An Undergraduate Thesis Submitted as a partial of the requirements for Sarjana Sastra Degree Beni Rizki Setiawan 1209010009

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  VARIETIES OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS PRONUNCIATION AMONG ENGLISH UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS An Undergraduate Thesis Submitted as a partial of the requirements for Sarjana Sastra Degree Beni Rizki Setiawan 1209010009 FACULTY OF LETTERS UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH PURWOKERTO JULY 2016

APPROVAL SHEET

  This is to certify that this graduating paper entitled “VARIETIES OF ENGLISH

  CONSONANTS PRONUNCIATION AMONG ENGLISH UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS”

  by Beni Rizki Setiawan has been approved by the advisor(s) and the Head of English Department to be examined by the Board of Examiners.

  th

  Purwokerto, July 30 2016 Head of English Department Advisor Khristianto, S.S., M.Hum. Ambar Pujiyatno, S.S., M.Hum.

  NIK. 2160369 NIK. 2160208

VALIDATION SHEET

  

UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

An Undergraduate Paper

by

Beni Rizki Setiawan

  

1209010009

has been examined and approved by the Board of Examiners as one of the th requirements for Sarjana Sastra degree on July 30 , 2016

THE BOARD OF EXAMINERS

  Chairperson Secretary Sulasih Nurhayati, S.S., M.Hum. Titik Wahyuningsih, S.S., M.Hum.

  NIK. 2160274 NIK. 2160272 First Examiner Second Examiner Khristianto, S.S., M.Hum. Ambar Pujiyatno, S.S., M.Hum.

  NIK. 2160369 NIK. 2160208 Legalized by the Dean of

  Faculty of Letters Ambar Pujiyatno, S.S., M.Hum.

  NIK. 2160208

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY

  Name : Beni Rizki Setiawan Student Number : 1209010009 I, the undersigned researcher of the undergraduate thesis entitled “VARIETIES OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS PRONUNCIATION AMONG ENGLISH UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS”, hereby attest and affirm that the material and findings in this thesis are my original works and have not been previously submitted and published for a degree in any universities, and to be the best of my knowledge, any referenced- quotations are shown in the arrangement of citations and bibliography. If later it can be revealed that this undergraduate thesis contains partly or wholly plagiarized pieces of other intellectual words of any kinds, the researcher will be ready to accept the sanction.

  th

  Purwokerto, July 30 2016 Beni Rizki Setiawan

  MOTTO

   If you find that somebody is not grateful for all that you have done , then do not get disappointed because often you will find that someone else feels under your obligation though you have done nothing and thus your good deeds will be compensated, and Alloh will reward you for your goodness (Ali bin Abi Thalib)

   Your remedy is within you, but you do not sense it. Your sickness is from you, but you do not perceive it. You presume you are small entity, but within you enfolded the entire universe. You are indeed evident book, by whose alphabet the hidden becomes the manifest. Therefore, you have no need to look beyond yourself, what you seek is within you, if only you reflect (Ali bin Abi Thalib)  Do the best, give the best, be the best, and keep being the best.

   Intelligence is not a determinant of success, but hard work is a real determinant of success

  

DEDICATION

  This undergraduate thesis is dedicated for:  My parents, who always support and motivate me when I am weak and need suggestion. I know that I will not be able to pay your uncounted kindness.

  Hopefully, this undergraduate thesis can be a worthy gift for you. Thanks for being my great motivators and inspirators.

   My siblings, who have given endless love and always support me. They are Citra Sulistianing Tias, Hanun Muthi’ah Syaharani, and Ibrahim Ibnu Firdaus.

   Shofi Nidaul Jannah, who always encourages me when I don’t believe in myself. You have given me many lessons to be always strong and

  qona’ah.

  Thanks for everything that you give to me.

  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

  First of all, Praise be to Alloh the Almighty God and the Most Merciful. No activities can be achieved without His Permission. Therefore, I would to dedicate my deepest thank to Alloh SWT “Alhamdulillahirobbil ‘alaamiin” who has given me the most priceless of guidance and blessing, especially in term of accomplishing this undergraduate thesis as a partial of fulfillment of the requirement for Sarjana Sastra degree at English Department, Faculty of Letters, University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto.

  This research has been conducted in such full of struggle, uncounted helps and supports that have been sincerely given by some people in accomplishing this undergraduatre thesis. Herewith, I would like to deeply thank to:

   Dean of Faculty of Letters and my advisor, Ambar Pujiyatno, S.S., M.Hum, who has spent much time, energy, thought, care, and patience in guiding and advising me. Hopefully, this undergraduate thesis can be worthy gift for him.  Head of English Department, Khristianto, S.S., M.Hum, who never feels tired to monitor and to give suggestion from the beginning of the process of this undergraduate thesis.  All lecturers, who have given me much knowledge and experiences. Also, they always guide me and teach many things.

   My ustadz, who always reminds me whenever I do mistakes. Also, he always supports me in finishing this undergraduate thesis.

   My Thai buddy, Chotigon Siriporntuntigul, who has given much knowledge and information dealing with Thai language.

   This undergraduate thesis would not be done without the respondents of the research. Thank a bunch for the respondents who have big contribution in finishing this undergraduate thesis.  My students and colleagues in Bravo Marine College, who have shared great experiences about life, and always support me whenever I am lazy to do this undergraduate thesis.  All my beloved friends, who have inspired and shared many experiences to me. Thank a bunch for being my inspiring friends.

  Last but not least, I hope that this undergraduate thesis can give some contributions for English Department, Faculty of Letters, University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto.

  Purwokerto, July 2016 Beni Rizki Setiawan

VARIETIES OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS PRONUNCIATION AMONG ENGLISH

  

UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

BENI RIZKI SETIAWAN 1209010009 ABSTRACT

  This research involved Thai and Indonesian language. Indonesia is a multilingual country which has 749 dialects thoroughly. Dialect influences the way people speak foreign language in term of pronunciation, grammar and accent. In this research, the objects are Javanese, Sundanese, Isaan, Pattani-Malay. Non-native English speakers (NNES) may find difficulties in learning or mastering English, in this case, in term of pronouncing English consonant phonemes. This research aimed to elaborate the varieties of English consonant phonemes produced by NNES, to describe the English consonant phonemes influenced by pronunciation difficulties, and to elaborate the reason of NNES in making such English consonant varieties.

  The method of this research is mixed method research. It means, the researcher employed qualitative and quantitative method to collect, to analyze, and to draw the conclusion of the data analysis. The technique of collecting data was

  rd th

  recording and interviewing. The respondents were 3 and 4 year English undergraduate students. In addition, the researcher employed Contrastive Analysis theory pioneered by Charles C. Fries (1945) to analyze the data.

  As the result, the researcher found varieties of English consonants pronunciation uttered by four dialects in term of substitution initial consonants, substitution in final consonants, substitution in middle consonants, addition in initial consonants, addition in final consonants, and omission in final consonants. In conclusion, Isaan student had difficulties in pronouncing allophones

  /z/, /θ/, /ð/, /ʃ/, /v/, /t

  ʃ/, /b/, /dʒ/, /d/, /l/, /t/, /s/, /k/, /b/. Pattani-Malay student had difficulties in pronouncing allophones /z/, /θ/, /ð/, /ʃ/, /v/, /tʃ/, /b/, /dʒ/, /k/, /s/. Meanwhile,

  Javanese student had difficulties in pronouncing /θ/, /ð/, /ʃ/, /v/, /tʃ/, /z/, /dʒ/, /k/,

  /w/, /g/. Sundanese student had difficulties in pronouncing allophones /ð/, /v/, /t ʃ/,

  /θ/, /p/, /ʃ/, /f/, /s/. Furthermore, Isaan student had the highest varieties in pronouncing English consonants. Otherwise, Sundanese student had the lowest varieties.

  Keywords: English consonants, Indonesian native, Thai native, pronunciation varieties.

VARIETIES OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS PRONUNCIATION AMONG ENGLISH

  

UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

BENI RIZKI SETIAWAN 1209010009

  INTISARI

  Penelitian ini melibatkan bahasa Thailand dan Indonesia. Indonesia dikenal sebagai negara multi-bahasa yang memiliki 749 dialek tersebar di seluruh pelosok negeri. Dialek dapat mempengaruhi cara seseorang berbicara bahasa asing dalam hal pengucapan, tata bahasa, dan logat. Objek penelitian ini terdiri dari dialek Jawa, Sunda, Isaan, dan Pattani-Melayu. Penutur non-Inggris dapat menemukan kesulitan dalam mempelajari dan menguasai bahasa Inggris, terutama dalam hal pengucapan huruf konsonan bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan variasi pengucapan huruf konsonan bahasa Inggris, mendeskripsikan macam-macam fonem yang diucapkan oleh penutur non-Inggris atas pengaruh kesulitan pengucapan, dan menguraikan alasan variasi dalam mengucapkan huruf konsonan bahasa Inggris.

  Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian campuran. Dalam hal ini, peneliti menggunakan metode kualitatif dan kuantitatif untuk mengumpulkan, menganalisis, dan menarik kesimpulan dari data yang didapat. Kemudian, teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan rekaman dan wawancara. Selain itu responden penelitian merupakan mahasiswa jurusan bahasa Inggris tahun ke-3 dan ke-4. Peneliti juga menggunakan teori Contrastive Analysis yang dipelopori oleh Charles C. Fries (1945) untuk menganalisis data penelitian.

  Hasilnya, peneliti menemukan beberapa variasi pengucapan huruf konsonan bahasa Inggris yang diucapkan oleh mahasiswa dari empat dialek tersebut. Variasi pengucapan yang ditemukan adalan penggantian fonem konsonan di inisial, di tengah, dan di akhir, penambahan fonem konsonan di inisial dan di akhir, penghilangan fonem konsonan di akhir. Ringkasnya, Mahasiswa Isaan memiliki kesulitan dalam mengucapkan alofon

  /z/, /θ/, /ð/, /ʃ/, /v/, /tʃ/, /b/, /dʒ/, /d/, /l/, /t/, /s/, /k/, /b/. Mahasiswa Pattani-Melayu memiliki kesulitan dalam mengucapkan alofon

  /z/, /θ/, /ð/, /ʃ/, /v/, /tʃ/, /b/, /dʒ/, /k/, /s/. Sedangkan, mahasiswa Jawa mengalami kesulitan dalam mengucapkan alofon /θ/, /ð/, /ʃ/, /v/, /tʃ/, /z/, /dʒ/, /k/,

  /w/, /g/. Mahasiswa Sunda mengalami kesulitan dalam mengucapkan alofon /ð/, /v/, /t

  ʃ/, /θ/, /p/, /ʃ/, /f/, /s/. Selain itu, Mahasiswa Isaan memiliki frekuensi variasi tertinggi dalam mengucapkan huruf konsonan bahasa Inggris. Sedangkan, mahasiswa Sunda memiliki frekuensi variasi terendah.

  Kata kunci: Huruf konsonan bahasa Inggris, penutur bahasa Indonesia, penutur bahasa Thailand, variasi pengucapan.

  TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE .............................................................................................................. i

APPROVAL SHEET ..................................................................................................... ii

  

VALIDATION SHEET .................................................................................................. iii

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ................................................................................... iv

MOTTO ..................................................................................................................... v

DEDICATION ............................................................................................................ vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................. vii

ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................. viii

  

INTISARI .................................................................................................................. ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................. x

  

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 1

A.1. Background of the Research .......................................................................... 1 A.2. Problems of the Research .............................................................................. 6 A.3. Objectives of the Research ............................................................................ 6 A.4. Significance of the Research .......................................................................... 7 A.5. Limitation of the Research ............................................................................. 7 A.6. Organization of the Research ........................................................................ 8

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ......................................................................... 9

B.1. Theoretical Framework .................................................................................. 9 B.1.1. Phonology ............................................................................................... 9

  B.1.2. Phoneme .............................................................................................. 11 B.1.3. Phonetics .............................................................................................. 20 B.1.4. Language Interference ......................................................................... 25 B.1.5. Language Variation ............................................................................... 28 B.1.6. Contrastive Analysis ............................................................................. 32

  B.2. Review of Related Reseacrh ........................................................................ 34

  

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD ............................................................................ 37

C.1. Type of the Research .................................................................................... 37 C.2. Data and Source of the Data ........................................................................ 39 C.3. Method of Collecting Data ........................................................................... 39 C.4. Technique of Collecting Data ....................................................................... 40 C.5. Method of Analyzing Data ............................................................................ 41

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ........................................................................................... 42

D.1. Data Description .......................................................................................... 42 D.2. Data Analysis ................................................................................................ 44 D.3. Discussion................................................................................................... 132

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ........................................................ 150

E.1. Conclusion .................................................................................................. 150 E.2. Suggestion .................................................................................................. 152

BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 154

APPENDICES ......................................................................................................... 160

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