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  ROXANA’S HARDSHIPS AS SEEN IN DANIEL DEFOE’S

ROXANA OR THE FORTUNATE MISTRESS

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra In English Letters

  By

FARELLA NAHARANI

  Student Number: 084214125

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2013

  ROXANA’S HARDSHIPS AS SEEN IN DANIEL DEFOE’S

ROXANA OR THE FORTUNATE MISTRESS

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra In English Letters

  By

FARELLA NAHARANI

  Student Number: 084214125

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2013

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  He will be judged with an easy account And return to His people in happiness. (Al Inshiqāq 84: 8-9) Everything we do seriously will get success

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  This undergraduate thesis is dedicated to: My dearest father and mother Alm. Suharsono & Kamijem, S.Pd My beloved Sister, Novita Sandra, S.Pd

  And all of my friends

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  First of all, I would like to give thanks to Allah SWT for guiding me in every step of my life. I thank Allah SWT also for giving me thought, health, and strength so that finally I can finish this undergraduate thesis.

  I sincerely thank and appreciate my advisor, Elisa Dwi Wardani, S.S.,

  

M.Hum. for her time, encouragement, understanding, and advice during my

  undergraduate thesis writing. I also thank my co advisor,

  

for her willingness and thoroughness in reading my

undergraduate thesis.

  I would like to thank all of the lecturers and secretariat staff of English Letters Department for providing me the most excellent education and chance to improve myself. I thank also all library staff of Sanata Dharma University for helping me to find sources for my undergraduate thesis.

  I am also deeply grateful to my father, Alm. Suharsono, my mother

  

Kamijem S.Pd, and my lovely sister Novi, my lovely brother Akbar, for all the

support, the patience, and the courage they give to me.

  My sincere gratefulness goes to my best friend, Desi, Siti, Fitri, Ifa

  

(English Letters’ 08), Kingkin. I thank all of them for giving me supports when

  life gets rough. I thank them also for always giving me a lot of comfort when I feel so sad and hopeless.

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  I would like to thank my friends: Rana, Sisil, Arin, CiCi, Cindy, Lia,

  

Susan, Mbak Lia, Mbak Rere (English Letters ‘05), and thanks for always

  being a helping hand. I am grateful to be surrounded by creative positive people. I thank them also for every moment we laugh and cry together.

  Farella Naharani

  TABLE OF CONTENT TITTLE PAGE

  CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW

  ………………………………………………………………. xiii

  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

  ……………………………………...... 1

  A. Background of Study………………………………………......... 1

  B. Problem Formulation…………………………………………..... 3

  C. Objecti ves of Study…………………………………………….... 4 D. Definition of Terms………………………………………………. 4

  …………………………… 5 A. Review of Related Studies…………………………………....... 5 B. Review of Related Theories…………………………………….. 7

  ………………………………………………………......... xii

  1. Theory of Charac ter and Characterization…………………. 7

  2. Theory of Feminism…………………………………......... 11

  C. Review on Socio- cultural Historical Background……………… 12

  1. Socio-cultural Historical Background of Victorian Era………………………………….………………………. 12 2.

  Women in Victorian Era………………………………….... 14

  D. Theor etical Framework………………………………………… 18

  ABSTRAK

  ABSTRACT

  …………………………………………….................... i

  DEDICATION PAGE

  APPROVAL PAGE

  …………………………………………………….. ii

  ACCEPTANCE PAGE

  …………………………………….................. iii

  MOTTO PAGE

  ……………………………………………................... iv

  ………………………………………………….. v

  ………………………………………………. x

  LEMBAR PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH

  ……..... vi

  STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY

  …………………………………… vii

  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  ……………………………………………. viii

  TABLE OF CONTENTS

  

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  A.

  Object of the Study…………………………………………….. 20

  B. Approach of the Study……………………………………........ 21

  C. Method of the Study……………………………………………. 22

  CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS

  ……………………………………………. 24 A. The Characteristics of Roxana…………………………………. 24 1.

  Educated…………………………………………………….. 25 2. Admirable……………………………………………........... 29

  3. Indepen dent…………………………………………............ 30 B.

  The Women’s Life in England in 1800s as Seen Roxana’s Characteristics………………………………………………...... 33 C. Roxana’s Characteristics and the Description of Women’s Life Which Show Roxana

  ’s Hardships in 1800s…..……………….. 38

  CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION

  ……………………………………....... 45

  BIBLIOGRAPHY

  ………………………………………………………. 48

  APPENDIX

  …………………………………………………………....... 51

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ABSTRACT

FARELLA NAHARANI. Roxana’s Hardships as Seen in Daniel Defoe’s

Roxana Or The Fortunate Mistress. Yogyakarta: Department of English

Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2013.

  Each person ever experiences hardships in their life. Hardships emerge in many aspects of life, including a woman ’s life. In 1700s-1800s in England, women experience hardships because of the patriarchal society, the marriage, and the prostitution. This study analyzes how an upper class woman experiences hardships, in a novel entitled Roxana Or The Fortunate Mistress, written by Daniel Defoe.

  There are three problems in this study. The problems are: (1) What are Roxana’s characteristics?, (2) How is the life of women in England in the 1800s through Roxana’s characteristics described in the novel?, (3) How do Roxana’s characteristics and the description of life of women in 1800s in England show Roxana

  ’s hardships at that time? This undergraduate thesis is a library research. The main data were taken from the novel Roxana Or The Fortunate Mistress written by Daniel Defoe. The secondary data were taken from some supporting books and articles from internet. In order to analyze the problems, the writer applied feminism approach. Feminism approach is considered appropriate to be applied to this topic because this study focuses on revealing women hardships in England.

  The result of this analysis discovers that Roxana’s characteristic is described as an educated, admirable, and independent woman. Next result of the study is about the description of life of women in England in the1800s through Roxana’s characteristic. This study shows that women only learn reading, writing, dancing, and running a household. Furthermore, the last result shows Roxana’s hardships by connecting the analysis of the characteristics and the description of life of women in Victorian era. Roxana experiences hardships as the effect of patriarchal society, marriage arrangement, and prostitution. To deal with the hardships, Roxana chooses to be a mistress to gain independence.

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ABSTRAK

FARELLA NAHARANI. Roxana’s Hardships as Seen in Daniel Defoe’s

  

Roxana Or The Fortunate Mistress. Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris,

Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2013.

  Setiap orang pernah mengalami penderitaan. Penderitaan terjadi di banyak aspek kehidupan, termasuk dalam kehidupan wanita. Di Inggris tahun 1700-1800, wanita mengalami penderitaan karena masyarakat patriakhal, pernikahan, dan pelacuran. Studi ini menganalisis bagaimana wanita dari kelas atas mengalami penderitaan, dalam sebuah novel yang berjudul Roxana Or The Fortunate Mistress yang ditulis oleh Daniel Defoe.

  Terdapat tiga masalah dalam kajian ini: (1) Apa saja karakteristik dari Roxana?, (2) Bagaimana kehidupan wanita di Inggris pada tahun 1800 dilihat dari karakteristik Roxana yang dideskripsikan di novel?, (3) Bagaimana karakteristik Roxana dan pendeskripsian wanita di tahun1800 di Inggris menunjukkan penderitaan Roxana di masa itu?

  Skripsi ini merupakan studi pustaka. Data utama diambil dari novel

  

Roxana Or The Fortunate Mistress yang ditulis oleh Daniel Defoe. Data yang lain

  diambil dari buku-buku pendukung beberapa artikel dari internet. Untuk menganalisis masalah penulis menggunakan pendekatan feminisme. Pendekatan feminism dirasa tepat untuk diaplikasikan karena kajian ini mengungkap penderitaan wanita di Inggris.

  Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik Roxana didiskripsikan sebagai seorang yang terpelajar, dikagumi, dan mandiri. Hasil selanjutnya adalah tentang pendeskripsian kehidupan wanita di Inggris tahun 1800 dilihat dari karakteristik Roxana. Kajian ini menunjukkan wanita hanya belajar membaca, menulis, menari, dan mengurus rumah tangga. Selanjutnya, hasil terakhir menunjukkan penderitaan Roxana dengan menghubungkan analisis karakteristik dan pendeskripsian kehidupan wanita kelas atas. Roxana mengalami penderitaan sebagai efek dari masyarakat patriakhal, perjodohan, dan pelacuran. Untuk mengatasi penderitaanya, Roxana memilih menjadi seorang wanita simpanan untuk memperoleh kebebasan.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study At some point in this life, each person will experience happiness and

  sadness. They can live happily with their family. The other way, they experience pain, suffering, and hardships of some form or another. They need to overcome the problem, so that they prove to be strong. Even it might be complicated, people still have to continue their path in life because they cannot under the same

  

circumstances. Life story is influenced by society and history. Sometimes, life

  story becomes the idea in writing literary works. Literary works give a lesson for the reader because the authors create the story from a reality that happened around them.

  Literature can enrich us with knowledge, as it is written in Henry E. Jacobs and Edgar V. Roberts‟s Fiction: An Introduction to Reading and Writing, “Literature can enrich us to develop a perspective of the events that occur around us and the world at large…(1989: 2)”. Literary work can widen the reader‟s views of the world.

  “Literature represents „life‟; and „life‟ is in large measure, a social reality…” which is written in Wellek and Warren in their Theory of Literature (1956: 94). In this book, they explain that each poet is also a member of society, and the events happen around her society can define her knowledge of the world.

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  2 People can learn about the condition of the society by reading related literature. One of the writers that represent the society is Daniel Defoe.

  Daniel Defoe was born in 1660, at the city of London, and died in the age

  th

  of seventy one on April, 24 , 1731 and was buried in Bunhill field the dissenter‟s burial ground on city road, which can still be visited today. His chief works are:

  

Robinson Crusoe (1719), Moll Flanders (1722), A Journal Of The Plague Year

  (1722), Colonel Jack (1722), Roxana or The Fortunate Mistress (1776). Most of his novels focus on the reflection of Victorian society. In this study, the writer analyzes one of his novels entitled Roxana or The Fortunate Mistress Defoe‟s Roxana or The Fortunate Mistress is an interesting novel to study.

  It is because there are two contrary statements about this novel. Virginia Woolf stated about feminism in her essay on Defoe‟s Roxana or The Fortunate Mistress.

  Woolf states that the first praise Defoe‟s sympathetic representation of the situation of woman and later become a greater importance in the feminism context (Woolf, 1998: 313). On the other hand, Leroy W Smith said that this novel is a pornographic literature (Smith, 1972: 165).

  Roxana is the main character of Roxana or The Fortunate Mistress novel.

  th She is an upper class woman who lives in the 18 century society of England.

  Women at that time are under men domination. Economic hardships of Roxana are getting harder since her husband wastes their money. Meanwhile, her husband is irresponsible with the family. After her husband leaving, Roxana

  ‟s family becomes poor so that she cannot afford proper food and shelter for her children.

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  3 She must try to overcome hard life and deprivation. Consequently, she chooses to be a mistress and unmarried woman.

  Roxana‟s hardships will become an interesting topic to discuss. The writer can see many cases and facts of upper class women hardships in England through the story of Roxana‟s experience. The background of Roxana Or The Fortunate

  

Mistress is a fact of the bad experience of upper class women as the victims of

  patriarchal society, past marriage, and prostitution. Roxana or The Fortunate

  

Mistress also contains a female character that can be used to reveal the struggle of

  women against marriage, men‟s rule, and she chooses to be a mistress gaining independent. Hopefully this study can give a greater understanding of how Roxana chooses to be a prostitute to get a freedom. Based on the state above, the writer chooses

  Roxana’s Hardships As Seen Daniel Defoe’s Roxana Or The Fortunate Mistress on the topic of study.

B. Problem Formulation 1.

  What are Roxana‟s characteristics?

  2. How is the life of women in England in the 1800s seen through Roxana‟s characteristics described in the novel?

  3. How do Roxana‟s characteristics and the description of the life of women in the 1800s in England show Roxana

  ‟s hardships at that time?

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  4

  C. Objectives of the Study

  Based on the problem formulation above, there are three objectives of the study. The first aim is to find out the characterizations of Roxana. The writer will collect the characterizations of Roxana based on her experiences, thought, and attitude. The characterization of Roxana is useful for knowing her ways to face her problems and interact with other characters.

  The second aim is to relate with the socio-cultural historical background, specifically regarding women in England at that time. The third aim is after gathering all information needed, the writer going to reveal the capabilities of women to struggle from several hard life in the 1800s in England.

  D. Definition of Terms

  1. Hardship Hardship means (something <http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/hardship?q=hardship>

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW This chapter discusses theories that support the analysis of the thesis. This

  chapter is divided into three parts. They are review of related studies, review of related theories, and theoretical framework. Firstly, review related studies discuss some related comment and criticism on the same topic with this research. Secondly, review of related theories discusses some related theories used in this research.

  Thirdly, theoretical framework explains how the theories in this research support the analysis.

A. Review of Related Studies

  There are some criticisms addressed to Daniel Defoe‟s Roxana or The

  

Fortunate Mistress . The first criticism that will be discussed is a comment of Anna

  Fioravanti, on Review on Lady Roxana, She gives a reason why this novel is a special book for her.

  Obviously, prostitution is not to be encouraged (men and women would be agree that) It‟s the way Defoe deals with his character that makes the book “special”. A man whose description of a woman is based on being positive all time. She is as beautiful as an gel. She is pure it‟s others who make her guilty!

  She is intelligent and able to improve her abilities (Roxana becomes very good in administrating her fortune, ability which is particularly important considering her century and the central role given to economics). (www.Thefword.org.uk/reviews/book/roxana.live)

  6 Fiorava nti shows how Defoe‟s novel has impressed her. It is because the novel can give a special influence over the reader. Moreover, she finds, it is very i mportant because she has the opportunity to see and understand women from male‟s point of view. Fioravanti is also interested in how the author writes about the character, Roxana. Defoe is a man of eighteenth century. He writes about a woman who is involved in the hard life and hard situations. However, Defoe just comments and judges the actions in general but never judges the character, Roxana.

  The second criticism comes from

  Virginia Woolf’s essay on Defoe, published

  in the Common Reader, first series (1925), which is included in the novel. She praises the Defoe‟s sympathetic representation of women. This is the aspect of his work, which gives a greater contribution to modern feminist context.

  Roxana, a lady of the same profession, argues more subtly against the slavery marriage. She had started a new thing in the world. But Defoe is the last writer to be guilty of bald preaching. Roxana keeps our attention because she is blessedly unconscious that she is any god sense an example to her sex and thus, at liberty to town that part of her arguments is of an elevated strain which was really not in my thoughts at first at all (Woolf, 1998: 315) Tholonia in the article “Bond” also pays attention to the character of Roxana. She focuses her discussion to Roxana‟s perspectives about marriage.

  Daniel Defoe was much concerned on the status of woman at that time. Defoe‟s study, Treatise Concerning the Use and Abuse of Marriage Bed, deals with the moral, sexual and legal realms of marriage. Women do not have more rights than children or lunatics in London society in eighteenth century(1727:163).

  7 Another criticism comes from Lora David and Carrie S. Bryant(2002: 175) in

  “Make Your Way as A Women Eighteenth-Century England” essay, both seniors at University of Michigan. They state that Daniel Defoe's novel Roxana is (for the most part) a woman of wealth and independence. Her wealth is acquired (to a large degree) through her dealings with the men in her life. She has strong business sense, sexual awareness and financial standing. It is for this reason that Roxana chooses to remain single. In contemporary law, gender and marital status determines a person's legal profile. Being a married woman effectively eliminates the woman's status as an individual under the law-legally, the married woman is essentially subsumed into her husband. Specifically, she virtually loses her right to own and control property. It is for this reason that Roxana has no desire to be married. She argues that a wife has nothing of her own, but a mistress has what is hers as well as what her lover has(www.umich.edu/~ece/student_projects).

  This writing has some similarities with some studies above, but still this writing has different focus to explore from those studies. The previous studies discuss about the character and representation of upper class woman, marriage, and independent woman, this writing focuses on Roxana. She lives in patriarchal family.

  She has arranged to marry her parent‟s chosen husband. Roxana was fifteen years old when she got married with a Brewer. Based on the analysis of her characteristics and the description of woman

  ‟s lives1800s in England the writer can understand woman‟s hardships that exist in the novel.

  8

B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theory on Character and Characterization

  The character has the important role in literary works. It helps us to understand about what happen in literary work. The characters are the person in the story that interpreted by the readers with their moral and emotional qualities. The author can describe the characters based on their motivation and the action in the story. According to Abrams in A Glossary of Literary Terms(1993: 24), stated that:

  Characters are the person in a dramatic or narrative work, who is interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expressed in what they say: the dialogue, and by what they do: the action. A character remains stable or changes, the reader of traditional and realistic work expect “consistency”-the reader should not suddenly break off and act in a way not plausibly grounded in his or her temperament as we have already come to know it. The quotation above shows that characters are the figure presented in the work of literature. It is the most distinctive feature that any other intrinsic elements because characters have emotional features. Emotional features cannot be separated from the characters because characters are usually human beings playing their own roles in the story.

  The characters in a story can be found by the interpretation of the readers according to their conceptions of the characters. The characters can be described through the behaviour and action in the play. The writer tries to understand the characters in the story by the dialogue of the characters in the play. The dialogue in the story can influence the behaviour and the action to the character itself.

  9 It is impossible to separate character from characterization. Ordinarily, characterization is the process by which the author creates a character. It is the process in which the author reveals the traits of a character. Hugh Holman and William Harmon in A Handbook to Literature (1986: 81) clarified that there are three basic methods of characterization as quoted below.

  a. The explicit presentation of a character by the author through direct explanation, whether in a block‟s introductory or throughout the work which is illustrated by action

  b. The presentation of the character in action, therefore the reader will be able to conclude the attributes of character from actions c. The presentation from within a character, without comment on character by the author, of the impact of actions and emotions on character‟s inner self, with the expectation that the reader will come to clear understanding of attributes of the character.

  Furthermore, the theory on characterization explains how the characteristics of the characters are described. According to M. J. Murphy in his book entitled

  

Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Poetry & English Novel for

Overseas Students (1972: 161-173), there are nine ways for an author can apply to

  present the characterization of character in literary works to make the character understandable to the reader.

  a. Personal Description The author describes character‟s appearance in details such as skin colour, body shape, the clothes used by the character.

  b. Character as Seen by the Author

  10 The author uses another character‟s point of view to describe the character. What people in the story think about a certain character can be significant for reader to picture the image of the character.

  c. Speech The author can give insight into the character in literary work through what the character says. Whenever a character speaks in conversation, we can see his personality from the opinion that he gives.

  d. Past life The past events of a character can help the reader to understand what shape the character to behave in such way.

  e. Conversation of Others The readers should pay attention through the conversation of other characters and the things they say about the character. The author gives clue to understand a character‟s personality from other‟s conversation and their opinion about him.

  f. Reactions The author helps the reader to recognize a person‟s character by the reaction he gives toward the various situation and events.

g. Direct Comments The author gives direct comment on person‟s character.

  h. Thoughts The author can give the reader a direct knowledge of what a person is thinking about.

  11 i. Mannerism

  The author can convey something about a person by describing his mannerism or habits.

  By analyzing how the character described by other people, observing the description about the past life, the reader may also understand the personalities given by the author. There can be more than one method used by the author and it is intended to make the reader think that it is the author creation of real people.

  Thus, a character‟s characteristics can be studied from the features shared by the character or actions that are found in the story directly or indirectly, in coordination with other elements in the story.

2. Theory of Feminism

  The emancipation on women is related to the women movements which bring the idea of feminism. Feminism is about the struggle to fight the patriarchal society.

  According to Humm, a p atriarchy is “a system of male authority that oppresses women through its social, political, and economic institutions” (1992: 159).

  Feminism appears as the responses toward gender inequalities (women are assumed as a second-class inferior and the first-class superior is men). Moreover, gender inequalities are the result of gender difference. In gender difference, difference is “a necessary polarity between men and women, and between women.” For example, usually a man‟s body is stronger than a woman‟s, this results gender difference that a man is strong and a woman is weak. However, although men and

  12 women are different, they are equal. The differences between them are meant for them to complete one another (Humm, 1992: 27).

  Terrey in

  Women’s Studies Encyclopedia (Vol.I) states that feminism means a

  belief and a commitment to equal right and opportunities for women (1989: 139). It explains the goal of feminism is to gain similar right and opportunities for women.

  It can be assumed from the quotation above that the subject matter of feminism is the idea about gaining the equality among men and women. Women tend to have rights to do what they want to do and responsible for their own choice. Therefore, studying the feminism in which the literary work is created is necessary.

C. Review Socio-cultural Historical Background 1. Socio-cultural Historical Background of Victorian Era

  

th

  Daniel Defoe is one of the late 18 century England's first true novelist and famous author. One of his great novels is Roxana Or The Fortunate Mistress. Roxana

  

or The Fortunate Mistress is written in 1776, which is considered as the late

th

  18 century Victorian age. This is the reign when many artistic styles. Literary schools, as well as, social, political, and religious movements developed. It was a time of prosperity, broad imperial expansion, and great political reform. <http://victoriapast.com/LifeofVictorianWomen/Lifeof VictorianWomen.html>

  , Richard N. Current and friends (1965) explained

  American History: A Survey

  about the social system during The British Empire. The British Empire inherited a basic system of social institutions; that is the class structure, the community, and the

  13 family. The most visible inheritance is the class distinction in the society; there are the working class society and the middle class society. The working class society is the community that works as farmers (Current, 1965: 17).

  Generally, the members of the society in Victorian era are divided into two big classes according to their wealth and social status. The Rich were known as Middle Class and the Poor were mentioned as Lower Class. Each of them has their own life style and the way of thinking (Clark, 1972: 44). In the former reign, the classes are divided into three classes namely Upper Class contains noble people, Middle Class contains of rich people, and Lower Class contains of poor people. Yet, there was a churning upheaval of the old hierarchical order, and the middle classes were steadily growing. The Middle class contains of the noble people and rich people and there is no Upper Class. Middle Class is the combination of nobility and an emerging wealthy commercial class. By the end of the century, it was silently agreed that a gentlemen was someone who had a liberal public (private) school education (preferably at Eton, Rugby, or Harrow), no matter what his antecedents might be <http://www.victoriapast.com/LifeofWoman/LifeofVictorianWoman.html> The Victorian Era was also a time of tremendous scientific progress and ideas.

  Darwin took his Voyage of the Beagle, and posited the Theory of Evolution. The radical thought associated with modern psychiatry began with men like Sigmund Freud toward the end of the era, and radical economic theory, developed by Karl Marx, and his associates, began a second age of revolution in mid-century. The ideas of Marxism, socialism, feminism churned and bubbled along with all else that

  14 happened <http://www.victoriapast.com/LifeofWoman/LifeofVictorianWoman.html>. The ideas of scientific and some movements such as Marxism, Socialism, and Feminism are also grown rapidly in this time.

2. Women in Victorian Era

  The life of women in Victorian Era was generally focused on Family commitments. Women were seen as temples of love and purity and so, could not be used for physical exertion or pleasurable sex. The only role of women in the Victorian era was to get married and had to be innocent, virtuous, biddable, and dutiful. The young women were mainly educated in accomplishments like French, drawing, painting, singing, dancing-everything which helped them to get a perfect match<http://www.victoriapast.com/LifeofWoman/LifeofVictorianWoman.html>.

  Ashley in her essay (2005) “Women's Education” explained women education in the 17

  th

  and 18 century England: During the 17th century, only the daughters of the wealthy or nobility could get an education. By the mid 17th century young women were allowed to go to school with their brothers. Sometimes if you were from money you would be placed within a household of a friend and within the household and you would be taught various things. Some of the things you would learn would be to read and write, run a household, and practice surgery…..Common studies women learnt were French, needlework, geography, music and dancing.

  Studying anything else was thought to be unnecessary and hurtful to the mind of women. In the 17th and 18th centuries schooling was focused on how to govern a household and how to behave properly within the social class in which her marriage placed her. A lot of the focus was to teach women how to run a household.

  ”

  15

  th th

  From the explanation above, the writer can see that during 17 and 18 century, only the middle class girls can go to school. They learn to read and write and they learn language like French and needle work, music and dancing.

  A Hundred Years Ago: Britain in the 1880s in Words and Photographs book,

  Colin Ford and Brian Horrison stated that the highest class was the Nobility and Gentry, who inherited their land, titles, and wealth. To the outsider, it might seem as if women of this class did very little--but their work was very important and sometimes very hard, as they were expected to manage the home and the household. As EttyRaverat, who was a young woman in the late 1800s, said, "Ladies were ladies in those days; they did not do things themselves, they told others what to do and how to do it" (Horrison and Ford: 1983, 226). From the statement above, the writer see the upper class women are expected to manage the home and household. They have no duty outside home. They have some servant to help cooking and cleaning the house. The upper class women only command the servants doing what and how to do the household.

  Moreover, Lucy Bushman writesan article entitled “Family Life in the 18th Century”(2008),she stated that women and men of the upper classes did not marry for love. Instead, they married strictly for financial and social reasons. Women who wished to continue living within a wealthy household simply did not marry a man of the middle or lower class . From Lucy‟s statement, the writer can see that the upper class men and women marry for financial supported and social status not for love. They want to live in prosperity.

  16 Moreover, from the documents of history site (2000) it is clearly explained about women. Women typically did not work outside the home. They were expected to focus on her family. Families tended to be large, and it was common for a woman to have five or more children.

  (www.bcpcc.com/Outreach/ss10/files/middleupper.html) In the essay about an upper class girls in the 1800 century

  “The Marriageable Mind” (2001) written by Prof. David Porter, he stated that a girl's education often included basic reading and writing as well feminine activities such as needlework and dancing. Girls might also read Shakespearean plays and poetry. During earlier times, even these most basic academic skills were not commonly taught to middle-classes girls. However, when young aristocratic men went on the grand tour they met young French women who could have conversations about music, art, and literature. By comparison, English gentlewomen, seemed dull and uninteresting because they could only talk about balls and fashion. As a result, British mothers thought it wise to educate their daughters enough to compete with these French women in the marriage market. .

  In Everman in European ed. Vol 1, The Preindustrial, Millenia book, Mitchell and Deak stated that during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and the nineteenth centuries, “England is known as free of sexual irregularly than any other country in the world. In the seventeenth century, there is unquestionably a greater laxity of moral in this respect, but at no time as the excess license associated with the restoration period in England (1981: 219)

  ”. As the statement above, the writer can see that free sex and

  17 prostitution widely spread in England, especially in the big city such as London. Therefore, the moral value in England during at that time is unquestioned.

  Florence Fenwick Miller (1854-1935), a midwife turned journalist, described woman's position: Under exclusively man-made laws women have been reduced to the most abject condition of legal slavery in which it is possible for human beings to be held...under the arbitrary domination of another's will, and dependent for decent treatment exclusively on the goodness of heart of the individual master. (From

  a speech to the National Liberal Club)

  The writer can see that women have few choices and completely controlled by the men in their lives. Every man had the right to force his wife into sex and childbirth. He could take her children without reason and send them to be raised elsewhere. He could spend his wife's inheritance on a mistress or on prostitutes.

  Prostitution quickly became an alternative for some upper class women in the 1800s. Lucy Bland‟s essay (1992) entitled “Feminist Vigilantes of Late-Victorian England” outlines some of the extreme measures women would take in order to survive, as well as the animosity that surfaced as a result of these actions. The writer sees that women at that time have limited choice; they choose to be a prostitute or mistress in order to survive and fulfil their needs.

  In “ Historical Brief-Lives of Women in the early 1800s” essay, Smith (2002) writes an article about women„s lives in England.

  Daily life for women in the early 1800s in Britain was that of many obligations and few choices. Some even compare the conditions of women in this time to a form of slavery. Women were completely controlled by the men in their lives. First by their fathers, brothers and male relatives and finally by

  18 their husbands. Their sole purpose in life is to find a husband, reproduce and then spend the rest of their lives serving him. If a woman were to decide to remain single, she would be ridiculed and pitied by the community

  

  In Women and Prostitution : A Social History book, Vern and Bonnie Bullough stated that the upper class women were probably came to the profession as a mistress or whore for reasons of economic hardship, they were able to turn beauty or talent to advantage (1987: 38).

  Donna J. Guy writes about the history of prostitution worldwide in her article entitled "Stigma, Pleasures, and Dutiful Daughters"(1998: 181), Guy states that prostitution is linked to religious beliefs, family survival, and patriarchy authority. However, women choose prostitution to find independence, provide an income or control their own sexuality.

  From Guy‟s statement, the writer sees that structural classes marginalize women. Family is based on patriarchy system. The husband is more dominant in the family. The upper class or lower class women have low status so that many of them enter into prostitution. For helps the family economically, an upper class woman chooses to be a mistress or courtesan. The reason for an upper class woman who is left by her husband is to find an independence and control own sexuality.

D. Theoretical Framework

  This part provides the foundations to answer the three problems in the Chapter

  I. From the theoretical framework, the writer tries to define on how the related study

  19 and theories are applied to analyze the object of the study.As stated in the previous subchapter, the theories that will be used are the theory on character, characterization, and the feminism.

  The theory of characters and characteristics in the literary works is needed to investigate who the character is, what kind of person she is, how the character behaves in the society and how her personalities are shown through her actions, thought and speech. By analyzing each of her characteristics, there can be found how she acts toward reality, making decisions and build her own identity in the society.

  The theory on feminism, review of socio-cultural historical background of Victorian era, and feminist approach are important to focus on the perspective of feminist about women in the society. To get understanding why Roxana acts in such a way, the knowledge on the feminism is needed. The review of the socio-cultural historical background of Victorian era is aimed for the understanding of the women‟s lives in the Victorian era. By understanding the women‟s lives in the Victorian era and the women character‟s characteristics in the play, the writer will able to analyze what women‟s hardships are reflected in the characteristics in those women characters.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of the study is a novel written by Daniel Defoe entitledRoxana or The Fortunate Mistress . This novel published in 1998. The novel takes the setting of

  the 1800s century in England, although the main character goes to some other countries in Europe, which become part of the story.

  Roxana or The Fortunate Mistress

  is one of Defoe’s literary works which tells us about woman ’s experience and her struggle toward hardship, society, and her attitude toward man, being a wife, and her comparison between wife and mistress.

  There are five characters in the story of novel. They are Roxana as the main character, Amy as her house cleaner, and the names of other characters who involved in Roxana’s life cannot be mentioned obviously in the novel except their status. They are the Landlord or the Jeweller, The Prince, Dutch merchant, The King, and The Merchants, the Duke, and some other men.

  Roxana is a very interesting novel because it gives us an insight to marriage

  and women’s state in the 1700s-1800s century. Marriage in the 1700s-1800s century was a very precarious matter, even with the passing of the Marriage Act of 1753, a wise marriage was still difficult to get. A woman’s property can be owned and spent by her husband, as the same case of Roxana. She finds her husband abandons herself with five children, and no means of financial, so she becomes a mistress and cleverly

  21 seduces some rich men. This novel shows the uncertainty of women’s life; Roxana’s situation is much better as a mistress than in her legalised marriage, for this reason the title of this novel

  ; she is a ‘fortunate mistress’ but to be a wife she is unhappy.

B. Approach of the Study

  The approach of this study is feminist approach. Feminist approach is an approach that is concerned with marginalization of all women: that is in relation with their placed to a secondary position. Most feminists believe that our culture is a patriarchal culture: that is, one organized in favour of the interest of men. Feminist literary critics try to explain how power imbalance due to gender in a given culture is reflected in or challenged the literary texts (Guerin, et al, 1999: 196). It is appropriate to use feminist approach because the writer wants to analyze the reflection of feminism that can be seen in woman character in Roxana or The Fortunate Mistress namely Roxana. Guerin also states that the feminist approach allows the writer to study how society shapes a woman’s understanding of herself, her society, and her world (Guerin, et al, 1999:197). Therefore, the writer includes the social background where the play takes place to see how the life of women in Victorian era. Then, the writer can relate the description life of women in Victorian era and the characteristics of woman character in Roxana or The Fortunate Mistress.

  22

C. Method of The Study

  The study is done through reading and analyzing the main source, which is the novel itself. The writer applies a library research because all materials or sources that used are taken from the library, not through questionnaire or laboratory research. There are two important sources used in this study; the primary source and the secondary source. The primary source is the novel itself that is Roxana or The

  

Fortunate Mistress , which is written by Daniel Defoe. The secondary sources are the

theories that are needed from the books and other references, including the internet.

  Books that are related to the theory of character, characteristic, also the theory of feminism. However, the writer admitted that it is still need to take other references such as articles from internet by accessing some relevant articles. The writer gets more information about the author, the socio-cultural historical events in 1800s in England, the women position and movement in the Victorian era to support the analysis of the topic, and some criticism about the novel itself.

  There were four steps that the writer did to make the analysis. The first step was reading the whole story for several times. It was done in order to make the writer has deep understanding of the story.

  The second step was reading some books or papers related to the study from the library. Books like A Glossary of Literary Terms by Abrams, An Introduction to by Robert Stanton, A Handbook to Literature by Hugh Holman and William

  Fiction

  Harmon, Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Poetry & English

  

Novel for Overseas Students by M. J. Murphy wereused for this study. Other than

  23 library research, internet research was also useful to find some more information about the review of related studies.

  The third step was trying to apply the theory on the analysis. The writer tried to give the answer toward the problem formulations. The first was to analyze the characteristics of the main character in the story. In this part, the writer applied the theory about understanding a character based on the char acter’s traits. The writer took from books about theories on character and characterization. Then, the second was to find the description women’s lives in England in 1800s. This part was to find facts from history about the social condition, history of England, and the meaning of hardship for woman based on their experience. The third was to analyze the relation between the abilities found in Roxana’ characteristics and the historical facts about women who struggled to deal with several hardships and the meaning of hardship in their lives.

  After the writer collected the primary data and secondary data, the writer tried to answer the problem formulation with all the data that had been collected.

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CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In this chapter, the writer discusses about the problems formulation stated in previous chapter. The writer will analyze only on the main character, Roxana. The first part of this chapter presents the characteristic of Roxana. The second part

  will present the social condition of women in England in the 1800s century. The th ird part shows the characteristics of Roxana and the description of women‟s hardships in the 1800s century.

A. The Characteristics of Roxana

  The following analysis gives a picture of women in England through the dialogue and the action done by the character which is endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities.

  In analyzing Roxana‟s characteristics, the writer applies the theory of characterization of Abrams which is quoted as follows.

  Characters are the person in a dramatic or narrative work, who is interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expressed in what they say: the dialogue, and by what they do: the action (1993: 23).

  In this novel, Defoe presents the characteristics of Roxana through her behaviour and action in the novel. The writer tries to understand the characters in the story by the dialogue of the characters in the play. The dialogue in the story can reveal the behaviour and the action to the character itself.

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  25

1. Educated

  One of Roxana‟s characteristics is revealed through her action, as it is affirmed by Holman and Harmon that one method of characterization is through the presentation of the character from actions (1986: 81). Roxana is an educated upper class woman. It can be seen from the following quotation.

  I went to English schools, and, being young, I learnt the English tongue perfectly well, with all the customs of the English young women; so that I retained nothing of the French but the speech, nor did I so much as keep any remains of the French language tagged to may way speaking, as most foreigners do, but spoke what we call natural English, as if I had been born here (Defoe, 2000: 2).

  Murphy states that a person‟s character in the novel can be revealed through what the character says. Whenever a character speaks in conversation, we can see his personality from the opinion that he gives (1972: 161). Once Roxana was young, her parents sent her to English schools. She studied well and became a smart student.

  Roxana‟s characteristic as educated woman can be seen through her speech.

  I was speaking of myself as about fourteen years of age tall and very well made, sharp as a hawk in matters in common knowledge, quick and smart in discourse, apt to be satirical, full of repartee, and a little to forward in conversation; or as we call it in English, bold, though perfectly modest in my behaviour. Being French born, I danced, as some say, naturally, love it extremely, and sang well also; and so well, that, as you will hear, it was afterwards some advantage to me. With all these things, I wanted neither of wit, beauty, nor money. In this manner, I set out into the world, having all the advantages that any young women could desire to recommend me to others and form a prospect of happy living to myself (Defoe, 2000: 2).” From the speech above show, that Roxana is an educated woman. She comes from middle class or rich family. At that time, only a child of the upper or

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  26 middle class family can go to school. The middle class girls must learn it for recommended as a future wife. They must learn basic skills such as reading, dancing and singing. Roxana learns those girl‟s educations. With those advantages, Roxana can appeal to aristocrat men. Roxana believes that her skills may bring her fortune and happy future life.

  Roxana‟s educated characteristic somehow also influences her other characteristics. She studies well at school so that she turns to be critical. Murphy states that a person‟s character in the novel can be revealed through what the character thought

  . Roxana‟s critical way of thinking is expressed through her argument against what her husband said. She cannot do anything except obeying what her husband has ordered.

  Never ladies marry a fool, any husband rather that a fool, with some other husband you may be unhappy, but with a fool you will be miserable; with another husband you may, I may be unhappy, but with a fool you must; nay, if he would, he cannot make you easy; everything he does is so awkward, everything he says is so empty, a woman of any sense cannot be surfeited, and sick of him twenty times a-Day (Defoe, 2000: 2) Roxana‟s critical way of thinking is the reflection of her dissatisfaction to her husband for unhappy marriage life and their gap of intelligence. Everything her husband‟s say is right and the best. He does not care with his wife‟s opinion. It is true that woman at that time is weakness because man‟s control. Though her husband is a conceited fool in managing his family business, he is dominant in the family. This following quotation implicitly shows how Roxana criticizes him.

  First, and which, I must confess, is very insufferable, he was a conceited fool, Tout oponiatre, everything he said, was right, was best and was the purpose (Defoe, 2000: 3).

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  27 At that time, a man or husband has power to control the family. Everything a man says and orders, woman must obey it. In her opinion about her husband is a kind of fool who is stubborn. She could not do anything except obeying and following what her husband has ordered though she does not agree. Men‟s absolutism controls their family at that time. Roxana experiences man‟s absolutism in her marriage.

  After she is abandoned by her husband, she is left penniless without choice and resigned to a life of poverty or death by starvation. She is afraid of her past experienced to come back. Applying M.J. Murphy‟s theory states that characteristics can be seen through the past life of the character (1972: 161). Roxana‟s reason for being Landlord‟s mistress is she cannot endure the misery of life. This following quotation implicitly shows the proposal of the Landlord is one of her critical and logical reason to overcome her misery and poverty

  But poverty was my Snare, dreadful Poverty! The Misery I had been in, was great, such as would make the heart tremble at the apprehensions of its return; and I might appeal to any that has had any experience of the world, whether one so entirely destitute as I was, of all manner of all helps, or friends, either to support me or to assist me to support myself, could withstand the proposal; not that I plead this as a justification of my conduct, but it may move the pity, even of those that abhor the crime (Defoe, 2000: 18).

  The statement above can be seen that Roxana is depressed because poverty. Roxana get a trauma with her marriage life. His husband can not give her and the five children a good life. She has no choice because man‟s control. That‟s why she chooses to be a mistress of the Landlord to survive and fulfil her family need.

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  28 Murphy stat es that a person‟s character in the novel can be revealed through the reaction of the character. The author can also give the readers clue to a character by letting them know that character reacts to various situations and events (1972: 162). Being the Lan dlord‟s mistress is a way of her survival. She will have anything that her family needed. She can solve her problems.

  But if I should be a Wife, all I had then, was given up to the husband, and I was thenceforth to be under his authority only; I had money enough, and needed not fear being what they call a cast-off mistress, so I had no need to give him twenty thousand pounds to marry me, which had been buying my lodging too dear a great deal (Defoe, 2000: 70).

  From the statement above, it can be seen that she is smart in the way of thinking. She criticizes the life between a wife and a mistress. She stays comfort to be a mistress. As a mistress she gets a freedom to manage her money.

  Roxana tries to explain her idea about the different between a mistress and a wife.

  M.J. Murphy‟s theory states that characteristics can be seen through the past life of the character (1972: 162). The past life can be shown through the direct comment of the character‟s thought. Roxana‟s smart characteristic is also seen from the way she sees herself as a mistress instead of a wife.

  I had no inclination to be a wife again, I has had such bad luck with may first husband, I hated the thoughts of it; I found that a wife is treated with indifference, a mistress with strong passion; a wife is look‟d upon, as but an upper servant, a mistress is sovereign; a wife must give up all she has; have every reverse makes be thought hard of it; and be upbraided with her very pin-money; whereas a mistress makes the saying true, that what the man has, is hers, and what she has is her own; the wife bears a thousand insults, and is forced to sit still and bear it, or part and be undone; a mistress insulted, helps herself immediately, and takes another ( Defoe, 2000: 145).

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  29 From the statements above it can be seen that she is proper to be a mistress that a wife. She has a freedom to determine what she wants to be done or not. She prefers to be a mistress because there is no limitation to gain everything. Yet, for her idea, a wife is such as a servant and has poor law in the family.

  Roxana describes as an educated and smart woman in this novel. It can be seen through the way she criticizes her husband, solving problems and herself as a mistress.

2. Admirable

  One of the characteristics of Roxana is an admirable person. She is beautiful and charming so that every man who she has met is attracted to her. As stated by Murphy, the author can describe a character‟s appearance and clothes. From author‟s description about the character physically, the readers can imagine the character (1972: 161). Even though she is a widow, she is still attractive and pretty that can appeal a wealthy man who met her.

  By the concourse of ladies and the others that thus came to visit me I began to be much known, and as I did not forget to set myself out with all possible advantage, considering the dress of a widow, which in those days was a most frightful thing, I say, as I did thus my own vanity, for I was not ignorant that I was very handsome, I say, on this account I was soon made my very public, and was known by the name of La belle veuve de Poitou, or „The pretty widow of Poitou.‟ As I was very pleased to see myself thus handsomely used in my affliction… (Defoe, 2000: 28)

  Roxana is a beautiful widow and popular in Poitou. Many men adore to her. As stated by Murphy states that a person‟s character in the novel can be revealed through what the character says. Whenever a character speaks in

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  30 conversation, we can see his personality from the opinion that he gives (1972: 161). Roxana‟s physical appearance can be seen by her speech.

  I was rich, beautiful, and agreeable and not yet old; I had known something of the influence I had had upon the Fanciest of Men, even of the highest r ank…having already been adored by Princess, I thought of nothing less than of being a Mistress of the King himself (Defoe, 2000: 79) Roxana realizes that now she is a beautiful rich woman. She has inherited much money and jewellery from the Landlord. It means as a beautiful woman,

  Roxana is interesting for wealthy man. Her beauty also makes the Prince fall in love with her so that he asks her to be his mistress. Being his mistress is the chance of Roxana to be called as the finest woman in French. She wants to live better as before she is left by her first husband. She comes from the upper class before facing the bad circumstances in her life.

3. Independent

  Roxana is an independent woman. Roxana thinks that her life is not balance and equal with man. She is educated and admirable but still gets inequality. Therefore, she does not want to be under a man‟s control. She wants to be independent woman.

  Murphy states that a person‟s character in the novel can be revealed through the reaction of the character. The author can also give the readers clue to a character by letting them know that character reacts to various situations and events (1972: 162).

  Although most women prefer to stay at home and do house works, Roxana

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  31 productive and able to earn money for herself. She also wants to prove that she has an ability to run her business. Money is a source to gain power. Money supports her authority and to be an independent woman. Roxana does not have to be under man‟s control because she is independent person.

  All this work took me up near half a year, by managing my business thus myself; and having large sums to do with, I became as expert in it, as any She-Merchant of them all; I had credit in the Bank for a large sum of money, and bills and notes for much more (Defoe, 2000: 106).

  If she holds on the concept of a quality being independent woman, man will not govern her easily. Thus, she shows the way of being a free and her quality of being independent that she can run and manage a business of jewel without being dependent to man. Business activity is an ordinary thing to do for a man in Victorian era. It is uncommon thing to do for middle class women. Since the middle class women in her society prefer to leave the business for the husband or other relatives who are considered an expert, they prefer to be a wife or a mother that doing home activities. They are mainly educated in accomplishments like French, drawing, painting, singing, dancing-everything which helped them to get a perfect match <http//ezinearticles.com/?Life-of-Women-in-the-Victorian- Era7id=2359711>. Roxana does not follow what becomes a common idea in Victorian era. It shows that she has a quality of being independent. Moreover, the desire of Roxana to manage a business shows that she, as a woman, has the same right as men to run a business.

  Murphy states that a person‟s character in the novel can be revealed through what the character says. Whenever a character speaks in conversation, we

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  32 can see his personality from the opinion that he gives (1972: 161). Roxana is determined herself to be a businesswoman based on her own reasons. She does not want to be influenced by the Victorian custom. Through business, she develops of her money management skills and converse with several of businessman who is mostly men. It can be seen from the following quotation.

  The business I had had now with many people, for receiving such a large sum, and selling jewels of such considerable value, gave me opportunity to know and converse with several of the best Merchants of the place, so I wanted no direction now how to get my money remitted to England (Defoe, 2000: 79).

  From the quotation above, it can be seen that Roxana is success in running her business. Her business collaborates with many people. Her jewellery business becomes her opportunity or key to show that she is independent woman. Roxana knows and converse with several of the best Merchants in England. She wants to show that not only a man whose ability of running business but also she has too. Roxana stands as same as with man while carry her business.

  All this work took me up near half a year, and by managing my business thus myself; and having large sums to do with, I became as expert in it, as any She-Merchant of them all; I had credit in the Bank for a large sum of money, and bill and notes for much more (Defoe, 2000: 64).

  From the quotation above, it can be seen that she develops of her business management skills so that she get a large sum of money. Therefore, she can be categorized as an expert of managing her own business. By managing jewel trading, it contributes to gain her freedom and personal fortune.

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  33

B. Women’s Life in England in 1800s as Seen in Roxana’s Characteristics

  In the first part of the analysis, the writer explained the characteristics of Roxana in the story are the used by the writer to describe how the woma n‟s lives in 1800s is like.

  Colin Ford and Brian Horrison in A Hundred Years Ago: Britain in the

  1880s in Words and Photographs book

  stated that “The highest class was the Nobility and Gentry, who inherited their land, titles, and wealth. To the outsider, it might seem as if women of this class did very little but their work was very important and sometimes very hard, as they were expected to manage the home and the household

  ”. It can be inferred that the middle women who inherit land, titles, and prosperous are also expected to manage the home and household. They have no duty outside home. As Etty Raverat, who was a young woman in the late 1800s, said, "Ladies were ladies in those days; they did not do things themselves, they told others what to do and how to do it" (Harrison and Ford: 1983, 226). It can be seen that the women have some servant to help his duty like cooking and cleaning the house. The upper class women only command the servants what have they do and how to do the household.

  Travelyan in A Shortened History of England (1959: 318) book, discussed for marriage.

  It is still exception for women to choose their own husband and when the husband has been assigned that he is lord or master, so far at least as law custom make him

  ”. From the quotation above, it means that women have no right to choose their own husband because there is a patriarchal system in the society (Travelyan, 1959: 318).

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  34 From the quotation above, it means that women have no right to choose their own selves because there is a patriarchal system in the society. The parents will choose the mate for the m. Roxana is arranged to marry her parent‟s chosen husband. Roxana was fifteen when she was married with a Brewer.

  Moreover, according to Lucy Bushman who writes an article entitled “Family Life in the 18th Century”, she stated that women and men of the upper classes did not marry for love. Instead, they married strictly for financial and social reasons. Women who wished to continue living within a wealthy household simply did not marry a man of the middle or lower class

  It can be inferred that the middle class men and women have to marry for financial supported and social status not for love. If an middle class woman wants to live in good fashion and prosperity, she will have to marry an aristocratic man or an middle class man who is mostly working as a Brewer, Landlord, and Merchant. In patriarchal family, the parents will choose a husband or a wife to their children. The middle class men and women marry supposedly for financial support and social status. This custom of marriage arrangement is often happened in England in 1700s-1800s. Roxana who is a middle class woman also faces a marriage arrangement with a Brewer.

  In the first part, Roxana is described as an educated and smart woman. She is educated and smart woman but still gets inequality from man. Not only lower class women get inequality and hard life but also the upper class women. At that time, only a child of the rich family can go to school. Roxana learn some

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  35 girl‟s education. Though the upper class women live in prosperity, they are under men‟s control. According to Ashley in her essay “Women's Education” explained women education in the 17

  th

  and 18 century England: During the 17th century, only the daughters of the wealthy or nobility could get an education. By the mid 17th century young women were allowed to go to school with their brothers. Sometimes if you were from money you would be placed within a household of a friend and within the household and you would be taught various things. Some of the things you would learn would be to read and write, run a household, and practice surgery…..Common studies women learnt were French, needlework, geography, music and dancing. Studying anything else was thought to be unnecessary and hurtful to the mind of women. In the 17th and 18th centuries schooling was focused on how to govern a household and how to behave properly within the social class in which her marriage placed her. A lot of the focus was to teach women how to run a household.

  ”

  The upper class women in 1800s already had the opportunity to get education. Ashley does not mention that the upper class women learn about politics and economics. The writer can see that they have to had reading, writing, and dancing skill. They also have to run the household; women pursued “womanly art” such as needlework, music, literature and art. These are characteristics and skills the middle class girls must have to make themselves appeal to wealthy men. Thus, the writer can see that the middle class women are only familiar in their own domain, which is restricted by the Victorian custom.

  Roxana sees that it is unfair treatment for her.

  Moreover, the documents site clearly explained about middle class women. They typically did not work outside the home. They were expected to focus on her family. Families tended to be large, and it was common for a woman

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  36 to have five or more children. .

  From the document site above, it can be inferred that women‟s area is inside the house. The main and important of school teaching is running a household and needlework. They are expected to manage the home, bearing children and household. It is uncommon for them to join in political institution or manage a business. Roxana also faces this situation. She does not work outside her home.

  The second characteristic of Roxana is an admirable woman.

  Roxana‟s appearance is attractive and beautiful. She can easily appeal to a wealthy man such as the Landlord, the King, and the Merchant. Roxana sees that her life is hard and unfair with men. She wants to get money for her survival so that she uses her beauty to attract men.

  According to Vern and Bonnie Bullough in Women and Prostitution: A

  

Social History book stated the upper class women were probably came to the

  profession as a mistress or whore for reasons of economic hardship, they were able to turn beauty or talent to advantage (Vern and Bonnie Bullough, 1987: 38).

  From the statement above, it can be inferred that the middle class women take advantage of her beauty and talent to attract wealthy men who met her.

  Economic hardships become the main reason why the middle class women choose to be a mistress. Being a mistress is common in Victorian era.

  This condition also happens to Roxana. Roxana and her five children are abandoned by the husband because the trading business of her husband is

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  37 bankrupt. There are no other relatives that want to help their family. Roxana has to fulfil her five children need. She faces economic hardship as a single parent.

  Roxana become a mistress in order to survive and fulfil her family needs. Roxana turns her beauty and talent to advantage.

  Roxana is also described as an independent woman. Though the upper

  class women live in prosperity, they are under men‟s control. Roxana becomes poor because her husband‟s irresponsibility. She decides to be a mistress and does not want to be under a man‟s rule. Roxana collects a lot of money from some rich men so that she can build her business. She thinks that woman has the same right as man has. She wants to prove that she able to handle and run business. According to Donna J. Guy in her article entitled "Stigma, Pleasures, and Dutiful Daughters." Guy stated that prostitution is linked to religious beliefs, family survival, and patriarchy authority. However, women choose prostitution to find independence, provide an income or control their own sexuality (1998: 181).

  From Guy‟s statement, the writer sees that family is based on patriarchy system. The husband is controlling the family. Because of women has low status in patriarchy society, many women are forced into mistress for helps the family economically. They choose to be a mistress to find independence, survival and control their own sexuality. Guy sees this condition as common object at the time of patriarchy authority in Victorian era.

  This condition also happens to Roxana‟s life. Roxana is portrayed as an upper class woman in 1800s. She comes from a patriarchal family. Her husband is dominant in the family. Everything he said is right.

  Roxana‟s opinion for saving

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  38 their family business is not accepted by her husband. Then, the business is bankrupt. They become a poor family. Her husband is irresponsible and leaves the family.

  The middle class society prefers to leave the business for the son, husband, or other male relatives who are capable of it. The middle class women have limited choices and jobs. They should be a wife or mother doing home activities such as sewing and cooking. To be independent and helps the family economically, Roxana chooses to be a mistress because she can provide income and control her own sexuality. Moreover, the desire of Roxana to run a jewellery business shows that she, as a woman, has the same right as men to run a business. She is determined to be a businessperson through the jewellery business she deals with several businesspeople most of them who are men, therefore it proves herself to be bold and independent. What men are capable of doing in business, she even proves that she can succeed in jewellery business that has been dominated by men in that time.

C. Roxana’s Characteristics and the Description of Women’s Lives which Show Roxana ’s Hardships in 1800s

  In this part, the writer will explain Roxana‟s characteristics and the description of women‟s lives in England show women‟s hardship in the 1800s.

  Daniel Defoe wants to reveal the women ‟s hardship through his novel. Roxana is the main female character of the story. Roxana experiences hardship as the effect of patriarchy, marriage arrangement, and prostitution.

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  39 Roxana is an educated and smart woman. However, she lived during the patriarchal system which has been rooted in England for a long time, and which still took place the period of 1700s-1800s. Fathers have the highest position in the family.

  Though the upper class women live in prosperity, they are under men‟s control. Fathers determine who his daughter should marry. Roxana has arranged to marry her parent‟s chosen husband. Roxana was fifteen when she got married with a Brewer as seen in the following quotation.

  At about fifteen years age, my father gave me, as he call‟d it in French 25,000 livres, that is to say, two thousand ponds portion, and married me to an eminent brewer in the City…(Defoe, 2000: 2).

  W omen and men‟s marriage has been much influenced by a patriarchal system in the society.

  Roxana‟s hardship is caused by men‟s domination. Her father forces her to marry a Brewer for her bright future life. In the contrary, her marriage life is not happy as her father wished. Her husband is an irresponsible man. He leaves Roxana and his five children in poor condition. This analysis seems to be related to Travelyan‟s theory in A Shortened History of England (1959: 318), he discussed for marriage.

  It is still exception for women of the upper and middle class to choose their own husband and when the husband has been assigned that he is lord or master, so far at least as law custom make him (Travelyan, 1959: 318).

  It also happens to Roxana whose life is controlled and determined by her husband, her husband does not allow Roxana to give opinion or suggestion to manage his business as seen in the following quotation.

  “First, and which, I must confess, is very insufferable, he was a conceited fool, Tout oponiatre, everything

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  40 he said, was right, was best and was the p urpose” (1998: 3). Due to there is a patriarchal system in Victorian era, women experience hardship is obviously seen in the novel.

  Women ‟s hardship looks like a form of slavery. This analysis is related to

  Smith‟s article (2000) “Historical Brief-Lives of Women in the early 1800s,” he writes about women„s lives in England.

  Daily life for women in the early 1800s in Britain was that of many obligations and few choices. Some even compare the conditions of women in this time to a form of slavery. Women were completely controlled by the men in their lives. First, by their fathers, brothers and male relatives and finally by their husbands. Their sole purpose in life is to find a husband, reproduce and then spend the rest of their lives serving him. If a woman were to decide to remain single, she would be ridiculed and pitied by the community

  Men and women have to marry for financial support and social status not for love. If an upper class woman wants to live in good fashion and prosperity, she will have to marry an aristocratic man or a middle class man. It can be seen in Lucy Bushman

  ‟s article (2008) “Family Life in the 18th Century”, she stated that women and men of the middle classes did not marry for love. Instead, they married strictly for financial and social reasons. Women who wished to continue living within a wealthy household simply did not marry a man of the middle or lower c

  Women have few choices and completely controlled by the men in their lives. As a wife, they are treated like slavery by men. Florence Fenwick Miller

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  41 (1854-1935), a midwife turned journalist, described woman's position as following quotation.

  Under exclusively man-made laws women have been reduced to the most abject condition of legal slavery in which it is possible for human beings to be held...under the arbitrary domination of another's will, and dependent for decent treatment exclusively on the goodness of heart of the individual master. (From a speech to the National Liberal Club .

  Women turn their beauty or talent to advantage because of economic hardships. In Women and Prostitution : A Social History book, Vern and Bonnie Bullough stated that women were probably came to the profession as a mistress or whore for reasons of economic hardship, they were able to turn beauty or talent to advantage (1987: 38). Roxana decides to be a mistress because of economic hardship. In Victorian era, being a mistress is a common thing. Mistress comes from middle class women, so that mistress is more admitted than a prostitute. Roxana experiences hardship when her husband‟s company is bankrupt because her husband has no knowledge to manage his father business. Therefore, Roxana and her five children were abandoned by her husband and did not have financial support. It can be seen from the following quotation.

  Misfortunes seldom come alone. This was the forerunner of my husband‟s flight and as my expectation were cut off on that side, my husband gone, and my family of children on my hands and nothing to subsist them, my condition was the most deplorable that words can express.(Defoe, 2000: 5) Roxana experiences hardships because of family survival and patriarchy system. This analysis is related to

  Donna J. Guy‟s article. She writes about the

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  42 Daughters." Guy states that prostitution is linked to religious beliefs, family survival, and patriarchy authority. However, women choose prostitution to find independence, provide an income or control their own sexuality (1998: 181). It also happens to Roxana who is left by her husband. To support the family economically, Roxana as an upper class woman chooses to be a mistress. She has to face and solve the hard life. She chooses to be a mistress because to fulfil her five children needs. Besides that, she has a certain reason that is to find independent. Being a mistress, she can provide money and control her own sexuality. A wife or a married woman is essentially subsumed into man. If Roxana is still as a wife, she will experience hardship as seen to the following quotation.

  I had no inclination to be a wife again, I has had such bad luck with may first husband, I hated the thoughts of it; I found that a wife is treated with indifference, a mistress with strong passion; a wife is look‟d upon, as but an upper servant, a mistress is sovereign; a wife must give up all she has; have every reverse makes be thought hard of it; and be upbraided with her very pin-money; whereas a mistress makes the saying true, that what the man has, is hers, and what she has is her own; the wife bears a thousand insults, and is forced to sit still and bear it, or part and be undone; a mistress insulted, helps herself immediately, and takes another ( Defoe, 2000: 64).

  A wife or a married woman has no control of their earnings, inheritance, and property. Specifically, Roxana virtually loses her right to own and control property. Her husband, therefore, was responsible for her well-being. Mistress is better off because she has control over their property and receive up to one-third of her husband‟s property. It is the reason that Roxana chooses to remain single. It can be seen from the following quotation.

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  43 Now because this may seem a little odd, I shall state the matter clearly, as I understood it may self; I knew that while I was a mistress, it is customary for a person kept, to receive from them that keep; but if I should be a wife, all I had then was given up to the husband, and I was thenceforth to be under her authority only; and as I had money enough, and needed no fear being what they call a cast off mistress. So I had no need to give him twenty thousand pounds to merry me, which had been buying my lodging to dear a great deal (Defoe, 2000: 70).

  From the quotation above, it can be seen that Roxana understands that being a mistress gets a lot of money, gift, and jewellery from her partner. She confirms herself that being a mistress will not live in poor condition and misery.

  Women are regarded as inferior and weak in England during the period of 1800s. Husbands are usually kind of men who do not appreciate the recognition of personal quality. It can be seen in the way men keep away the wife of the family business. The husband is a man who takes a control and a wife should obeys and follows what he commanded. Men have a high position in society, while women have low status. Though the women come from the rich family, they still have to be at home. It is not nature of women to run business. Running a business is the characteristic of man‟s skill.

  When husbands face bad economical circumstances, they often leave their family. Some times their excuse is finding survival the family, yet they never come back to home. Wives become single parent and breadwinner for the children. The writer sees that middle women have no ability to work in industry because their common activities are singing, dancing, reading, sewing, attending a

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  44 ball party, and shopping. They always live in prosperous. When they become bankrupt or poor, the most favourable option they may choose is mistress.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION This chapter contains the conclusion of all the analyses in the previous chapter. There are three problem formulations that have been discussed in the previous chapter. The

  first problem formulation finds out the characteristics of Roxana. The second one finds the life of the upper class women in England in 1800s through Roxana’s characteristics describe in the story. The third one finds women hardships through the analysis of Roxana’s characteristics and the description of women’s lives in England in the 1800s.

  Theory of character and characterization is applied to help the writer to answer the first question. The writer uses five out of nine ways of characterization proposed by Murphy, namely from speech, past life, direct comment, reactions, and thoughts. The writer also uses the characterization proposed by Holman and Harmon. Roxana is described as an educated, admirable, and independent.

  The second part of the analysis is about the life of women in England in period of 1800s. The description of women

  ’s lives in the novel is revealed through Roxana’s characteristics. At that time, only the middle class girls can get education by private tutored. They are learned reading, writing, and dancing. The main of purpose teaching to enable them to run a household because they are expected to manage the home, cook, raise children, and household.

  The patriarchal system has been rooted in England for a long time, and which still took place the period of 1700s-1800s. Women have no right to choose their own husband because there is a patriarchal system in the society. Men and

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  46 women marry supposedly for financial support and social status. Fathers have the highest position in the family. Fathers determine who his daughter should marry.

  Roxana is portrayed as an upper class woman in 1800s that experiences marriage arrangement.

  Men have a high position in society, while women have low status. Though the women come from the rich family, they still have to be at home and be limited in doing business. It is nature for women to do activity inside home.

  Sometimes women face economic hardship which is caused by their husband ’s irresponsibility. Some of the middle women choose to be a mistress to find independence, survival and control their own sexuality. It also happens to Roxana who chooses to be a mistress because of her irresponsible husband and economic hardships.

  The third part of the analysis is about the representation of women ’s hardships. The hard life of women can be seen by connecting the analysis of the characteristics and the description women’s lives. Roxana’s hardships are caused by men

  ’s domination completely. As a married women or wife, they are treated like slaves. Roxana does not want to be like that. She wants the same right as man. She chooses to be a mistress and runs a jewellery business to gain independence and freedom.

  The writer finds that dealing with the fact of Roxan a’s hardships is caused by patriarchal society, marriage arrangement, and prostitution.

  Roxana’s marriage is unhappy because her husband’s business is bankrupt. Her husband is irresponsible and leaves Roxana and his five children in poverty. She turns her

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  47 beauty or talent to advantage because she has to fulfil her family needs. Roxana chooses to be a mistress because she can provide income, control her own sexuality, and independence. After her bad marriage experience, she is determined to be a businesswoman. Through the jewellery business, she deals with several businesspeople most of them are men. Roxana proves herself to be independent women. She shows what woman can also do. She even proves that she can succeed in jewellery business that has been dominated by men.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

  Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms Sixth Edition. Forth Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1993. Bland, Lucy. From “Feminist Vigilantes of late-Victorian England.” In

  Regulating Womanhood: Historical Essays on Marriage, Motherhood, and Sexuality . Edited by Carol Smart, 33-52. New York:

  Routledge, 1992. Current, Richard N. and friends.American History: A Survey.New Jersey:

  Defoe, Daniel. Roxana or the Fortunate Mistress. New York: TheGuerensey Press Co.Ltd, 1998. Ford Colin and Brian Horrison.A Hundred Years Ago: Britain in the 1880s in Words and Photographs . 1983. Guy, Donna J. “Stigma, Pleasures, and Dutiful Daughters.”Journal of Women's History.Tucson: University of Arizona Press,1998.

  Holman, Hugh and William Harmon.A Handbook to Literature.5

  th Edition.

  New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986. Humm, Maggie. Feminisim, A Reader. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. 1992. Jacobs, Henry E. and Edgar V. Roberts.Fiction: An Introduction to Reading and Writing . New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1989.

  Mitchell and Deak.Everman in European ed. Vol 1, The Preindustrial, Millenia . New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 1981. Murphy, M.J. Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Poetry

  

and The English Novel for the Overseas Students . London: George

Allen and Unwin, Ltd., 1972.

  Rohrberger, Mary and Samuel H. Woods, Jr. Reading and Writing about Literature . New York: Random House, 1971. Terrey, Helen. Plays: Pleasant and Unpleasant I. London: Archidbald Constable &Co.Ltd., 1906. Travelyan, George Macaulay. A Shortened History of England. New York:

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  49 Vern and Bonnie Bullough.Women and Prostitution : A Social , History . New York: Prometheus Books 1987. Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren.Theory of Literature.3th Edition. New York: Hartcourt Brace and World, 1956. Woolf, Virginia. “Common Reader First Series” in Roxana, or

The Fortunate Mistress .eds. Robert Clark. London: Everyman, 1998.

  Online References Ashley.“Women's Education”.2005.

   (23 March 2012) Bushman , Lucy. “Family Life in the 18th Century”.2008.

   (23 March 2012)

  David, Loraand Carrie S. Bryant “Make Your Way as A Women

  Eighteenth- Century England”. 2002

  <www.umich.edu/~ece/student_projects> (22 March 2012) Document of History.2000. (25 March 2012)

  Fioranti, Anna. “Review on Lady Roxana”, 2003 (22 March 2012)

  Miller, Flore nce Fenwick. “Autobiography”: A speech to the National Liberal Club, 1935. (25 March 2012) Porter, Prof. David.“TheMarriagable Mind”.2001.

   (25 March 2012)

  Smith .“Historical Brief-Lives of Women in the early 1800s”.2002.

   (25 March 2012)

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  50 Tholonia, “Bond”. <http//www.eleves.ens.fir/home/tholonia/Roxana/html>

  (22 March 2012) <http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/hardship?q=hardship>

  (22 March 2012)

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APPENDIX

Summary of Roxana Or The Fortunate Mistress

  Roxana is a daughter of an upper class family. She is educated, admirable, and independent upper class woman. She is fifteenth years old when she marries the brewer in England. Her husband is a handsome man but he is stubborn, foolish, and dominant in his family. That is very contrast with Roxana. Her husband never accepts his wife opinion even though it is better to keep his family business from bankrupt. He thinks that everything his wife says is empty because man is dominant than woman at that time. Unfortunately,

  Roxana’s husband business is bankrupt. They turn to be a poor family. Her husband ignores his business and family. He is also irresponsible husband. Its proof when he decides to leaves Roxana and his five children.

  Roxana faces hard life after her husband leaving. She becomes a single parent and a breadwinner of her family. Roxana has to make her own salvation.

  She chooses to put her five children in perish house, a house where the orphans are taken care and some of them are put in their aunt’s house. The Jeweller persuades Roxana to accept a marriage contract. There is no choice for Roxana for refuse it. It means that she agree to be his mistress. She depends on the Jeweller for fulfil economic need because her husband irresponsibility.

  After the Jeweller is murdered by robbery, Roxana finds out that being a mistress can control over her property. If she is still a wife or a married woman, she will be under man’s control and treated like a slave. Roxana chooses to remain

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  52 single and becomes a businesswoman. She does not face economic hardships and sexual hardships because marriage. As long as being a mistress, Roxana is independent on economically and sexual relationship. In her opinion, sexual relationship is no need to do with marriage.

  Through the jewellery business, Roxana deals with several businesspeople, most of whom are men. She shows what woman can also do. Roxana even proves that she can succeed in jewellery business that has been dominated by men. When she attends a business meeting, she meets Dutch Merchant. The Dutch Merchant falls in love with her. He proposes Roxana to be his wife. Roxana refuses his proposal because she does not want to be bond in marriage. Roxana is traumatic to be a wife because her past marriage experience. Marriage leads her falls down to the hard life.

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