First of all the writer would like to thank Jesus Christ, the Almighty God. Because of His great love and blessing, the writer could finally complete this thesis as one of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan (S-1) at the English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan.
During the process of writing, the writer realizes that she can not accomplish without God blessings and supporting from many people, therefore the writer would like to express her sincere gratitude to:
Prof. Dr. Ibnu Hajar Damanik, M.Si., the Rector of State University
Dr. Isda Pramuniati, M.Hum., the Dean of Faculty of Languages and
Arts, State University of Medan.
Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., Head of English Department, Dra.
Masitowarni Siregar, M.Ed., Head of English Education Study
Drs. Johan Sinulingga, M.Pd., her Thesis Supervisor.
Prof. Amrin Saragih, M.A. Ph.D., her Academic Supervisor.
Drs. M Natsir, M.Hum and Rafika Dewi Nasution, S.Pd, M.Hum.,
her Examiners and Reveiewers.
The writer sincerely thanks to her Dad, A. Siburian and her Mom
youngger brother Hodman Siburian and also her lovely sisters R. Manullang SH, P. Limbong, and T. Simanjorang S.Pd.
The Headmaster of SMA Negeri 1 TIGALINGGA Drs. Antoni
Tarigan. The writer expresses her special thanks to Mam M.
Simanjuntak S.Pd., the English teacher.
Her best friends in Class Extension A, B, C 2010, and my beloved
friends Windha A Sinaga S.Pd, Yohana D Siburian, Trinovandhy Silaen S.Pd, Saddam Nasution, PPLT SMP GBKP KABANJAHE
2013, Soly Novalya Sinaga S.Pd, Maria Manik S.Pd, Frendi Simarmata, Dian Bangun and Prada Andri Pandiangan.
The writer hopes this thesis will be useful for those who read it, especially for the student of English Department.
Medan, Januari 2015 The Writer,
Siburian, Dahlia Melati. 2103321007. The Effect of using Team Games Tournament Technique on Students’ Reading ComprehensionA Thesis: English Department. Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan. 2014.
This study wasaimed at finding out the effect of using Team Games Tournament Technique on students’ Reading Comprehension. The population of the study was the 2014/2015 academic year firstsemester grade XI students of SMA Negeri 1 TIGALINGGA. The samples were two classes, namely XI IPA 1 and XI IPA 2, with the total was 60 students selected by applying random sampling. The sample was divided into two groups. Experimental group (XI IPA1) was taught by using Team Games Tournament Techniquewhile the control group (XI IPA 2) was taught without using Team Games Tournament Technique. The data of this research were taken from the students’ score of reading narrative text test. The calculation showed that the coefficient of the test was 0.65, it showed that the test was reliable and the reliability was substantial. There were two data used in this research. They were pre-test and post-test. The data were analyzed by using t-test formula to show the effect of using Team games Tournament Technique on students’ achievement in reading naarrative text. After analyzing the data, the finding indicates that t-observed was higher than t-table (5.50 > 2.00) at the level of significance 0.05 with the degree of freedom (df) 58. It means that by using Team Games Tournament Technique has significantly affected on the students’ achievement in reading narrative text. It implies that Team Games Tournament Technique is a significant technique for teaching reading narrative text.
b. Teaching Reading Comprehension ... 8
c. Reading Comprehension ... 8
d. Levels of Comprehension ... 10
2. Genre of the Text ... 11
a. Narrative text ... 13
4. Team Games Tournament (TGT) Technique ... 16
a. The Procedure of Tournament ... 19
CHAPTER IV THE DATA AND DATA ANALYSIS 3 A. The Data ... 33
C. Testing Hypothesis ... 37 D. Research Findings ... 38 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1.1 Studen’s Accumulated Score of Grade X ... 2
Table 2.1 The Example of Narative Text ... 15
Table 3.1 Research Design ... 24
Table 3.2 Treatment in Experimental Group (TGT) ... 27
Table 3.3 Treatment for Control Group ... 28
Table 3.4 Table of Specification ... 30
Table 4.1 The Scores of Pre-test and Post-test in Experimental Group ... 33
LIST OF APPENDIXES
Page Appendix A: The Score Of Pre-Test And Post-Test of
experimental group ... 43
Appendix B: The Score Of Pre-Test And Post-Test Of Control Group ... 44
Appendix C: The Calculation Of Pre-Test And Post-Test of Experimental Group ... 45
Appendix D: The Calculation Of Pre-Test And Post-Test of Control Group ... 46
Appendix E: The Calculation Of The T-Test ... 47
Appendix F: The Reliability Of The Test ... 49
Appendix G: Percentage Points Of The T Distribution ... 51
Appendix H: Pre test and Post test Items ... 52
Appendix I : Answer Sheet ... 59
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. The Background of The Study
English has become an aid to international communication, which has shown its role and importance in a lot of international activities i.e. transportation, commerce, banking, tourism, diplomacy, technology, and scientific research.
There are four basic skills that have to be mastered by the learners in studying English; they are listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Reading is one of the four language skills that is very important, because the success of their study depends on their ability to read. Reading is therefore secondary skills. It has been overlooked by its elder sisters, speaking and writing (Nunan, 1999:199). Reading is the ability of understanding the meaning from the printed page and interpret the information appropriately (Grabe and Stoller 2002:9). It means that reading is useless without comprehending and interpreting any ideas of the text.
The main goal of reading is comprehension. Comprehension is a special kind of thinking process. For having better comprehension the reader has to be able to find out and learn as well as organize the information that makes sense to the reader and accept the responsibility for constructing meaning. Improving student’s reading comprehension is not easy. It shown when the writer did
observation in SMA Negeri 1 Tigalingga, most of the students got difficulties when the teacher asked to read their text book. When they asked to read they were only read without comprehend the text and also they have no self confidence to
read. They only did read by reading the text from the beginning to the end. They focused on the difficult words, phrases, grammar and how to pronounce the words. They did not focus to find what the text about. Consequently, many students failed to comprehend the reading text. It was clear that the teacher’s
strategy in reading teaching learning process did not lead student’s to comprehend the text well. The solution for such problem is make a good strategy in teaching learning process. One of the good strategy in teaching reading is Team Games Tournament (TGT) tehnique. The purpose of using Team Games Tournament (TGT) tehnique is to make the students easier to understand the lesson.
It was proven when the writer asked for The List of Students’ Score (DKN/DaftarNilaiSiswa) for reading tests in two semesters, many students could not pass The Minimal Completeness Criterion (Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimum/ KKM) applied by the school in English subject. Their DKN in two semesters are, as follows;
Table 1.1 Studen’s Accumulated Score of Grade X
Semester Score Students Percentage Mean
The first problem was students didn’t have motivation to study English. In
students’ mind, English is a difficult lesson. Students find it is difficult to give
vocabulary, poor grammar and unable in organizing and developing their ideas. Thus, students found many difficulties to reading a good narrative text in English. The second problem was teaching method applied by the teacher. The teacher still used the conventional method in teaching.
Based on the explaination above, this study will be conducted by applying Robert Slavin’s cooperative system called Team Games Tournament or TGT
tehnique. Because, it works best for information that is relatively objective teaching reading comprehension and can be used to teach foreign language and any material with single right answers (Slavin, 1995:22). Teams Games Tournament (TGT) need the teacher presentation, team work, weekly tournaments, in which students play academic games with members of other teams to contributed points for their team scores. The advantage of game on Team Games Tournament (TGT) Tehnique is motivating students in learning process activity especially in reading comprehension.
B. The Problem of the Study
Based on the background of the study, the research problem is formulated as follows: “Is there any significant effect of using Team Games Tournament (TGT) on the students’ achivement in reading comprehension”?
C. The Objective of the Study
D. The Scope of the Study
The study purposes to find of the effect of using Team Games Tournament (TGT) tehnique on students’ achievement in reading comprehension. The study only focused on the students’ comprehension in finding out the main idea of the
text by collecting and defining the vocabulary first, and then asking questions about the elements by the teacher, and finally the students retell what is they read about by using their own words, make summary and evaluate it.
E. The Significance of the Study
This research findings are expected to be useful for:
1. The teachers, improve their ability in teaching reading by using Team Games Tournament
2. The students, help them in comprehending the text easily and to help students sharing ideas or opinion related to the text.
39 CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
After analyzing the data, it was found that the scores of the students that were taught by using Team Games Tournament Technique was higher than those who were taught without usingTeam Games Tournament Technique.
Based on the results of the data analysis which were presented in Chapter IV, the conclusions can be drawn as follows : the findings showed that t-observed ( 5,50 ) was higher than t-table ( 2,00 ) for the degree of freedom (df) 58 at level
of significance (α) 0,05. So, the null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected and alternative
hypothesis (Ha) was accepted which means that there was significant effect of usingTeam Games Tournament Technique on students’ achievement in reading narrative text. Beside that, the students’ attitude and skill was also significantly improved from the first until the third meeting while being taught by using Team Games Tournament Technique.
Based on the conclusion drawn, the results of the findings contribute some valuable suggestions, they are :
1. The English teachers are suggested to use Team Games Tournament
Technique to improve students’ achievement in reading narrative text and
also to improve their attitude and skill during the teaching and learning process.
2. The students are suggested to apply Team Games Tournament Technique to improve their reading comprehension ability, attitude and skill.
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