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  THE SIGNIFICANCE OF JAKE BRIGANCE’S CHARACTERISTICS IN HIS STRUGGLES AGAINST THREATS OF RACISM REFLECTED IN GRISHAM’S A TIME TO KILL AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters

  By

  Student Number: 054214063

  

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

EFRA TANIA NAINGGOLAN

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2011

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  THE SIGNIFICANCE OF JAKE BRIGANCE’S CHARACTERISTICS IN HIS STRUGGLES AGAINST THREATS OF RACISM REFLECTED IN GRISHAM’S A TIME TO KILL AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters

  By

  Student Number: 054214063

  

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

EFRA TANIA NAINGGOLAN

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2011

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PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI iii

  

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PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI iv

  

You don’t write because

you want to say

something;

You write because you’ve

got something to say.

  F. ScoTt Fitzgerald PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI v

  

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

TO MY FATHER AND MOTHER BROTHER AND SISTER AS THE WAY TO REACH THE BETTER LIFE IN THE FUTURE

  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH

UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS

  Yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama : Efra Tania Nainggolan NIM : 054214063

  Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul THE SIGNIFICANCE OF JAKE BRIGANCE’S CHARACTERISTICS IN HIS STRUGGLES AGAINST THREATS OF RACISM REFLECTED IN GRISHAM’S A TIME TO KILL Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan ini saya memberikan kepada kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk lain, mengelola dalam bentuk pangkalan data. Mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di Internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun royalitas kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis.

  Demikian pernyataan ini , saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Yogyakarta, 30 November 2011. Yang menyatakan, Efra Tania Nainggolan vi PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  This undergraduate thesis has been improved by the help and comment of many people who are kind enough to get involved during the writing of this undergraduate thesis. I would not be able to complete this thesis without the help of others, both direct and indirect. First of all, I thank you to God, for the blessing, love, and power which are given to me. My gratitude goes to Drs. Hirmawan

  

Wijanarka M.Hum., Harris Hermansyah Setiajid S.S., M.Hum., and Elisa

Dwi Wardani S.S., M.Hum. for the valuable assistance and patience in reading

  and correcting this thesis. I also thank you to the administrative staff of Department of English Letters of Sanata Dharma, Mbak Ninik, who has been so kind to help me. I thank you to the members of lecturing staff of Department of English Letters, Sanata Dharma, for the pricelesss education that has been given.

  I express my special thanks to my parents, R. Nainggolan and Maria S., my brother and sister, Christian Nainggolan and Shinta K.P.N., for the love, praise and the financial support. I thank you to the member of Sastra 2007:

Rohman N., Harry S., Martinus B.R. and Risang H., for the supports and cares.

  My gratitude is also dedicated to my friends Reksiana S. and Deva B.P.H., for supports during the process of finishing this undergraduate thesis. I also thank you to the most amazing and adorable boy of my life, Gest Antitank, for the care, opinion, and support. The last, I thank you to Mb. Marni and Lusi, the member of KOPMA, for the pray.

  Efra Tania Nainggolan vii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ................................................................................................... i

APPROVAL PAGE ......................................................................................... ii

ACCEPTANCE PAGE .................................................................................... iii

MOTTO PAGE ................................................................................................ iv

DEDICATION PAGE ...................................................................................... v

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ........................... vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................. vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................. viii

ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... ix

ABSTRAK .......................................................................................................... x

  

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .................................................................. 1

A. Background of the Study .................................................................. 1 B. Problem Formulation ....................................................................... 5 C. Objectives of the Study .................................................................... 5 D. Definition of Terms .......................................................................... 6

CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW ................................................. 8

A. Review of Related Studies ............................................................... 8 B. Review of Related Theories ............................................................. 10 C. Brief Review of Racism in America ................................................ 14 D. Theoretical Framework .................................................................... 18

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY .............................................................. 19

A. Object of the Study .......................................................................... 19 B. Approach of the Study .................................................................... 20 C. Method of the Study ......................................................................... 20

CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ........................................................................... 22

A. The Characteristics of Jake Brigance ............................................... 22 B. The Threats of Racism that Happen to Jake Brigance ..................... 31 C. The Significance of Jake Brigance’s Characteristics

  in his Struggle against Threats of Racism ........................................ 46  

  

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ...................................................................... 61

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................ 63 APPENDICES Summary of A Time to Kill .................................................................... 65 PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

ABSTRACT

  Efra Tania Nainggolan (2005), The Significance of Jake Brigance’s

  

Characteristics in His Struggles Against Threats of Racism Reflected in

Grisham’s A Time to Kill, Yogyakarta: English Letters Study Programme, Sanata

  Dharma University.

  The backgrounds of this undergraduate thesis were first, practice of racism existed in American society and it was suffered not only by blacks but also whites. The second, practice of racism is suffered by whites indirectly, most of racism that happen to them were threats as the effect of racism. The third, whites, as the individuals could react upon certain condition that was threatening them.Those three backgrounds were found when the writer read a novel entitled A

  Time to Kill by John Grisham.

  The objectives of this undergraduate thesis are to describe Jake Brigance’s characteristics, to observe the threats of racism to Jake Brigance, and to find the significance of those characteristics in Jake’s struggles against threats of racism.

  This undergraduate thesis was conducted with a library research. It was done with searching the supporting data and source. The writer used theories of characterization to describe the characterirtics of Jake Brigance, the theory of racism to know the threats of racism to him, the brief reviews on racism in United States and the sociocultural-historical approach as the framework of understanding the socio-cultural historical context of society in the analysis of this undergraduate thesis.

  The results of this undergraduate thesis which were found by the writer were first, Jake Brigance’s characteristics. Jake Brigance’s characteristics were an early bird, a very organized person, a loving husband and father, and a close friend. The second result was, the threats of racism were experienced by Jake Brigance. These threats of racism were the anonymous phone-calls both in his house and office, the burning of cross, the dynamite, the murder, the burning of house and also the prejudices. The third result was Jake Brigance’s characteristics were significant in his struggles against threats of racism. This undergraduate thesis was hoped that the reader could understand the aims of writing this undergraduate thesis and got some moral values for their life after reading this undergraduate thesis. ix PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

ABSTRAK

  Efra Tania Nainggolan (2005), The Significance of Jake Brigance’s

  

Characteristics in His Struggles Against Threats of Racism Reflected in

Grisham’s A Time to Kill, Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Universitas

  Sanata Dharma.

  Beberapa latar belakang dari penulisan skripsi ini adalah pertama, tindakan rasisme ada di dalam masyarakat Amerika dan tindakan ini dialami oleh tidak hanya kaum kulit hitam namun juga kulit putih. Kedua, tindakan rasisme secara tidak langsung dialami oleh kaum kulit putih, kebanyakan dari tindakan rasisme yang dialami oleh mereka merupakan ancaman-ancaman yang merupakan dampak dari rasisme. Ketiga, kaum kulit putih, sebagai individu-individu, sanggup bereaksi terhadap kondisi tertentu yang mengancam mereka. Ketiga latar belakang tersebut ditemukan ketika penulis membaca sebuah novel karya John Grisham yang berjudul A Time to Kill.

  Adapun tujuan penulisan skiripsi ini yaitu untuk mendeskripsikan sifat- sifat dari Jake Brigance, meneliti ancaman-ancaman dari rasisme yang dialami oleh Jake Brigance, dan menemukan pentingnya sifat-sifat Jake Brigance tersebut dalam usahanya melawan ancaman-ancaman dari rasisme.

  Skripsi ini disusun dengan metode studi pustaka. Studi pustaka dilakukan dengan mencari data dan sumber yang mendukung. Dalam analisa di skripsi ini, penulis menggunakan teori-teori tentang characterization untuk mendeskripsikan sifat-sifat dari Jake Brigance, teori tentang rasisme untuk mengetahui ancaman- ancaman dari rasisme yang terjadi padanya, ulasan singkat tentang rasisme di Amerika Serikat dan pendekatan sosial budaya dan sejarah sebagai batasan dalam memahami konteks sosial budaya dan sejarah dari masyarakat.

  Hasil- hasil yang ditemukan oleh penulis dalam skripsi ini adalah pertama, sifat-sifat dari Jake Brigance. Jake Brigance adalah orang yang menghargai waktu, sangat teratur, seorang ayah dan suami yang penuh kasih sayang, dan orang yang ramah. Hasil kedua, Jake Brigance mengalami ancaman- ancaman dari rasisme. Ancaman-ancaman tersebut berupa telepon-telepon gelap yang terjadi baik di ruimah maupun kantor, pembakaran salib, peledakan dinamit, pembunuhan, pembakaran rumah, dan prasangka. Ketiga, sifat-sifat Jake Brigance mempunyai peranan penting dalam usahanya melawan ancaman-ancaman dari rasisme. Penulis mengharap agar para pembaca dapat memahami tujuan dari penyusunan skripsi ini dan mendapatkan beberapa nilai moral untuk kehidupan mereka setelah membaca skripsi ini. x PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study The study of literature is different from other studies like math or

  science. Literature itself is a tool for authors to share about things or life phenomenon and also their expression on them. The authors create their works based on the ideas of what they see, hear, know, and feel about anything such as politics, social-life, love, life-philosophy, etc. The authors can share an idea of life phenomenon and their expression on life phenomenon with the readers through their works.

  Based on the wide ideas or things that the authors try to share through their works, the field of the study on literature itself can be various. It also can be said that readers who interpret and analyze literary works also have various interpretation or analysis. M.H. Abrams in The Orientation of Critical Theories, states that the work of art or literature has relation with universe, the audience, the artist, and the work of literature itself (Abrams, 1979: 6). In other words, the study of literature can be influenced by four aspects such as universe, the audience or readers, the artist or the author of work of literature, and the work of literature itself.

  There are so many ideas or things that become the topics for the authors to share through their work. In this undergraduate thesis, the topic about racism as the social-life phenomenon that happens in the world seems interesting to study.

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  This topic is interesting to study because racism that happens in the world influences the development of literary works in the world. Racism influences the elements that build the work of literature, such as the authors, the assumption of the readers, the characters inside the story, and so many others. In addition, the topic on racism is interesting to study in order to show that all the people in the world are equal and not different although they are physically different. In other words, the undergraduate thesis is truly hoped can open and even can change the environment’s point of view about the different physical characteristics that exist in the world.

  There are so many kinds of people in the world. They are created as human being with many special characteristics. Those characteristics make people physically different one to another. Language, culture, physical appearances, and places to where they live are the factors that make people physically different each other. People are created with great differences physically. These differences include height, weight, skin-color, hair-color, and many other physical differences.

  The special characteristics that people have in the world are different one to another. However, those special characteristics that make they look different one to another do not have meaning that they are also different on their status, values, dignity/prestige as human being. The special characteristics that people have in the world are varied but they are basically same one to another as human being. In other words, people who have different and special characteristics are equal no matter who he is or she, where they are come from, and what language

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  they speak, what skin colors they have, etc. The different and special characteristics that people have do not make them unequal one to another.

  The different physical characteristics sometimes cause a group of people to think that they are better than other groups of people, and they even call themself as the superior. In 18th century, people who claimed themself as whites, thought that they were better than Africans and they who are colored people. The Africans claimed to be uneducated, uncivilized, rough, and they do not work using brain but only with muscles. On the contrary, whites claimed to be more educated and better than African in social aspect, life, quality, etc. Whites called themselves as the superior compared to the Africans. This assumption comes because some reasons that mostly on physical differences. These differences include height, weight, skin-color, hair-color, and many other physical differences. Africans who mostly have dark-skin, black and curly hair, wide mouth and thick lips are physically different from whites who have the contrary physical characteristics from Africans.

  Amiram Goren in his book The Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the World says that the people of The United States of America constitute of a heterogeneous population of almost 250 million, live in a federation of fifty states extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans (and include the States of Alaska and Hawaii). Alongside the small indigenous population of native Americans, many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups are represented, while several uniquely American cultural group have also emerge (Goren, 1993 :36).

  The quotation above states that people of the United States of America

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  are heterogeneous. United States of America, which is famous for its heterogeneous citizens, also underestimates the Africans who live in America in some aspects of life in 18th century. They underestimate the Africans in America not only by their skin-color and physical differences but also because of the Africans’ life-background history in America. The underestimation happens to the Africans in America because at the beginning the Africans came to America, they were the slaves of white people. This condition influences the whole life aspects of Africans who live in America, and this condition continues year to year. One of the most pressing-problem facing Americans in 19th century was the act of slavery.

  The act of slavery toward Africans that was done by whites causes the Africans experience the practice of racism. Racism toward Africans in America inspires not only colored but also white people who care and pay attention to the act of racism in America to write literary work. The suffering which was felt by Africans, inspires the artist of literature to write the story about them. John Grisham is one example of white who cares and pays attention to the act of racism that happens in America. He writes many novels related to racism and justice in America. John Grisham shares and expresses what he knows, feels, hears, and sees about racism in America. His famous novel that tells about racism and justice in America entitled A Time to Kill, is one example of his care and attention to the practice of racism in America.

  A Time to Kill becomes an interesting novel to analyze the practice of

  racism that happens in America society because this novel shows and reflects

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  racism happens in America society. The story shows that racism is not only oppressed the Africans but also whites who are not racist. The interesting character in the story is Jake Brigance who is known as white and does not racist. He even shows his struggle against threats racism in the story. Since the practice of racism that happens in America society from the novel is too abroad to analyze, the writer narrows the topic of this undergraduate thesis into the threats of racism that happen to Jake Brigance as the main character of the story, and his struggles against threats of racism.

  The finding analysis in this undergraduate thesis hopefully can stimulate readers to change their point of view about people who do not have same physical characteristics, and make they believe that all the people in the world are created equal.

B. Problem Formulation

  The writer finds some interesting problems to analyze in this undergraduate thesis. The problems are:

  1. How are the characteristics of Jake Brigance described in the story?

  2. What are the threats of racism that happen to Jake Brigance in the story?

  3. What is the significance of Jake Brigance’s characteristics in his struggle against threats of racism in the story?

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   Objectives of the Study

  This undergraduate thesis is aimed to answer the three problems stated previously. The first is to find how Jake Brigance’s characteristics are described.

  Second is to find the threats of racism that happen to Jake Brigance. The last is to find the significance of Jake Brigance’s characteristics in his struggles against threats of racism.

D. Definition of Terms

  In order to avoid a misunderstanding on some terms which are used in this undergraduate thesis, the writer gives some definitions of the related terms.

  The first term is racism. According to The New Encyclopedia Britannica, racism, also called as racialism, is a belief that some races are inherently superior to or different from others, based on the idea that inherited physical traits are accompanied by certain traits of personality, intellect, or culture. The phenomena of prejudice and discrimination between human groups are similar whether they result from racial or ethnic differences (1983:360).

  The second term is struggle. The definition of struggle according to The

  

Consolidated-Webster Encyclopedic Dictionary , struggle means to use great

efforts; to labour hard; to strive (1958:717).

  The third term is significance. According to Culler in Structualist

  

Politics , Structuralism Linguistics and the Study of Literature, significance is the

word used by the readers to look deeper at the meaning laid behind a work of art.

  It means that the word ‘significance’ completely appears from the readers in

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  responding a work of art. He also states that significance is easily defined as a form which has a meaning (Culler, 1975: 16-20). In addition, according to Keesey in Context of Criticism, significance means hidden meaning behind the novel. PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies According to Vinnet, the novel entitled A Time to Kill is about Jake Brigance, the white lawyer who struggles to look after Carl Lee Hailey, the black

  murderer. Carl Lee Hailey kills the whites who raped his young daughter. Both Jake Brigance and Carl Lee Hailey must overcome the stigmas of the times centering on race, fight attacks from the KKK, and other such personal attacks.

  Jake Brigance as a white lawyer does his best to take after Carl Lee.

  Grisham's first novel centers around a white lawyer fresh out of law school and struggling to pay the bills comes to be council for Carl Lee, the father of a young girl, Tonya, who was sexually assaulted, raped, beaten, and left for dead by two backwoods hicks. Carl Lee decides to take the "law into his own hands" and eradicate the two criminals who are white and will most likely be let out with a small tap on the wrist. Throughout the novel, Jake and Carl Lee must overcome the stigmas of the times centering around race, fight attacks from the KKK, and other such personal attacks. (www.allreaders.com, 2011) According to Erica Jobman in her Literary analysis: Comparing To Kill a

  

Mockingbird with A Time to Kill, states that Jake Brigance is the southern lawyer

  who fight against racism in his hometown and as the professional lawyer who take on his respective case, he and his family get the impact of racism.

  The two characters are both southern lawyers and loving fathers who fight against racism in their hometowns. They are both driven by an inner strength, and both are deathly loyal to their families and principles. For example, when the lawyers took on their respective cases, their families became targeted by those that disagreed with what the lawyers were attempting to do. (www.helium.com, 2011)

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  In her Literary Analysis , Jobman also states that Jake Brigance tries to make the juries sure that Carl Lee Hailey is not guilty in the eyes of the court, because what he does to the two men is the act of a father who love his daughter and will do everything to them who hurt his daughter.

  Jake also has his own version of “walking in someone else’s shoes” theory. In his summation he had the jury imagine a horrendous crime that caused Carl Lee Haley to do what he did. He hoped that he could show the jury that Carl Lee Haley was not the only person that would have taken the law into his own hands after that act. In his summation he also highlights on the importance of finding the truth with the heart. Jake wants the truth to come from the heart because in the eyes of the court, reason will not win the case because Carl Lee Haley shot two men and killed them. However, Jake knows the exact reason why Carl Lee did what he did. He feels that Carl Lee Haley should not die because he felt that he would have done the same thing: kill the two men that had hurt his daughter.(www.helium.com, 2011) In addition, C, Nick in his book review on A Time to Kill, states that Jake

  Brigance, as the white lawyer of Carl Lee Hailey, faces huge odds because defending a black murderer who killed two white men. It can be said that Jake Brigance suffers racism because he defends his black client in the eye of court. Jake’s struggle against racism is shown in defending Carl Lee Hailey, as a result, Carl Lee Hailey is proven innocent and not guilty because Jake can persuade the juries by his amazing speech about Carl Lee Hailey as an ordinary father.

  Jake faced huge odds against him because he was defending a black man who killed two white men, but worst of all, is that he has to convince an all white jury, that his client was insane at the time he committed the crime. Just as you think Jake has no chance, he says this amazing speech, and sends the jury members on a journey, and tells them what Carl Lee?s daughter went through. He tells the court that he too, like most other fathers would have done the same thing to those two young men who raped Tonya. He gets some people on the jury to cry, he himself let a few tears go. I thought it was very moving. With that moving speech, the jury found the defendant innocent. (www.buildingrainbows.com, 2011)

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  Those reviews show how Jake Brigance suffers the practice of racism and how he helps his client. Those reviews have an important role in this undergraduate thesis because they help the writer to show the position of this undergraduate thesis and also highlight the topic of this undergraduate thesis to the reader that this undergraduate thesis is different from other studies that have ever been discussed before. This undergraduate thesis is different from those related studies because this undergraduate thesis studies about the significance of Jake Brigance’s characteristics in his struggles against the threats of racism.

B. Review of Related Theories

  Some theories are needed to support the analysis and to show this undergraduate thesis is relevant to read and study. Since the undergraduate thesis studies about the significance of character in his struggles against threats of racism as seen in Grisham’s A Time to Kill, the first theory to be reviewed is the theory of characterization, the second is the theory of racism, and the latest is the brief review on African-American in United States.

1. Theory of Characterization

  The creation of imagination person that exist the reader as a lifelike is called characterization. According to Rohrberger and Woods (1971:20), characterization is a process by which an author creates character.

  There are two principle ways that an author can characterize. The first is through a direct way. It describes the physical appearance. The second, he uses a dramatic event. It means that he places in situation where he should react in a particular way. His action must be motive in term that a reader can accept. (1971:20-21)

  11 Based on Holman and Hormon (1986: 81), characterization is divided into three fundamental methods, they are:

  1. The explicit presentation by the author of character through direct exposition.

  They can be placed in the introductory block or in the action throughout the work.

  2. The presentation of the character in action, with little or no explicit comment by the author, in the expectation that the reader will be able to deduce the attribute of the actor from the action.

  3. The presentation from within the character, without comment on the character by the author of the impacts of actions and emotions of the character’s inner self, with the expectation that the reader will come to a clear understanding of the attributes of the character.

  However, based on Henkle, characterization is: Characterization therefore is central to the factional experience, and the principle objective of the creation of characters in novels is to enable us to understand and to experience people. Characterization also appears to loose sight of fact. (Henkle, 1977: 86-87).

  Characterization is a helpful element of literary work for reader, besides; it also supports the literary work itself to become alive and a good work of literature.

  Characterization, according to Mary Rohrberger and Samuel H. Woods Jr. in Reading and Writing about Literature, is the process by which an author creates a character. There are two principal ways an author can characterize.

  The first principal ways is he or she can direct means to describe physical

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  appearance, intellectual, moral attributes, and the degree of sensitivity of the character. Second way is he or she can use dramatic means and place the character in situations to show what the character is by the way he behaves or speaks (Rohrberger and Woods Jr., 1971:20).

  Murphy in Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry

  

and The English Novel for Overseas Student also has classification that differ the

  representation of the character. There are nine ways in which the author presents the character. Those are:

  1. Personal Description, we can find out the nature of the character/s from the author's description about her/his character appearance.

  2. Speech, the character can give us the clue to his/her nature through his/her speaking, conversation with other people opinion.

  3. Conversation as seen by another. We know the character's nature through the other eyes and also comments on is/her nature.

  4. Reaction, the person's nature can be known by his/her reactions to different occasions.

  5. Direct Comments, the author can give comments on the person's character directly.

  6. Thought, the nature of the character can be known from what she/he is thinking.

  7. Conversation of others, the conversation of other people can be the way of the author to tell the reader on the person's character by showing the dialogue among other characters and other utterance on that person.

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  8. The past life, the author uses to tell the character's past life, by commenting out directly, describing the person's mind, person's dialogue, and the medium among another person.

  9. Mannerism, we can understand the character through the way he/she behaves, attitudes, and talks with the other people (1972: 161-173).

2. Theory of Racism

  The United Nations uses a definition of racist discrimination, and it is stated in the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial and adopted in 1965:

  Discrimination

  Any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field public of life. (http://www.unhcr.ch.html, 2011) According to The New Encyclopedia Britannica, racism is closely related with race prejudice and racial discrimination (1983:360). Assuming that every individual’s character can be adequately determined by racial or ethnic stereotypes is called as race prejudice, and giving or withholding privileges based on such stereotypes is called as racial discrimination. Race and prejudice is the root of racism. It happens as the impact of social relation between different races that is influenced by economic, belief and political factors. Racism is a very controversial issue.

  According to Symmes Chadwick Oliver in his book, The Discovery of

  Humanity: An Introduction to Anthropology , racism is:

  14 A simple (and simple-minded) phenomenon, while the problem of human “races” is considerably more complex. Stripped down to its unsavory essence, racism is the attribution of behavioral or cultural characteristics- usually negative ones-to people on the basis of what people look like. (Oliver, 1981:10) Racism exists while the elements are fulfilled:

  a. The differences between group-differences in body and in mind are full due to hereditary biology, and nothing can change them. For example, Negroes are not as intelligent as whites, this is due to their heredity and can no more be charged than skin color.

  b. Habits, attitudes, beliefs, behaviors and all the things we learn are determined for us before we are born. For example, Jews are born to be sharp businessmen and Japanese are born to act in an insincere manner.

  c. All differences between minority and the majority group are thought to be signs of inferiority.

  d. If there should be biological crossing of the groups, the children will be more degenerate than either of the parents’ groups (Rose, 1981:223).

  Since the first blacks who came to America were slaves; the white Americans underestimate the blacks and threat them unfairly. The White Americans threat them based on their biological appearance.

  One of the forms of racism is showed by the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is one of several white-supremacist organizations in the Southern United States, which are dedicated to opposing civil rights for blacks,

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C. Brief Review of Racism in America

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  Jews, and other ethnic, racial, social or religious groups. They also formerly opposed Roman Catholic Church and its adherents and hierarchy as well as all foreign-born persons whether or not they had yet attained United States citizenship. The KKK was also prominent in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan in the 1920s and 1930s as an anti-Catholic, anti-French-Canadian, anti immigrant organization. The Ku Klux Klan has committed many acts of violence such as lynching and the burning of homes (http://en.wikipedia.org, 2011).

  Boyer in his book, The Enduring Vision, A History of the American

  

People says that rural and urban blacks alike endured extreme hardships. Not only

  did Southern black tenant farmers and sharecroppers frequently face eviction, but the jobless rate among black industrial workers far exceeded the rate for the whites largely because of deep-seated patterns of racism and discriminatory policies of unions intensified by fierce job competition in a depressed labor market. A 1936 study of employment patterns in Chicago reported “a prevailing sentiment that Negroes should not be hired as long as white men without work” (Boyer, 1990:908).

  Lynching and miscarriages of justice continued as part of the reality of American life for blacks as well, especially in the South. Twenty-four blacks died by lynching in 1933, the year that President Roosevelt took office. In 1931 eight black youths were sentenced to death by an all-white jury in Scottsboro, Alabama, on highly suspect charges that they had raped two white women in a freight car (Boyer, 1990:908).

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  Turner says that during the depression, black migration to urban areas was stopped, while both those in rural and urban areas were suffered enormously from unemployment and hunger. In the mid 1930s great masses of blacks received some form of public assistance, but even so, welfare allocations were differentially bestowed on blacks and whites (Turner, 1976:190).

  Economically, black, this minority group also experience racism. Blacks are still over represented in menial, farm, and service occupations; they are underrepresented in professional and managerial positions; black unemployment has remained at twice that of white unemployment, blacks tend to be unemployed longer than whites in equivalent job categories; they earn less in the same job as whites; college-educated blacks earn about the same amount of money as high- school-educated whites (Turner, 1976:191).

  State and private employment agencies still discriminate against black eligible (in terms o education) for white-collar work. Blacks are or assigned occupational classifications not commensurate with their skills, they tend to receive fewer referrals than whites to employers; they are rarely referred to openings in banks, loan firms, and other businesses. Blacks have been excluded from blue-collar occupations because of discriminatory policies of trade unions, including those of plumbers, carpenters, electricians, printers, metal workers, and machinists (Turner, 1976: 191).

  The lack of skill among black workers is a result of a historical legacy of discrimination by many unions; this lack of skill has been used by some unions to justify exclusion of black (1976: 192).

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  Educationally, blacks also suffer from educational abuses at college and university level. Thus, in terms of quantity and quality of education, blacks still lag behind whites, despite some educational gains-reflected by the fact that blacks are better than Chicanos and Indians in term of their educational attainment, but the incomes of blacks are lower than that of less-educated whites and Chicanos (Turner, 1976: 196).

  Housing discrimination has greatly contributed to racial segregation in the United States. Blacks have typically had to pay high rents for deteriorated housing. Given the large differences in family income for blacks and whites, blacks must devote a much larger proportion of their total income to secure housing, even substandard housing. Black families, then, must sacrifice such things as quality food, health care, and recreation to secure housing that on the whole is of poorer quality than that whites who can earn comparable incomes (Turner, 1976: 238).

  In the field of law and criminal cases, police discrimination and abuse, as well as disproportionally strong indictments and long jail sentences for crimes against whites, are typically imposed upon blacks by a legal system staffed predominantly by whites (Turner, 1976: 198).

  Today in American communities, minority group, individuals, can still accept to find that they are more likely to be viewed as “suspicious” by police than lower-class whites; they are more likely to be arrested than whites; they should be prepared to be charged with a more severe crime than a whites for the same alleged behavior, especially if the crime is against a white; because of their

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  poverty and inability to afford legal defense, they are more likely to be forced to “cop a plea” (even when innocent) and plead guilty to a lesser charge than are whites; and they can expect larger jail sentences than whites when they commit a crime against and Anglo (Turner,1976: 200).

  In sum, the history of black Americans’ treatment under the laws is one of the inequities. Unlike most minorities, blacks have experienced formally sanctioned discrimination. As a result, blacks have been segregated and excluded from all major social, spheres-a situation that forced them to the bottom rungs of the stratification system (1976:198).

D. Theoretical Framework

  The writer has mentioned two theories in theoretical review. Both theory of characterization and theory of racism are used to analyze the problem formulations that have been formulated in the previous chapter.

  Theory of characterization is used to analyze Jake Brigance’s characteristics as the first question. Theory of racism is used to analyze the second question about the threats of racism that happening to Jake Brigance as seen in the story. Theory of characterization is used again to analyze the third question about Jake Brigance’s struggles against threats of racism as the significance of his charateristics. PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study A Time to Kill is a novel about racism which is written by John Grisham

  in 1989. The setting of place is on Clanton, Southern America. The setting time of the story is about 1980’s. It is published by Dell Publishing a division of Bantam Doubleday, Dell Publishing Group, Inc. New York. The novel consists of 515 pages and it is divided into 44 chapters.

  A Time to Kill is a novel that is begun with the situation when a 10 years

  old black girl is raped by two whites. She is dying after the white rapists try to kill her. She is found by the fisherman and they brought her to her house. The white rapists are finally arrested and they are going to be punished, however, her father named Carl Lee Hailey, decides to shoot them and finally they die. As a result, Carl Lee Hailey is arrested and he hires Jake Brigance, a white lawyer, to defend him. In the process of defending Carl Lee Haley, Jake Brigance suffers racism.

  Jake Brigance is threatened by the racist people such as the organization called Ku Klux Klan. His family and people surround him, including his secretary and his law-clerk, experience racism. After the hard and long struggle against the racist people, Carl Lee Hailey finally gets the sympathy from the juries and he is sentenced to be free after Jake Brigance’s amazing final-summation. Carl Lee Hailey’s freedom as the black murderer of two white rapists is the evidence of Jake Brigance’s struggle against racism.

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B. Approach of the Study

  In conducting the analysis, the writer will use the sociocultural-historial approach. Based on Reading and Writing about Literature by Mary Rohrberger and Samuel H. Woods, Jr.:

  Critics whose major interest is the sociocultural-historial approach insist that the only way to locate the real work is in reference to the civilization that produced it. They defined civilization as the attitudes and actions of specific group of people and point out that literature takes these attitudes and reactions as subject matter. (1971: 9) The quotation above shows that both Rohrberger and Woods are aware on the phenomena that society cannot be separated from literature, because literature basically is the product of civilization that happen in society.

  The writer chooses the sociocultural-historical approach because the writer needs to know racism in United States as the general background of the society in the novel and how the racism influences not only blacks but also whites at that time.

  The sociocultural-historical approach would be applied in the analysis as the way to understand the sociocultural-historical context of the society in the novel and how racism influenced the society at that time. This approach is used to find out the threats of racism that happened to Jake Brigance as the result of understanding the sociocultural-historical context of the society in this undergraduate thesis.

C. Method of the Study The method that was used by the writer in this study was library research.

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  Library research was the primary source that done by reading and collecting data and information as much as possible from certain books and other writing or findings which were supports the research in this study. In addition, collecting data or information from internet about the work which was related to the study was also done as the secondary source by browsing many websites which contents were relevance, valid, accurate and appropriate to the study.

  Some steps were done by the writer in conducting this study. The first step was reading and re-reading the novel in order to get the deep understanding about the novel. The second step was deciding the topic of the study and stating the problem formulation. The third step was collecting data or information, theories and criticism on A Time to Kill which were important in this study to answer the problem formulation. The fourth step was using data or information, theories and criticism that were already collected to answer the problem formulation in the chapter of analysis. The analysis was done with finding the evidents from the novel. Then, it was quoted and matched with the theories to show the answers of problem formulations that had been formulated. The last step was drawing a conclusion based on the analysis. PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS This chapter is the analysis in this undergraduate thesis. This chapter’s contents are the answers of questions that have been formulated in the Chapter I. The ways of answering three questions are done by quoting the supporting

  statements from the novel and those supporting statements are analyzed with the appropriate theories. This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part is the analysis on the racism that happen to Jake Brigance using the theories of racism. The second part is the analysis on the Jake Brigance’s characteristics and this part applies the theories of characterization. The third part is the analysis on Jake Brigance’s struggles against racism as the significance of his characteristics.

A. The Characteristics of Jake Brigance

  This is the analysis on the characteristics of Jake Brigance. In reading the story entitled A Time to Kill, the writer finds some interesting quotations that show the characteristics of Jake Brigance. The characterization of Jake Brigance is started with the short description of his personal life. Jake Brigance is a white lawyer who married to Carla and has a fourth years old daughter named Hanna. Hanna is the only child of Jake. Jake comes from the Southern named Karaway, a small town of twenty-five hundred, eighteen miles west of Clanton. Jake lives with his wife and daughter in Clanton.

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1. An Early Bird Person The first characteristic of Jake Brigance is that he is an early bird person.

  The term “an early bird” has the meaning that he is a person who gets up, arrives and does everything in very early time. This characteristic is showed in the quotation below,

  Jake Brigance rolled across his wife and staggered to the small bathroom a few feet from his bed, where he searched and groped in the dark for the screaming alarm clock. He found it where he had left it, and killed it with a quick and violent slap. It was 5:30 A.M., Wednesday, May 15. (p.18) He wakes up in very early time, in 5:30 A.M., and walks to the bathroom to kill the clock with the quick and violent slap to avoid disturbing Carla. The fact that Jake is an early bird, is also supported by Carla’s response on Jake’s habit. Carla thinks that her husband is crazy because of getting up at such an hour. This idea is showed in the quotation below,

  Most of the time, however, she was not symphatetic. She thought he crazy for getting up at such an hour. (p.18) The two quotations above show Grisham’s way creates the characteristics of Jake Brigance as the character in A Time to Kill. Grisham uses the dramatic event to describe Jake Brigance’s characteristic as an early bird. It means that Grisham places Jake Brigance in certain situation and shows Jake’s reaction to that situation. This condition helps readers to get the idea on the characteristic of Jake. This analysis is based on Rohrberger theory of characterization that is stated below,

  ...The second, he uses a dramatic event. It means that he places in situation where he should react in a particular way. His action must be motive in term that a reader can accept.” (Rohrberger, 1972:20-21)

  

 

   

 

  Jake Brigance is a very organized person. It means that Jake is able to plan his work, schedule, and life very well and in a very efficient way. This characteristic is supported by the fact that he has some rules in his life. Jake’s rules are mentioned in the quotations below,

  Once up, Jake would not permit himself to crawl back under the covers. It was one of his rules. (p.18) The quotation above is Jake’s first rule that he does not allow himself to go to bed again when he already wakes up. Jake’s second rule is that he has to be in his office at seven o’clock because he does not want to ruin his work-schedule in his office. This rule is reflected in the quotation below,

  At one time the alarm was on the nightstand, and the volume was reduced. Carla would reach and turn it off before Jake heard anything. Then he would sleep until seven or eight and ruin his entire day. He would miss being in the office by seven, which was another rule.(p.18) Jake’s third rule is he has to take a shower, to shave, and to dress quickly because he has to be at The Coffee Shop at 6:00 A.M. This situation is described in the quotation below,

  Jake pondered these things in the shower. He took quick showers, and he shaved and dressed quickly. He had to be at The Coffee Shop at 6:00 A.M.-another rule. (p.19) Jake Brigance’s characteristic as a very organized person is also supported not only by his rules that are already mentioned above, but also by his habits in his office from seven until the mid-day. He loves his quiet time in the office that is started from seven to eight thirty. During that time he can plan his his day and makes Ethel, his secretary, busy when she arrives at eight thirty. Jake

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2. A Very Organized Person

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  also ignores the phone call from seven to eleven. He will return the phone call and never delay it. The way he will return the phone call and never delay it is another rule of Jake. This condition is supported by the quotation below,

  Jake’s quiet time was from seven until Ethel arrives at eight-thirty. He was jealous with this time. He locked the front door, ignored the phone, and refused to make appointments. He meticulously planned his day. By eight-thirty he would have enough work dictated to keep Ethel busy and quiet until noon. By nine he was either in court or seeing clients. He would not take calls until eleven, when he methodically returned the morning’s messages-all of them. He never delayed returning a phone call-another rule. Jake worked systematically and efficiently with little wasted time. (p.33) The fact from the quotation above shows Jake’s way to organize his time of work systematically and efficiently because he does not want to waste his time to work. This condition supports the idea that he is a very organized person.

  The way Grisham creates Jake Brigance as the person who is very organized that is showed by quotations above, is well-matched with the fundamental methods from the theory of characterization by Holman and Hormon. The first method is the explicit presentation by the author of character through direct exposition. They can be placed in the introductory block or in the action throughout the work. The second method is the presentation of the character in action, with little or no explicit comment by the author, in the expectation that the reader will be able to deduce the attribute of the actor from the action. The third method is the presentation from within the character, without comment on the character by the author of the impacts of actions and emotions of the character’s inner self, with the expectation that the reader will come to a clear understanding of the attributes of the character.

  

 

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  Grisham fulfills the three fundamental methods above because first, he can present Jake Brigance through the direct exposition to inform his activity in order to make the readers know what kind of person he is. The second, Grisham can present Jake in several actions in order to make the readers know about his characteristics. The third, Grisham can present Jake Brigance through his inner self on his actions and emotions. It means that Grisham can present Jake through his actions and emotions when he does or feels something.

3. A Loving Husband and Father

  Jake is a loving husband and father. The term a loving husband and father here has a meaning that Jake is a father and also a husband who has strong feeling or showing love and affection for his daughter, Hanna, and his wife, Carla. The idea that he is a loving husband and father is supported by quotations that are stated below. The first quotation is,

  ... He covered his wife, kissed her gently, and turned out the lights. She breathed easier, and fall asleep. (p.19) The quotation above shows the way Jake behaves Carla. He kisses his wife as the morning ritual before he goes to work. Jake’s morning ritual to Carla shows that he loves his wife very much. The way Jake kisses Carla gently and turns off the lights expresses his strong feeling of love and affection to Carla because he does not want to disturb Carla while sleeping. The quotation below is the second quotation as the expression of love as the father of Hanna,

  Down the hall he quietly opened Hanna’s door and knelt beside her. She was four, the only child, and there would be no others. She lay in her bed surrounded by dolls and stuffed animals. He kissed her lightly on the cheek.(p.19)

  

 

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  This quotation shows Jake’s feeling of love to Hanna. Jake shows his love to Hanna through the way he opens her only daughter’s door quietly and kisses his daughter lightly on her cheek because he wants to behave Hanna, the only little girl of his, as smooth as possible. He does not want to disturb Hanna while she is sleeping. The quotation below is the additional statement, which shows Jake’s characteristic that he is a loving father and husband.

  Jake adored the two women in his life. He kissed the second one goodbye and went to the kitchen to make coffee for Carla. (p.20) The quotation above explains Jake’s love to both Carla and Hanna, the very adorable women in his life. The way Jake adores those women shows that he loves both of them very much. The way Jake makes the coffee for Carla is also the evidence of his love to Carla. He wants to make Carla feels warm enough and comfortable when she wakes up from her bed and sees a coffee that has been made for her. These conditions give the evidence that Jake is a loving husband and father.

  The three quotations above show the way Grisham creates the characteristic of Jack. The way Grisham creates Jake Brigance as the loving father and husband is seen in Jake’s description through the direct exposition. This way of creating character fulfills the first fundamental method of characterization by Holman and Hormon. In addition, the way Jake reacts to a particular time when Carla and Hanna are sleeping also reflects the Murphy’s theory of characterization that the way author creates the character through the reaction, the person's nature can be known by his/her reactions to different occasions. (1972: 161-173)

  

 

   

 

  Murphy statement in his theory of characterization that the way of characterizing the charater is by mannerism, we can understand the character through the way he/she behaves, attitudes, and talks with the other people (1972: 161-173). This theory is also reflected in the way Grisham describing the Jake’s behaviour and attitude upon the certain occasion of Carla and Hanna while sleeping.

  Jake Brigance is a close friend. The term of “close friend” here has a meaning that he is very involved in the work or activities of somebody else, usually seeing and talking to them regularly. This characteristic is showed in the quotation below,

  Jake was one of the few white collars allowed to frequent the Coffee Shop. He was well liked and accepted by the blue collars, most of whom at one time or another had found their way to his office for a will, a deed, a divorce, a defense, or any one of thousand other problems. They picked at him and told croocked lawyer jokes, but he had a thick skin. They asked him to explain Supreme Court rulings and other legal oddities during breakfast, and he gave a lot of free legal advice at the Coffee Shop. Jake had a way of cutting through the excess and discussing the meat of any issue. They appreciate that. They didn’t always agree with him, but they always got honest answers. They argued at times, but there were never hard feelings. (p.22) The quotation above tells about the condition that although Jake is a white collar, he is accepted by the blue collar people in the Coffee Shop. He is accepted because he is a close friend. This characteristic is showed by some facts that most of people at the Coffee Shop ask him for help for a will, a deed, a divorce, a defense, and any other problems related to the law. In addition, the fact that people at the Coffee Shop can make a joke with Jake shows that Jake and

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4. A Close Friend

   

 

  people at the Coffee Shop have close relationship because of they are regularly see and talk each other. Although Jake and people at the Coffee Shop discussing and arguing something regularly and sometimes find the different perception, both Jake and people at the Coffee Shop do not have hard feelings. This condition shows that Jake is a close friend.

  Another fact that can prove characteristic of Jake as the close friend is also stated in the quotation below, He made his entrance at six, and it took five minutes to greet everyone, shake hands, slap backs, and say smart things to the waitresses. By the time he sat at his table his favorite girl, Dell, had his coffee and regular breakfast of toast, jelly, and grits. She patted him on the hand and called him honey and sweetheart and generally made a fuss over him. She griped and snapped at the others, but had a different routine to Jake. (p.22) The quotation above shows the way Jake behaves the people when he enters the Coffee Shop. He greets everyone, shaking their hands, slapping backs and says smart things to the waitresses at the Coffee Shop. He also does the close conversation to the waitresses, especially his special waitress named Dell, and even Dell calls him honey and sweetheart because of their close relationship. This condition supports the idea that Jake is a close friend. All those kind of behaviours cannot be created if they do not have any close relation.

  The quotation below is still the supporting fact that Jake has a characteristic as a close friend, He ate with Tim Nunley, a mechanic down at the Chevrolet place, and two brothers, Bill and Bert West, who worked at the shoe factory north of town... Once of his food was properly prepared, he tasted the coffee and start eating. They eat quietly and discussed how the crappie were biting. (p.23)

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  The quotation above tells about the condition when Jake eats one table with three blue collar people in the Coffee Shop and discusses the simple thing with them about how the crappie were biting. This kind of conversation reflects the idea that Jake is a close friend.

  The conversation below is another fact that Jake is a close friend. His conversation with Carl Lee Hailey shows the close relation between Jake and Hailey. The way Jake calls Hailey’s wife with her girl name and the way Jake asks the recent condition of Hailey’s daughter shows that Jake has close relationship to Hailey’s family. This condition is reflected in the conversation below,

  “I’m trully sorry, Carl Lee,” Jake said. “Yeah, me too.” “She’ll make it.” “How’s Gwen?” “Okay, I guess.” “How about you?”(p. 46) The quotation below is also another fact that supports the idea that Jake is a close friend, Don’t do it, Carl Lee. It’s not worth it. What if you’re convicted and get the gas chamber? What about the kids? Who’ll raise them? Those punks aren’t worth it. (p.47) The quotation above shows how Jake cares of the condition of Hailey’s family. Jake is anxious about Hailey’s children if Carl Lee Hailey is jailed. Jake’s care on the children future and life, shows his close relation with Carl Lee Hailey and his family.

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  The five quotations above are the supporting facts which support that Jake is a close friend. The way Grisham describes Jake’s characteristic through the conversation inside the novel and the direct exposition of Jake, reflects the theory of characterization by Holman and Hormon. The way Grisham describes the characteristics of Jake through the way he behaves and speaks to people at the Coffee Shop fulfills the theory of characterization by Rohrberger and Woods.

B. Threats of Racism that Happen to Jake Brigance

  In reading the story entitled A Time to Kill, the writer finds some threats of racism that happen to Jake Brigance. Most threats of racim that happen to Jake Brigance in the story are the oppressions and intimidations from Ku Klux Klan because he is a white who helps black. These threats of racism reflect the real Ku Klux Klan in United States. The existance of Ku Klux Klan, its movements, oppressions, and discriminations in the story shows the socio-cultural context of the real society in United States. This condition shows that the story is the product of civilization that happen in society. In addition, this condition also shows the relation of the story to the real society. Ku Klux Klan in the story reflect the real Ku Klux Klan in United States.

  The analysis on threats of racism to Jake Brigance is started with the sketch of his condition while helping Carl Lee Hailey in the quotation below, I’ll have no wife, no daughter, no house, no practice, no clients, no money, nothing. (p.464) The quotation above is Jake’s own opinion about his condition. According to him, he will have no wife, no daughter, no house, no practice, no

  

 

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  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI   clients, no money, nothing. This condition is supported by some quotations below.

  The first quotation is: My beautiful home that everyone took picture of and the old ladies from the Garden Club tried to get written up in Southern Living has been reduced to rubble. My wife has left me, and when she hears about the house, she’ll divorce me. No question about that. So I’ll loose my wife. And once my daughter learns that her damned dog died in the fire, she’ll hate me forever. (p. 463)

  The quotation above shows that Jake is not only losing his house but also will be left by Carla and Hanna as the result from being Carl Lee Hailey’s lawyer.

  The second quotation is stated below, There’s a contract on my head. I’ve got Klan goons looking for me. Snipers shooting at me. There’s a soldier lying up in the hospital with my bullet in his spine. He’ll be a vegetable, and I’ll think about him every hour of every day for the rest of my life. My secretary’s husband was killed because of me. My last employee is in the hospital with a punk haircut and concussion because she worked for me. (p. 463) From the quotation above, Jake gets many threats from Ku Klux Klan, starting from anonymous phone calls, the dynamite, and the shot from the snipper.

  In addition, people who help Jake to win the case also get mistreatment from KKK.

  The third quotation is showed below, I deserve it. I’ve earned it. I’m two weeks away from bankruptcy. I’m about to loose the biggest case of my career, for which I have been paid nine hundred dollars. My client wants to fire me. When he’s convicted, every body will blame me. He’ll hire another lawyer for the appeal, one of course ACLU types, and they’ll sue me claiming ineffective trial counsel. And they’ll be right. So I’ll get my ass sued for malpractices (p.463)

  

 

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  The quotation above states that he is about to loose his job, has no money and will lose his cliens. However, Jake, in his opinion, deserves to get these all things because helping Carl Lee Hailey is what he wants.

  Those three quotations above are Jake Brigance’s condition as the result of the threats of racism to him. This sketchy condition is analyzed further in detailed analysis below,

1. Anonymous Phone Calls

  The first threat of racism to Jake is when he receives his first death threat by an anonymous phone call in his house. Jake is called as the nigger-loving son of bitch because he is the attorney of Carl Lee Hailey, the black murderer. He is also threatened that he will die if Carl Lee Hailey is free. The quotation below shows this condition,

  At eleven-fifteen it rang again, and Jake received his first death threat, anonymous of course. He was called a nigger-loving son of a bitch, one who would not live if the nigger walked. (p.85) The condition that Jake’s life is threatened by an anonymous phone-call for helping Carl Lee Hailey is supported by the quotation below. The quotation below is the conversation between Jake and his wife, Carla. It shows Carla’s fear on the anonymous phone call that threats Jake’s life. However, Jake does not care about it.

  “Would you like some breakfast?” she asked. “No, I’m not hungry. Thanks.” “Look on the bright side,” she said. “We won’t be afraid to answer the phone.” “I think I’ll cut the grass,” he said. (p.175)

  

 

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  Another anonymous phone call is also received in his office. It is answered by Harry Rex, Jake’s friend. It says that Jake is a shame to the white race for being the black murderer’s lawyer. The voice also says that the Klan will do something for Jake, and if the Klan do not do it, the bar association will take Jake’s license as a lawyer away. This is the quotation below that shows this condition,

  “What’d he want?” “Said you was a shame to the white race for being that nigger’s lawyer, and that he didn’t see how any lawyer could represent a nigger such as Hailey. And that he hoped the Klan got ahold you, and if they didn’t he hoped the bar association looked into it and took away your license for helping niggers. Said he knew you were no ‘count because you were trained by Lucien Wilbanks who lives with a nigger woman.” (p.372) The quotation above shows that Jake as a white is discriminated for being

  Carl Lee Hailey’s lawyer. Jake as the white lawyer for black murderer is minor in society. This condition shows the racism to Jake because it fulfills the elements of racism that all differences between minority and the majority group are thought to be signs of inferiority (Rose, 1981:223). It can be said that Jake as the minority white who helps black, has a difference to the majority white who are not help black. As a result Jake is differed and signed as inferior, a white who is not as good as somebody white else.

  The way Jake is called as “the nigger-loving son of bitch” in the first quotation and “a shame to the white race for being the black murderer’s lawyer” in the third quotation are the facts that the anonymous caller is prejudiced to Jake. In other words, the anonymous caller has an unreasonable dislike or preference for Jake because Jake is a white who helps a black murderer. This condition is a kind

  

 

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  of racism because according to The New Encyclopedia Britannica, racism is closely related with race prejudice and racial discrimination (1983:360).

  Assuming that every individual’s character can be adequately determined by racial or ethnic stereotypes is called as race prejudice, and giving or withholding privileges based on such stereotypes is called as racial discrimination. Race and prejudice is the root of racism. It happens as the impact of social relation between different races that is influenced by economic, belief and political factors.

2. The Burning of Cross

  The second threat of racism to Jake Brigance is also shown when the cross is brought and burned by an anonymous person in the dark night when people are sleeping. It is placed quietly and quickly in the front yard of his house. After it is burned, the cross carrier disappears then calls and tells the dispatcher that the cross is already burned in the front yard of Jake’s house. The quotation below is the supporting statement that reflects this condition.

  Several hours before dawn on Monday morning, the cross was lifted quietly and quickly from the pickup and thrust into ten-inch, freshly dug slot in the front yard of the quaint Victorian house on Adams Street. A small torch was thrown at the foot of the cross, and in seconds it was in flames. The pickup disappeared into the night and stopped at a pay phone at the edge of town, where a call was placed to the dispatcher. (p.181) The fact that the burning cross is placed in the front yard of Jake’s house as the threat to Jake is also supported by the quotation below. The quotation below tells about the condition when Deputy Marshall Prather comes to Jake’s house. He comes to inform Jake that an anonymous phone call tells him that the cross is already burned down in the front yard of Jake’s house. When he informs it

  

 

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  to Jake, Jake does not only mesmerize by the burning cross, but also by its purpose.

  Moments later, Deputy Marshall Prather turned down Adams and instantly saw the blazing cross in Jake’s front yard. He turned into the drive way and parked behind the Saab. He punched the doorbell and stood on the porch watching the flames. It was almost three-thirty. He punched it again. Adams dark and silent except for the glow of the cross and the snapping and crackling of the wood burning fifty feet away. Finally, Jake stumbled through the front door and froze, wild-eyed and stunned, next to the deputy. The two stood side by side on the porch, mesmerized not only by the burning cross, but by its purpose. (p.181) The fact that the burning cross is the threat to Jake is also supported when Carla is shocked to see the burning cross is placed in the front yard of their house. She asks to the Deputy about the person who does it whether it is Ku Klux Klan or not. The deputy does not know and he says to them that the possibility of the person who does it, is the member of Ku Klux Klan. This condition is showed in the conversation between Jake, Carla, and the Deputy below, He returned with his wife behind him.

  “My God, Jake! Who did it?” “Who knows.” “Is it KKK?” She asked.

  “Must be,” answered the deputy. “I don’t know anybody else who burns crosses, do you, Jake?” Jake shook his head. (p.182) The quotation below is the conversation between Carla and the Deputy which shows the burning-cross threat. In this conversation, Carla asks to the deputy about the meaning of burning cross that is placed in the front yard of their house. The Deputy gives the explanation to both of Carla and Jake that the meaning of burning cross is the warning to stop what Jake is doing. In addition, the Deputy also explains that the burning cross is used for years to intimidate

  

 

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  white who are sympathetic to black. If the white do not stop their loving to black, the bomb, dynamite, beatings, and even murder will follow those white. The deputy also suggests Jake to stay away from Hailey’s case because the burning cross has a meaning that Jake is threatened because helping Carl Lee Hailey.

  “What does it mean, the cross?” Carla asked the deputy. “It’s a warnin’. Means stop what you’re doin’, or the next time we’ll do more than burn a little wood. They used these things for years to intimidate whites who were sympathetic to niggers and all that civil rights crap. If the whites didn’t stop their nigger lovin’, then violence followed. Bombs, dynamite, beatings, even murder. But that was a long time ago, I thought. In your case, it’s their way of tellin’ Jake to stay away from Hailey.” (p.183) Knowing the meaning of the burning cross, Carla tries to stop Jake to help Hailey. She is afraid because Hailey’s case is not as worth as their safety.

  Carla’s fright knowing the meaning of the burning cross shows Jake’s condition who suffers racism from KKK. This condition is reflected in the quotation below, You know I’m scared. I’m terrified. If they can burn a cross in our front yard, what’s to stop them from burning the house? It’s not worth it, Jake. I want you to be happy and successful and all that wonderful stuff, but not at the expense of your safety. No case is worth this. (p.184) Carla does not ever agree when Jake is always enthusiastic on Hailey’s case. Carla always ask Jake to stop helping Hailey because she is afraid that their safety will always be threatened by people who do not like toward white who help black. Carla’s anxiety to KKK is reflected in her statement to Jake below,

  Jake, this case scares me. The telephone calls, the threats, the burning cross. If the case means a million dollars, is it worth it if something happens? (p.218)

  

 

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  Carla’s feeling on the threats such as burning cross and the anonymous phone calls, supports the condition of racism that is suffered by Jake. Carla does not want their safety is threatened by Hailey’s case because it is worthless.

  The six quotations above show that Jake is threatened by the burning cross from KKK. This condition shows that Jake experiences racism because he helps Carl Lee Hailey. The possibility that Jake will get more threats if he does not stop to help Hailey, also shows racism to him. Jake as the white lawyer for black murderer is minor in society. This condition shows the racism to Jake because it fulfills the elements of racism that all differences between minority and the majority group are thought to be signs of inferiority (Rose, 1981:223). It can be said that Jake as the minority white who helps black, has a difference to the majority white who are not help black. Jake as the minority group faces KKK as the majority group. As a result Jake is differed and signed as inferior, a person who is not as good as somebody else. In other words, Jake is not as good white as KKK.

3. Dynamite

  The third threat of racism to Jake Brigance is showed when an anonymous call comes to the Sheriff office. It tells the Deputy that Jake’s house is going to be blowed up in next some minutes. The Deputy asks who will blow Jake’s house up, however, the voice does not want to answer it. This condition is showed in the quotation below,

  Pirtle poured some coffee and relaxed in Ozzie’s big chair. The phone rang. “It’s for you,” yelled the dispatcher. “Hello,” answered Pirtle.

  

 

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  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI   “Who’s this?” Asked the voice.

  “Deputy Joe Pirtle. Who’s this?” “Where’s the sheriff?” “Asleep, I reckon.” “Okay listen, and listen real good because this is important and I ain’t callin’ again. You know that Hailey nigger?” “Yeah.” “You know his lawyer, Brigance?” “Yeah.” “Then listen. Sometime between now and three A.M., they’re gonna blow up his house.” “Who?” “Brigance.” “No, I mean who’s gonna blow up his house?” “Don’t worry about that, Deputy, just listen to me. This ain’t no joke, and if you think it’s a joke, just sit there and wait for his house to go up. It may happen any minute.”(p.372) After the anonymous phone call, the Deputy goes to Jake’s house and hides his patrol car. He keeps his eyes upon Jake’s house from the strange things that threat Jake and his family such as the dynamite or something else that can blow Jake’s house up. After some minutes, the Deputy sees the red pickup which moves suspiciously toward Jake’s house but it does not stop and disappear down the street.

  Pirtle hid his patrol car in driveway on Monroe Street and walked across the front lawns to Jake’s house. ..... Headlights appeared at the end of the street. Pirtle slumped lower in the chair, certain he could not be seen. A red pickup moved suspiciously toward the Brigance house but did not stop. He sat up and watched it disappear down the street. (p.273) Not long after the disappearing of the red pickup, the Deputies and the

  Sheriff see a stranger who walks casually down the street. He has a small box or case of some sort in his hand. He lays carefully the box under Jake’s bedroom window. Then, his head is crashed by a huge black nightstick and he falls to the ground.

  

 

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  They didn’t wait long. From his vantage point somewhere deep in the shrubs in front of the house, Ozzie saw he first: a lone figure walking casually down the street from the direction opposite the square. He had in his hand a small box or case of some sort. When he was two houses away, he left the street and cut through the front lawns of the neighbors. Ozzie pulled his revolver and nightstick and watched the man walk directly toward him. Jake had him in the scope of his deer rifle. Pirtle crawled like a snake across the porch and into the shrubs, redy to strike. Suddenly, the figure darted across the front lawn next door and to the side of Jake’s house. He carefully laid the small suitcase under Jake’s bedroom window. As he turned to run, a huge black nightstick crashed across the side of his head, ripping his right ear in two places, each barely hanging to his head. He screamed and fell to the ground.(p.276) The box content is a neat pile of a dozen stocks of dynamite. It is going to be used to blow up Jake’s house.

  They froze. Seconds later the suspect yelled again. They ran back across the front yard, then slowly turned the corner. The empty suitcase had been tossed a few feet away. Next to the man was a neat pile of a dozen sticks of dynamite. Between his legs was a large, round-faced clock and the wires bound together with silver silver electrical tape.(p.278) The four quotations above show that Jake is threatened by the dynamite which is used to blow up his house by the stranger. This condition shows Jake’s experience on racism. The stranger who tries to blow Jake’s house up has the same reason with the stranger who burns the cross in the front yard of Jake’s house. Both of them are come from the side that do not like Jake for helping Carl Lee Hailey. The burning cross and the dynamite turn out to be the threats come from Ku Klux Klan. This idea is supported by the quotation below. The quotation below is the conversation between Jake and Ozzie Walls, the Sheriff.

  “Any suspects?” “Gotta be the Klan. With the white robes and all. It all adds up. First there was the burnin’ cross in your yard, then the dynamite, and now Bud. Plus all the death threats. I figure it’s them. And we got an informant.” (p.320)

  

 

   

 

  The quotation below is also the supporting statement that proves the mastermind of the dynamite and bomb threats to Jake is the Ku Klux Klan. They threatens Jake because he is a white who becomes the black’s lawyer. In addition, Ku Klux Klan do not like white who helps black, like what Jake does to Carl Lee Hailey.

  You heard me. Calls himself Mickey Mouse. He called me at home Sunday and told me that he saved your life. “that nigger’s lawyer” is what he called you. Said the Klan has officially arrived in Ford County.

  They’ve set up the klavern, whatever that is. (p.320) Ku Klux Klan is said as the mastermind who plans and directs the activity of threatening Jake because he helps Carl Lee Hailey. This condition is supported while Jake sees the Klansmen who wear the ominous masks from the window in Jean Gillespie’s second floor. The Klansmen are the whitehood who are the symbol of hatred and violence in the South toward black and everybody who help black. When he sees the Klansmen, Jake is wondering which person who burns the cross and plans the bombing of his house.

  Jake watched intently from the window in Jean Gillespie’s second floor office. The sight of the Klansmen, in full regalia, their cowardly faces hidden behind the ominous masks, gave him a sick feeling. The white hood, for decades a symbol of hatred and violence in the South, was black. Which one of those men had burned the cross in his yard? Were they all active in planning the bombing of his home? Which one would try something next? From the second floor, he could see the blacks inch closer. (p.337) The seven quotations above show that Jake is threatened by the dynamite from KKK. The dynamite is used to blow Jake’s house up. This condition shows

  Jake’s experience on racism because he helps Carl Lee Hailey. Jake as the white lawyer for black murderer is minor in society. This condition shows the racism to

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  Jake because it fulfills the elements of racism that all differences between minority and the majority group are thought to be signs of inferiority (Rose, 1981:223). It can be said that Jake as the minority white who helps black, has a difference to the majority white who are not help black. Jake as the minority group faces KKK as the majority group. As a result Jake is differed and signed as inferior, a person who is not as good as somebody else. In other words, Jake is not as good white as KKK.

  The fourth threat of racism to Jake Brigance is murder. This threat is showed in the quotation below, “They’re gonna kill you today,” Ozzie said. Jake sat on the couch and messaged his temples. “Maybe they’ll succeeed.” “Jake, this is serious. They plan to kill you.” “Who?” “The Klan.” Mickey Mouse?” “Yeah. He called yesterday and said something was up. He called back two hours ago and said you’re the lucky man. Today is the big day. Time for some excitement. They burry Stump Sisson this morning in Loydsville, and it’s time for the eye-for-an-eye, tooth-for-a-tooth routine.” “Why me? Why don’t they kill Buckley or Noose or someone more deserving?” (p.424) The quotation above is the conversation between Jake and Ozzie, the

  Sheriff of Ford County. Ozzie tells Jake that he is going to be killed. This information is told by Mickey Mouse, the informant who knows about Klan activity and always inform the Sheriff about the Klan’s plan toward Jake. Finally, the information about killing Jake Brigance becomes real. An anonymous person,

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4. Murder

   

 

  the member of Ku Klux Klan, tries to kill Jake with a rifle from the hill. The shot is clear and unmistakable. The shot is very close to Jake’s head. Unfortunately, a member of the National Guard who walks beside Jake is the person who gets the shot and Jake is safe from the shot. The quotation below shows the condition of the snipper who tries to kill Jake.

  ...Through the scope he could barely see the head of the nigger’s lawyer as it bobbed and weaved awkwardly among the sea of green, which was surrounded and chased by a dozen reporters. Go ahead, the whiskey said, create some excitement. He timed the bobbing and weaving as best he could, and pulled the trigger as the target approached the rear door of the courthouse. The rifle shot was clear and unmistakable. (p.425) The shot proves racism to Jake who helps Carl Lee Hailey. Jake talks to

  Lucien, tells to him about the shot and other racism by Ku Klux Klan. Jake states that he gets the dynamite outside his bedroom window, his secretary’s husband is death by the beating, and his law clerk is also tortured and hospitalized because getting a concussion. Jake is wondering what kind of racism that will happen to him next. This condition is reflected in the quotation below, Two weeks ago, they planted dynamite outside my bedroom window.

  They beat to death my secretary’s husband. Yesterday they shot at me and hit a guardsman. Now they grab my law clerk, tie her to a pole, rip her clothes off, cut her hair, and she’s in hospital with a concussion. I wonder what’s next. (p.453) Threat of racism to Jake above reflects the elements of racism that all differences between minority and the majority group are thought to be signs of inferiority (Rose, 1981:223). The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is one of several white- supremacist organizations in the Southern United States, which are dedicated to opposing civil rights for blacks, Jews, and other ethnic, racial, social or religious

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  groups. This organization is the majority and Jake is the minority who suffers from racism.

5. The Burning of House Jake’s expensive, and beautiful house is burned down by Ku Klux Klan.

  The burning house is the racism to Jake. There are not only the house that are burned down, but also Carla’s car and Hanna’s dog. Jake suffers from the this condition. He is discriminated and tortured for helping Carl Lee Hailey. Being Carl Lee Hailey’s lawyer is a destructive profession for Jake. This condition is showed when Harry Rex tells to Mr. Roark about Jake’s condition. Jake experiences racism when he is shot, his law clerk is kidnapped and tortured, and Jake’s house is burned down. The conversation between Mr. Roark, Harry Rex and Jake Brigance is listed below,

  “Jake here is gettin’ his ass kicked all over the courtroom, either. When they’re not shooting at him, or kidnapping his law clerk, they’re burning his house.” “They burned your house!” Jake nodded. “ Last night. It’s still smoldering.” (p.460) The burning house is threat of racism experienced by Jake Brigance. This racism reflected the element of racism about all differences between minority and the majority group are thought to be signs of inferiority (Rose, 1981:223). The burning house is still the racism suffered by the minority who helps blacks and it becomes the difference from the majority. It makes the minority becomes the sign of inferiority, the state of not being as good as somebody else.

  

 

   

 

  Prejudice here means an unreasonable dislike of a person. The first prejudice against Jake Brigance is showed when most people in Ford County feel anger or unhappy because Jake as a white person helps Carl Lee Hailey, the black who kills two rednecks. This condition is reflected in the quotation below,

  There was resentment among many for any lawyer who would defend a nigger for killing two white men. (p.154) The second prejudice of Jake Brigance is showed in the quotation below. It is the conversation between Buckley and Musgrove when they see a lot of black who demonstrate to set Carl Lee Hailey free. Both of them do not believe that Ford County has a lot black people. Buckley and Musgrove prejudge that the coming of thousand black people in the square is Jake’s fault. They make a judgement that black’s coming and demonstration on the square, are Jake’s tricks to win Hailey’s case. This kind of prejudice shows racism to Jake Brigance.

  “I didn’t know there were this many niggers in Ford County,” Musgrove said. “There ain’t. Somebody shipped these niggers in here. I wonder who put them up to it.” “Probably Brigance.” “Yeah, probably so. It’s mighty convenient that they start all this hell- raising when the jury is deliberating. There must be five thousand niggers down there.” “At least.” (p.495) Prejudices that are suffered by Jake from people of Clanton, Musgrove and Buckley reflect the theory of racism according to The New Encyclopedia

  

Britannica . It is said that racism is closely related with race prejudice and racial

  discrimination (1983:360). Assuming that every individual’s character can be adequately determined by racial or ethnic stereotypes is called as race prejudice,

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6. Prejudice

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  and giving or withholding privileges based on such stereotypes is called as racial discrimination. Race and prejudice is the root of racism. It happens as the impact of social relation between different races that is influenced by economic, belief and political factors.

  

C. The Significance of Jake Brigance’s Characteristics in his Struggle against

Threats of Racism

  This part is the part of analysis on the significance of Jake Brigance’s characteristics in his struggles against threats of racism as. Jake’s characteristics are important in his struggles against threats of racism. Theories of characterization are used to analyze Jake’s struggles.

1. A Loving Father and Husband

  The first struggle is when Jake asks his wife to bring Hanna and stay in Carla’s parents house in order to save them from the Klan because their lifes are not safe anymore. The oppression and intimidation from KKK make Jake worries of his own family. The way Jake asks Hanna and Carla to go out from Clanton is the evidence that Jake as a loving father and husband is signified in his struggle against racism. This condition is reflected in the quotation below,

  You and Hanna fly to North Carolina and stay with your parents until after the trial. They’d love to have you, and we wouldn’t worry about the Klan or whoever likes to burn crosses. (p.218) Grisham characterize Jake’s struggle by giving a presentation of Jake in action. Jake does the action of asking Carla to go and bring Hanna to her parents’ house. This condition reflects the second fundamental from the theory of

  

 

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  characterization by Holman and Hormon that the presentation of the character in action, with little or no explicit comment by the author, in the expectation that the reader will be able to deduce the attribute of the actor from the action (1986: 81) .

  Jake’s characteristic as a loving father and husband is significant in this struggle because he loves Carla and Hanna very much. Jake does not want his wife and daughter lifes are not safe by the case of Carl Lee Hailey. As a result he acts in such a way as the reaction from certain condition.

2. An Early Bird Person

  Jake’s struggle against racism is also reflected when Jake says to Carla that he is going to give all of his attention to Hailey’s case because he wants to set Hailey free from the gas chamber. Jake also adds that he has to prepare the trial and he will prepare it in his office all day long. He has to win Hailey’s case because Hailey is a black who deserves to be helped. This condition is reflected in the quotation below,

  There’s a ton of preparation. I’ll eat and sleep this case until the trial is over. I’ll work nights, weekends- (p.218) From the quotation above, it is clearly shown that Jake struggles against racism through his plan to help Hailey get out of gas chamber. Jake is already oppressed and discriminated by the Klan for helping Hailey, however, he does not want to give up from his case. He has a high motivation to release Hailey in order to make the society know that he struggles against racism. This condition is also supported by the quotation below,

  Look, Carla, I’ve got a thousand things on my mind right now. I’ve got a client facing the gas chamber and his trial is ten days away. I can’t lose it.I’ll work night and day from now until the twenty-second., and once

  

 

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  the trial starts you won’t see me anyway. The last thing I need is to be worried about you and Hanna. Please go. (p.280) Jake’s struggle above reflects the theory of characterization by

  Rohrberger and Woods. Grisham creates his character by the way he uses the dramatic event in the story and shows Jake reaction toward it. The way Jake struggles against racism that happen on his life, reflects his reaction toward the practice of racism that happen to him. By understanding the theory of characterization by rohrberger and Woods, the writer can get the clear understanding on the struggles of Jake toward practice of racism.

  The second, he uses a dramatic event. It means that he places in situation where he should react in a particular way. His action must be motive in term that a reader can accept.” (1972:20-21) Jake’s characteristic as an early bird is significant in this struggle because he will not sleep and work all day long. The way he will work in such an hour shows that his characteristic is really significant in his struggle.

3. A Very Organized Person

  Jake’s struggles below show his way of planning, rendering, and doing something in an order way. Jake’s characteristic as a very organized person is significant in this struggle because he plans, renders, and does something in an order way. First, he sends two letters to Sullivan and the judge as the rule of lawyer replacement. Second, he follows the rule of law when he asks to change the venue to the judge. Third, he prepares and studies the M’Naghten and the psycrhriatist for Hailey. The last is he prepares the jury and studies them deeply.

  

 

   

 

  Jake as a very organized person is signified in these kinds of struggle. His characteristic helps him in his struggles below.

  Sending two letters for Walter Sullivan and L. Winston Lotterhouse is another Jake’s struggle against racism. Jake sends the letters to show to Sullivan and the judge that he keeps fight to help Hailey. Jake wants Sullivan knows that he survives to help Hailey although he is oppressed by the KKK. Jake wants to show how brave and tough he is on facing the oppression. Here is the first letter that is sent to Sullivan,

  The letter to Walter Sullivan was to the point: Dear J. Walter: By now it’s safe to assume Mr. Marsharfsky has informed you that his employment by Carl Lee Hailey has been terminated. Your services as local counsel will, of course, no longer be needed. Have a nice day.

  Sincerely, Jake (p.223)

  The second letter is sent to L. Winston Lotterhouse. The content of the letter is the information that Jake is retained by Hailey on his trial. Jake also informs that he is preparing the trial. This is the letter below,

  A copy was sent to L. Winston Lotterhouse. The letter to Noose was just as short: Dear Judge Noose: Please be advised that I have been retained by Carl Lee Hailey. We are preparing for trial on July 22. Please show me a counsel of record.

  Sincerely, Jake (p.224) The two letters above, show Jake’s action when he is retained by Hailey.

  Jake sends the letters to Sullivan and the Judge Noose. This kind of action reflects the second fundamental of characterization by Holman and Hormon. The second fundamental of characterization is the presentation of the character in action, with

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  little or no explicit comment by the author, in the expectation that the reader will be able to deduce the attribute of the actor from the action. (1986: 81) The next Jake’s struggle against racism is when he asks to move the trial out from the Clanton. Jake wants to move it because he thinks it is very difficult for his client to get the fair trial in Clanton. In addition, the juries are already prejudice toward Hailey’s case because Hailey is a black man and the oppressions outside the court toward the jury make them oppressed. Jake wants to move the trial out from the Clanton in order to make people understand that Hailey as a black man who deserved to get the equal trial, no tricks and no prejudice. This condition is reflected in the quotation below,

  May it please the court, Your Honor, Mr. Hailey has requested that his trial be moved from Ford County. The reason is obvious: the publicity in this case will prevent a fair trial. The good people of this county have prejudge the guilt or innocence of Carl Lee Hailey. He is charged with killing two white men, both of whom were born here and left families here. Their lives were not famous, but their deats certainly have been. Mr. Hailey was known by few outside his community until now. Now everyone in this county knows who he is, knows about his family and his daughter and what happened to her, and knows most of the details of his alleged crimes. It will be impossible to find twelve people in Ford County who have not already prejudged this case. This trial should be held in another part of the state where the people are not so familiar with the facts. (p.241) Jake does not ask to change the venue to the judge once. He asks this to

  Noose twice. Jake knows that it is very difficult for his client to get the fair and un-prejudice jury in Clanton. Jake wants his client gets the fair jury when the venue is moved outside and faraway from Clanton. The quotation below is the conversation when Jake asks to change the venue to Noose for second times. The family of the jury are already intimidated by KKK, and the jury are oppresed and

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  feel afraid to decide on Haile’s case. Jake also sees this condition as the oppression to his client. Then he asks to Noose to change the venue that is stated in the quotation below, “Sounds like intimidation for me,” he muttered.

  What a mind, thought Jake. A real genius. “I would say so.” “So what am I supposed to do?” he asked with a touch of frustation. “Change venue.” “To where?” “Southern part of the state.” “I see. Perhaps Carey County. I believe it’s sixty percent black. That would generate at least a hung jury, wouldn’t it? Or maybe you would like Brower County. I think it’s even blacker. Ypu’d probably get an acquittal there, wouldn’t you?” “I don’t care where you move it. It’s not fair to try him in Ford County. Things were bad enough before the war yesterday. Now the white folks are really in a lynching mood, and my man’s got the nearest available neck. The situation was terrible before the Klan started decorating the county with Christmas trees. Who knows what else they’ll try before Monday. There’s no way to pick a fair and impartial jury in Ford County.” “You mean black jury?” “No, sir! I mean a jury that hasn’t prejudged this case. Carl Lee Hailey is entitled to twelve people who haven’t already decided his guilt or innocence. “ (p.346) The quotation below is Jake’s statement which is dedicated to the judge that his client, Hailey cannot get the fair and impartial jury when the jury are oppressed by the cruel situation of the demonstrators outside the court-law. This condition reflects how Jake struggles his client to the practice of racism that is suffered by his client.

  Thank you, Your Honor, I appreciate that. As I was saying, the defendant renews his motion for a change of venue. I want the record to reflect that as we sit here now in chambers, at nine-fifteen, July twenty-second, as we are about to select a jury, the Ford County Courthouse is surrounded by the Mississippi National Guard. On the front lawn group of Ku Klux Klansmen, in white robes, is at this very moment yelling at a group of black demonstrator, who are, of course, yelling back. The two groups are separated by heavily armed National Guardsmen. As the jurors arrived

  

 

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  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI   for court this morning, they witnessed this circus on the courthouse lawn.

  It will impossible to select a fair and impartial jury. (p.380) Jake’s actions on asking to move the trial out form Clanton reflect the theory of characterization by Rohrberger and Woods. Grisham fulfills the two principals of characterization by Rohrberger and Woods, because Grisham describes the intellectual, moral attributes, and the degree of sensitivity of Jake upon Hailey’s case. Grisham also reflects this theory by using the dramatic means and placing Jake in certain situation to show Jake’s reaction through the way Jake speaks and behaves. The first principal ways is he or she can direct means to describe physical appearance, intellectual, moral attributes, and the degree of sensitivity of the character. Second way is he or she can use dramatic means and place the character in situations to show what the character is by the way he behaves or speaks (Rohrberger and Woods Jr., 1971:20).

  When Jake asks the brief on M’Naghten decisions rendered by the Mississippi Supreme Court in the past fifty years to Ellen Row Ark, his law clerk, is another struggle of Jake to fight against racism. Jake wants to make juries understand the mental condition of Hailey when he killed the two whites. Jake wants to make juries believe that Hailey was mentally-ill when he killed the two rednecks. Jake’s efforts to make the juries believe that his client is not guilty reflect his struggle against racism. This is the complete quotation below,

  I want a brief on M’Naghten decisions rendered by the Mississippi Supreme Court in the past fifty years. There’s a big case from 1976, State vs. Hill, where the court was bitterly divided five to four, with the dissenters opting for a more liberal definition of insanity. Keep the brief short, less than twenty pages. Can you type? (p.303)

  

 

   

 

  Jake also asks Ellen to prepare their psychiatrist by reviewing the M’Naghten with the psychiatrist. In addition Ellen is also asked to outline detail the necessary questions to ask the psychiatrist at trial because he is a very important person in Hailey’s case.

  The M’Naghten brief is a masterpiece. Our psychiatrist, Dr. Bass, will be here tomorrow, and I want you to review M’Naghten with him. You need to outline in detail the necessary questions to ask him at trial, and cover these with him. He worries me. I don’t know him, and I’m relying on Lucien. Get his resume and investigate his background. Make whatever phone calls are necessary. Check with the state medical association to make sure he has no history of diciplinary problems. He is very important to our case, and I don’t want any surprises. (p.334) Jake reviewed Ellen’s masterpiece on the insanity defense. Jake also studied his expert resume, and though unimportant pressive, it would suffice for

  Ford County. This condition shows his struggle to fight the racism in Hailey’s trial. This is the quotation below, He reviewed Ellen’s masterpiece on the insanity defense. Her outline of qestions for Bass needed only minor changes. He studied his expert resume, and though unimportant pressive, it would suffice for Ford County. The nearest psychiatrist was eighty miles away. (p.434) The three quotations above show Jake’s plan on facing the trial. Jake’s plans on using the M’Naghten masterpice and the psychriatist are the weapons to defense that Hailey is not guilty in front of the jury. Jake wants the jury know that Hailey was insanity when he murdered the two white. In addition, this action reflects Jake’s struggle on racism because he wants to make the jury understand that Hailey, who deserved to get the defence although he is the black man. This analysis is based on the theory of characterization by Murphy in Understanding

  

Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and The English Novel for Overseas

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Student. In his theory of characterization, Murphy states the nine ways of

  characterization. The ways of characterization that are used in analizing the two quotations above are through speech, the character can give us the clue to his/her nature through his/her speaking, conversation with other people opinion; the reaction, the person's nature can be known by his/her reactions to different occasions and mannerism, we can understand the character through the way he/she behaves, attitudes, and talks with the other people (1972: 161-173).

  The quotation below describes the way Jake prepared the things for the trial. Jake prepared it orderly and specifically. He concerned on the jury and what he did to the jury. This is the quotation below,

  For six hours he went through the jury list, making notecards, concentrating on each time, envisioning each juror in the box and in deliberation, talking to each one. He rated them. Every black got an automatic ten; the whites were not so easy. The men rated higher than the women; the young men higher than the old men; the educated slightly higher than the uneducated; the liberals, both of them, received the highest ratings. He eliminated the twnety Noose planned to exclude. He knew something about one hundred and eleven of the prospective jurors. Surely, Buckley could not know so much. (p.351) The quotations above tell about the condition of preparing the jury to

  Hailey. Jake as Hailey’s attorney, helps Hailey in the trial by looking the jury list, asking the opinion of some people about the jury and studying the result of the jury list. Jake prepares his defence on Hailey by knowing the characteristics of the jury. This conditions also show that Jake wants Hailey to get the fair jury in his trial. Jake does not want the jury prejudice Hailey and take the wrong decision upon Hailey because of Hailey’s race. Jake thinks and believes that Hailey is deserved to get the equal and fair decision and opinion from the jury.

  

 

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  The reactions of Jake on preparing the jury for Hailey are the reflection of his struggle against threats of racism. This kind of analysis is based on the theory of characterization by Mary Rohrberger and Samuel H. Woods Jr. in

  

Reading and Writing about Literature. The first principal ways is he or she can

  direct means to describe physical appearance, intellectual, moral attributes, and the degree of sensitivity of the character. Second way is he or she can use dramatic means and place the character in situations to show what the character is by the way he behaves or speaks (Rohrberger and Woods Jr., 1971:20). In addition, the way the writer analyses Jake’s struggle against racism that are reflected in the quotation above, also by using the theory of characterization by Holman and Hormon, that the presentation from within the character, without comment on the character by the author of the impacts of actions and emotions of the character’s inner self, with the expectation that the reader will come to a clear understanding of the attributes of the character ( 1986: 81 ) .

4. A Close Friend

  Jake is very involved in the work or activities of somebody else, usually seeing and talking to them regularly. He discusses, talks, and shares with Harry Rex, Ellen Roark, Lucien Wilbanks, Ethel Twitty and Tank regularly to win Hailey’s case. This characteristic is significant in his struggles against treats of racism.

  Jake’s struggle against threats of racism is when he asks Harry Rex’s opinion about the jury. Harry Rex helps Jake to get the list of the jury although the result is unsatisfying because the most juries are white, the difficult juries for

  

 

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  Hailey as a black defendant. However, Jake has another secret weapon. He hires Ellen Row Ark as his law clerk to help him in discussing and looking the supporting data to set Hailey free from gas chamber.

  “Whatta you think?” asked Harry Rex. “Hard to tell. Mostly white, but that’s to be expected. Where’d you get this?” “Don’t ask. I made notes by twenty-six names. That’s the best I can do. The rest I don’t know.” “You’re a true friend. Harry Rex.” “I’m a prince. Are you ready for trial?” “Not yet. But I’ve found a secret weapon.” “What?” “You’ll meet her later.” “Her?” “Yeah. You busy Wednesday night?” “I don’t think so. Why?” “Good. Meet here at eight. Lucien will be here. Maybe one or two others.

  I want to take a couple hours and talk about the jury. Who do we want? Let’s get the profile of the model juror, and go from there. We’ll cover each name and hopefully identify most of these people.”(p.308) Jake’s struggle against threats of racism is also reflected in his coming to

  Michelob, a pub for black. He comes to this place to ask a help from Tank. Jake wants Tank to read the list of the jury and help him to give any information about black jury. Jake needs black jury to set free Hailey from gas chamber. This situation is reflected in quotation below,

  “Look at each name. See how many of these folks you know. Ask around and find out what you can.” Tank held the list near his eyes. The light from the Michelob sign in the window glowed over his shoulder. “How many are black?” “You tell me. That’s one reason I want you to look at it. Circle the black ones. If you’re not sure, find out. If you know any of the white folks, make a note.” “I’ll be glad to, Jake. This ain’t illegal, is it?” “Naw, but don’t tell anybody. I need it black by Wednesday morning.”(p.312)

  

 

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  Jake asks Ethel to retype the list of the jury, and sends a dozen copies to selected, trusted friends such as Lucien, Stan Atcavage, Tank, Dell at the Coffee Shop, a lawyer in Karaway named Roland Isom, and a few others Even Ozzie. Jake sends the copy of the list of jury in order to know what his friends opinion about the jury. Jake wants to collect the information about the juries as much as he can to get the best juries for his client. This condition reflects his struggle to fight against racism. This is the quotation below,

  Tank got the last list, and Jake headed for the office. It was almost ten. Ethel had retyped the list from the initial one provided by Harry Rex, and a dozen copies had been hand-delivered to selected, trusted friends.

  Lucien, Stan Atcavage, Tank, Dell at the Coffee Shop, a lawyer in Karaway named Roland Isom, and a few others. Even Ozzie got a list.(p.313) Jake orders the plans for the next day. His plan is to cover the jury list with Ellen Row Ark, Harry Rex, and Stan Actavege. This is the quotation below, When he settled down, he asked, “What’s this meeting tomorrow night?” “I want to cover the jury list with you and a few others.” “Who?” “Harry Rex, Stan Actavage, maybe one other.” “Where? “Eight o’clock. My office. No alcohol.” (p.325) Jake discusses the model jury for his client, Hailey. it is very important to Hailey to get the fair jury.

  Jake laid his feet on his desk and puffed on a cigar, “Okay, the first thing I want to do is decide on a model juror.” “Black,” said Lucien.

  “Black as old Coaly’s ass,” said Harry Rex. “I agree,” said Jake. “But we won’t get a chance. Buckley will save his peremptory challenges for the blacks. We know that. We’ve got to concentrate on White people.” “Women,” said lucien. “Always pick women for criminal trial. They have bigger hearts, bleeding hearts, and they are much more sympathetic.

  Always go for women.” (p.330)

  

 

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  The quotation below is the disscussion about the jury between Jake and Ellen. Jake is looking for the younger whites as the jury for Hailey because younger whites are more tolerant for blacks. Jake also adds that younger generation has accepted an integrated society, less bigotry, as a rule, with youth.

  “What kind of juror are we looking for, Jake?” Ellen asked. “Young to middle-aged men with families. I would pefer to have no one over fifty.” ‘Why?” Lucien asked belligerently. “Younger whites are more tolerant of blacks.” “Like Cobb and Willard,” Lucien said.

  “Most of the older folks will always dislike blacks, but the younger generation has accepted an integrated society. less bigotry, as a rule, with youth.” (p.331) The quotation below is about the discussion between Jake and Ellen. The discussion is still about the model jury that can help Jake to win his case.

  “Sounds like fun. I’ll be here. What’s your model juror?” “I’m not sure. I think the vigilante would appeal to rednecks. Guns, violence, protection of women. The rednecks would eat it up. But my man is black, and a bunch of rednecks would fry him. He killed two of their own.” (p.308) Jake makes the plan with Ellen about the jury. Jake will try to find something from the twenty jury and will make the index card for each juror.

  “What next?” “I’ll try to find something on the other twenty, then we’ll make an index card for each juror. We’ll know them like family by Monday.” Jake is at the dead lock when his witness, Dr. W. Bass cannot help him more. Jake does not know the way to get the symphathy of the jury. Then Mr.

  Row Ark advices Jake to have a soul-stirring final summation to be heard by the jury. This is the final way that Jake can help Hailey for setting Hailey free according to Mr. Hailey. This is the quotation below,

  

 

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  “I hope you have a soul-stirring final summation up your sleeve,” Seldon said. (p.460) Lucien helps Jake on preparing the closing arguments. The greatest closing arguments are needed to get the symphaty of the jury. The symphathetic juries can help Jake to set Hailey free.

  “Your only hope of saving Hailey is with a spellbinding performance on final summation. I mean, we’re talking about the greatest closing argument in the history of jurisprudence. That’s what I’ll take.” “And I assume you’ve created such a masterpiece.” “As a matter of fact. I have. It’s much better than anything you could come up with. And I assumed-correctly-that you would spent yor Sunday afternoon mourning the loss of your home and drowning your sorrows with Coors. I knew you would have nothing to prepared. So I’ve done it for you.” (p.465) The way Lucien helps Jake on the closing arguments also supported by the quotation below, Lucien tossed a legal pad at Jake. “There it is. A compilation of my greatest closing arguments. Lucien Willbanks at his best, all rolled into one for you and your client. I suggest you to memorize it and use it word for word. It’s that good. Don’t try to modify it, or improvise, you’ll just screw it up.” (p.466) The quotations above tell about the conditions when Jake has to prepare the final summation as the final effort to get the sympathy from the jury. These kind of conditions show the way Jake reacts on his deadlock of Hailey’s case. Jake is advised by Mr. Row Ark, supported and helped by Lucien Willbanks on preparing the final summation in the trial. The final summation is the latest and only key to set Hailey free from the gas chamber. Jake did and used the final summation which was prepared by Lucien. The content of the final summation is about the reflection of Carl Lee Hailey as an ordinary father who does something based on his instinct as a father. Hailey is reflected as the white man in Jake’s

  

 

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  final summation. The final summation shows Jake’s struggle against racism. Jake wants the jury decide the final decision not by Hailey’s race, but by the nature of Hailey as a father.

  The analysis above is based on the theory of characterization by Murphy in Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and The

  

English Novel for Overseas Student . Murphy’s principals are Thought, the nature

  of the character can be known from what she/he is thinking; Conversation of others, the conversation of other people can be the way of the author to tell the reader on the person's character by showing the dialogue among other characters and other utterance on that person; and Mannerism, we can understand the character through the way he/she behaves, attitudes, and talks with the other people (1972: 161-173).

  

 

   

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION From the analysis in the previous chapter, the writer could draw

  conclusions in this chapter as the final of this undergraduate thesis. The first conclusion is Jake Brigance is the imaginative figure that makes the story life and the important element in the story. The first way Grisham characterize Jake is adopted from the theory of characterization by Holman and Hormon such as an explicit presentation of the character through the direct exposition which is written by the author, the presentation of character in action, and the presentation of character through their action and emotion/feeling. The second way is adopted from the principal of characterization by Rohrberger and Woods that Grisham can direct means to describe physical appearance, intellectual, moral attributes, and the degree of sensitivity of the character, and can use dramatic means and place the character in situations to show what the character is by the way he behaves or speaks. The third way is based on Murphy theory of characterization such as personal description, speech, conversation, reaction, direct comments by the author to the character, thought, conversation of other characters, the past life of the character and the mannerism of the character.

  These various ways of characterization are used to analyse Jake Brigance’s characteristic. As a result, Jake Brigance is found as an early bird, a very organized person, a loving husband and father, and a close friend.

  The second conclusion is Jake Brigance suffers the threats of racism from

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  KKK (Ku Klux Klan) and society. The threats are some oppression from KKK such as the anonymous phone-calls both in his house and office, the burning of cross, the dynamite, the murder, and the burning of house. The prejudices are the practices of racism from society and the public attorney against Jake Brigance.

  These all of threats of racism are the impacts from helping the black defendant who kills two rednecks.

  The third conclusion is, Jake Brigance’s characteristics are significant to struggle against threats of racism. Jake as an early-bird person, a very organized person, loving father and husband, and a close friend are significant to struggle against the threats of racism. As a result, he wins the trial and sets Carl Lee Hailey free. His characteristics help him to prove that Carl Lee Hailey is not guilty in the eye of law and society. Jake, through his characteristics, can prove that Carl Lee Hailey is a black and ordinary father who wants the justice to his little daughter. Jake’s win on his black client in front of white juries is the most hurt slap for the racist people and organization that discriminate him. His win is also the gold peak of his struggles. Jake’s victory on Hailey’s case is the victory over racism.

  63 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M.H. The Orientation of Critical Theories. New York: Holt Reinhart and Winston,1979.

  Boyer, Paul S. The Enduring Vision, A History of the American People. Toronto: D. C. Heath and Company, 1990. Culler, Jonathan. Structuralist Poetics, Structuralism Linguistics and the Study of Literature . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd, 1975. Forster, E.M. Aspects of the Novel. London: Edward Arnold and Co., 1972 Goren, Amiram. The Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the World. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc. 1993. Grisham, John. A Time to Kill. New York: Dell Publishing a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.1989. Henretta, James A. et. al. America’s History, volume II. New York: Worth

  Publishers, Inc. 1999 Holman, C. Hugh. A Handbook to Literature. New York: Coller Macmillan, Inc., 1986.

  Keesey, Donald. Contexts for Criticism. Mountain View: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1994. Meine, Franklin J. , Ph. B., M. A. The Consolidated-Webster Encyclopedic Dictionary . Chicago: Book Production Industries, Inc., 1954. Murphy, M. J. Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and The

  English Novel for Overseas Student . London: George Allen and Unwin,1972.

  Oliver, Symmes Chadwick. The Discovery of Humanity: An Introduction to Anthropology. New York: Harper & Row Publisher, 1981. Rohrberger, Mary and Samuel H. Woods. Reading and Writing about Literature.

  New York: Random House, Inc., 1971.

  

The New Encyclopedia Britannica . 15th Edition. Chicago: Encyclopedia

Britannica, Inc., 1983.

  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  64

  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Turner, Jonathan H. American Society: Problems of Structure. Second Edition.

  New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1976.

ONLINE SOURCES

  http://www.allreaders.com/topics/info_668.asp (browsed on 31 May 2011) http://www.buildingrainbows.com/bookreview/reviewid/743 (browsed on 31 May 2011) Jobman, Erica. Literary analysis: Comparing To Kill a Mockingbird with A Time

  to Kill < http://www.helium.com/items/800964-literary-analysis-comparing-

  to-kill-a-mockingbird-with-a-time-to-kill> (browsed on 31 may 2011) http://www.unhcr.ch.html/menu3/b/d/icerd.htm (browsed on 31 May 2011) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ku_Kluk_ Klan (browsed on 31 May 2011) http://n.wikipedia.org wiki Racism (browsed on 31 May 2011)

   

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APPENDIX

SUMMARY OF A TIME TO KILL

  The novel is a story about Jake Brigance, a young white lawyer, who defends Carl Lee Hailey, a black father who murders two rednecks. Jake Brigance comes from Karaway and lives in Clanton with his wife, Carla, and his only daughter, Hanna. Jake Brigance works in a office that is a relic of the Wilbanks family. Lucien Willbanks, the sole heir to the Wilbanks family, entrusts the office to Jake Brigance. Lucien did it because his license was revoked and he decided to continue to live by drinking alcohol and helps Jake from behind. They are good friends since then and Lucien becomes like a teacher for Jake.

  The story continues when Jake Brigance suffers some threats of racism. Jake Brigance suffers those threats of racism because he is a white lawyer who defends a black murderer in a white county. The threats are started from the burning-cross, dynamites, burning house, murdering, and some prejudices. Jake as a professional lawyer and loving head of family does not want to mix his work and family. He sends Carla and Hanna out of Clanton to save their safety and fully concentrate to Hailey’s case.

  Jake is threatened by KKK along the story; however he does not give up defending Carl Lee Hailey with all of his capabilities as a lawyer. He is helped by Lucien Wilbanks, Ellen Roark, Harry Rex, Mr. Roark and some blacks who care of him. After the long journey and big efforts, Jake finally wins the trial. He gives an amazing final-summation to convince juries that Carl Lee Hailey is not guilty. Jake’s win is the most hurt slap for people who oppressed him and his client.

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