/L4/BT Looks a grandfather who were meditating 49/TT/P12/L1/BT 50/TT/P12/L2/BT Prince Jaya pleaded with very Granddaddy porters sacred place 51/TT/P12/L3/BT To forgive the Act of disobedience 52/TT/P12/L4/BT 53/TT/P13/L1/BT So that his two brothers survive Grandfather of porters Lake filing requirement 54/TT/P13/L2/BT To do your own Prince Jaya 55/TT/P13/L3/BT In order to revive the brother 56/TT/P13/L4/BT 59/TT/P14/L3/BT 60/TT/P14/L4/BT 61/TT/P15/L1/BT Prince Jaya should be willing to sacrifice yourself Request that grandfather is heavy The Prince had to drink the lake water to shallow If you'd like his two brothers survived A condition which does not make sense Prince Jaya steadfastly continue to try 62/TT/P15/L2/BT 63/TT/P15/L3/BT Do not know the words of despair Grandfather of porters Lake finally felt iba 57/TT/P14/L1/BT 58/TT/P14/L2/BT

(76) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 64 64/ST/P15/L4 65/ST/P16/L1 66/ST/P16/L2 67/ST/P16/L3 68/ST/P16/L4 69/ST/P17/L1 70/ST/P17/L2 71/ST/P17/L3 72/ST/P17/L4 73/ST/P18/L1 74/ST/P18/L2 75/ST/P18/L3 76/ST/P18/L4 77/ST/P19/L1 78/ST/P19/L2 79/ST/P19/L3 80/ST/P19/L4 81/ST/P20/L1 82/ST/P20/L2 iba Melihat keteguhan hati Pangeran Jaya yang perkasa Pengorbanan Pangeran Jaya berbuah emas Kakek penunggu danau memberi maaf Hukuman kedua saudaranya dilepas Pangeran Suta dan Gerinda pun mengaku khilaf Kakek penunggu danau merasa senang Melihat pangeran yang baik dan penyayang Sebelum kakek penunggu danau pulang Kakek ingin memberikan sebuah barang Tongkat sakti dari Kakek merupakan hadiah Tongkat itu dengan kuat ditancapkan ke tanah Siapa yang mampu mencabut tongkat dengan mudah Dialah sang pemilik tongkat bertuah Kakek penunggu danau yang terkesan Kepada Pangeran Jaya yang berbudi Tak lupa menitipkan sebuah pesan Tongkat sakti adalah milik seorang pemimpin sejati Pangeran Jaya memberi adik-adiknya kesempatan Untuk mencoba terlebih dahulu 64/TT/P15/L4/BT See the steadiness of the mighty Prince Jaya 65/TT/P16/L1/BT The sacrifice of Prince Jaya bear gold 66/TT/P16/L2/BT 67/TT/P16/L3/BT 68/TT/P16/L4/BT 69/TT/P17/L1/BT 70/TT/P17/L2/BT Porters Lake grandfather forgiveness The second sentence of his brother released Prince Suta and Grinding ever admitted to momentarily led astray Grandfather of porters Lake had the pleasure See a good and merciful Prince 71/TT/P17/L3/BT 72/TT/P17/L4/BT 73/TT/P18/L1/BT Before Grandpa porters Lake home Grandpa wants to give an item Wand from his Grandpa was a gift 74/TT/P18/L2/BT Stick it firmly plugged into the ground 75/TT/P18/L3/BT Who's able to unplug the stick easily 76/TT/P18/L4/BT 77/TT/P19/L1/BT 78/TT/P19/L2/BT 79/TT/P19/L3/BT 80/TT/P19/L4/BT He is the owner of the philosopher's wand Grandfather of porters Lake is impressed To the virtuous Prince Jaya Do not forget to place a message Wand belongs to a true leader 81/TT/P20/L1/BT Prince Jaya to give his younger brothers a chance 82/TT/P20/L2/BT To try first unplugging the stick

(77) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 65 83/ST/P20/L3 84/ST/P20/L4 85/ST/P21/L1 86/ST/P21/L2 87/ST/P21/L3 88/ST/P21/L4 89/ST/P22/L1 90/ST/P22/L2 91/ST/P22/L3 92/ST/P22/L4 93/ST/P23/L1 94/ST/P23/L2 95/ST/P23/L3 96/ST/P23/L4 mencabut tongkat Namun tak ada yang mampu mendapatkan Tongkat tertancap erat tak terangkat Pangeran Jaya mencoba mengambil tongkat Dengan mengucap doa dan bertekad bulat Tongkat dengan mudah dapat terangkat Tanpa harus mengeluarkan tenaga yang kuat Sesuai isi sayembara yang disepakati Barang siapa bisa mendapatkan tongkat sakti Dialah yang akan diangkat menjadi raja pengganti Semua rakyat seakan tak sabar menanti Datangnya calon raja yang penuh cinta Rakyat negeri menyambut dengan gempita Kerajaan dipenuhi dengan rasa suka cita Istana pun mengadakan sebuah pesta 83/TT/P20/L3/BT But no one was able to get 84/TT/P20/L4/BT 85/TT/P21/L1/BT Stick tightly embedded not raised Prince Jaya trying to pick up sticks 86/TT/P21/L2/BT With prayer and give a round bent 87/TT/P21/L3/BT 88/TT/P21/L4/BT The stick can easily be lifted Without having to issue a strong power 89/TT/P22/L1/BT 90/TT/P22/L2/BT Match the contents of the agreed competition Anyone who can get a wand 91/TT/P22/L3/BT He was made King's replacement will be 92/TT/P22/L4/BT 93/TT/P23/L1/BT 94/TT/P23/L2/BT As if all the people impatiently awaits The arrival of the future King full of love The people of the country welcomed with explosion The Kingdom was filled with a sense of joy The Palace ever organize a party 95/TT/P23/L3/BT 96/TT/P23/L4/BT

(78) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 66 Appendix 3: Description Errors A. Omitted Concept No. Google Translate 1 1/ST/P1/L1 2 11/ST/P3/L3 3 23/ST/P6/L3 4 35/ST/P8/L3 5 57/ST/P14/L1 6 61/ST/P15/L1 7 66/ST/P16/L2 Bing Translator 1 11/ST/P3/L3 2 23/ST/P6/L3 3 25/ST/P6/L1 4 35/ST/P8/L3 5 35/ST/P8/L3 ST No. TT Type of Errors Alkisah hiduplah seorang raja yang bijaksana Agar tidak terjadi iri hati dan bertarung Dengan mengenakan pakaian yang mewah Di bawah sinar matahari yang begitu panas Permintaan kakek itu amatlah berat 1/ST/P1/L1/GT There lived a wise king Omitted Noun 11/ST/P3/L3/GT In order not to envy and fight Omitted Verb 23/ST/P6/L3/GT With a fancy dress Omitted Verb 35/ST/P8/L3/GT In the sun so hot Omitted Noun 57/ST/P14/L1/GT The grandfather's request was Omitted Adverb heavy Prince Jaya constantly tried Omitted Adjective Pangeran Jaya dengan gigih terus 61/ST/P15/L1/GT mencoba Kakek penunggu danau memberi 66/ST/P16/L2/GT maaf Agar tidak terjadi iri hati dan bertarung Dengan mengenakan pakaian yang mewah Perjalanan ditempuh dengan berjalan kaki Di bawah sinar matahari yang begitu panas Di bawah sinar matahari yang begitu The grandfather of the lake Omitted Verb keeper apologized 11/TT/P3/L3/BT So there happen envy and fight Omitted Adverb 23/TT/P6/L3/BT With luxurious clothing Omitted Verb 25/TT/P6/L1/BT The journey is a legs Omitted Verb 35/TT/P8/L3/BT In the Sun is so hot Omitted Noun 35/TT/P8/L3/BT In the Sun is so hot Omitted Noun

(79) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 67 6 36/ST/P8/L4 7 38/ST/P9/L2 8 44/ST/P10/L4 9 57/ST/P14/L1 10 64/ST/P15/L4 11 66/ST/P16/L2 panas Mandi di pancuran pastinya terasa segar Mandi di pancuran dan meminum air danau Hati Pangeran Jaya menjadi amat galau Permintaan kakek itu amatlah berat 36/TT/P8/L4/BT Showering certainly feels fresh Omitted Noun 38/TT/P9/L2/BT Showering and drinking water Lake Prince Jaya became heart controversy Request that grandfather is heavy See the steadiness of the mighty Prince Jaya Porters Lake grandfather forgiveness Omitted Noun 44/TT/P10/L4/BT 57/TT/P14/L1/BT Omitted Adverb Omitted Adverb Melihat keteguhan hati Pangeran Jaya yang perkasa Kakek penunggu danau memberi maaf 64/TT/P15/L4/BT ST No. TT Type of Errors Ketika matahari siang bersinar dengan panas Sungguh pemandangan yang membuat hati bergetar Tubuh Pangeran Suta dan Gerinda menjadi kaku Jika ingin kedua saudaranya selamat 29/TT/P7/L1/BT When the sun shines hot lunch Added Noun 34/TT/P8/L2/BT Added Adjective Pangeran Suta dan Gerinda pun mengaku khilaf 68/TT/P16/L4/BT Truly stunning views make the heart flutter The body count of Suta and Grinding into rigid If you'd like his two brothers survived Prince Suta and Grinding ever admitted to momentarily led astray 66/TT/P16/L2/BT Omitted Noun Omitted Verb B. Added Concept No. Bing Translator 1 29/ST/P7/L1 2 34/ST/P8/L2 3 41/ST/P10/L1 4 59/ST/P14/L3 5 68/ST/P16/L4 41/TT/P10/L1/BT 59/TT/P14/L3/BT Added Noun Added Prononun Added Adverb

(80) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 68 6 73/ST/P18/L1 Tongkat sakti dari Kakek merupakan hadiah 73/TT/P18/L1/BT Wand from his Grandpa was a Added Pronoun gift ST No. TT Type of Errors Raja tidak ingin para putranya berebut takhta Melewati jalanan menanjak dengan tertatih Mereka bertiga tiba di sebuah pancuran Mereka senang bisa sampai di pancuran Mandi di pancuran pastinya terasa segar Mandi di pancuran dan meminum air danau Pangeran Jaya duduk menunggui kedua adiknya Kakek penunggu danau mengajukan syaratnya Jika ingin kedua saudaranya selamat 4/ST/P1/L4/GT The king did not want his sons to fight the throne Pass the streets uphill with a stammer The three of them arrive at a shower They love to get to the shower Mistranslated Verb Shower in the shower certainly feels fresh Take a bath in the shower and drink the lake water Prince Jaya sat with his two sisters The grandfather of the lake awaits the conditions If you want the two brothers survived Mistranslated Noun Sticks can easily be lifted Mistranslated Noun C. Mistranslated Concept No. Google Translate 1 4/ST/P1/L4 2 26/ST/P6/L2 3 30/ST/P7/L2 4 32/ST/P7/L4 5 36/ST/P8/L4 6 38/ST/P9/L2 7 45/ST/P11/L1 8 53/ST/P13/L1 9 59/ST/P14/L3 10 87/ST/P21/L3 11 93/ST/P23/L1 26/ST/P6/L2/GT 30/ST/P7/L2/GT 32/ST/P7/L4/GT 36/ST/P8/L4/GT 38/ST/P9/L2/GT 45/ST/P11/L1/GT 53/ST/P13/L1/GT 59/ST/P14/L3/GT Tongkat dengan mudah dapat 87/ST/P21/L3/GT terangkat Datangnya calon raja yang penuh 93/ST/P23/L1/GT Mistranslated Verb Mistranslated Noun Mistranslated Noun Mistranslated Noun Mistranslated Pronoun Mistranslated Verb Mistranslated Pronoun The coming of a loving kings Mistranslated Noun

(81) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 69 cinta Bing Translator 1 5/ST/P2/L1 2 10/ST/P3/L2 3 19/ST/P5/L3 4 21/ST/P6/L1 5 25/ST/P6/L1 6 30/ST/P7/L2 7 32/ST/P7/L4 8 33/ST/P8/L1 9 41/ST/P10/L1 10 44/ST/P10/L4 11 45/ST/P11/L1 12 46/ST/P11/L2 13 55/ST/P13/L3 14 56/ST/P13/L4 15 67/ST/P16/L3 Ketiga putra baginda memiliki otak yang cerdas Menemukan cara menentukan putra mahkota Sampai di istana membawa tongkat sakti Ketiga putra baginda yang gagah Perjalanan ditempuh dengan berjalan kaki Mereka bertiga tiba di sebuah pancuran Mereka senang bisa sampai di pancuran Pancuran dengan air yang deras Tubuh Pangeran Suta dan Gerinda menjadi kaku Hati Pangeran Jaya menjadi amat galau Pangeran Jaya duduk menunggui kedua adiknya Dirinya bingung tak tahu harus berbuat apa Demi menghidupkan kembali para adiknya Pangeran Jaya harus rela mengorbankan diri Hukuman kedua saudaranya dilepas candidate 5/TT/P2/L1/BT Mistranslated Noun 19/TT/P5/L3/BT The third son of the King have an intelligent brain Discover how to determine Crown Up in court carrying a wand 21/TT/P6/L1/BT 25/TT/P6/L1/BT The third son of King valiant The journey is a legs Mistranslated Noun Mistranslated Verb 30/ST/P7/L2/BT The three of them arrive in a shower They love to get in the shower Mistranslated Noun Showers with torrential water The body count of Suta and Grinding into rigid Prince Jaya became heart controversy Prince Jaya sit keep her siblings Mistranslated Noun Mistranslated Noun 10/TT/P3/L2/BT 32/ST/P7/L4/BT 33/ST/P8/L1/BT 41/TT/P10/L1/BT 44/TT/P10/L4/BT 45/TT/P11/L1/BT 46/TT/P11/L2/BT 55/TT/P13/L3/BT 56/TT/P13/L4/BT 67/TT/P16/L3/BT Mistranslated Noun Mistranslated Verb Mistranslated Noun Mistranslated Adjective Mistranslated Pronoun Her confused does not know Mistranslated Noun what to do In order to revive the brother Mistranslated Noun Prince Jaya should be willing to Mistranslated sacrifice yourself Pronoun The second sentence of his Mistranslated Noun brother released

(82) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 70 16 67/ST/P16/L3 Hukuman kedua saudaranya dilepas 67/TT/P16/L3/BT 17 68/ST/P16/L4 Pangeran Suta dan Gerinda pun mengaku khilaf 68/TT/P16/L4/BT 18 74/ST/P18/L2 Tongkat itu dengan kuat ditancapkan ke tanah Dialah sang pemilik tongkat bertuah 74/TT/P18/L2/BT Pangeran Jaya mencoba mengambil tongkat Tanpa harus mengeluarkan tenaga yang kuat Rakyat negeri menyambut dengan gempita 85/TT/P21/L1/BT 19 76/ST/P18/L4 20 85/ST/P21/L1 21 88/ST/P21/L4 22 94/ST/P23/L2 76/TT/P18/L4/BT 88/TT/P21/L4/BT 94/TT/P23/L2/BT The second sentence of his brother released Prince Suta and Grinding ever admitted to momentarily led astray Stick it firmly plugged into the ground He is the owner of the philosopher's wand Prince Jaya trying to pick up sticks Without having to issue a strong power The people of the country welcomed with explosion Mistranslated Noun Type of Errors Mistranslated Noun Mistranslated Pronoun Mistranslated Verb Mistranslated Noun Mistranslated Verb Mistranslated Adjective D. Untranslated Concept No. Bing Translator 1 63/ST/P15/L3 ST No. TT Kakek penunggu danau akhirnya merasa iba 63/TT/P15/L3/BT Grandfather of porters Lake Untranslated finally felt iba Adjective

(83) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 71 E. Substituted Concept No. Google Translate 1 55/ST/P13/L3 2 81/ST/P20/L1 ST No. TT Type of Errors Demi menghidupkan kembali para 55/TT/P13/L3/GT adiknya Pangeran Jaya memberi adik- 81/TT/P20/L1/GT adiknya kesempatan For the sake of reviving his Substituted Noun siblings Prince Jaya gave his siblings a Substituted Noun chance ST No. TT Type of Errors Sampai di istana membawa tongkat sakti Tongkat sakti dari Kakek merupakan hadiah Tongkat sakti adalah milik seorang pemimpin sejati Barang siapa bisa mendapatkan tongkat sakti 19/TT/P5/L3/GT Arrived at the palace carrying a magic wand The magic wand from Grandpa is a gift The magic wand belongs to a true leader Who can get a magic wand Explicitated Noun F. Explicitated Concept No. Google Translate 1 19/ST/P5/L3 2 73/ST/P18/L1 3 80/ST/P19/L4 4 90/ST/P22/L2 73/TT/P18/L1/GT 80/TT/P19/L4/GT 90/TT/P22/L2 Explicitated Noun Explicitated Noun Explicitated Noun

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