THE USE OF PICTURES TO TEACH SPEED READING
TO THE FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS OF
KANISIUS GOWONGAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education
Astri Ayu Rahmawati
Student Number: 021214010
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
First of all, I would like to give thank Jesus Christ for His patience, mercy, love, guidance, and grace for I had accomplished this thesis. He always gives me strength to keep struggling in doing this research.
I dedicate my great gratitude to my adored mom and dad for being patient and for supporting me in finishing this thesis. This is my first little present for both of them in my life. Hopefully, I could give them more and more precious presents as my gratitude for their love, attent ion, patience, and prayer in my whole life. I also give my thank to my little sister (Ita), brother (Bagus), my family (especially Bulik Titik, Om Iksan, Ryan) in Yogyakarta, and my family in Jepara for their prayer and reminding me to finish this thesis.
I would like to thank A. Hardi Prasetyo, S.Pd., MA for giving me time to discuss my thesis and being so patient in correcting the mistakes I made.
I thank Mbak Mia for drawing the pictures in my thesis and give her time for me to have a discussion about my thesis.
I give my big thank to MYULANDERS (Nana, Dian, Chelsia, Kiki, Erlita) for their prayer, support, help, and time. I thank them for being my best friends.
I would also thank Mbak Siska, Cie Lenny, Patrice, and Sita for supporting me in finishing my thesis.
I would also thank people who are not mentioned here. May God widen His bless to all of them.
Yogyakarta, 16 January 2009
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ……….. i
APPROVAL PAGES ……….. ii
PAGE OF DEDICATION ………... iv
STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ……… v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……….… vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……….…… vii
LIST OF TABLES ………..…. x
LIST OF FIGURES ……….. xi
LIST OF APPENDICES ……….. xii
ABSTRACT ……… xiii
ABSTRAK ………. xiv
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. Research Background . …… ………..……….… 1
B. Problem Identificatio n ……….……….………….. 4
C. Problem Formulation …….………..………... 5
D. Problem Limitation …...……….…….…..……….. 5
E. Research Objective ………..………...……… …. 6
F. Research Benefits …………..…….……….……… 6
G. Definition of Terms ……….………… 7
CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Theoretical Description ………..………… 9
1. Classroom Action Research ……….……….. 9
a. Definition ……….. 9
b. Aims ……….……….. 10
c. Characteristics ……… 10
d. Model ……….……….…… 10
2. Speed Reading ……….…………... 13
c. The Functions of Pictures in Teaching- learning Process …. 17 d. Pictures as Instructional Materials in Teaching Reading …. 19 4. Teaching Reading Skill to the Fifth Grade Students Elementary School ………..………..…..…… 20
B. Theoretical Framework ………..………… 21
CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY A. Research Procedure ……..………...………. …. 23
1. Preliminary Reflection (Initial Reconnaissance) …..…….. 24
3. Questionnaires ………...………..……... 31
F. Data Gathering Technique ……….. 31
1. Observation ………. 31
2. Field Notes ………..………… 32
3. Questionnaires ……….... 32
4. Interviews ………... 32
5. Tests ……… 33
G. Data Analysis Technique …… ………..……. 33
CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH PROCESS AND FINDINGS A. Research Process ………...…..………..……….………… 36
1. Identifying the field problem (Initial Reconnaissance ) …. 36 2. Determining some actions to overcome the field problems . 38 3. Action Implementation ……….……….. 39
a. CYCLE I ……….………..………....……….. 39
1) Planning ……….…..……….……….……... 39
2) Action Implementation ……….…….……….. 41
3) Observation ……….……….………….... 41
4) Reflection ……….……….………... 44
b. CYCLE II ……….……….………... 46
1) Planning ……….………..…....……. 46
2) Action Imp lementation ……….……….……….…… 48
3) Observation……….………...…..……... 49
4) Reflection ……….…….………...…..….. 51
B. Findings ……...……….…….….…… 52
CHAPTER V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusion ……….…. 56
B. Suggestio ns ………..………...… 57
REREFENCES ………..………..…….. 58
LIST OF TABLES
4.1. The improvement of the participants’ reading speed ………..….. 53 4.2. The improvement of research participants’ reading
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1. Action Research in action (Kemmis and McTaggart,
1982, p. 11) ………... 12
2.2. Words per Minutes (Soedarso, 2005, p. 14) ………... 15
4.1. The implementation of action in Cycle I ……….………..…… 45
4.2. The implementation of action in Cycle II ………..……… 52
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1: Teaching Materials (Texts and Pictures) ………... 60
Appendix 2: Test Specification ………...………... 70
Appendix 3: Transcript of the Interviews ……….………..……... 73
Appendix 4: Questionnaires ………...……….……... 82
Appendix 5: Field Notes ……….………...……….……... 106
Rahmawati, A. A. (2009). The Use of Pictures to Teach Speed Reading to the Fifth Grade Students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta:
Classroom Action Research. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study
Program. Department of Language and Arts Education. Faculty of Teachers Training and Education. Sanata Dharma University.
Students’ reading activities should be fostered as early as possible so that their interest in reading could be improved. The improvement of students’ interest in reading should be balanced with their abilities to reading fast since there is a lot of information produced each day.
The fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta have low interest in reading. Consequently, their speed in reading is also low. This problem should be solved immediately since Curriculum at School Level presents more texts than the previous curriculum. If this condition continues, it will affect their reading mark and ability.
The fact above brings to an analysis about how to solve the problem. Speed reading is chosen to solve the problem faced by the students that is the students’ speed in reading and comprehending a text. Since the students like
drawing, speed reading is combined with pictures. Pictures could help students
visualize what they read. If the students’ ability in visualizing is improved, the students’ speed in reading and comprehending a text is improved. The aim of
this research is to know how the use of pictures to teach speed reading helps the
fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School improve their speed in reading and comprehending a text.
The research method used in this research is classroom action research. It is applied to improve teaching learning process in classroom. The research analysis is the improvement process of the students’ ability in speed reading and reading comprehension by using pictures.
Based result of the data analysis, there is a conclusion. That is, pictures could be used as the media to teach speed reading for the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta since pictures could help students visualize the concepts presented (Smith and Robinson: 1980). The ability to visualize what they read could help the students read fast. It could be seen from the time they needed to find the correct pictures decreased in each meeting. The result of the speed reading and reading comprehension test was improved.
Besides the conclusion above, three suggestions could be drawn. They are for the parents of the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School, the students, and further researchers. For the parents, it is recommended that the parents make their children be used to spend their time reading. By having
this habit, the children could practice how to read effectively and fast. For the students, it is suggested for the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan
Rahmawati, A. A. (2009). The Use of Pictures to Teach Speed Reading to The Fifth Grade Students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta:
Classroom Action Research. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa
Inggris. Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni. Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pengetahuan. Universitas Sanata Dharma.
Aktivitas membaca anak harus terus dipupuk sedini mungkin agar minat membaca mereka semakin meningkat. Meningkatnya minat baca anak
seharusnya diimbangi dengan kemampuan mereka membaca cepat mengingat semakin banyaknya informasi baru setiap hari.
Siswa-siswi kelas lima Sekolah Dasar Kanisius Gowongan Yogyakarta mempunyai minat baca yang kurang. Dengan tidak terbiasanya mereka membaca, kecepatan membaca mereka juga kurang. Permasalahan ini sangat penting mengingat kurikulum yang diterapkan di Indonesia saat ini, yaitu Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) menyajikan lebih banyak teks bila dibandingkan dengan kurikulum pendidikan sebelumnya. Jika kondisi di kelas lima ini terus berlanjut, maka dapat mempengaruhi nilai dan kemampuan membaca mereka.
Fakta diatas menuntun pada sebuah analisis tentang bagaimana memecahkan masalah yang dihadapi oleh siswa-siswi kelas lima Sekolah Dasar Kanisius Gowongan Yogyakarta. Speed reading dipilih untuk menyelesaikan masalah yang dihadapi para murid, ya itu kecepatan para murid dalam membaca dan mengerti sebuah bacaan. Karena para murid menyukai menggambar, speed reading dikombinasikan dengan penggunaan gambar. Gambar dapat membantu para siswa memvisualisasikan apa yang mereka baca. Dan jika kemampuan para siswa dalam memvisualisasikan meningkat, kecepatan para murid dalam membaca dan memahami sebuah bacaan dapat meningkat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah bagaimana penggunaan gambar untuk mengajar speed reading membantu para siswa kelas lima SD Kanisius Gowongan Yogyakarta para siswa tersebut meningkatkan kemampuan dalam mengerti dan membaca cepat.
Metode penelitian yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kelas untuk meningkatkan
kualitas proses belajar mengajar di kelas tersebut. Perhatian utama penelitian ini adalah prosesnya, bukan hasil akhirnya. Jadi, analisis yang dilaksanakan dalam penelitian ini adalah proses peningkatan kemampuan para siswa membaca cepat dengan menggunakan gambar.
dapat dilihat dari proses belajar mengajar di kelas dimana semakin hari semakin mereka perlukan waktu lebih sedikit untuk menemukan gambar yang benar. Lebih lagi, hasil dari tes speed reading dan reading comprehension mengalami peningkatan dalam skala kecil.
CHAPTER IHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Chapter one is divided into seven parts. They are background of the research, problem identification, problem limitation, problem formulation,
objective of the research, benefits of the research, and definition of the terms.
Background of the research is related to the center of attention of the research and the reality that is used as the basis of reason why the researcher
decides to conduct this research. Problem identification identifies the problems that emerge from the reality in the background of the research. Problem limitation is focused on the root of the problems that are emerged. Problem formulation describes the problems that will be discus sed in this research. Objective of the research present the purpose of conducting this research. Benefits of the research tell the advantages of conducting this research. The last part, the definition of the terms list the meaning of certain terms applied in the topic of this research.
A. RESEARCH BACKGROUND
Language is an important element for individual. As Kamil (1991) says that without language, there will be no communication among individuals or nations in the world. English as a communication tool is widely used as foreign la nguage in many countries. Language like English that is used in mass media enables people to communicate so that people are able to interact indirectly with the world.
the written media such as books, magazines, journals, newspapers, articles, and internet, people are able to explore a lot of information provided.
Reading, like other skills, is the subject that is influenced by inside and outside factors of the person. The internal factors are things as general verbal aptitudes, interests, and motivation to learn. The person is also influenced by outside factors such as environment, available training, family background, and opportunity to take advantage of education. The students think that reading activity is boring. This assumption makes their speed in reading a text low. It is true that in reading the students must have a clear purpose and strong motivation to learn. Shepherd (1978) says that a student who does not read
due to lack of motivation does not gain the practice he needs in reading skills. Having a purpose for reading is a part of effective motivation.
Moreover, the information that is produced in each day is conveyed quickly. In each day, there must always be new information conveyed. To make ourselves
up to date with the recent information in all aspects in life, we also should be able to extract the information quickly. To extract the information quickly,
people have to be able to read fast.
To read fast, the readers can use speed reading method. According to Soedarso (2005), speed reading is the skill in selecting the main idea of the text
that is appropriate with the aim of why we read the text without spending much time to learn the detailed points that are not needed.
what the story tells about in the readers’ mind. The effect is that the readers are like watching a movie.
Shepherd and Unsworth-Mitchel (1997) say that the reader creates a visual movie of himself doing the task. The reader creates a picture from a group of
words he reads in a text. Once the reader has a rich detailed internal picture, he will not try to read the words that obviously do not make sense, because these
will seem strange in the picture or movie that he has made. The learner selects groups of words that can only be constructed into pictures in mind.
One of the characteristics of visual storage is speed. So, increasing the pace at which material is covered with the assistance of speed-reading exercise, usually increases the power of visualization.
Smith and Robinson (1980) state some functions of pictures in teaching reading. One of them is pictures help the children to visualize the concepts presented. The better the learners are able to visualize what they read, the faster they read the text. It is implicitly stated that using pictures could improve the
learners speed in reading. Heinich (1982) says that picture can be used as a means to channel a message or information from resource to receiver.
Pictures can arouse the students’ motivation in reading a text. This motivation can help the students to enjoy the reading class. This statement implicitly tells that if the students enjoy the reading class,
their speed in reading will increase.
It is not an instant process to be fluent in speed reading. People need to spend their time practicing this reading method as early as possible.
Realizing this fact, the Indonesian government makes a good start. They prepare young generation to master English well by including English as a compulsory subject in Indonesian education curriculum.
B. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
Realizing the fact that the students regard reading activity as boring, a teacher is expected to change the students’ mindset toward reading activity.
Having no motivation, students take much time when they have a text problem in a test which then may become an obstacle for students to finish the test on time. Their slow reading can be influenced by many factors. According to Wiryodijoyo
(1989), there are three factors which determine one’s reading speed: eye movement, vocabulary, and concentration. To enhance the reading speed,
these three factors have to be trained more.
Teaching reading for the students in elementary schools age is not easy. The main factor is because it is often hard to attract students’ attention. The teacher has to apply the teaching method that can make the students enjoy the activity. One of the methods is by using pictures.
speed-reading ability. Applying pictures combined with a competition element or fast-moving activities can stimulate the students to think and act in a certain time. If the teacher can combine the competition, fast- moving activities, pictures, and reading materials, the students will be able to learn and practice speed reading ability easily. Besides, the atmosphere of competition can change the learning activities to be more interesting for the students.
C. PROBLEM FORMULATION
The researcher would like to figure out how the research could help the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta to understand the text given easier and faster.
The researcher would like to present the problem that can be formulated as follows:
How does the use of pictures to teach speed reading help the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta improve their reading speed toward texts given?
D. PROBLEM LIMITATION
In this research, the researcher would like to help the student solve their problem by implementing a new reading teaching methodology. It is expected by implementing this new teaching method, the students do not feel bored. Besides, the students can easily understand the content of the text and their speed in reading a text can be improved.
The researcher chooses pictures to teach speed reading for the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta. It is chosen because most children like pictures and by using this method the aim of this research is able to be fulfilled. That aim is by using pictures, the students do not feel bored when they have reading activity and their reading speed is improved.
E. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
The objective of this research is to find solution of the problem in reading activity faced by the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta. The solution is taken by designing an English reading material and implementing it. Its aim is to figure out how the use of pictures to teach speed reading helps the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta improve their reading speed toward texts given
F. RESEARCH BENEFITS
By applying the method of using pictures in teaching speed reading, the researcher expects that it will be able to help the students understand the texts
G. DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
The key words of this research as reflected in the research title are defined as follows:
1. Classroom Action Research
According to Aqib (2007), classroom action research is a research done by the teacher where she/he teaches by focusing on teaching learning process
and teaching learning practice improvement.
In this research, the definition used is the researcher’s way to improve the teaching learning process and teaching learning practice in her classroom where she teaches.
2. Speed Reading
According to Soedarso (2005), speed reading is the skill in selecting the main idea of the text that is appropriate with the reason why we read the text without spending much time to learn the detailed points that is not needed. In this
research, the term speed reading is understood as the skill to understand the text by visualizing what the readers read to gain the main idea in order to fasten their reading speed.
4. Fifth Grade Students of Elementary School
According to Piaget’s stage theory, fifth grade students of elementary school are in the concrete operatio nal period. This period starts from approximately the age of six or seven to the age of eleven or twelve is the highest
achievement of the stage of progression ( Smith & Lurtherman, 1979). This research conducted toward the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan
This chapter is divided into two main parts, namely theoretical description
and theoretical framework. In the theoretical description, there is the review of some theories that support the process in conducting this research for the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta. In theoretical framework, there is a framework based on the review of the related literature that gives the shapes and supports this research.
A. THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION
In the theoretical description, the researcher discusses the theories related to the research conducted for the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta. They are Classroom Action Research, Speed Reading, Pictures, and Teaching Reading to the Fifth Grade of Elementary
1. Classroom action research a. Definition
According to Lewin as cited by Kemmis and McTaggart (1982), action research is the way groups of people can organize the conditions under
which they can learn from their own experience, and make this experience accessible to others.
by the teacher in the classroom where she/he teaches by focusing on teaching learning
process and teaching learning practice improvement.
Classroom action research is a strategy to improve education service in class
and school program quality. It could be done since its aim is to improve teaching
learning process continuously. Besides, the researcher as the teacher carries out
action research in her own classroom. (Aqib, 2007)
The following features are the characteristics of classroom action research
(Ibnu, 2000 as cited by Aqib). They are:
1. Classroom action research is done based on the problem faced by the teacher
2. There is collaboration in the implementation of action.
3. Researcher as a teacher reflects what is done in her/his class.
4. Its aim is to improve instructional practice quality.
5. Classroom action research is done in a sequence of cycles.
Lewin, as cited by Kemmis and McTaggart (1982) describes action research as
a proceeding in a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of planning, action,
and the evaluation of the result of the action. Through the spirals of these activities,
action research creates conditions under which learning communities may
understanding the problems and effects of their own strategic action, and
the improvement of this strategic action in practice.
According to Kemmis and McTaggart (1982), in doing action research,
the researcher undertakes:
1. to develop a plan of action to improve what is already happening
2. to act to implement the plan
3. to observe the effects of action in the context in which it occurs
4. to reflect on these effects as a basis for further planning; subsequent action and
The representation of the cycle
How can I stimulate enquiry in my students? Change the curriculum? change my questioning? Settle on questioning strategies.
My enquiry questioning is disrupted
by my need to keep control in ways
Shift questioning strategy to encourage students to explore answers to their own questions.
Record questions and responses on
tape for a couple of lessons to see
what is happening. Try questions which are let students say
what they mean, what interests them
Enquiry developing but students
are more unruly. How can I keep Continue general aim but reduce number
them on track? By listening to control statements
each other, probing their questions? What lessons help?
Use less control statements for a couple
Record on tape questioning and of lessons
control statement. Note in diary effects on students’ behaviour.
Figure 2.1. Action Research in action
2. Speed reading
Nurhadi (1987) says that reading ability is an individual’s ability to read in
a certain period of time and with a comprehension of the materials. Nurhadi mentions
that reading ability involves a fast reading activity in a certain time and
a good comprehension. Fast reading, which is the main characteristic
of speed reading, is needed in reading ability.
Principally, speed reading is a matter of reading speed and comprehension.
If the readers can find out the information needed, they are able to read faster.
The readers should be able to interpret the texts if they want to comprehend the text.
In speed reading, 70% to 80% of comprehension ability is not impossible,
but it is a target (Wiryodiyono, 1989). It means that comprehension ability
is needed in speed-reading. However, if comprehension ability just slows down
the speed in reading, the readers can focus their speed to get 70% to 80% of
comprehension. In other words, 70% of comprehension is still acceptable
in speed-reading ability.
a. Four Major Keys to Learn Speed R eading
George Stancliffe (1997) says that there are four major keys in learning speed
reading. They are:
1) Natural Vision: Arrangement to decide the distance between the reader and
3) Relax: to get maximum comprehension, the reader has to be relaxed
while concentrating (visualizing).
4) Daily Practice: the readers who practice daily are the ones who get really good at
b. How to Teach Speed Reading in the Elementary Schools
Quinn (1974) says that to learn speed reading, the readers should read
easy material, try to read as quickly as possible, and try to read each passage
more quickly that the ones you read before. According to Raygor & Raygor (1985),
the aim of choosing the easy materials is because it is easier to improve speed in
reading. It means that the text should be in the readers’ level.
Besides finding the easy materials, the readers should practice speed reading a
lot. (Raygor & Raygor, 1985). A lot of practices can make the students familiar with
this reading technique.
c. Bad Habits
In reading a passage, there are some bad habits often done by the students,
which can slow down their reading speed. Soedarso (2005) mentioned about them.
1) Vocalization, reading by pronouncing aloud each word as it is read.
2) Lip movement, saying each word as it is read by moving the lips.
3) Head movement, reading by following each word with head movement instead of
4) Pointing at words, means that while reading students use a finger, pencil, or ruler
because they think that they will be able to focus their attention. This holds
some readers down to reading one word at a time so that only a very slow rate
of reading can be attained.
5) Regressions, moving back of eyes to reread a word or some words before.
6) Sub vocalization, pronouncing words in the mind while reading.
d. Measuring Reading Speed
According to Soedarso (2005), to measure the reading speed, we can use
the formula of measuring it below:
the number of words read
wpm = x 60
the time spent for reading in second
Words per Minute (Soedarso, 2005, p. 14)
Reading Speed = wpm x the percentage of comprehension
The number of words read = the average of words per line x the number of lines
The average of words per line = the number of words in five lines which
are divided by five
e. Timed Reading Practice
Smith and Robinson (1980) say that a systematic timed practice may be given to
Comprehension questions should always follow timed reading practice in which
materials should be carefully prepared and suitable with the level of the students.
3. Picture s
a. Definition of Picture s
According to Heinich (1982), pictures are photographic, representative of
people, places, and things that are available in most subject areas and le vels from
kindergarten to adult.
b. Types of Pictures
The writer follows the classification related with the material taught (Kustiyah,
1986, p. 94-95).
1) Situational pictures
Situational pictures are the pictures where individ uals, things, and people in
the pictures are handled in a situation, so there is a correlation between them.
This kind of picture is good for teaching and reviewing reading text, compositions
and grammatical structure as well. In a comp rehension class, situational pictures
are functioned as the texts.
2) Pictures of individuals
Pictures of individuals are pictures contain only an object, a person, or
another thing. These pictures may include actions (regular or irregular verbs),
occupations, nouns (countable or uncountable), places, methods of transportations
3) Thematic pictures
This kind of pictures may consist of a series of pictures belonging to
one conversation theme.
From these three categories, the researcher chose ‘situational pictures’ to create
this speed reading practice program. This kind of pictures could visualize what were
written in the simple texts for the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan
c. The Functions of Pictures in Teaching-learning Process
Rowntree (1990) states the functions of pictures in teaching learning process.
They are as follows:
Pictures can be used (as can graphic devices) simply to relieve to monotony
of solid print. Almost any kind of picture can serve to give your readers
a visual break—thus helping motivate them to carry on reading.
Some pictures, cartoons in particular, can deliberately motivate the readers
more by humanizing the subject and showing its lighter side. They can highlight a
key point and make it memorable.
Pictures can be used expressively –to convey an emotion or feeling.
Thus, photographs might be used to involve the readers in some situation of
Sometimes, a picture may be used not simply to express or provoke
feelings, but also to persuade the reader towards a change of attitude.
This is a superior form of decoration. It involves selecting some aspects of
the text that does not absolutely demand to be described pictorially.
The picture is meant to convey a necessary understanding that could not
be conveyed in words alone. It shows what something looks like.
Pictures do more than describe what things look like. They show how
they work, or how they can be operated.
Pictures offer us a means of simplifying reality, of making it more amenable
to do inspection. Reality may be too big, such as the solar system, too small
such as the heart of a water-flea, or too fast such as the wing movements of
a humming bird. In such cases, pictures enable us to convey something of
When we need to consider quantities, compare sizes, recognize
A picture can pose a problem or question to the learners or it can be the
focus of a question verbally. Tables, graphs, charts, and maps can be used to
involve the learners in quite complex feats of analysis and interpretation.
The functions of picture in this research are to explain more than describe what
things look like and to pose a question to the learners.
d. Pictures as Instructional Materials in Teaching Speed Reading
According to Stancliffe (1997), there are four major keys in learning speed
reading. One of them is Visualize. It means that the readers should be able to picture
what they read in order to read fast.
Smith and Robinson (1980) state some functions of pictures in teaching reading.
They are as follows:
1) Pictures most frequently serve to help the readers’ approximate words in normal
2) During the beginning stages of reading, particularly as an approach to introduce
word, pictures are useful in actual word identification. For example, before
reading a book, teachers might give the names of the chief characters as they
show their pictures in the book. Later, the children refer to the pictures to refresh
3) Pictures help the children to visualize the concepts presented.
4) Pictures can anticipate the possible mental confusion, in reading interpretation
5) Pictures help students to deduce the names of certain important words.
6) Pictures are used to help the cement the names of certain important characters,
this is really just a temporary use of pictures that is only useful in the beginner
stages of reading.
Using pictures is more effective than trying to describe the situation or context
of the activity to the students. Pictures help the students imagine the setting and avoid
boredom that comes when they are trying to interpret texts. Through pictures,
students become acquainted visually with the every-day life of the people whose
language they are learning (Hirsch, 1954)
Pictures can help language teachers provide an interesting atmosphere in
the classroom. As stated by Mueller and Pulgram (1954, p. 49), “Wall pictures can
bring life and color to an otherwise monotonous or sterile classroom atmosphere,
inasmuch as they can stimulate and guide the imagination of teacher and students.”
The discussion above shows that pictures are useful in teaching reading. It also
shows that pictures can help the students to visualize what they read. The easier
the students visualize the text, the faster they read and comprehend it.
4. Teaching Reading Skill to the Fifth Grade Elementary School Students
To motivate and encourage students’ interest to read English texts is not easy.
That is why, the most basic principles of reading curriculum is to be sure that
all curricular activities are directed toward the fact that all reading activities should
be geared to help insure that the reading is a pleasurable and enjoyable activity for
to understand a text. Burns (1976) states that children’s attitudes may range from
disinclination to anticipation, exhibited in such behavior as showing interest in signs,
enjoying listening to stories, enjoying looking at pictures in books, being able to
attend a sequential picture book, and making up stories about pictures.
When we aim to have a successful reading learning, we should create
the learning atmosphere as enjoyable as possible. Learning through experience makes
the learner unaware of the process in the learning of reading. The learner’s motivation
is a very important aspect. If the learners are interested and motivated to learn,
the reading lesson will run smoothly.
5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
This theoretical framework presents the theories used in this research. They are
classroom action research, speed reading, and situational pictures.
Classroom action research is used since the researcher’s aim is to improve
the reading practice quality in the class where she teaches. The first thing to do in
classroom action research is Preliminary Reflection (Initial Reconnaissance). It is
done to know the problems in classroom faced by the fifth grade students of Kanisius
Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta. Next, the researcher applies cycles of an
action research which consists of four procedures in each cycle mentioned as follows:
After the problems are identified, the researcher plans the action to solve
designing the teaching program of using pictures to teach speed reading for
the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta.
The library study is done by looking up books, journals, and other theses.
The action is done when the planning is fixed. The researcher implements
the action of the technique to teach the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan
Elementary School Yogyakarta.
In order to figure out the effect of the action implemented, the observation
is done. Having field notes as the instrument to observe could help the researcher
followed the progress of the action.
This step discusses the reflection on the action’s effects as a basis
for further planning; subsequent action and so on, through a succession of cycles.
It is done until the action is regarded as the most appropriate solution for the students.
Speed reading is used as the teaching method implemented in the classroom to
improve the students’ reading speed.
The kind of picture used in this research is situational pictures. They are used to
assist speed reading in order to improve the students’ reading speed. This kind of
pictures could visualize what are writ ten in the simple texts for the fifth grade
23 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the methodology used in this research. It is divided into seven parts. The first part is research method implemented in this research.
The second part is research participants investigated in doing the research. The third part is setting where the research was conducted. Data gathering applies
to assemble data in this research is discussed in the forth part. Next, there is data analysis to the problem discussed, field note data, and observation data. Then, data validation is discussed in order to know how valid the data collected is. Last, the researcher discusses research procedure of how the research was conducted.
A. RESEARCH PROCEDURE
Classroom action research was implemented in this research. This kind of research is a qualitative research which based itself on a flexible research
design. Classroom action research is preceded by initial reconnaissance (problem exploration) that produces groundwork design. This design was used as the basis on the research and it could be re-designed.
The researcher started this research from preliminary reflection (initial reconnaissance) as the basis of formulating the research theme (thematic concern). It was followed by Planning, Action, Observation, and Reflection.
1. Preliminary Reflection (Initial Reconnaissance)
This step was the activity when the researcher observed the real situation where the researcher taught. This information had to be related to the research theme chosen and used for helping the researcher decided which problem needed to be solved.
In this research, the researcher observed: a. Teaching method
The researcher tried to figure out what method used by the teacher in the class and how it could influence the students’ achievement.
b. Teaching strategy
The observation of strategy implementation.
After finding the core problems and real situation faced by the research participants, the researcher formulated the theme of the research, which was called research problem.
The planning was based on the investigation of the situation where the research was conducted. The detailed planning contained: what actions were going to be done, who were going to do the actions, where, when, and how.
This step produced general description of action research planning, such as: a. Research theme description and the reason why the writer chose it.
b. Research participants’ description and the reason why the writer chose it. c. Brief explanation about the changing plan was going to be done.
d. Action breakdown about what were going to be done, who were going to do the action, when, and how to do it.
e. Description of how to implement the changes toward the situation that was on going.
f. Description of action planning and its consequences.
g. Description of how to observe the consequences/ effects of the action planning that was going to be applied.
h. Description of the data gathering process, data analysis, and its reflection. 3. Action Implementing and Observing
The action implementation in action research was more complex than the planning process since the situation was dynamic.
The observing process was intended to understand and to record the changes happened as the effects of the planned actions.
This step involved the analyzing, explaining, and concluding the activities that were done. This reflection process was also implemented to understand the process and the result achieved as the effects of the action. The observa tion that was done while doing the action could create a story about the situation happened in the classroom. To complete the story, the researcher reviewed what had been achieved through the action that had been implemented.
The results of the reflection were the information of the action implemented and the next step that should be done.
B. RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS
The participants of this research were the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta. Their ages were between eleven to twelve years old. There was only one class and it consisted of 10 students.
The researcher chose Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta
because she taught there and figured out that their speed in reading was low when the students did reading activity. So that their assessment reports in reading skill
D. DATA VALIDATION 1. Triangulation
To improve the research validity, the researcher had to minimize the subjectivity using triangulation. According to Burns (1994) as cited by Burns (2001), triangulation is a way of arguing that if different methods of investigation produce the same result then the data are likely to be valid.
Classroom action research use multiple methods and the perspectives of different participants in order to gain a richer and less subjective picture than they obtain by relying on a single data gathering technique.
E. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
As research instruments, the researcher used field notes, tests and questionnaires. The field notes were used to describe the situation that was occurred in the classroom when the action was implemented. The tests were used to figure out the students’ achievement and the questionnaires were used to find out the students’ responses toward the action implementation.
1. Field Notes
Observation is a basis of action research. It enables researcher to document and reflect systematically upon classroom interactions and events, as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur.
Field notes are descriptions and accounts of events in the research context which are written in a relatively factual and objective style. They generally include reports of non-verbal information, physical settings, group structures, and records of conversations and interactions between participants. Notes information focuses on answering who/what/ where/ when/ how/ why questions and can be organized in different categories to record descriptions, reflections or analyses of events.
In this research, field notes were used to record the responses and participation of the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta toward the action happened in the classroom while the action was implemented.
The format of field notes is as follows: Meeting …
Title of the text: … (… words) Reading time duration: … seconds
Activities Students’ responses
In this research, the researcher used two kinds of tests. They were speed reading test and reading comprehension test. Those two tests were conducted in each meeting.
a. Types of Tests 1) Speed Reading Test
for the fifth grade students in Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta. The materials in speed reading test were short and simple texts. The texts were taken from “Dimensi”, the book that was used by the Kanisius Gowongan Yogyakarta to teach English to its students. By using the topics taken from English book of the fifth grade students of elementary school, the students might be familiar with the text. Moreover, they would
comprehend the texts easily since the materials were made based on the students’ level of learning.
The forma t of Speed Reading Test Answer Sheet is as follows: Speed Reading Test Answer Sheet
Tulislah kata terakhir yang kamu baca di bacaan “Iwan’s dogs”! (Write the last word of the text (“Iwan’s dogs”) that you read!)
_______________________ 2) Reading Comprehension Test
This instrument was used to measure the students’ reading comprehension skills. The tests were in the forms of multiple choice questions that were related to the given text s. All the answers could be found in the text. So, the students who read the whole text should answer all the questions. The reading comprehension tests could be seen in the Appendices.
b. The Procedures of Giving the Tests
In each meeting, the teacher gave a text and an answer sheet to each of the student. As the research participants, they were given about
comprehension test was conducted after the texts were drawn up. The students had five minutes to do the test by crossing the letter A, B, C, or D.
c. Validity and Reliability
According to Azwar, an unreliable and invalid measuring instrument will give inaccurate information about participants that do the test (1997). For that reason, the reliability and the validity of research instruments should be estimated.
Azwar says that validity is defined as how accurate and exact a measurement instrument is measuring. There are three methods of validity, namely content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity (Sprinthall, 1989).
The researcher used content validity since the instruments used were
achievement test. They are speed reading test and reading comprehension test,. According to Hughes, content validity could be checked by comparing the test
specification with test content (1989). Before the test was created, the test specification was made. The test specification is showed in Appendices.
The tests that were used in this research were valid since they were taken from the English book used by the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta. The materials were created based on Curriculum at School Level.
method in testing the reliability. The obtained scores from the speed-reading test were compared with the scores in the second test.
To estimate the reliability of comprehension test, the researcher used internal consistency method. Internal consistency has a high value in terms of practicality and efficiency (Azwar, 1997). The data and the computation of reliability testing for speed reading test is showed in Appendix.
The third instrument, questionnaires were distributed before and after the researcher conducted the research. The first questionnaire was distributed in
order to figure out about the students’ interest in reading. Each question in the first questionnaire gave the students some choices. The second questionnaire was distributed to find out the students’ responses of the new teaching materials. It was in a form of open-ended questions. So, it could give the students freedom to express their own opinions and ideas. Both of the questionnaires are showed in the Appendices.
F. DATA GATHERING TECHNIQUE
The data referred to the rough materials researcher collected from the beginning until the end of the research. These rough materials were the information that formed the root of analysis. In this research, there were four techniques of gathering the data. They were: observation, field notes,
questionnaires, and test. 1. Observation
Observation was done as the systematic notes toward the research participants where and when the action was implemented. In this research, the researcher used direct observation by being with the students when the action was done in class.
2. Field notes
According to Bogdan and Biklen (1982), field notes are the written account
of what the researcher hears, sees, experiences, and thinks in the course of collecting and reflecting on the data in a qualitative study.
Field notes consist of two kinds of materials, they are descriptive and reflective. Descriptive field no tes’ concern is to provide a word-picture of setting, people, actions, and conversations as observed. The other one, reflective field notes, are the parts that capture more of the observer’s frame of mind, ideas, and concerns. In this research, descriptive field notes were used.
According to Zuriah (2001), questionnaire is the means to collect data in a form of written questions list that is distributed to the participants.
In this research, the researcher used open form questionnaire. The research participants could answer the questions based on their experiences, opinions, and feelings. This kind of questionnaire was used in order to give the participants chance to express their ideas or comments.
The tests were quantitative data gathering tools. The speed reading test was used to measure the students’ reading speed. The reading comprehension test chosen was the objective test where the students had multiple choice items to be chosen as the answer. It was used to measure the students’ skills in reading and comprehending the text quickly. The reading comprehension questions were in the multiple-choices form. Hughes says that the correct answers are valued score 1 and the wrong answers were valued score 0.
G. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE
According to Bogdan & Biklen, the data collected are analyzed by the researcher since the research began and are developed in reflection and result report processes.
First, the data in the field notes would be analyzed in steps as follows: (1982, p. 165-169)
1. Going through the passage of data and number them sequential. 2. Reading over the data at least twice.
3. While reading, developing a preliminary list of coding categories. Based on Bogdan & Biklen (1982, p. 162), coding categories are words or phrases representing patterns and regularities.
4. Designing the numbers of the coding categories.
Seconds, in examining the interview result, the researcher tried to (Cohen, Manion, and Morrison, 2000, p. 282) generate natural units of meaning (proposition carried out in the interviewees talk and the way they were spoken), classify these units of meanings (whether or not they were opinions, beliefs, or judgments), structure these units of meanings to describe the interview contents, and interpret them by making inferences and inductions.
Third, data analysis of the questionnaires and tests in this research was shown as follows (Burns, 2001):
1. Assembling the Data
At this stage, the broad patterns should begin to show up which could be compared and contrasted to see what fitted together. The researcher assembled data that had been collected over the period of research: observation, field notes, questionnaires, and tests.
2. Coding the Data
According to Anne Burns, coding is a process of attempting to reduce the large amount of data that might be collected to more manageable categories of
concepts, themes or types. Codes or categories could be built up to identify patterns more specifically.
3. Comparing the Data
4. Building Interpretations
This stage started to focus on making the meaning of the data coded and compared. The researcher interpreted the meaning why particular behaviors, interactions or attitudes had emerged.
5. Reporting the Outcomes
RESEARCH PROCESS AND FINDINGS
In this chapter, the research process and its findings are discussed. The research process focuses on the steps of the research and the findings are
related to the results of the action implemented in this research.
The research process describes cycles of action research. Each cycle
consists of planning, action implementation, observation, and reflection. In this research, there were two cycles conducted. But, before the cycles were
conducted, the preliminary reflection (initial reconnaissance) was done.
The findings present the outcome after the researcher implemented the action. They were related to the improvement of the students’ reading speed,
the students’ ability in visualizing what they read, and the class dynamic. A. RESEARCH PROCESS
1. Identifying of the Field Problem (Preliminary Reflection)
In this step, the researcher observed the real condition that happened toward the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School
Yogyakarta related to English teaching learning. By knowing it, the problem they faced in class could be identified.
The problem identification process was done by observing, interviewing, and distributing questionnaires before this research was conducted. Observation was done by monitoring the students’ condition in teaching learning process in
The questionnaires were used for support the observations and interviews data to analysis the students characteristics.
From data of the observation, interviews, and questionnaires, the researcher found out that the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta had their difficulties in reading, especially their reading speed. It was known when the researcher observed them when they were doing their test. They spent much time in reading a text. The students still did bad reading habits until finishing reading the text. The bad reading habits done were vocalization, lip movement, and head movement. The students who did the bad habits affected the other students could not concentrate to read the text and answer the questions well. The observation result also showed that the teaching method applied by the teacher was one that still focused on drilling vocabulary without paying attention to the students’ reading process. In reading session, the teacher only translated every word in text to the students. This situation made the students master only vocabulary and translated every word without knowing how to read a text so effectively that did not spend much time.
The interviews showed that the students felt bored when they had a text to be read. They felt that they did not get the main point in a text quickly. All the y did when they had a text was translated the word in the text one by one. The result of field, interviews, and questionnaires data analysis was showed in the Append ices.
The main point was that the problem faced by the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta was their low reading speed
2. Determining Some Actions to Overcome the Field Problems
The next step after the problem were identified was decided the action to solve the students’ problem. The action chosen was a speed reading teaching using picture. The technique was aimed to improve people’s reading speed. This speed reading teaching used pictures because most of the students loved drawing. Pictures could attract their attention to join this practice program. Picture was chosen as a media to practice speed reading with its aim to sharpen the students’ abilities in visualizing what they read. Based on Stancliffe’s explanation, there were four major keys to learn speed reading. They were natural vision, visualize, relax, and daily practice. In this research, the researcher focused on ‘visualize’. Meaning to say, to read fast the readers should be able to picture what they read. The researcher used pictures to help the students create pictures in their mind and read fast. It was expected that by being accustomed to visualize, the students could improve their speed in reading a text.
In every meeting, the researcher as teacher prepared a speed reading and a reading comprehension test, besides a set of pictures related to the text read. The sets of pictures were distributed to the students after they were divided into two groups. The students were asked to find the correct pictures related to the text
they read. The speed reading and comprehension test were conducted individually. But, the correct pictures- finding activity was done in group.
In this research, the correct picture-finding activity used grouping technique in class. This technique was chosen so that every student had his/her opportunity to improve his/her ability in visualize. The students who had good achievement
3. Action Implementation
After formulating the action that would be taken to solve the teaching learning problem faced by the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta, the researcher implemented it.
The implementation of action was a part of the cycle. Each cycle consisted of planning, action implementation, observation, and reflection on the action. The action implemented in class would be discussed in the teaching learning materials and process that would be taught. The result of any action would be evaluated and reflected on by the researcher to figure out whether the action done could improve the class condition where the research was conducted. Those observation and reflection were conducted based on the students’ responses in form of opinion toward the action implemented.
The implementation of this speed reading teaching was conducted from August until September 2008. Every week, there were two meetings, on Tuesday and Thursday. Each meeting was conducted at least eighty minutes.
a. CYCLE I 1) Planning
Planning was done after the problem faced by the fifth grade students of Kanisius Gowongan Elementary School Yogyakarta was identified. The action
was planned based on the problem identified so that it could overcome the problem.
teaching in class. The teaching learning process of the speed reading teaching in class was described in this step. They were:
a) In the first meeting, the teacher explained to the students about bad reading habits and how to overcome those habits. Besides, they were taught how to visualize what they read.
b) In every meeting, the students read a text in a limited time.
c) In every meeting, the students did a speed reading test and a reading comprehension test. These tests were implemented to figure out
the improving process of the students’ speed reading from the first meeting until the last meeting.
d) In every meeting, the researcher divided the class into two groups whose members were always different. It was done to make sure that every student joined every activity in class. The active students could help the others be more active and involved in every activity. Besides, the teacher did not want the monotonous circumstance happened in her class.
e) In every meeting, every group was given a set of pictures related to the text
the students read. One picture represented one sentence. If there were five sentences in a text, then there were five pictures. But, if the text could be
2) Action Implementation
The implementation of the action was done in the first two meetings. The activities in the meetings were:
a) The teacher explained that for five meetings they were going to have practice program to learn speed reading and she explained about bad reading habits to the students. (first meeting)
b) A simple text and an answer sheet were given to the students. The teacher asked them to read the text in about 30 seconds.
c) After that, the students wrote the last word they read from the text on the answer sheet.
d) The teacher gave reading comprehension test for the students. e) The teacher collected the texts.
f) The teacher divided the class randomly into two groups.
g) The teacher distributed a set of small pictures related to the text and asked the students to find the correct pictures. The time was limited in 30 seconds. If having finished, they had to raise hands.
h) The teacher discussed the correct pictures with the students.
i) The teacher gave clues in a form of questions and asked the students to make a sentence for each picture.
j) The teacher discussed with the students about the sentences they had written and about their difficulties.
When the teacher explained about bad reading habits, how to eliminate those habits, and how to visualize what they read, one of the students expressed her pessimistic feeling in implementing what had been exp lained before. She was a passive student in class. Her words were quoted as followed:
“Is it affecting my English mark? If it is so, then I am sure my English mark will be low since I think I cannot do well what you (the teacher) ask me to do”. (Novi said to the teacher) (the first meeting)
When the students were reading the text, they still did sub vocalization. Some of them read the texts quietly. But the others still did sub vocalization while reading the text. They were Novi, Arjun, and Lala. (the first meeting and second meeting)
When the students did the speed reading test at the first time, they were in hurry and did not concentrate well.
They were in a rush and it could be seen from their frown. Dian said, “I could not concentrate on what I read. I was in hurry”. When the teacher told them time is up, they screamed. They said they had not finished reading it. Kristian, one of them, said “I had less time and I had to read those many words”. (the first meeting)
But, at the second meeting, the students adapted with the limited time and fully concentrate when they were asked to read a text. Although there were still students who were not satisfied when they had not finished yet reading the text.
reading the text. Ayu said,” Wait. Wait a minute, Miss. I have not finished reading the text”. (the second meeting)
Mostly, from the first meeting until the second meeting, the students’ responses were the same. The students complained that they had forgotten the story told in the text. Some of them did not answer all the questions since they had not finished yet reading the text.
Novi said, “how I can remember the whole story? I just remember some parts of the story. Is it ok?” (the first meeting)
The teacher divided the class into two groups since there were ten students. The reason why the teacher always changed the group in each meeting because she did not want the monotonous circumstance happened in her class.
The teacher asked the students to take a folded paper, which had been prepared by the teacher to decide in which group they joined. At the first meeting, they a little bit protested because they did not join the ir close friends’ group. But, in the end, they accepted the decision that they were not in the same group with their close friends’ group.
When they figured out that they were not in one group with their close friends, they a little bit protested. Jonah said, “Can I join Krisna’s group?” But, in the end, they accepted and joined the group where they belonged to. (the first meeting)
At the second meeting, the situation was unpredictable. The students more protested when the grouping session was done.
“Can I move into Krisna’s group?” When the teacher said that they were not allowed to move, there were some students that did not cooperate well with their group members. (the second meeting)
When the teacher distributed a set of pictures, the students were a little bit
confused. Some of them said that they forgot the story in the text. But then, the other members that still remembered it were trying to encourage
their friends who forgot what the story in the text was about. They were excited since they knew that they had to beat another group.
One of the students, Arjun said, ”Our team has to be the first”. Finally, in 40 seconds, one of the groups raised their hands and another
one was still trying to find two correct pictures. (the first meeting)
The quotation showed that they were motivated when they competed with their friends. They felt challenged.
From the observation done, it could be concluded that the action in first cycle implemented was not quite successful. It was because there was a problem in grouping activity.